WorldWideScience

Sample records for beet armyworm spodoptera

  1. Characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the laboratory rearing of the beet armyworm Spodoptera Exigua (HBN.) in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Vlak, J.M.; Ziemnicka, J.

    2005-01-01

    A nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Polish laboratory culture), SeMNPV (P), morphologically similar to the viral bioinsecticide virus Spod-XR, was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis based on three conserved baculovirus genes, polh,

  2. Biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouses : development of a comprehensive process-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive process-based model simulating the epizootiology and agronomic efficacy of baculoviruses used for biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model is built to help understand, evaluate, and predict the

  3. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  4. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  5. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Maagd, de R.A.; Purwito, A.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2005-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

  6. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  7. Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HonQing Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 ℃ were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 ℃. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 ℃, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29, intrinsic rate for increase (0.34, population trend index (76.59, finite rate for increase (1.33, and fecundity (606.5 eggs, while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 ℃, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 ℃, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 ℃, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 ℃, resepctively.

  8. Cadherin is involved in the action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Hou, Leilei; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Li, Bo; Deng, Pan; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China. While cadherin and aminopeptidase-N are key receptors of Cry1 toxins in many lepidopterans including S. exigua, the receptor for Cry2A toxins remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a heterologous expressed peptide corresponding to cadherin repeat 7 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (CR7-MPED) in the S. exigua cadherin 1b (SeCad1b) binds Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa. Moreover, SeCad1b transcription was suppressed in S. exigua larvae by oral RNA interference and susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa was significantly reduced. These results indicate that SeCad1b plays important functional roles of both Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa, having major implications for resistance management for S. exigua in Bt crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Yolanda; Jakubowska, Agata K; Costa, Juliana; Herrero, Salvador; Escriche, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition) at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  11. Toxicity of copaiba extracts to armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity of copaiba extracts to armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). DS Alves, GA Carvalho, DF Oliveira, RR Sâmia, MA Villas-Boas, GA Carvalho, AD Côrrea. Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts from leaves, peels, seeds and pulps from fruits of Copaifera langsdorffii on ...

  12. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  13. Corn defense responses to nitrogen availability and subsequent performance and feeding preferences of beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-Li; Hardy, Giles; Liu, Zhu-Dong; Wei, Wei; Dai, Hua-Guo

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have reported the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on plant constitutive defense responses; however, little is known about their effects on plant induced defense patterns and its consequence for insect herbivores. In our experiments, the effects of N availability on growth, nutritional quality (N content, protein/carbohydrate [P:C] ratio, modified gross energy [MGE]), and constitutive phenolics of corn, Zea mays L. were quantified. Moreover, the indirect effects of N fertilization on the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner through larval performance and feeding preference were examined. N fertilization increased plant growth, and depressed defense traits by increasing N content and the P:C ratio, as well as decreasing the constitutive concentration of phenolics. Subsequently, beet armyworm showed higher performance and preferentially fed on high-N corn because of its low defense traits. After beet armyworm feeding, high-N corn significantly deterred larval feeding, and had negative effects on the performance of beet armyworm through decreasing P:C ratio and increasing induced phenolics. On the contrary, there were no significant changes in P:C ratio and phenolics in low-N corn after feeding damage. Larval performance and preference were also not affected by induced compounds in low-N corn, which suggested that the expression of induced defense was dependent on N availability. The result indicates that N availability can exert a variety of bottom-up effect on plant defense patterns to influence insect population dynamics, and thereby may represent a source of variation in plant-insect interactions.

  14. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as biological control agent of Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of the control of the beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in greenhouse crops with nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae, subgroup A) were studied.

    Beet armyworm behaviour was observed in various

  15. The influence of greenhouse chrysanthemum on the interaction between the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and the baculovirus SeMNPV : parameter quantification for a process-based simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Joosten, N.N.; Vlak, J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2001-01-01

    During the building of a process-based simulation model for the epidemiology of the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of S. exigua (SeMNPV) in populations of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) in greenhouse chrysanthemum, it was found that the effect of host plants had been under-rated. 'Missing links'

  16. Cry1F Resistance in Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: Single Gene versus Pyramided Bt Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A.; Meagher, Robert L.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Head, Graham P.; Andow, David A.; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G. David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southea...

  17. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan [CID (CDIC), Biological Organic Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author).

  18. Producing armyworm (spodoptera sp.) Bioinsecticide based on cysteine protease of red ginger (zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, N. T.; Nur, D. F.; Utami, T. S.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Armyworm (Spodoptera sp.) is highly polyphagous defoliator on various horticulture and grain plants. Various chemical insecticides have been created to control it. There is a need to create an eco-friendly and specific insecticide which only affect armyworm’s nervous system. This research investigates cysteine-protease’s enzyme activity of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) which is called zingibain. Its catalytic site matches with residue site in armyworm’s body so it can be used as bioinsecticide raw material which meets the criterias above. Fresh red ginger rhizomes were washed and extracted. The juice was then deposited in low temperature and centrifuged to get rid of its starch content. It was filtrated to remove large contaminants and poured into Potassium Phospate buffer. The liquid was then centrifuged again for 30 minutes before collecting the supernatant. Fresh leaves were then dipped into crude ginger protease extract and fed to fourth instar-armyworms. Leaves dipped into non-diluted extract were barely eaten by armyworm while the 50% and 25% dilution was half eaten and most eaten. The crude red ginger extract was not strong enough to kill them although the research showed its enzymatic activity reaches up to 169 PU. It still needs improvement to be produced as commercial bioinsecticide.

  19. Lysozymes and lysozyme-like proteins from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Michael; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Cousserans, François; Volkoff, Nathalie-Anne; Duvic, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the insect non-specific immune response against bacteria that is characterized by its ability to break down bacterial cell-walls. By searching an EST database from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Negre et al., 2006), we identified five sequences encoding proteins of the lysozyme family. The deduced protein sequences corresponded to three classical c-type lysozymes Sf-Lys1, Sf-Lys2 and Sf-Lys3, and two lysozyme-like proteins, Sf-LLP1 and Sf-LLP2. Sf-Lys1 was purified from the hemolymph of Escherichia coli-challenged S. frugiperda larvae. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 13.975 Da with an isoelectric point of 8.77 and showed 98.3% and 96.7% identity with lysozymes from Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua, respectively. As the other insect lysozymes, Sf-Lys1 was active against gram positive bacteria such as Micrococcus luteus but also induced a slight permeabilization of the inner membrane of E. coli. Genes encoding these five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs were differentially up-regulated in three immune-competent tissues (hemocytes, fat body and gut) after challenges with non-pathogenic bacteria, E. coli and M. luteus, or entomopathogenic bacterium, Photorhabdus luminescens. Sf-Lys1 and Sf-Lys2 were mainly induced in fat body in the presence of E. coli or P. luminescens. Sf-Lys3, which had an acidic isoelectric point, was found to be the most up-regulated of all five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs in hemocytes and gut after challenge with P. luminescens. More molecular data are now available to investigate differences in physiological functions of these different members of the lysozyme superfamily.

  20. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  2. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  4. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Hasler, James; Meagher, Robert; Nagoshi, Rodney; Hietala, Lucas; Huang, Fangneng; Narva, Kenneth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2017-09-07

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a devastating pest of corn in the Western Hemisphere initially controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein (event TC1507). However field-evolved resistance to TC1507 was observed in Puerto Rico in 2007 and has subsequently been reported in a number of locations in North and South America. Early studies on Puerto Rico fall armyworm populations found that the resistance phenotype was associated with reduced expression of alkaline phosphatase. However, in this work we show that field-evolved resistance to Cry1Fa Bt corn in Puerto Rico is closely linked to a mutation in an ATP Binding Cassette subfamily C2 (ABCC2) gene that functions as a Cry1Fa receptor in susceptible insects. Furthermore, we report a DNA-based genotyping test used to demonstrate the presence of the resistant (SfABCC2mut) allele in Puerto Rico populations in 2007, coincident with the first reports of damage to TC1507 corn. These DNA-based field screening data provide strong evidence that resistance to TC1507 in fall armyworm maps to the SfABCC2 gene and provides a useful molecular marker for detecting the SfABCC2mut allele in resistant fall armyworm.

  5. Potential of Trap Crops for Integrated Management of the Tropical Armyworm, Spodoptera litura in Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20–30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

  6. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

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    Fangneng Huang

    Full Text Available Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, to Cry1F maize (TC 3507 in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293 Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  7. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  8. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Renato A Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS. These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results

  9. Response of soybean genotypes against armyworm, Spodoptera litura based on no-choice test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, M. S. Y. I.; Krisnawati, A.; Adie, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Armyworm is important polyphagous pest causing economic losses in many agricultural crops including soybean. In Indonesia, there are no soybean varieties which indicated had a resistance against armyworm. The experiment was conducted in Laboratory of Entomology and Green House of Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute from March to April 2016. The experiment was arranged using randomized block design with a total of 18 soybean genotypes as a treatment in three replicates. The results showed that the difference of soybean genotypes had a significant effect on the leaf damaged intensity. Based on no-choice test and the leaves damaged intensity compared with resistant check genotypes, there was no genotype indicated resistant against S. litura. Most of the tested genotype showed moderately resistant and others showed susceptible to highly susceptible. Genotypes that indicated as moderately resistant are G 511 H/Anjs-1-1, G 511 H/Arg//Arg///Arg-30-7, G 511 H/Kaba//Kaba///-4-4, G 511 H/Kaba//Kaba///Kaba////Kaba-16-2, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs///Anjs-3-3, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs-1-2, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs-5-5, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs///Anjs-6-11, and Argomulyo. In conclusion, those nine genotypes indicated have antixenosis resistance against armyworm and can be considered as a source of gene for improving the soybean resistance to armyworm.

  10. A novel Cry9Aa with increased toxicity for Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Nedyalkova, R.; Staykov, N.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cry9Aa, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is reported to be not active against Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). In this study we have cloned a new cry9Aa5 gene encoding a protoxin with increased activity against S. exigua as compared to Cry9Aa1. When aligned to Cry9Aa1, four amino acid

  11. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  12. Biological characteristics of black armyworm Spodoptera cosmioides on genetically modified soybean and corn crops that express insecticide Cry proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vieira Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the development and reproduction of the black armyworm, Spodoptera cosmioides when larvae fed on leaves of Bt-corn hybrids, expressing a single Cry1F and also Cry1F, Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 in pyramided corn and their non-Bt-isoline (hybrid 2B688, as well as on leaves of two soybean isolines expressing the Cry1Ac protein and its non-Bt isoline (A5547-227. We also assessed the effect of these Bt and non-Bt plants on the leaf consumption rate of S. cosmioides larvae. This pest was unable to develop when fed on any of the corn isolines (Bt and non-Bt. When both 1st and 3rd instar larvae were fed on corn leaf, mortality was 100% in both Bt and non-Bt corn. In contrast, when corn leaves were offered to 5th instar larvae, there were survivors. Defoliation and leaf consumption was higher with non-Bt corn than with both of the Bt corn isolines. There was no negative effect of Bt soybean leaves on the development and reproduction of S. cosmioides with respect to all evaluated parameters. Our study indicates that both Bt and non-Bt corn adversely affect the development of S. cosmioides while Bt soybean did not affect its biology, suggesting that this lepidopteran has major potential to become an important pest in Bt soybean crops.

  13. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm is a devastating pest controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein. However, fall armyworm populations ...

  14. Control of the release of digestive enzymes in the larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwalaba, Digali; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Woodring, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    There is a basal level of enzyme activity for trypsin, aminopeptidase, amylase, and lipase in the gut of unfed larval (L6) Spodoptera frugiperda. Trypsin activity does not decrease with non-feeding, possibly because of the low protein levels in plants along with high amino acid requirements for growth and storage (for later reproduction in adults). Therefore, trypsin must always be present so that only a minimal protein loss via egestion occurs. Larvae, however, adjust amylase activity to carbohydrate ingestion, and indeed amylase activity is five-fold higher in fed larvae compared to unfed larvae. Gut lipase activity is low, typical of insects with a high carbohydrate diet. A flat-sheet preparation of the ventriculus was used to measure the release of enzymes in response to specific nutrients and known brain/gut hormones in S. frugiperda. Sugars greatly increase (>300%) amylase release, but starch has no effect. Proteins and amino acids have little or no effect on trypsin or aminopeptidase release. The control of enzyme release in response to food is likely mediated through neurohormones. Indeed, an allatostatin (Spofr-AS A5) inhibits amylase and trypsin, and allatotropin (Manse- AT) stimulates amylase and trypsin release. Spofr-AS A5 also inhibits ileum myoactivity and Manse-AT stimulates myoactivity. The epithelial secretion rate of amylase and trypsin was about 20% of the amount of enzyme present in the ventricular lumen, which, considering the efficient counter-current recycling of enzymes, suggests that the secretion rate is adequate to replace egested enzymes. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Reducing the level of leaves damage of (Brassica rapa) caused by armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.) through liquid bioinsecticide formulation of bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhatika, Sri; Ermavitalini, Dini; Saputro, Triono Bagus; Budiarti, Dwi Setia

    2017-06-01

    Bioinsecticide formulation conducted by adjuvant addition to improve its effecetiveness in the application. Its addition was only help to work whereas active compound and ingredient as a main core originated from plant simplicia. This research was utilized bintaro (Cerbera odollam) as simplicia. It already began to use it as bioinsecticide against armyworm (Spodoptera litura F) even formulation approachment was not conducted in mustard (Brassica rapa) in previous research. Mustard commodity commonly measured based on leaves performences, when its performance broke by pest such as armyworm might decline the commercial value. So this research aimed to determine the effectiveness of liquid biopesticide formulation of the active ingredient from bintaro (Cerbera odollam) leaf extract in pressing the attack larvae of S. litura F. Larvae deployed in mustard leaves (16 HST). Liquid bioinsecticide concentration formulated in 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. Spraying method used to against S. litura F. consisted on preventive (15 HST) and curative (17 HST). Leaves damage observation conducted at day - 35th (HST). The result showed the formulation suppressed larvae from 40% concentration in preventive way 15 HST and 60% concentration as curative way at 17 HST.

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Facultad de Agronomia; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S., E-mail: spineda_us@yahoo.co [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales; Schneider, M.I. [National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CEPAVE/CCT/CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico; Smagghe, G. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Lab of Agrozoology; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos. Proteccion de Cultivos

    2011-01-15

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 25} for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC{sub 10} and 60% for the LC{sub 25} was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  17. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-12-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 10(7) conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 10(4) conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm.

  18. Bt-potatoes resistant to the Colorado potato beetle affect performance of the Egyptian armyworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Sehnal, František; Habuštová, Oxana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2005), s. 38-41 ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt-toxin * Cry3 Aa * Spodoptera littoralis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  19. Trapping fall armyworm in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a noctuid pest of row and vegetable crops throughout the Americas. It has recently invaded Africa and has been identified from almost all sub-Saharan countries. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likel...

  20. AUTOCORRELAÇÃO ESPACIAL NA AVALIAÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS DE MILHO PARA RESISTÊNCIA À LAGARTA DO CARTUCHO (Spodoptera frugiperda SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION IN THE EVALUATION OF MAIZE COMPOSITES FOR RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM (Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Branco de Miranda Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram gerados três compostos de milho (CRL-01, CRL-02 e CRL-03 entre materiais adaptados e materiais exóticos, com históricos de resistência à lagarta do cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda. Famílias de irmãos germanos dos três compostos foram avaliadas para resistência à lagarta, usando uma escala de notas variando de 0 (sem danos a 5 (cartucho destruído. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com duas repetições. Dois modelos foram considerados: um modelo com erros independentes e outro assumindo erros espacialmente correlacionados (análise espacial. Na análise espacial a matriz de covariâncias de resíduos (R foi construída conforme a autocorrelação espacial detectada em cada experimento. O teste de Durbin-Watson foi usado para verificar presença da autocorrelação espacial entre parcelas, a qual foi altamente significativa. O alcance prático da autocorrelação espacial foi de cerca 1,5 m. A adoção da análise espacial permitiu uma melhoria no controle da variação local, resultando numa redução das estimativas das variâncias residuais e, conseqüentemente, num aumento dos coeficientes de herdabilidade estimados, com melhorias nos ganhos esperados com a seleção. O ordenamento das progênies foi alterado dependendo da escolha do modelo de análise. A analise espacial, nessas circunstâncias, foi mais apropriada que a análise com erros independentes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Germoplasma exótico; autocorrelação espacial; modelos mistos; BLUP.

    Composites of maize (CRL-01, CRL-02 and CRL-03 were synthesized from crosses of adapted materials with exotic materials that have shown resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda. Full-sib progenies from the three composites were evaluated for

  1. Disentangling dispersal, vicariance and adaptive radiation patterns: a case study using armyworms in the pest genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, Gael J; Prowell, Dorothy P; Le Ru, Bruno P; Mitchell, Andrew; Dumas, Pascaline; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Condamine, Fabien L; Silvain, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the recent development of integrative approaches that combine dated phylogenies with models of biogeographic evolution, it is becoming more feasible to assess the roles of dispersal and vicariance in creating complex patterns of geographical distribution. However, the historical biogeography of taxa with good dispersal abilities, like birds or flying insects, still remains largely unknown because of the lack of complete phylogenies accompanied by robust estimates of divergence times. In this study, we investigate the evolution and historical biogeography of the globally distributed pest genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using complete taxon sampling and an extensive set of analyses. Through the analysis of a combined morphological and molecular dataset, we provide the first robust phylogenetic framework for this widespread and economically important group of moths. Historical biogeography approaches indicate that dispersal events have been the driving force in the biogeographic history of the group. One of the most interesting findings of this study is the probable occurrence of two symmetric long-distance dispersal events between the Afrotropical and the Neotropical region, which appear to have occurred in the late Miocene. Even more remarkably, our dated phylogenies reveal that the diversification of the clade that includes specialist grass feeders has followed closely the expansion of grasslands in the Miocene, similar to the adaptive radiation of specialist grazing mammals during the same period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rac1 mediates cytokine-stimulated hemocyte spreading via prostaglandin biosynthesis in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell spreading is an integral component of insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Cell spreading is accomplished by cytoskeleton rearrangement, which is activated by three major immune mediators, biogenic monoamines, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP), and eicosanoids, part...

  3. Phenotypic Plasticity, Epigenetic or Genetic Modifications in Relation to the Duration of Cd-Exposure within a Microevolution Time Range in the Beet Armyworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augustyniak

    Full Text Available In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent or PBS (reference. The level of DNA damage was assessed using the Comet assay immediately and 5, 15 and 30 min. after the treatment. The immediate result of the contact with H2O2 was that the level of DNA damage in the hemocytes of the insects from both strains increased significantly. However, in the cells of the Cd-exposed individuals, the level of DNA damage decreased over time, while in the cells from the control insects it remained at the same level with no evidence of repair. These results suggest that efficient defense mechanisms may exist in the cells of insects that have prolonged contact with cadmium. Some evolutionary and trade-off aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. In a wider context, comparing the results obtained in the laboratory with field studies may be beneficial for understanding basic mechanisms of the resistance of an organism. To summarize, the high potential for the repair of DNA damage that was observed in the insects from the cadmium strain may confirm the hypothesis that multigenerational exposure to that metal may possibly contribute to the selection of insects that have a wider tolerance to oxidative stress. However, our investigations of polymorphism using AFLP did not reveal differences between the two main insect strains.

  4. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Review of the host plants of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Casmuz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.In order to update records of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith host plants, a bibliographic review was made. Host plant search was organized into groups per zones and countries. Records from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Islands were grouped together as belonging to Northern America. As South American records, all reports were included except for those from Argentina. 186 host plants were found and they belong to 42 different families. The most cited hosts are part of the following families: Poaceae (35.5%, Fabaceae (11.3%, Solanaceae and

  5. Interação silício com inseticida regulador de crescimento no manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho Interaction of silicon with growth regulating insecticide in the management of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Kelly Pereira Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do silício aplicado via solo e foliar, bem como sua interação com o inseticida regulador de crescimento (lufenuron no manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda em plantas de milho, foi realizado um ensaio em casa-de-vegetação e em laboratório, constando de nove tratamentos com cinco repetições. No laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, avaliou-se a preferência das lagartas por folhas destacadas de plantas de milho provenientes dos diferentes tratamentos, bem como o consumo e a mortalidade dessa praga. Em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas a intensidade das injúrias provocadas pelas lagartas nas folhas, utilizando uma escala visual de danos proposta por Davis & Williams (1989, bem como o número e a biomassa das lagartas vivas. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que os tratamentos não afetaram a preferência da lagarta-do-cartucho em teste de livre escolha. A interação silício e lufenuron no manejo de S. frugiperda é positiva em relação ao inseticida isolado, provavelmente devido a resistência mecânica conferida pelo silício as folhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sprayed silicon via soil and leaf as well as its interaction with growth regulating insecticide (lufenuron in the management of Spodoptera frugiperda on corn plants. The trials were carried out in greenhouse and laboratory conditions and consisting of nine treatments with five replicates. In the laboratory, the preference of fall armyworms on detached leaves of corn plants from different treatments was evaluated, as well as the consumption and mortality of this pest. In the greenhouse, the damage caused by the insect on the leaves were evaluated by using a visual scale of injuries proposed by Davis & Williams (1989. In the greenhouse on the control treatment, both the number and weight of the larval were also determined. According to the results, silicon, the insecticide

  6. Eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Efficience of extracts of plantas in control of fall armyworm in corn Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Souza Silva Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 na cultura do milho. Os experimentos foram instalados, nos anos de 2002 e 2004, com a pulverização dos produtos vegetais em cinco tratamentos, e quatro repetições. No ano de 2002, os produtos testados foram: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (extrato aquoso 2%, e óleo a 1%; Melia azedarach L. (extrato aquoso 2%; Quassia amara L. (extrato aquoso 2%; óleo de nim, Azadirachta indica 1 e 2%. No ano de 2004, os produtos testados foram: A. indica (extrato aquoso 5%, e óleo a 2%, M. azedarach (extrato aquoso 5%, Trichilia pallida Sw. (extrato aquoso 5%. As avaliações, porcentagem de infestação da lagarta-do-cartucho por parcela, foram efetuadas aos três, sete e dez dias após a pulverização dos extratos. Conclui-se que extratos aquosos das plantas A. indica 2%, T.pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% e M. azedarach 2% e 5% e óleo de A. indica 1% e 2% com adição de tenso ativo não iônico, não possuem eficiência necessária como único método de controle da largarta-do-cartucho S. frugiperda em condições de campo. Os produtos começam a afetar o desenvolvimento da lagarta após alguns dias da ingestão das folhas pulverizadas, observado na avaliação efetuada aos sete dias após a aplicação dos extratos.The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of vegetable pesticides in the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 in corn culture. The experiments were installed, in the years of 2002 and 2004, with the spraying of the vegetable products in five treatments, and four repetitions. In the year of 2002 the tested products were: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (aqueous extract 2%, and oil at 1%; Melia azedarach L. (aqueous extract 2%; Quassia amara L. (aqueous extract 2%; nim oil, Azadirachta indica 1 and 2%. In the year of 2004 the tested products were: A. indica (aqueous extract 5%, and oil at 2%, M

  7. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  8. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  9. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seus efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Essential oil chemical composition from leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L. and its effects on the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa, objetivou-se a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas da goiabeira Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, e seus possíveis efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado e submetido, posteriormente, à análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a um espectrômetro de massas CG-EM, a fim de investigar sua composição. Para a avaliação dos efeitos do óleo essencial no comportamento das lagartas de 1º ínstar foram testados quatro tratamentos, dois com o óleo essencial na concentração de 0,01% e 0,001%, diluídos em etanol/água 1:1, e duas testemunhas, uma com água e outra com etanol/água 1:1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira apresenta na sua constituição o α-terpineol (0,9%, 1,8-cineol (7,0%, β-cariofileno (7,2% e o óxido de cariofileno (13,8%. Constatou-se, também, que o óleo essencial demonstrou efeito repelente para a lagarta-do-cartucho na concentração de 0,01%.The aim of this research was to obtain and characterize essential oil from leaves of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, and its possible effects on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda behavior. The essential oil was obtained through steam distillation, by using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was later analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS. In order to evaluate the essential oil effect on the armyworm of 1st instars behavior, four treatments were tested; two with oil at 0.01 and 0.001 % in ethanol/water 1:1 concentration; two controls with water and the other with ethanol/water 1:1. The results showed that the above analyzed essential oil constituted of á-terpineole (0.9%, 1,8-cineole (7.0%, â-caryophyllene (7.2% and the caryophyllene oxide (13.8%. It was also found that the essential

  10. Biology and thermal requirements of Telenomus remus reared on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda eggs Características biológicas e exigências térmicas de Telenomus remus em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at studing Telenomus remus Nixon biology reared on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith eggs at different temperatures. Based on the development of the cycle (egg-adult, the thermal requirements and the number of parasitoid generations at constant temperatures were determined. Initially, 24-hour-old S. frugiperda eggs were submitted to parasitism by T. remus during 5 h, being then transferred to acclimatized chambers regulated at 15, 20, 25, 28, 31, and 35°C. The cycle (egg to adult was influenced by temperature varying from 8.3±0.01 to 47.2±0.01 for females and 8.1±0.01 to 46.8±0.01 days for males at 31 and 15°C, respectively. The emergency (% was also influenced by temperature. A reduction in emergency was observed at 15°C and no emergency at 35°C. T. remus sex ratio was not influenced by temperature. Sexual rate was not changed by temperature. Regarding to thermal requirements, thermal constant (K and inferior thermal threshold (Tb were higher for T. remus females (158.88 degree-days and 12.5°C when compared to males (154.12 degree-days and 12.6°C. The estimated number of T. remus generation per year for males and females at laboratory conditions was 5.6 and 5.6, 16.9 and 17.3, 28.3 and 29.0, 35.1 and 36.0, 39.6 and 40.7 at 15, 20, 25, 28, and 31oC, respectively.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Telenomus remus Nixon criado em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith em diferentes temperaturas. Com base no desenvolvimento do ciclo (ovo-adulto, foram determinados as exigências térmicas e o número de gerações dos parasitóides em temperaturas constantes. Inicialmente, ovos de S. frugiperda, com 24 horas de idade, foram submetidos ao parasitismo por T. remus, durante cinco horas, sendo então transferidos para câmaras climatizadas reguladas para as temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28, 31 e 35°C. A duração do ciclo (ovo-adulto foi influenciada pela temperatura variando de 8,3±0,01 a 47,2±0

  11. Sunn hemp as a ground cover to manage fall armyworm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and south...

  12. Evaluación de aislamientos de baculovirus para el control de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, plaga clave del maíz en el noroeste argentino Evaluation of baculovirus strains to control the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, a key corn pest in North Western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta G. Yasem de Romero

    for Spodoptera frugiperda control, a key pest affecting corn crops in North Western Argentina. These insecticides, however, frequently show low effectiveness. The baculoviruses are a biological alternative to control the fall armyworm. The objective of this research was to assess Nucleopolyhedrovirus native and foreign strains as regards their effectiveness in controlling S. frugiperda. The results showed that S. frugiperda larvae death rate rose with increasing viral concentrations, while viral susceptibility of larvae decreased with insect age. LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the tested sample of 7.6 x 10(4 and 4.5 x 10(5 polyhedra/ml for three and five day-old larvae, respectively, were determined for the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV isolated in Leales (Tucumán, Argentina. Similar control levels were determined for the NPV isolated in Oliveros (Santa Fe, Argentina, with lethal viral concentrations (LC50 of 8.6 x 10(4 and 4.0 x 10(5 polyhedra/ml, respectively. The Brazilian isolate was characterized by LC50 levels of 5.9 x 10(5 and 1.5 x 10(6 polyhedral/ml for three-day-old and five-day-old larvae, respectively. The local isolate (VPNSf -Tucumán showed the most lethal effect on the native population of young S. frugiperda (three to five-day-old larvae, with an average lifespan of six days at LC50 levels, while the Oliveros and Brazil isolates showed an average lifespan of seven and nine days, respectively. The VPNSf - Leales isolate was therefore selected as the object of study for this research. Moreover, being a native isolate, it was considered the best alternative from the environmental impact standpoint.

  13. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed to different ...

  14. (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed ...

  15. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

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    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  16. Delimiting strategic zones for the development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on corn in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), cannot survive prolonged periods of freezing temperatures, thereby limiting where it can overwinter in North America. Climate change is anticipated to reduce the frequency of freeze days in Florida over the decades, with the potential consequen...

  17. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in ...

  18. Analysis of strain distribution, migratory potential, and invasion history of fall armyworm populations in northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith) is a noctuid moth pest endemic throughout the Western Hemisphere that has recently become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likelihood of further dispersal, pu...

  19. Assessment of resistance risk in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tiancai; Su, Jianya

    2011-11-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of numerous cultivated crops. Chlorantraniliprole, the first commercialised ryanodine receptor insecticide from the anthranilic diamide class, has exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of lepidopteran pests. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance of S. exigua to chlorantraniliprole in the laboratory. A field-collected population of S. exigua was selected after repeated exposure to chlorantraniliprole to determine the risk of resistance evolution. After 22 generations of selection, there was a 12.0-fold increase in LC(50) . The realised heritability (h(2)) of resistance was estimated as 0.1082 by using threshold trait analysis. The projected rate of resistance evolution indicated that, if h(2) = 0.1082 and 70% of the population was killed at each generation, then a tenfold increase in LC(50) would be expected in 21.7 generations for chlorantraniliprole. These results show that the risk of resistance development to chlorantraniliprole exists in S. exigua after continuous application. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus

  1. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

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    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  2. Combining ability in maize for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance based on a laboratory bioassay for larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W P; Buckley, P M; Davis, F M

    1995-02-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, are major insect pests of maize, Zea mays L., in the southern USA. Both insects feed extensively on leaves of plants in the whorl stage of growth. A diallel cross of seven inbred lines with different levels of susceptibility to leaf feeding damage in the field was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer larval growth. Diets were prepared from lyophilized leaf tissue of field-grown plants of the inbred lines and their 21 F1 hybrids. One inbred line, Tx601, exhibited heavy leaf damage in field tests but showed moderate resistance in the laboratory bioassay. Both general and specific combining ability were highly significant sources of variation in the inheritance of fall armyworm and south-western corn borer larval growth in the laboratory bioassay. Tx601 showed excellent general combining ability for reduced larval growth of both species.

  3. A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kost, S.; Heckel, D.G.; Yoshido, A.; Marec, F.; Groot, A.T.

    In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well

  4. Lyophilization of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae yields high-quality DNA for use in AFLP genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural research in the 21st century has become a collaborative effort. Research on crop pests like Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), can involve international collaboration because it is a pest not only in the southern United States, but also in La...

  5. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  6. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Lígia Alves de Paiva, Fernanda Corrêa, Cinthia Luzia Teixeira Silva, Tony de Lima Moura, Franciele Cristina da Silva, Marcio da Silva Araújo, Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus ...

  7. Susceptibility of field populations of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida and Puerto Rico to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue containing single and pyramided Bt genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval survival of Cry1F-susceptible (FL), -resistant (PR and Cry1F-RR), and -heterozygous (FL x PR and Cry1F-RS) populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue of seven Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids and five non-Bt corn...

  8. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Diallel crossing among maize populations for resistance to fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez María del Pilar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the insects infecting the maize (Zea mays L. crop in Brazil, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, 1797, Lepdoptera: Noctuidae is considered one of the most important because it causes the highest damage to yield. Genetic resistance to the fall armyworm has be an effective control strategy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate new germplasm sources for resistance to the fall armyworm, the key pest for the maize crop in Brazil. A partial diallel design between 20 varieties of Brazilian germplasm and nine exotic and semi-exotic varieties of different origin was used. The 180 crosses and 29 parental varieties along with two commercial checks were evaluated in three locations in the State of São Paulo State (Brasil. Fall armyworm resistance (FAWR under artificial and natural infestations, grain yield (GY, and plant height (PH were analyzed. The populations CMS14C and MIRT, and hybrid São José x MIRT showed the highest resistance, with values of 1.8, 1.7 and 1.4, respectively. Populations PMI9401 and PR91B, and the hybrid CMS14C x (B97xITU had best yields, with 4893, 3858 and 5677 kg ha-1, respectively. Heterosis ranged from -28% to 47% for FAWR and from -21% to 125% for GY, with mean values of -0,43% and 31%, respectively. Genotype by environment interaction was not significant for FAWR. The effects of varieties and heterosis were significant for all traits, showing that both additive and dominance effects may be important as sources of variation. For FAWR, only specific heterosis presented significance, suggesting strong genetic divergence between specific pairs of parental populations. Brasilian populations PMI9302 and São José, and the exotic population PR91B presented high performance per se, and also in croses for FAWR and GY. Crosses PMI9401 x (Cuba110 x EsalqPB1 and São José x MIRT presented high specific heterosis effects for both characters. These populations can be useful to be introgressed in maize

  10. PENGARUH EKSTRAK LIMBAH DAUN TEMBAKAU MADURA TERHADAP AKTIVITAS MAKAN LARVA Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwanto -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ekstrak tanaman untuk insektisida nabati tidak hanya berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas saja akan tetapi juga berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas makan serangga. Tujuan pengujian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstraklimbah daun tembakau madura terhadap aktivitas makan larva instar III Spodoptera exigua. Metode uji ada dua yakni pakan pilihan dan pakan tanpa pilihan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 6 perlakuan konsentrasi dan 1 kontrol yang diulang 5 kali. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa pemaparan ekstrak limbah daun tembakau dengan metode pakan pilihan: (1 berpengaruh nyata terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi pada semua konsentrasi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, (2 bersifat antifeedant terhadap larva S. exigua dengan indeks hambatan makan berkisar 17,51 – 38,12%, sedang ekstrak limbah daun tembakau pada uji pakan tanpa pilihan (3 berpengaruh nyata pada konsentrasi > 0,21% terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, dan (4 bersifat antifeedant dengan indeks hambatan makan lebih tinggi (22,87 – 69,39% daripada dengan pakan pilihan (17,51 – 32,12%. Plants extracts used for botanical insecticides do not only influence the mortality but also the feeding activity of insects. The aim of this test was to determine the activity of the extract of Madura tobacco leaf on the feeding activity of the third instar of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. There were two test methods, choice and no-choice feeding tests. The design of each test was a completely randomized design (CRD, with six treatment concentrations and one control, replicated five times. The results showed that the exposure of tobacco leaf extracts with the choice feeding: (1 had significant effect on the leaf weight consumed at all concentration compared to the controls, (2 act as antifeedant against the larvae of S. exigua with the index of food consumption barrier ranging from 17.51 to 38.12%; while the extract of

  11. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moar William J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4. A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1 were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3, the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony.

  13. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  14. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Rodrigues, Jo?o V. C.; Souza, Thadeu C.; Tavares, Cl?bson S.; Campos, Silverio O.; Guedes, Raul N.C.; Pereira, Eliseu J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic crop ?pyramids? producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the ?pyramid? resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to...

  15. Comparative molecular analyses of invasive fall armyworm in Togo reveal strong similarities to populations from the eastern United States and the Greater Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney N Nagoshi

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith is a noctuid moth that is a major and ubiquitous agricultural pest in the Western Hemisphere. Infestations have recently been identified in several locations in Africa, indicating its establishment in the Eastern Hemisphere where it poses an immediate and significant economic threat. Genetic methods were used to characterize noctuid specimens infesting multiple cornfields in the African nation of Togo that were tentatively identified as fall armyworm by morphological criteria. Species identification was confirmed by DNA barcoding and the specimens were found to be primarily of the subgroup that preferentially infests corn and sorghum in the Western Hemisphere. The mitochondrial haplotype configuration was most similar to that found in the Caribbean region and the eastern coast of the United States, identifying these populations as the likely originating source of the Togo infestations. A genetic marker linked with resistance to the Cry1Fa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt expressed in transgenic corn and common in Puerto Rico fall armyworm populations was not found in the Togo collections. These observations demonstrate the usefulness of genetic surveys to characterize fall armyworm populations from Africa.

  16. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  17. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  18. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  19. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  20. Fall armyworm: pest & bio indicator of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Described ongoing research on the geographical range of fall armyworm subpopulations in the United States and the migratory pathways from the TX and FL overwintering regions. These results provide a foundation for future efforts to develop fall armyworm as a bioindicator for the effects of climate c...

  1. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Fleischer, Shelby; Meagher, Robert L; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Khan, Ayub; Murúa, M Gabriela; Silvie, Pierre; Vergara, Clorinda; Westbrook, John

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed.

  2. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney N Nagoshi

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed.

  3. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernanda F; Mendes, Simone M; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Araújo, Octávio G; Oliveira, Eugenio E; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  4. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F Sousa

    Full Text Available Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50-70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in

  5. Genetically modified corn on fall armyworm and earwig populations under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Regina Frizzas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of corn MON810 on the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and the earwig Doru luteipes (Scudder were tested under field conditions in Brazil. Results from MON810 corn fields were compared with those fields of conventional corn with and without the application of insecticides in four harvests in the region of Barretos, SP. It was assessed the damage to S. frugiperda via direct counts of the number of fall armyworms and adults and nymphs of the predator D. luteipes on corn plants. The rate of S. frugiperda damage and the average numbers of larvae (large and small were lower in the MON810 corn field relative to the control plot. There were no differences (P>0.05 between treatments regarding the predator abundance in corn plants. The second crop season ("safrinha" showed the greatest extent of S. frugiperda damage and the lowest average abundance of earwigs. MON810 was effective in controlling S. frugiperda and abundance of predator D. luteipes was similar in the three treatments under field conditions.

  6. The interaction between migration and disease in the Fall Armyworm, 'Spodoptera frugiperda'

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Aislinn

    2016-01-01

    Every year billions of insects undertake long-distance seasonal migrations, moving hundreds of tonnes of biomass across the globe and providing key ecological services. Yet we know very little about the complex migratory movements of these tiny animal migrants and less still about what causes their populations to fluctuate in space and time. Understanding the reason for these population level changes is important, especially for insect species that are agricultural pests and disease vectors. ...

  7. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, castor oil and ricinine were tested at different concentrations against S. frugiperda.

  9. Calling Behavior, Copulation Time, and Reproductive Compatibility of Corn-Strain Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Populations in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Esteban, Samuel; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A

    2017-08-01

    The calling behavior, mating time, and the reproductive compatibility of virgin adults of fall armyworms, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were studied in this work. Larvae were collected on maize (Zea mays L.) from six states located on the Pacific coast (Chiapas, Michoacán, and Sinaloa), on the Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan), and in central Mexico (Morelos). Before the experiments, insects were reared under laboratory conditions for one generation. We recorded the age at which females called for the first time, the onset time of calling, the duration of calling, the onset time of copulation, and the duration of copulation. The calling rhythms of the six populations were dissimilar. Females from all populations began to call in the second or third scotophase. The time for onset of calling and the duration of calling were significantly different among the S. frugiperda populations studied. Spodoptera frugiperda pairs from Sinaloa, Veracruz, Yucatan, and Morelos started to copulate earlier than the pairs from Chiapas and Michoacán. Pairs from Veracruz and Yucatan copulated longer than those from Michoacán, Morelos, Chiapas, and Sinaloa. Our crossing experiment using females and males from the six populations showed that individuals from different populations could copulate and produce fertile offspring. Thus, although the S. frugiperda populations showed variability in the timing of reproduction, the populations were not reproductively incompatible, which indicated that geographic distance has not led to reproductive isolation in corn-strain populations of S. frugiperda in Mexico. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Haplotype Profile Comparisons Between Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations From Mexico With Those From Puerto Rico, South America, and the United States and Their Implications to Migratory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Meagher, Robert L; Fleischer, Shelby J; Westbrook, John K; Sappington, Thomas W; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Thomas, Jean M G; Murúa, Gabriela M

    2015-02-01

    Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)] is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of maize, cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Previous studies demonstrated extensive annual migrations occurring as far north as Canada from overwintering locations in southern Florida and Texas. In contrast, migratory behavior in the rest of the hemisphere is largely uncharacterized. Understanding the migration patterns of fall armyworm will facilitate efforts to predict the spread of pesticide resistance traits that repeatedly arise in this species and assess the consequences of changing climatic trends on the infestation range. Four independent fall armyworm colonies derived from widely separated populations in Mexico and two field collections were examined for their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene haplotypes and compared with other locations. The Mexico populations were most similar in their haplotype profile to those from Texas and South America, but also displayed some distinctive features. The data extend the haplotype distribution map in the Western Hemisphere and confirm that the previously observed regional differences in haplotype frequencies are stable over time. The Mexico collections were associated with haplotypes rarely found elsewhere, suggesting limited migratory interactions with foreign populations, including those in neighboring Texas. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  12. Analysis of strain distribution, migratory potential, and invasion history of fall armyworm populations in northern Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Goergen, Georg; Tounou, Kodjo Agbeko; Agboka, Komi; Koffi, Djima; Meagher, Robert L

    2018-02-27

    Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) is a noctuid moth pest endemic throughout the Western Hemisphere that has recently become widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likelihood of further dispersal, putting the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere at risk. Specimens from multiple locations in six countries spanning the northern portion of the infested region were analyzed for genetic markers. The similarity of haplotypes between the African collections was consistent with a common origin, but significant differences in the relative frequency of the haplotypes indicated limitations in migration. The mitochondrial marker frequently used to identify two host strains appears to be compromised, making uncertain previous reports that both strains are present in Africa. This more extensive study confirmed initial indications based on Togo populations that Florida and the Greater Antilles are the likely source of at least a subset of the African infestation and further suggest an entry point in western Africa. The origin of a second subgroup is less clear as it was rarely found in the collections and has a haplotype that has not yet been observed in the Western Hemisphere.

  13. Input Quality in the Sugar Beet Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.; Marsh, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Using 23 years of data (1978-2000), this study examines seven vertically integrated sugar beet plants representing three different companies in the United States. The objective of this research is to identify the marginal costs of producing sugar beets for vertically integrated sugar beet processors as a way of determining the cost savings from higher quality sugar beets. In doing so, we account for quality differences in the sugar beet input that are used to manufacture the refined sugar out...

  14. Effects of citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) midgut and fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cts; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Cunha, F M; Oliveira, J V; Dutra, K A; Navarro, Dma Ferraz; Teixeira, Aac

    2017-12-05

    The armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is the principal pest of corn in Brazil. Control is achieved primarily by synthetic insecticides, which cause problems for the agro-ecosystem. Alternative methods of control are under investigation and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil appears to be a promising agent. We investigated the effects of citronella oil using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The midgut of larvae treated with citronella exhibited altered epithelium including cytoplasmic protrusions, columnar cell extrusion, pyknotic nuclei, and increased periodic acid-Schiff positive granules. Regenerative cells in the epithelium of the midgut increased in number, which facilitated subsequent regeneration of this tissue. After exposure to citronella, trophocytes, the principal cell type of the fat body, possessed enlarged vacuoles and mitotic bodies, and contained reduced amounts of glycogen, lipid, and protein. Citronella oil caused morphological changes of the midgut and reduction of stored resources in the fat body, which may adversely affect insect reproduction and survival.

  15. A Z-linked sterility locus causes sexual abstinence in hybrid females and facilitates speciation in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Silvia; Heckel, David G; Yoshido, Atsuo; Marec, František; Groot, Astrid T

    2016-06-01

    In the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), two sympatric strains have been recognized that have been termed corn strain (C) and rice strain (R), referring to their most common host plants. Both strains are reproductively isolated via a distinct prezygotic barrier as well as via an intriguing postzygotic phenomenon: when R females have mated with C males, the resulting RC hybrid females exhibit dramatically reduced fertility independent of their mating partner. Here, we demonstrate that the reduced fertility is caused by the fact that these females refrain from mating, that is, females are behaviorally sterile. We identified a Z-chromosomally linked sterility locus that is most likely incompatible with yet to be identified autosomal (or cytoplasmic) factors, leading to the observed sexual abstinence. Within-chromosome mapping revealed the sterility locus to be located in an area of strongly reduced interstrain recombination. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Rodrigues, João V C; Souza, Thadeu C; Tavares, Clébson S; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul N C; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2015-12-17

    Transgenic crop "pyramids" producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the "pyramid" resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field.

  17. Evidence of recent interspecies horizontal gene transfer regarding nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gloria Patricia; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel

    2015-11-25

    Baculoviruses are insect-associated viruses carrying large, circular double-stranded-DNA genomes with significant biotechnological applications such as biological pest control, recombinant protein production, gene delivery in mammals and as a model of DNA genome evolution. These pathogens infect insects from the orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera, and have high species diversity which is expressed in their diverse biological properties including morphology, virulence or pathogenicity. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm, represents a significant pest for agriculture in America; it is a host for baculoviruses such as the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) (Colombia strain, genotype A) having been classified as a Group II alphabaculovirus making it a very attractive target for bioinsecticidal use. Genome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed that SfMNPV ColA has 145 ORFs, 2 of which were not present in the other sequenced genotypes of the virus (SfMNPV-NicB, SfMNPV-NicG, SfMNPV-19 and SfMNPV-3AP2). An in-depth bioinformatics study showed that ORF023 and ORF024 were acquired by a recent homologous recombination process between Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera litura (the Oriental leafworm moth) nucleopolyhedroviruses. Auxiliary genes are numerous in the affected locus which has a homologous region (hr3), a repetitive sequence associated with genome replication which became lost in SfColA along with 1 ORF. Besides, the mRNAs associated with two acquired genes appeared in the virus' life-cycle during the larval stage. Predictive studies concerning the theoretical proteins identified that ORF023 protein would be a phosphatase involved in DNA repair and that the ORF024 protein would be a membrane polypeptide associated with cell transport. The SfColA genome was thus revealed to be a natural recombinant virus showing evidence of recent horizontal gene transfer between different baculovirus species occurring

  18. Suitable areas of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Spodoptera exigua, and their host plant Phaseolus vulgaris are projected to reduce and shift due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Cabral, Nadiezhda Yakovleva Zitz; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, crop pests (CPs) such as pathogens and insects affect agricultural production detrimentally. Species distribution models can be used for projecting current and future suitability of CPs and host crop localities. Our study overlays the distribution of two CPs (Asian soybean rust and beet armyworm) and common bean, a potential host of them, in order to determine their current and future levels of coexistence. This kind of modeling approach has rarely been performed previously in climate change studies. The soybean rust and beet armyworm model projections herein show a reduction of the worldwide area with high and medium suitability of both CPs and a movement of them away from the Equator, in 2100 more pronounced than in 2050. Most likely, heat and dry stress will be responsible for these changes. Heat and dry stress will greatly reduce and shift the future suitable cultivation area of common bean as well, in a similar manner. The most relevant findings of this study were the reduction of the suitable areas for the CPs, the reduction of the risk under future scenarios, and the similarity of trends for the CPs and host. The current results highlight the relation between and the coevolution of host and pathogens.

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  20. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore induced volatiles in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of atmospheric changes on this form of plant defense. To in...

  1. Doppler weather radar detects emigratory flights of noctuids during a major pest outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    An outbreak of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)), cabbage looper, (Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)), and other lepidopteran pests devastated cotton production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley TX, in 1995. Major infestations occurred later in the year several hundred kilometers away in other cotton ...

  2. Registration of sugar beet doubled haploid line KDH13 with resistance to beet curly top

    Science.gov (United States)

    KDH13 is a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) doubled haploid line (PI 663862) released as a genetic stock by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Development Foundation, Denver, CO. KDH13 is resistant to beet curly top (BCT) caused by Beet curly top virus which is transmitted by the ...

  3. Genetic basis of allochronic differentiation in the fall armyworm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänniger, S.; Dumas, P.; Schöfl, G.; Gebauer-Jung, S.; Vogel, H.; Unbehend, M.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Very little is known on how changes in circadian rhythms evolve. The noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) consists of two strains that exhibit allochronic differentiation in their mating time, which acts as a premating isolation barrier between the strains. We

  4. Turnabout Is Fair Play: Herbivory-Induced Plant Chitinases Excreted in Fall Armyworm Frass Suppress Herbivore Defenses in Maize1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Patrick C.M.S.; Gaffoor, Iffa; Acevedo, Flor E.; Peiffer, Michelle; Jin, Shan; Han, Yang; Shakeel, Samina; Felton, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    The perception of herbivory by plants is known to be triggered by the deposition of insect-derived factors such as saliva and oral secretions, oviposition materials, and even feces. Such insect-derived materials harbor chemical cues that may elicit herbivore and/or pathogen-induced defenses in plants. Several insect-derived molecules that trigger herbivore-induced defenses in plants are known; however, insect-derived molecules suppressing them are largely unknown. In this study, we identified two plant chitinases from fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larval frass that suppress herbivore defenses while simultaneously inducing pathogen defenses in maize (Zea mays). Fall armyworm larvae feed in enclosed whorls of maize plants, where frass accumulates over extended periods of time in close proximity to damaged leaf tissue. Our study shows that maize chitinases, Pr4 and Endochitinase A, are induced during herbivory and subsequently deposited on the host with the feces. These plant chitinases mediate the suppression of herbivore-induced defenses, thereby increasing the performance of the insect on the host. Pr4 and Endochitinase A also trigger the antagonistic pathogen defense pathway in maize and suppress fungal pathogen growth on maize leaves. Frass-induced suppression of herbivore defenses by deposition of the plant-derived chitinases Pr4 and Endochitinase A is a unique way an insect can co-opt the plant’s defense proteins for its own benefit. It is also a phenomenon unlike the induction of herbivore defenses by insect oral secretions in most host-herbivore systems. PMID:26979328

  5. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may...

  6. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  7. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod binding-proteins from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Castro, Diana L; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are currently used for pest control in transgenic crops but evolution of resistance by the insect pests threatens the use of this technology. The Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack the alpha helix-1 of the parental Cry1Ab toxin and was shown to counter resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins in different insect species including the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. In addition, Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to Cry1Ab-susceptible S. frugiperda populations. To gain insights into the mechanisms of this Cry1AbMod-enhanced toxicity, we isolated the Cry1AbMod toxin binding proteins from S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), which were identified by pull-down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS results indicated that Cry1AbMod toxin could bind to four classes of aminopeptidase (N1, N3, N4 y N5) and actin, with the highest amino acid sequence coverage acquired for APN 1 and APN4. In addition to these proteins, we found other proteins not previously described as Cry toxin binding proteins. This is the first report that suggests the interaction between Cry1AbMod and APN in S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring of Resistance to New Chemistry Insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mehmood, Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The armyworm Spodoptera litura (F.) is a very serious pest of many crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. Due to persistent application of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance to conventional as well as new chemistries. The present studies investigated the level of resistance to new chemistry insecticides, having novel modes of action, in the Pakistani field populations of S. litura during 1997-2010 by using a leaf-dip bioassay. Generally, a low to moderate resistance was recorded to indoxacarb, abamectin, fipronil, and methoxyfenozide; along with a very low resistance to spinosad. Resistance to emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, and lufenuron was none or very low, in spite of their intensive use against S. litura. The insecticides, showing no or very low resistance, can be used in rotation in conjunction with other integrated pest management tactics to manage insecticide resistance in S. litura. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatos Ales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae consists of two distinct strains with different host plant preferences for corn and rice. To assess whether pheromonal-mediated behavioral isolation accompanies the habitat isolation on different host plants, we compared the sex pheromone composition among females of the two strains. Pheromone glands were extracted with or without injection of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN. To assess the mode of inheritance of this variation, we also analyzed the pheromone composition of F1 hybrid females. Results Relative to intra-strain variation, the pheromone composition of the two strains differed significantly. Corn strain females contained significantly more of the second most abundant pheromone compound Z11-16:Ac (m, and significantly less of most other compounds, than rice strain females. When females were injected with PBAN before their glands were extracted, the differences between the strains were less pronounced but still statistically significant. The pheromone composition of hybrid females showed a maternal inheritance of the major component Z9-14:Ac (M as well as of Z11-16:Ac (m. Most other compounds showed an inheritance indicating genetic dominance of the corn strain. The within-strain phenotypic correlations among the various components were consistent with their hypothesized biosynthetic pathway, and between-strain differences in the correlation structure suggested candidate genes that may explain the pheromone differences between the two strains. These include Δ9- and Δ11 desaturases, and possibly also a Δ7-desaturase, although the latter has not been identified in insects so far. Conclusion The two host strains of S. frugiperda produce systematically differing female sex pheromone blends. Previously-documented geographic variation in the sexual communication of this species did not take strain identity into account, and thus may be

  10. Synchronized oviposition triggered by migratory flight intensifies larval outbreaks of beet webworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xia Cheng

    Full Text Available Identifying the reproductive consequences of insect migration is critical to understanding its ecological and evolutionary significance. However, many empirical studies are seemingly contradictory, making recognition of unifying themes elusive and controversial. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. is a long-range migratory pest of many crops in the northern temperate zone from 36 °N to 55 °N, with larval populations often exploding in regions receiving immigrants. In laboratory experiments, we examined (i the reproductive costs of migratory flight by tethered flight, and (ii the reproductive traits contributing to larval outbreaks of immigrant populations. Our results suggest that the beet webworm does not initiate migratory flight until the 2nd or 3rd night after emergence. Preoviposition period, lifetime fecundity, mating capacity, and egg hatch rate for adults that experienced prolonged flight after the 2nd night did not differ significantly from unflown moths, suggesting these traits are irrelevant to the severity of beet webworm outbreaks after migration. However, the period of first oviposition, a novel parameter developed in this paper measuring synchrony of first egg-laying by cohorts of post-migratory females, for moths flown on d 3 and 5 of adulthood was shorter than that of unflown moths, indicating a tightened time-window for onset of oviposition after migration. The resulting synchrony of egg-laying will serve to increase egg and subsequent larval densities. A dense population offers potential selective advantages to the individual larvae comprising it, whereas the effect from the human standpoint is intensification of damage by an outbreak population. The strategy of synchronized oviposition may be common in other migratory insect pests, such as locust and armyworm species, and warrants further study.

  11. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  12. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  13. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes...

  14. Population development of beet cyst nematodes and their damage potential to sugar beets under different temperature regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Vandenbossche; Björn Niere; Stefan Vidal

    2011-01-01

    _Heterodera schachtii_, the white beet cyst nematode, is considered as one of the most important nematode pests on sugar beet and is present in most sugar-beet growing areas. The yellow beet cyst nematode, _Heterodera betae_, is less prevalent but has also been found damaging beet crops. However, knowledge about the damage potential and population dynamics of the yellow beet cyst nematode is limited. The amount of damage inflicted by nematodes is dependent on different factors. An important f...

  15. Sequential diets, metabolic costs, and growth of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding upon dill, lima bean, and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark

    1981-01-01

    This study illustrates the diversity of feeding responses of individually polyphagous southern armyworms, Spodoptera eridania, to plants with differing allelochemics. In spite of the near optimal leaf water and nitrogen contents of the young foliage, it is apparent that vastly different larval growth performance results from dill, lima bean, and cabbage. Cabbage is the poorest food (as measured by larval growth rates and metabolic costs of processing the plant biomass). Unlike the case with certain other plant species or cultivars that are costly to process, with cabbage, S. eridania does not compensate for low efficiencies (E.C.D.'s) with increased consumption rates (R.C.R.'s). Biochemical or physiological reasons for this inability are unknown.A sequence of foods (changed each 18-24 h) apparently did not add sufficient stress upon the MFO system to be detected in the respiratory expenditures of S. eridania larvae, in spite of the fact that dill is known to contain insecticidal and synergistic chemicals (Lichtenstein et al. 1974). The larval growth performances and metabolic expenditures in these sequences were intermediate between the best food (dill) and the worse (cabbage). Significant differences were observed however between the sequential switching sequences, perhaps indicating that particular periods during the instar are especially more sensitive to certain allelochemics. Actual respiratory costs of the lima bean-cabbage-dill (i.e. B-C-D) sequence were 40-50% higher than observed for the other two sequences and more than 50% higher than the theoretical metabolic costs based on the proportions actually eaten and known costs associated with each food.This study and a related one (Scriber 1981a) illustrate how consumption rates, feeding efficiences, and larval growth of Spodoptera eridania are not species, population, or even individual characteristics, (cf. Fox and Morrow 1981), but instead depend largely upon variations in plant allelochemics and plant

  16. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, ...

  17. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  18. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  19. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  20. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... South Africa has been limited by the large production of sugarcane in tropical areas. Recent trials in the ... It was concluded from the results of this research that bioethanol can be produced economically from tropical sugar beet .... sugar beet molasses as well as the effect of initial sugar concentration ...

  1. Survival and larval development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternatives host; Sobrevivencia e desenvolvimento larval de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Verissimo G.M. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Fonseca, Bernardo V.C. [Universidade FUMEC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Boregas, Katia G.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia; Waquil, Jose M. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: aaquil@cnpms.embrapa.br

    2009-01-15

    Two bioassays were conducted to evaluate the suitability of host plants of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith), in the Brazilian agro-ecosystem. Larval development and survival were analyzed by infesting leaves of maize, grain sorghum, Johnson grass, soybean, Brachiaria and tobacco with FAW newly hatched larvae in a no choice test. No significant differences of survival were observed among insects reared on different hosts, except for tobacco, where no survivors were recorded. Larvae fed on soybean and artificial diet grew larger than those fed on the other hosts. The heaviest pupa was observed from larva fed on artificial diet and the lighter from larva fed on Brachiaria grass. No significant differences were reported on larval development time on natural hosts, but it was longer for larvae reared on artificial diet. Three classes of larval development time were observed on maize, four on sorghum, Brachiaria and soybean, and five on artificial diet. Nearly 85% of FAW larvae completed development within 12 d on maize; 77% on grain sorghum, 80% on Johnson grass, 68% on Brachiaria and 83% on soybean within 14 d and 69% on artificial diet within 17 d. The host suitability to FAW decreases from maize to sorghum, soybean and Brachiaria. (author)

  2. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  3. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Li

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L. that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  4. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  5. Toxicity of Secondary Metabolites from Meliaceae Against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, A M M; Vendramim, J D; Freitas, S D L; Silva, M F G F

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the bioactivity of secondary metabolites from Trichilia pallida, Trichilia pallens, and Toona ciliata against fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae. The studied compounds included (+/-)-catechins, a triglyceride, and cedrelone isolated from T. ciliata branches, fruits, and stems, respectively; dammaradienol isolated from T. pallida leaves; and scopoletin isolated from T. pallens branches. The compounds' activity was evaluated through ingestion and topic treatment. Treated artificial diet was offered to first instar larvae to evaluate ingestion effect, while an application on the dorsal thoracic region of third instar larvae was used to evaluate the topic effect. Mortality was assessed daily, and larval weight was recorded after 7 days for ingestion and 5 days for topic application. Scopoletin and triglyceride caused low mortality rates and reduction in larval weight by ingestion, (+/-)-catechins caused larval weight reduction by ingestion, and scopoletin reduced survival by topic treatment. The most effective compound was cedrelone that affected larval survival and development mainly by ingestion. The estimated LC 50 , LC 90 , and EC 50 for cedrelone were 0.0365, 0.0659, and 0.0095%, respectively. Further, cedrelone-treated corn leaf discs were offered to fourth instar larvae during 16 h in choice and no-choice tests. The deterrence indexes obtained in the choice tests were 23.5 and 36.3% at concentrations of 0.0365 and 0.0659, respectively. Consumption of cedrelone-treated leaf discs at the concentration of 0.0659% was lower compared to the control in the no-choice test. Thus, cedrelone caused lethal and sublethal effects and phagodeterrence on S. frugiperda and should be further studied.

  6. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    The Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis is a polyphagous insect attacking a number of plant species including those belonging to the Solanaceae and Cruciferaceae families. Its digestive physiology must therefore adapt to the food plant to ensure maximum extraction of nutrients with minimum trade-off in terms of growth retardation by pro-oxidant allelochemicals. To investigate this, the caterpillars of S. littoralis were fed on a semi-artificial diet (Manduca Premix-Heliothis Premix) and for 24 h on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, at the mature 6th instar, and the levels of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in their guts were compared. The gut pH, standard redox potential (Eh) and electron availability (pe) revealed that oxidizing conditions prevail which promote oxidation of pro-oxidant allelochemicals in foliage. Oxidative stress in the foregut and midgut tissue and the gut contents was assessed from the generation of superoxide radical, total peroxide content and protein carbonyl content. Antioxidant defense was measured by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione S-transferase peroxidase (GSTpx). A significant (p enzymes SOD (in midgut tissues), CAT (in foregut, midgut tissue and contents), APOX (in foregut contents, midgut tissue and contents) and GSTpx (in foregut tissues) was recorded on the plant diet in comparison to the semi-artificial diet. The pro-oxidant allelochemicals in the plant diet are thus eliminated by the insect at the expense of up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes in response to increased oxidative stress from oxidizable allelochemicals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defense of herbivorous insects against both exogenous and endogenous oxidative radicals.

  7. Detection of beet soil-borne virus and beet virus Q in sugarbeet in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Prins, M.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Sugar beet plants with typical rhizomania symptoms were collected from the five major cultivation zones of Greece. The presence of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the primary causal agent of the disease, was ascertained by DAS-ELISA in 38 out of 40 fields surveyed and the positive samples

  8. Genetic basis of allochronic differentiation in the fall armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänniger, Sabine; Dumas, Pascaline; Schöfl, Gerhard; Gebauer-Jung, Steffi; Vogel, Heiko; Unbehend, Melanie; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T

    2017-03-06

    Very little is known on how changes in circadian rhythms evolve. The noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) consists of two strains that exhibit allochronic differentiation in their mating time, which acts as a premating isolation barrier between the strains. We investigated the genetic basis of the strain-specific timing differences to identify the molecular mechanisms of differentiation in circadian rhythms. Through QTL analyses we identified one major Quantitative trait chromosome (QTC) underlying differentiation in circadian timing of mating activity. Using RADtags, we identified this QTC to be homologous to Bombyx mori C27, on which the clock gene vrille is located, which thus became the major candidate gene. In S. frugiperda, vrille showed strain-specific polymorphisms. Also, vrille expression differed significantly between the strains, with the rice-strain showing higher expression levels than the corn-strain. In addition, RT-qPCR experiments with the other main clock genes showed that pdp1, antagonist of vrille in the modulatory feedback loop of the circadian clock, showed higher expression levels in the rice-strain than in the corn-strain. Together, our results indicate that the allochronic differentiation in the two strains of S. frugiperda is associated with differential transcription of vrille or a cis-acting gene close to vrille, which contributes to the evolution of prezygotic isolation in S. frugiperda.

  9. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  10. Antifeedant activity of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach senescent leaf extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use as synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Wajnberg, Eric; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-01

    To reduce rates of synthetic insecticide applications, natural product alternatives and synergists are needed. A study has been made of the toxicity of ethanolic senescent leaf extracts (SLEs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach on larvae of the noctuid pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Their effects as syngergists and inhibitors of several enzyme activities are also reported. When added to the diet, M. azedarach SLE showed lower toxicity than J. gossypifolia SLE. However, after 2 weeks on the diet, the M. azedarach SLE proved to be lethal to 100% of the larval population. Artificial diets with both SLEs have an antifeedant effect on armyworm larvae. Acute toxicity after topical application in a dipping assay was relatively low for both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs (LC(50) of 2.6 and 1.4 g L(-1), respectively, after 24 h). However, mixtures of the SLEs of M. azedarach and J. gossypifolia had a strong synergistic effect with cypermethrin. Synergism was higher with the J. gossypifolia SLE, perhaps because it contains several natural products with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety. Both extracts inhibited P450, general esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro and in vivo. Both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs are antifeedants to armyworm larvae when present in the food, and also have a synergistic effect with cypermethrin in topical assays. Although the synergistic effect is less than with piperonyl butoxide, both SLEs have some inhibitor activity against detoxification enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Thus J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs may be considered as ecofriendly approaches for the control of S. frugiperda in order to reduce cypermethrin usage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains from central Colombia to two insecticides, methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin: a study of the genetic basis of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Díez, J D; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2011-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of several crops in the western hemisphere. This insect has genetically differentiated into two host-associated populations: the corn (Zea mays L.) and the rice (Oryza sativa L.) strains. The corn strain also is found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and sorghum and the rice strain in Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and millet. In the United States and Brazil, lines from corn, rice, Bermuda grass, and millet were used to evaluate the resistance of both strains to various insecticides, and found that the corn strain is more resistant than the rice strain. However, in these studies the larvae were not genotyped. In Colombia, genotyping of fall armyworm is necessary because the rice strain also can be found in corn fields. In this work, collected larvae from corn and rice fields from Tolima (central Colombia) were genotyped and evaluated for the resistance to methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that the rice strain does not significantly differ in resistance to methomyl compared with the corn strain but it develops tolerance more rapidly to lambda-cyhalothrin. The eggs viability of treated females also was significantly affected by methomyl on each generation. The realized heritability of resistance was higher for lambda-cyhalothrin (0.23-0.42) than for methomyl (0.04-0.14). The number of generations needed for 10-fold increase in resistance is approximately 11.5 generations for methomyl and 6.5 for lambda-cyhalothrin. Finally, the genetic basis of resistance to both insecticides involves few recessive autosomal genes. The results obtained here suggest that methomyl is a better option than lambda-cyalothin to control fall armyworm.

  12. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  13. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  14. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  15. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  16. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  17. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the

  18. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  19. Advances in development of transgenic resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Nagl Nevena; Atanasov Ivan; Rusanov Krasimir; Paunović Svetlana; Kovačev Lazar; Atanasov Atanas

    2005-01-01

    Fragments of viral cDNA containing the coat protein gene of beet necrotic yellow vein virus were cloned in plant transformation vector pCAMBIA3301M with the bar gene as selectable marker. Vector pC3301MCPL carrying coat protein gene with leader sequence, and pC3301MCPS with coat protein gene, were used in Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of sugar beet. The transformation method used was based on the fact that sugar beet develops axillary shoots in in vitro conditions, when placed on me...

  20. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  1. AISLAMIENTO, IDENTIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE NUCLEOPOLIEDROVIRUS NATIVOS DE SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA EN COLOMBIA ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATIVE NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS OF SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andrea Gómez Valderrama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El gusano cogollero del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith es considerado la plaga más importante del cultivo en el mundo. En varios países se han empleado exitosamente los nucleopoliedrovirus de la familia Baculoviridae para su control. Sin embargo, en Colombia, no se cuenta ningún bioplaguicida viral registrado para el control de la plaga. En el presente trabajo, se realizó la búsqueda de aislamientos nativos de nucleopoliedrovirus en los departamentos de Tolima, Meta y Córdoba, mediante la recolección de larvas en diferentes cultivos. Las muestras fueron analizadas por microscopía para la búsqueda de partículas virales y los aislamientos encontrados se caracterizaron física y biológicamente. Se recolectaron 2.140 larvas de S. frugiperda en los tres departamentos muestreados. Sin embargo, sólo en un lugar (Cereté, Córdoba, se encontraron larvas con síntomas de infección viral en campo. El 2% de las muestras colectadas mostraron síntomas típicos de infección y en total se identificaron 3 aislamientos codificados como NPV003 (Córdoba, NPV009 (Tolima y NPV011 (Meta. Los aislamientos presentaron un tamaño de partícula entre 1,93 µm y 2,14 µm. Las concentraciones letales medias (CL50 sobre larvas neonatas oscilaron entre 2,2 x 105 CI/mL y 7,0 x 105 CI/mL y no se registraron estadísticas entre los aislamientos, sugiriendo que todos tienen la misma patogenicidad sobre larvas neonatas del insecto. Estos virus nativos representan la base para el desarrollo de una nueva alternativa biológica para el control de la plaga, siendo necesario iniciar los estudios para su formulación.Worldwide, the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith is considered the most important pest of maize crop. Nucleopolyhedrovirus of Baculoviridae family have been successfully used in several countries for its control. However, in Colombia there are not any biopesticide registered for the control of this pest. In the present work, native

  2. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  3. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  4. Impact of the number of Spodoptera frugiperda egg layers on parasitism by Trichogramma atopovirilia Impacto do número de camadas de ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda no parasitismo por Trichogramma atopovirilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can be found in several crops attacking Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs. It is therefore necessary to demonstrate the capacity of these natural enemies in suppressing populations of the pest to allow them to be used in biological control programs against that species. This work had the objective of evaluating the impact of egg layer distribution in S. frugiperda egg masses on the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Masses containing one, two, and three layers were used as treatments, and 1.6 parasitoid per egg of the pest were released. Parasitism percentage differences were observed among the three types of masses under study, on average 66.24 ± 8.56%, 45.20 ± 6.20%, and 40.10± 3.46% for egg masses with one, two, and three layers, respectively, demonstrating the potential of use of the parasitoid for the control of fall armyworm.Parasitóides de ovos do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ocorrem em diversas culturas atacando ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae sendo necessário que se demonstre a capacidade desses inimigos naturais em suprimir a população da praga para que eles possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico daquela espécie. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da distribuição dos ovos em camadas nas posturas de S. frugiperda sobre a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Foram utilizadas como tratamentos posturas com uma, duas e três camadas e liberado 1.6 parasitóide por ovo da praga. Observaram-se diferenças quanto à porcentagem de parasitismo entre os três tipos de posturas estudados, sendo em média de 66,24 ± 8,56%, 45,20 ± 6,20% e 40,10 ± 3,46% para posturas com uma, duas e três camadas respectivamente, mostrando o potencial de utilização do

  5. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  6. The feeding preferences of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on cotton plant varieties=Preferência alimentar de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em variedades de plantas algodoeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenildo Ribeiro Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the attractiveness and the non-preference for feeding of newly hatched fall armyworm larvae on the cotton plant parts and different varieties used in the study. The trials were performed at 27 ± 1ºC, a 70% ± 10% relative humidity and a 14h photoperiod. Leaves, bracts, squares and carpel walls of the BRS Itamarati-90 variety and leaves of Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 and BRS Itamarati-90 varieties were used in attractiveness, multiple-choice and confinement (no-choice non-preference feeding trials. Twenty larvae were released per petri dish test (arena system with 10 repetitions. Attractiveness trials were evaluated by counting feeding caterpillars over 60 min. and by measuring non-preference at 24h. Leaves were the most attractive item and were preferred for feeding. In the multiple-choice arena trials, Coodetec-410 was the most attractive variety, and BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 and DeltaPenta were the least attractive to fall armyworm larvae. In the non-preference trial, BRS-Araça was the variety favored for feeding. BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati-90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 and BRS-Aroeira were the least-favored varieties. In the 60 min. attractiveness trials, 46 min. proved to be the most suitable time for evaluating the attractiveness of cotton plants to newly hatched fall armyworm larvae.Avaliou-se atratividade e não-preferência alimentar de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda por partes de plantas e plantas de variedades de algodoeiro. Testes foram realizados a 27 ± 1ºC, UR de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Folhas, brácteas, botões florais e cascas de maçãs da variedade BRS Itamarati-90 e folhas de Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120

  7. BOLTING OF RED BEET: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Burenin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of study of the collection accessions of red beet with different level of bolting resistance are presented. Nature of inheritance of this trait in progeny, and also its connection with other biological and economically valuable characters and properties is shown. Bolting resistant accessions and possibility of its use in breeding are described. The promising initial material is selected and recommended. The most rational solution of the bolting problems in the beet is the development of resistant varieties and hybrids. For this purpose, the early-spring and under-winter planting are used, as well as the seed germination at low (30C temperatures. The availability of the various initial material studied by modern methods of researches plays a key role. When the collection accessions of beet were studied in the VIR Polar branch (The Murmansk Region, the following genotypes were identified: 1 – non bolting, 2 – weak bolting (less than 10% of bolting plants, 3 – moderately bolting (10-50%, and 4 – high bolting (more than 50% of bolting plants. As a result of screening of a gene pool, the genetic sources of bolting resistance of beet were identified. At its crossing with bolting accessions the dominance of the trait «bolting» and monogenic nature of its inheritance are confirmed. For the purpose of beet breeding for bolting resistance, the symphycarpous varieties characterized by complex biological and agronomic characters (increased yield, cold tolerance, quality of production and resistance to blackleg are the most usable. The cultivars Banko from Sweden (donor, Podzimnyaya A-0474 (VNIISSOK and Polyarnaya ploskaya-249 (Polar branch VIR are recommended as a genetic sources of bolting resistance.

  8. Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatoretto, Julio C.; Sena, Janete A.D.; Lemos, Manoel V.F.; Junior Boica, Arlindo L. , Jaboticabal, SP . Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade; Brazil)

    2007-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 108 spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes. (author)

  9. Induction of resistance of corn plants to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by application of silicon and gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, R; Moraes, J C; Auad, A M; Coelho, M; Nascimento, A M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon application and administration of the phytohormone gibberellic acid on resistance of the corn plants to the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, and their vegetative characteristics. We evaluated larval and pupal duration, survival and biomass, and adult longevity, malformation and fecundity of S. frugiperda after feeding on plant matter treated with silicon and/or gibberellic acid. The feeding preference of FAW first-instar larvae, the total leaf area consumed by the insects, and the vegetative parameters of corn plants were also evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the measured parameters of larval and pupal stages of S. frugiperda in response to silicon or gibberellic acid. In adult stage insects, the number of eggs per female was significantly reduced in insects derived from larvae fed plants treated with silicon or gibberellic acid. In a non-preference test, 48 h after release, caterpillars preferred control untreated plants and consumed less matter from plants that had received hormonal treatment (gibberellic acid). Gibberellic acid also altered the vegetative characteristics of plants, by increasing their height, shoot fresh and dry mass, and silicon content. We conclude that gibberellic acid can alter the vegetative characteristics and silicon uptake of corn plants, leading to a reduction in their consumption by S. frugiperda larvae and a decrease in female insect oviposition.

  10. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and losses in maize crop productivity using geo statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Paulo R.S.; Miranda, Vicente S.; Ribeiro, Susane M. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: paulo.farias@ufra.edu.br; Barbosa, Jose C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Busoli, Antonio C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade; Overal, William L. [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG), Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Zoologia

    2008-05-15

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is one of the chief pests of maize in the Americas. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling methods, determining actual and potential crop losses, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. In Sao Paulo state, Brazil, a maize field was sampled at weekly intervals, from germination through harvest, for caterpillar densities, using quadrates. In each of 200 quadrates, 10 plants were sampled per week. Harvest weights were obtained in the field for each quadrate, and ear diameters and lengths were also sampled (15 ears per quadrate) and used to estimate potential productivity of the quadrate. Geostatistical analyses of caterpillar densities showed greatest ranges for small caterpillars when semivariograms were adjusted for a spherical model that showed greatest fit. As the caterpillars developed in the field, their spatial distribution became increasingly random, as shown by a model adjusted to a straight line, indicating a lack of spatial dependence among samples. Harvest weight and ear length followed the spherical model, indicating the existence of spatial variability of the production parameters in the maize field. Geostatistics shows promise for the application of precise methods in the integrated control of pests. (author)

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  12. Toxicity of the phenolic extract from jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg fruit skins on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula C Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is the main pest of maize, besides attacking sorghum and cotton crops. The control of this pest has been accomplished mainly with the use of synthetic insecticides but, due to the growing concern about the environment and food quality, phenolic compounds have shown their potential for the biological control of this insect. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the extract of jabuticabeira, Myrciaria cauliflora [Mart.] O. Berg (Myrtaceae fruit skin flour in the control of S. frugiperda. Skins of M. cauliflora Sabará genotype were dried at 45 °C in a forced air oven. In order to obtain the extract, 1.0 g flour was mixed with 10 mL acetone: water solution (7:3 v/v. Forty-eight-hour-old S. frugiperda caterpillars were placed in glass tubes with an artificial diet containing the extract at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1. The extract, in which the phenolic compounds gallic acid, gallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid, and salicylic acid were identified at a concentration of 2000 mg L-1, in average, increased mortality rates by 150% in the larval stage, duration of larval stages by 60%, and pupal by 17%, and decreased amount of females by 55%. On the other hand, the extract at 1000 mg L-1 only increased duration of larval period by 24%. It was concluded that the extract is harmful to this insect, probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

  13. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The... processing of sugar beets for the production of sugar. ...

  14. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  15. Meiose analyses of sugar beet triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezei Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the seed crop growing there can be also problems with uncontrolled pollination if in the previous years there was seed shedding during the harvest, which can cause growth and flowering of diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants and that can present serious problem for the next sugar beet seed crop. Meiosis of triploid hybrids is irregular and can result in development of gametes with different chromosome number. Sugar beet triploids in metaphase I have 9 univalents and 9 bivalents and therefore can be source of aneuploid gametes. After cytological analysis that was performed on 2124 meiocytes, in 14.64% different types of irregularities were detected, such as dislocated chromosomes and chromosome bridges.

  16. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  17. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  18. Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); Associacao de bioensaios e caracterizacao molecular para selecao de novos isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivos contra Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatoretto, Julio C.; Sena, Janete A.D.; Lemos, Manoel V.F. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Biologia Aplicada a Agropecuaria; Barreto, Marliton R. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. Universitario do Norte Matogrossense (IUNMAT)]. E-mail: mrbarreto@pop.com.br; Junior Boica, Arlindo L. (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade)

    2007-09-15

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 108 spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes. (author)

  19. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  20. Possible root infection of Cercospora betiicola in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A potential primary infection site of the foliar pathogen Cercospora beticola in sugar beet is described. Sugar beet seedlings of the susceptible cv. Auris were grown in a standard soil for 14 days. A monoconidial culture of a C. beticola isolate was grown to produce conidia. In experiment 1, roots

  1. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  2. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty and irreversibility. The case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet is analysed. Reassessed is whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a

  3. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Beet Molasses | Keshk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield of the bacterial cellulose (BC) produced from beet molasses was higher than that using glucose as a sole carbon source. The structure of BC produced in presence of beet molasses was studied using IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. IR spectra show the relative absorbance of CO- C ether linkage (at 1120 ...

  4. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  5. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet: the one euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Tollens, E.

    2004-01-01

    The decision on whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is subject to irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility. We analyse the case of herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and assess whether the EU's 1998 de facto moratorium on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit

  6. Advances in development of transgenic resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagl Nevena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of viral cDNA containing the coat protein gene of beet necrotic yellow vein virus were cloned in plant transformation vector pCAMBIA3301M with the bar gene as selectable marker. Vector pC3301MCPL carrying coat protein gene with leader sequence, and pC3301MCPS with coat protein gene, were used in Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of sugar beet. The transformation method used was based on the fact that sugar beet develops axillary shoots in in vitro conditions, when placed on media with citokinins. Since this ability is not genotype or ploidy dependant it is widely used for sugar beet vegetative multiplication. Sterile seedlings, with removed cotyledons and lower half of hypocotyl, were used as starting material. After transformation ex-plants were put on micropropagation medium with cephotaxime and phosphinotricyn (ppt, where axillary shoots started to develop. Since concentration of ppt was not selective enough, after two subcultivations it was increased twofold. Only one sample, transformed with pC3301MCPS preserved morphogenetic potential for micropropagatio, and it was tested for presence of COS fragment and bar gene bz PCR with soecific primers.

  7. Mechanical properties of sugar beet root during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedomová, Šárka; Kumbár, Vojtěch; Pytel, Roman; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is an investigation via two experimental methods, of the textural properties of sugar beet roots during the storage period. In the work, sugar beet roots mechanical properties were evaluated during the post-harvest period - 1, 8, 22, 43, and 71 days after crop. Both experimental methods, i.e. compression test and puncture test, suggest that the failure strength of the sugar beet root increases with the storage time. The parameters obtained using the puncture test, are more sensitive to the storage duration than those obtained by way of the compression test. We also found that such mechanical properties served as a reliable tool for monitoring the progress of sugar beet roots storage. The described methods could also be used to highlight important information on sugar beet evolution during storage.

  8. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 31 experimental cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with...

  9. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 22 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  10. POTENTIATION OF COPAÍBA OIL-RESIN WITH SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES TO CONTROL OF FALL ARMYWORM

    OpenAIRE

    ALMEIDA, WALDIANE ARAÚJO DE; SILVA, IGOR HONORATO LEDUÍNO DA; SANTOS, ANA CLÁUDIA VIEIRA DOS; BARROS JÚNIOR, AURÉLIO PAES; SOUSA, ADALBERTO HIPÓLITO DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been carried out mainly with pyrethroids and organophosphates insecticides. The continuous and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides, for decades, has led to the selection of resistant populations and has caused concerns for human health and the environment. An alternative is the use of botanical insecticides, including through the mixtures with synthetic insecticides. This study aimed to investiga...

  11. Synergistic potential of dillapiole-rich essential oil with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against fall armyworm

    OpenAIRE

    Fazolin, Murilo; Estrela, Joelma Lima Vidal; Medeiros, André Fábio Monteiro; Silva, Iriana Maria da; Gomes, Luiara Paiva; Silva, Maria Samylla de Farias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the synergy and response homogeneity of the Spodoptera frugiperda larvae population to the Piper aduncum essential oil in combination with pyrethroid insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and gamma-cyhalothrin) compared to piperonylbutoxide (PBO) as positive control. Synergism (SF) comparisons were obtained using lethal concentration (LC50) and lethal dose (LD50) ratios of insecticides individually and in thei...

  12. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8% than for sugar beet (≤57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  13. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  14. Defective DNAs of beet curly top virus from long-term survivor sugar beet plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Judith; Jeske, Holger

    2014-04-01

    Long-term surviving sugar beet plants were investigated after beet curly top virus infection to characterize defective (D) viral DNAs as potential symptom attenuators. Twenty or 14 months after inoculation, 20 D-DNAs were cloned and sequenced. In contrast to known D-DNAs, they exhibited a large range of sizes. Deletions were present in most open reading frames except ORF C4, which encodes a pathogenicity factor. Direct repeats and inverted sequences were observed. Interestingly, the bidirectional terminator of transcription was retained in all D-DNAs. A model is presented to explain the deletion sites and sizes with reference to the viral minichromosome structure, and symptom attenuation by D-DNAs is discussed in relation to RNA interference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maturing of different types ok sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Nikola

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of sugar and non-sugar (K, Na and amino N depend on environmental conditions and cultural practices applied. At the same time, these traits are an important characteristic of every cultivar. A number of parameters are used to determine the technological maturity of sugar beet, but the main ones are sugar content and sugar utilization percentage, which is affected by the non-sugars. In the present study, the monitoring of root yield and the yield of the above-ground plant parts and the analysis of root quality were done at 15-day intervals starting on July 1 and ending on September 16, 1999. Used in the study were four cultivars and two experimental hybrids of sugar beet. The cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20 proved ultra sugary (on the last lifting date, they had sugar contents 16.28% and 16.54%, respectively. Going from the first to the last lifting date, the K and Na contents of all the cultivars decreased, especially in the cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20. In all of the cultivars. the ammo N content increased until the fourth lifting date (August 16, when it started to decrease. One hundred and fifty days into the growing season, thanks to their high sugar content and low level of non-sugars (especially K and Na, the cultivar Crvenka mz and the hybrid NS Hy 20 had considerably better technological characteristics than the other cultivars. The aforementioned characteristics of Crvenka mz and NS Hy 20 make these two genotypes more suitable for early lifting dates than the other cultivars. .

  16. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-06-15

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread.

  17. Histopathology and the lethal effect of Cry proteins and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith Caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    N. Knaak

    Full Text Available Among the phytophagous insects which attack crops, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae is particularly harmful in the initial growth phase of rice plants. As a potential means of controlling this pest, and considering that the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner demonstrates toxicity due to synthesis of the Cry protein, the present study was undertaken to evaluate this toxic effect of B. thuringiensis thuringiensis 407 (pH 408 and B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 on S. frugiperda. The following method was used. Both bacterial strains were evaluated in vitro in 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars, by means of histopathological assays. The Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins, codified by the respective strains of B. thuringiensis, were evaluated in vivo by bioassays of 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars in order to determine the Mean Lethal Concentration (LC50. The results of the histopathological analysis of the midget of S. frugiperda caterpillars demonstrate that treatment with the B. thuringiensis thuringiensis strain was more efficient, because the degradations of the microvilosities started 9 hours after treatment application (HAT, while in the B. thuringiensis kurstaki the same effect was noticed only after 12 HAT. Toxicity data of the Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins presented for the target-species LC50 levels of 9.29 and 1.79 μg.cm-2 respectively. The strains and proteins synthesised by B. thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki are effective in controlling S. frugiperda, and may be used to produce new biopesticides or the genes may be utilised in the genetic transformation of Oryza sativa L.

  18. Cross-resistance to purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton in a Cry2Ab2-corn resistant strain of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula; Huang, Fangneng

    2017-12-01

    Gene-pyramiding by combining two or more dissimilar Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins into a crop has been used to delay insect resistance. The durability of gene-pyramiding can be reduced by cross-resistance. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major target pest of the Cry2Ab2 protein used in pyramided Bt corn and cotton. Here, we provide the first experimental evaluation of cross-resistance in S. frugiperda selected with Cry2Ab2 corn to multiple Bt sources including purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton. Concentration - response bioassays showed that resistance ratios for Cry2Ab2-resistant (RR) relative to Cry2Ab2-susceptible (SS) S. frugiperda were -1.4 for Cry1F, 1.2 for Cry1A.105, >26.7 for Cry2Ab2, >10.0 for Cry2Ae and -1.1 for Vip3A. Larvae of Cry2Ab2-heterozygous (RS), SS and RR S. frugiperda were all susceptible to Bt corn and Bt cotton containing Cry1 (Cry1F or Cry1A.105) and/or Vip3A proteins. Pyramided Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab2 or Cry1Ab + Cry2Ae were also effective against SS and RS, but not RR. These findings suggest that Cry2Ab2-corn-selected S. frugiperda is not cross-resistant to Cry1F, Cry1A.105 or Vip3A protein, or corn and cotton plants containing these Bt proteins, but it can cause strong cross-resistance to Cry2Ae and Bt crops expressing similar Bt proteins. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias.

  20. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénart, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jean-François; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Cuguen, Joël

    2008-05-01

    Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to now, investigations of evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity within the B. vulgaris complex were addressed using few genetical markers and few accessions. In this study, we tackled this issue using a panel of complementary markers: five nuclear microsatellite loci, four mitochondrial minisatellite loci and one chloroplastic PCR-RFLP marker. We sampled 1,640 individuals that illustrate the actual distribution of inland ruderal beets of South Western France, weed beets and wild sea beets of northern France as well as the diversity of 35 contemporary European diploid cultivars. Nuclear genetic diversity in weed beets appeared to be as high as those of ruderal beets and sea beets, whereas the narrowness of cultivar accessions was confirmed. This genetic bottleneck in cultivars is even more important in the cytoplasmic genome as only one haplotype was found among all sugar beet cultivars. The large majority of weed beet populations also presented this unique cytoplasmic haplotype, as expected owing to their maternal cultivated origin. Nonetheless, various cytoplasmic haplotypes were found within three populations of weed beets, implying wild-to-weed seed flows. Finally, our findings gave new insights into the genetical relationships between the components of the B. vulgaris complex: (1) we found a very strong genetic divergence between wild sea beet and other relatives, which was unexpected given the recent evolutionary history and the full cross-compatibility of all taxa and (2) we definitely confirmed that the classification into cultivated, wild, ruderal and weed forms according to their

  1. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

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    Abe Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose, α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose, α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose. 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  2. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The most important pathogens transmitted by sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi and viruses transmitted by sugar beet seed represent a complex group of organisms. Detection of these pathogens is an important issue in sugar beet protection. Their identification is a difficult task because the most available methods rely on the growth characteristics morphological and biochemical criteria. Three domestic and eight foreign sugar beet varieties, from Germany, Italy and Greece were included in the investigation. Seed health testing was performed in laboratory and in field conditions. During the trials, the following methods were used: blotter method, agar plate method and ELISA test for viruses. Seeds were incubated in "Conviron" aparatus at 22°C which is suitable for sporulation of different kind of fungi (light and temperature were adjustable. The appereance of following fungi was noted during incubation: Pleospora bjoerlingii (Phoma betae, Fusarium spp., Pythium spp. Aphanomyces cochlioides and Cercospora beticola. Viruses tested by ELISA test were beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and beet yellows virus (BYV. Viruses were tested in sugar beet seedlings grown in laboratory conditions and on leaves of individual plants from the field. The disease index was calculated on the basis of intensity of infection of plants for Cercospora beticola and Phoma betae according to Mc Kinney's formula. Results were presented by graphs, tables and original photos.

  4. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in sweet and field corn genotypes Fases larval e pupal de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em genótipos de milho doce e comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns, and BR PAMPA (field corn. In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; photophase 12 hours, 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width, to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.Spodoptera frugiperda, a lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho, é uma praga polífaga de grande importância agrícola pelos danos e dificuldade de controle. A ausência de informações sobre seu impacto em milho doce motivou a comparação de sua biologia, no que tange as fases larval e pupal, entre os genótipos de milho ELISA, BR 400 (milhos doces e BR PAMPA (milho comum. Em condições de laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 12 horas, 35 lagartas foram individualizadas e alimentadas, diariamente, com seções de folhas de 3,14 cm² dos referidos genótipos, provenientes

  5. Genotype assembly, biological activity and adaptation of spatially separated isolates of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Ghulam; Abma-Henkens, Marleen H.C.; Werf, van der Wopke; Hemerik, Lia; Vlak, Just M.

    2018-01-01

    The cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous insect. It has recently made a comeback as a primary insect pest of cotton in Pakistan due to reductions in pesticide use on the advent of genetically modified cotton, resistant to Helicoverpa armigera. Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus

  6. Mate recognition and reproductive isolation in the sibling species Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera litura

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    Ahmed M Saveer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mate recognition is crucial for reproductive isolation and for maintaining species integrity. Chemosensory-mediated sexual communication with pheromones is an essential component of mate recognition in moths. Confronted with sex pheromone stimuli released from conspecific and closely related heterospecific females, which partially overlap in chemical composition, male moths are under strong selection to recognize compatible mates. Here, we investigated the role of pheromone signals in premating communication in the sibling species Spodoptera littoralis and S. litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Further, we measured the reproductive consequence of conspecific vs. heterospecific matings. Both species use Z9,E11-14:Ac as the major pheromone compound, and the 11-component blend found in pheromone glands of S. littoralis comprises the compounds found in S. litura. Accordingly, S. littoralis and S. litura males readily responded to conspecific and heterospecific calling females in no-choice behavioural tests. In contrast, in a dual-choice test, S. littoralis males choose conspecific calling females, whereas S. litura males did not discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific females. In S. littoralis females, heterospecific matings had a negative fitness effect as compared to conspecific matings. Female longevity, egg-laying and hatching of larvae were significantly reduced by matings with heterospecific males. Reciprocal crossings, between S. litura females and S. littoralis males, were prevented by genital morphology, which is consistent with reduced heterospecific attraction of S. littoralis males in a dual-choice assay. On the other hand, matings between S. littoralis females and S. litura males, under a no-choice situation, show that interspecific matings occur in zones of geographical overlap and corroborate the idea that mate quality, in these closely related species, is a continuous and not a categorical trait.

  7. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

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    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  8. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar beet growing and processing more efficient. Besides, lower sugar price levels will make Europe a more attractive continent for investments by sugar-based industries.

  9. Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Sugar Beet Farms. Agricultural Economic Report Number 584.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Annette L.; Hoff, Frederic L.

    This report analyzes production and financial characteristics of sugar beet producers in seven regions. Section 1 examines the structural characteristics of U.S. sugar beet producers. Sugar beet production; land use, tenure, irrigation, and livestock enterprises are considered. Section 2 discusses production costs, including cost estimates,…

  10. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  11. Ethanol from sugar beet in The Netherlands: energy production and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Brink, van den L.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in The Netherlands have been analysed using measured production data from two experimental farms and literature on beet to ethanol conversion. The analyses include beet cultivation and harvesting, transport to the factory, conversion into ethanol and

  12. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... CFR part 340 for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) designated as event H7-1, which has been... sugar beet to other Beta species, including gene flow between seed fields, root crops, and feral plants... conventional sugar beet production and on export markets. What are the potential impacts of mitigation measures...

  13. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar

  14. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

  15. Molecular characterization of the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance locus Hs1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The white beet cyst nematode (BCN), Heterodera schachtii Schm. is a serious pest in sugar beet ( B. vulgaris L.) cultivation and is widely distributed throughout most of the beet-growing areas in the world (Cooke 1987). The economical losses due to

  16. Foliar insecticides for the control of curly top in Idaho sugar beet, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. The neonicotiono...

  17. Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-04-01

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses.

  18. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

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    Sabourault Cécile

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons. The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: http://bioweb.ensam.inra.fr/spodobase

  19. Effect of sugar beet root aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (Homoptera: Pemphigidae), on sugar beet yield and quality in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, M

    2007-10-01

    Pemphigus fuscicornis (Koch) is a pest of sugar beet root in warm and dry regions of Iran. This belongs to the Middle East and south east of Asia fauna. Nymphs establish colonies in root sutures and feed heavily which cause wilting and yellowing in beet near harvest. This study was conducted to determine infestation indices, damage occurrence and the necessity for control measures of this pest. Nymph colonies were monitored in different experimental fields that were planted with commonly used monogerm variety Afshari and then five infested places were selected. Damaged root specimens were sampled from five foci and ranked for infestation, yield and sugar concentration. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in weight, sugar concentration and impurities between indices 1, 2, 3 and none infested beets. Only the sugar concentration of indices 4 showed significant differences with zero infested beets. In the other hand, no specimens were found with the highest population density index (indices 5). Therefore, the sugar beet root aphid populations did not reach to the level of economic damage in these experimental fields. Thus, the control measures such as chemical application and use of resistant varieties may be used when the colonies density increases to the indices four and five throughout the foci in such fields.

  20. Composition of Coccinelid communities in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina

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    Thalji Ragheb A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the results obtained during a long- -term investigations conducted on the distribution of aphidophagous coccinellid species and their quantitative and qualitative structure in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina. Composition of coccinellid communities and the annual changes in abundance of species are influenced by many variable environmental factors, but also by the prey availability during the season. Chemical treatments against flea beetles in May or/and against noctuid larvae in late July and the type of the adjacent crops may also affect the quantitative composition of adults coccinellid on sugar beet fields. During the season adults coccinellid are more abundant than larvae. The qualitative structure of coccinellid communities in sugar beet fields is not different than those from other field crops. These communities consist mainly of Coccinella septempunctata L.; Semiadalia undecimnotata Schn.; Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata L.; Hippodamia (Adonia variegata Goeze and Hippodamia tredecimpunctata L. Other species are present in a small fractions.

  1. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. TO SUBSTANTIATION OF COMBINE WHEELED CHASSIS FOR BEET HARVESTING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tajanowskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a current scientific and technical problem pertaining to creation of multi-bridge wheeled chassis for highly efficient modular sugar beet harvesters of large cargo capacity and, in particular, to selection of main parameters of chassis and wheeled drive. Such machines are designed for operation under complicated soil and climatic conditions during sugar beet harvesting. Methodological rules and regulations have been developed for solution of problems pertaining to scientifically sunstantiated selection of a manufactured or developed wheeled chassis model, building-block parameters of a working device and a chassis, rational control algorithm of the unit running system while using a specified (domestic or foreign semi-mounted equipment for beet harvesting. While solving the problem theoretical provisions for wheeled vehicles regarding specific features of a wheeled chassis for modular sugar beet harvesters with extensive mechanical or hydrostatic wheel drive of a multi-bridge propulsion system have been developed in the paper. Calculated and theoretical expressions for determination of main parameters for a wheeled chassis have been obtained and they include physical quantities of operational conditions that explicitly determine its working process. Such approach has made it possible to realize the obtained expressions as a software application which is suitable for analysis of main parameters in respect of the investigated harvester chassis and rational parameters of a branch wheel drive and also for a complete set of tires in the case when a sugar beet harvester is designed on the basis of wheeled chassis according to the selected scheme. Investigations have theoretical significance and represent practical interest for development spesialists of new modular multi-bridge sugar beet harvesters.

  3. Integration between Steinernema feltiae and some of environmental friendly compounds to control Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adel, M. M.; Gelbič, Ivan; Půža, Vladimír; Salem, N. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 16 (2013), s. 2002-2015 ISSN 0323-5408 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * Steinernema feltiae * Spodoptera littoralis Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  4. Inert powders alone or in combination with neem oil for controlling Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christiane Constanski Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies was carry out to evaluated the potential of inert powders: bentonite, kaolin and diatomaceous earth (DE applied as dust and aqueous suspension alone and associated with neem oil to the control Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae. In dust applications, 100% mortality of S. eridania, at the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 grams of bentonite, and 93.3% of S. frugiperda, at the concentration of 2.0 g were observed. DE at the height concentration (2.0 g caused 76.2% mortality of S. eridania and 46.6% of S. frugiperda. Kaolin, in all concentrations, was the only treatment that did not differed from the control for S. eridania but was different, in the high concentration, for S. frugiperda. When the plants were treated, larvae of S. eridania fed in the treatment DE, had an increase of two days in larval period. For the sex ratio, the percentage of males was greater in the treatments with kaolin, for both species. When powders was applied suspended in water separately or combined with neem oil, the best results were observed in combined of the bentonite (10% + neem, with 100% mortality for both species, and kaolin (10% + neem with 78.5% and 95.6% mortality for S. frugiperda and S. eridania, respectively. These treatments were classified as non-additive synergistic.

  5. Growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sharma, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera litura was reared on natural food (castor leaves, Ricinus communis) and on a several semi-synthetic diets using quasi mass rearing techniques. The effect of the different diets and rearing regimes on S. litura growth, development, reproductive competence and adult behaviour was measured. Spodoptera litura reared from a modified chickpea-based diet provided the greatest growth index and index of adequacy. These studies were conducted as a prerequisite for the evaluation of F 1 sterility technique. (author)

  6. Inhibition of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation by lactobacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essia Ngang, J.J.; Letourneau, F.; Wolniewicz, E.; Villa, P. (Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Lab. de Chimie Organique et Cinetique)

    1990-08-01

    Alcohol production rate decreases as the concentration of bacterial contaminants increases. In complex medium, such as beet molasses, an alternative mechanism can be used by homofermentative lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Lactic acid and associated products, especially acetic acid, are liberated into the medium. The inhibition induced by these metabolites was reinforced by the presence of viable lactobacilli. (orig.).

  7. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  8. Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates associated with sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 3University of Idaho, Twin Falls Research and Extension Centre, CSI Evergreen Building 315 Falls Avenue, East Twin. Falls, 83301 ID, USA. Accepted 31 October, 2011. Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important sugar beet pathogens worldwide with anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-2 and 4 as the most ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SUGAR BEET SUBCOMPLEX BASED ON INNOVATIVE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kazaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the problems of development of sugar market in Russia are raised. The situation in the CFO (the largest Russian region for the production of sugar beet factory is considered. The strengths and weaknesses of the processes occurring in this area are highlighted, the directions of development of the improvement of in-novation activity AIC are proposed.

  10. Options of sugar beet pretreatment for hydrogen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabarczyk, R.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vaccari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to play a major role in covering the future energy demand. To make its future uses sustainable, hydrogen should be produced from renewable resources, for example by bacterial fermentation of biomass-derived feedstocks. Sugar beet is recognised as one of the most interesting raw

  11. Short Communication Assessing the ability of fodder beet ( Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was carried out to determine the sodium (Na) absorption ability of halophytic fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L. ʽBrigadierʼ) irrigated with water enriched to Na levels found in winery wastewater. Treatments comprised (1) soil without plants irrigated with untreated water or (2) Na-enriched water, and (3) fodder ...

  12. Alternaria leaf spot of sugar beet: factors associated with risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, increased incidence and severity of Alternaria leaf spot has been observed in Michigan and other growing regions. In the past, Alternaria leaf spot in sugar beet has been a minor foliar disease issue in the United States and management of this disease usually has not been required. If seve...

  13. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice | Marx | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch and sugar resources have been extensively researched to find a suitable renewable source of energy to supplement the world's ever increasing demand for energy while also abating global warming by stemming the addition of earthbound carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sugar beet has been used as a source ...

  14. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  15. Decolorization of sugar beet distillery effluent using mixed cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malgosia

    mixed cultures of bacteria of the genus Bacillus ... The colour of sugar beet stillage is produced mainly by two groups of colorants: melanoidins (from the. Maillard .... anaerobic treatment, and also to the removal of synthetic pigments. The cultures used in the reported studies contained cyanobacteria (Kalavathi et al., 2001);.

  16. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgür, E.; Mars, A.E.; Peksel, B.; Louwerse, A.; Yücel, M.; Gündüz, U.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Eroglu, I.

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile

  17. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  18. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Central Projections of Antennal and Labial Palp Sensory Neurons in the Migratory Armyworm Mythimna separata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Wei Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker, is a polyphagous, migratory pest relying on olfactory cues to find mates, locate nectar, and guide long-distance flight behavior. In the present study, a combination of neuroanatomical techniques were utilized on this species, including backfills, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions, to trace the central projections of sensory neurons from the antenna and the labial pit organ, respectively. As previously shown, the axons of the labial sensory neurons project via the ipsilateral labial nerve and terminate in three main areas of the central nervous system: (1 the labial-palp pit organ glomerulus of each antennal lobe, (2 the gnathal ganglion, and (3 the prothoracic ganglion of the ventral nerve cord. Similarly, the antennal sensory axons project to multiple areas of the central nervous system. The ipsilateral antennal nerve targets mainly the antennal lobe, the antennal mechanosensory and motor center, and the prothoracic and mesothoracic ganglia. Specific staining experiments including dye application to each of the three antennal segments indicate that the antennal lobe receives input from flagellar olfactory neurons exclusively, while the antennal mechanosensory and motor center is innervated by mechanosensory neurons from the whole antenna, comprising the flagellum, pedicle, and scape. The terminals in the mechanosensory and motor center are organized in segregated zones relating to the origin of neurons. The flagellar mechanosensory axons target anterior zones, while the pedicular and scapal axons terminate in posterior zones. In the ventral nerve cord, the processes from the antennal sensory neurons terminate in the motor area of the thoracic ganglia, suggesting a close connection with motor neurons. Taken together, the numerous neuropils innervated by axons both from the antenna and labial palp indicate the multiple roles these sensory organs serve in insect behavior.

  20. CO-PROCESSING BEET AND CANE RAW SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many sugar factories of the Russian Federation sugar and white sugar is produced not only from sugar beet, but also from raw sugar. To do this, the technological scheme of the plants provide mostly separate processing beet and raw sugar. This paper proposes a joint processing. With the aim of improving the quality of syrup, improving the filtration properties of the juice II saturation with joint processing beet and raw sugar was proposed clarification raw sugar to conduct the filtered juice I saturation with the addition of bleach in the amount of 0.05-0.10 % by weight of raw sugar and fine clay powder in the amount of 0.3-0.5 % by weight of raw sugar. Introduction chlorine is in the process of clarification raw sugar partly to carry out the depolymerization of highmolecular compounds, including polysaccharide dextran, and to adsorb the resulting fragments of high molecular compounds and pigments on fine particles of clay powder. Similar results were obtained when changing the costs of expanded clay powder. At a flow rate less than 0.3 %, there is a lack of adsorption of the surface to remove the degradation products of high -molecular compounds, which degrades the quality characteristics of the mixture of woodworking and furniture production of raw sugar and juice I carbon ation, and at a rate clay powder more than 0.5 % is irrational, since the cleaning effect is increased slightly. Suggested ways of coprocessing beet and raw sugar allow without significant cost effective processing of raw sugar factories. When beet low techn ological quality of these methods will increase the cleanliness of the production of sugar solutions and improve conditions for obtaining sugar of standard quality with the normative content of sucrose in molasses.

  1. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  3. Pengaruh Tinopal terhadap Patogenisitas Nucleopolyhedrovirus pada Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'unah Ambarwati

    2010-12-01

    Kepekaan larva instar 3, 4, dan 5 ulat grayak, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, terhadap nucleopolyhedrovirus diuji dengan metode droplet feeding. Larva berasal dari lapangan yang dikembangbiakkan di laboratorium dengan pakan buatan. Larva S. litura yang diuji diperlakukan dengan berbagai konsentrasi SlNPV (2×103, 2×104, 2×105, 2×106, 2×107, 2×108, 2×109 PIB/ml yang ditambahkan Tinopal (0,5% dan 1%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan Tinopal 1% berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kematian larva S. litura instar 3, 4, dan 5. Penambahan Tinopal pada larva instar 3, 4, dan 5 dapat meningkatkan efektivitas NPV sebesar 235, 24177, dan 6,6 juta kali. Pengamatan pada usus tengah larva yang diperlakukan dengan Tinopal, menunjukkan bahwa Tinopal secara fisik merusak membran peritropik sehingga diduga membantu masuknya virus ke dalam tubuh inangnya.

  4. Effect of curtovirus species competitiveness in host plants on transmission and incidence of Beet severe curly top virus and Beet mild curly top virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus Curtovirus, causes significant economic losses for sugarbeet and other crops throughout the western United States. Recent studies demonstrated the two most abundant curtovirus species in the US are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild c...

  5. Biogas production from beta beets dependent on the type; Art- und sortenabhaengige Biogasproduktion aus Beta-Rueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Robert [Hochschule Wismar, Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Business and Design; Stollberg, Christian; Gerath, Horst; Kanswohl, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Fodder and sugar beet silage as mono-substrate has been studied for their fermentation behaviour in semi-continuous biogas tests according to VDI guideline 4630. Especially the methane formation potential and the maximum loading rate of different beet varieties are in the focus of investigations. It has been shown that sugar beet silage can be used with a lower loading rate in the biogas digester as fodder beet silage. Here, the methane yields of sugar beet silages tend to be higher than the methane yields of the investigated fodder beet silage. The methane yields of the individual beet silage are not depending on the dry matter content of the investigated beets. In the co-fermentation of corn silage and beet silage, the proportion of beet silage at the dry matter content of the feed is crucial for a stable fermentation process. Furthermore sugar beet silage has economic advantages compared to silage from fodder beets due to a higher methane production potential. The deployment costs of sugar beet silage are significantly depending on the variety and choice of silage method and lie at the level of corn silage. In case of a digestion of the beet variety Mosaik as silage the deployment might be underneath the deployment costs of corn silage. (orig.)

  6. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  7. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  8. Can alien plants support generalist insect herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Tallamy; Meg Ballard; Vincent. D' Amico

    2009-01-01

    Rearing experiments were conducted to address two questions relevant to understanding how generalist lepidopteran herbivores interact with alien plants. We reared 10 yellow-striped armyworms (Spodoptera ornithogalli),...

  9. Sugar beet molasses: Properties and applications in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić, Ljubiša Ć.; Filipčev, Bojana V.; Šimurina, Olivera D.; Plavšić, Dragana V.; Šarić, Bojana M.; Lazarević, Jasmina M.; Milovanović, Ivan Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Molasses is an important by-product of sugar beet or sugar cane refining industry and it was one of the first sweeteners used in human nutrition. Sugar cane molasses has unique characteristics that can make it suitable for application in food industry, especially in confectionery and bakery products. On the other hand, sugar beet molasses has not had greater application in the human diet, primarily because of its strong smell and taste of the beet, which makes it unattractive for consumption....

  10. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    OpenAIRE

    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...

  11. Comparative analysis of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda originated from Puerto Rico and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Ana M; Castañera, Pedro; Farinós, Gema P; Huang, Fangneng

    2017-06-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a major target pest of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and cotton in America. Since the commercialization of Cry1F maize (event TC1507) in 2003, resistance to Cry1F maize in field populations of S. frugiperda has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil and the southeast region of the United States. In this paper, we conducted a comparative analysis of the inheritance of two Cry1F-resistant colonies of S. frugiperda originated from Puerto Rico (PR) and Florida (FL), respectively. The objective of the analysis was to determine if the genetic basis of the resistance was similar in the two different originated colonies. To accomplish the objective, besides PR, FL, and a known Cry1F-susceptible colony, 14 additional colonies were developed by reciprocal crosses among the three parents, F 1 by F 1 crosses, backcrosses, and intercolony-crosses between PR and FL. Larval mortalities of the 17 colonies were assayed on both Cry1F maize leaf tissue and Cry1F-treated diet at the concentrations of 3.16, 10.00, and 31.60µg/g. Resistance to Cry1F in both PR and FL was autosomal and recessive or incompletely recessive. Segregations in F 2 and backcrossed generations associated with FL fitted the Mendelian monogenic model well, while with PR the segregations did not follow the single gene model in some bioassays. Further analyses with the intercolony complementation tests showed a similar level of resistance in the F 1 progeny as their parents FL and PR. Together with the data, it was likely that a single (or a few tightly-linked) gene was involved in FL; PR shared the same locus of the major resistance gene as FL, but the resistance in PR might also be associated with additional minor factors. Information generated from this study should be useful in understanding the origin of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland and developing effective strategies for Bt resistance management in S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  12. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  13. RED BEET VARIETIES OF VNIISSOK’S BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine red beet varieties of the VNIISSOK’s breeding are described in the article. The methods of its development, maintenance, utilization in the breeding programs are presented. The cultivars «Bordo odnosemyanaya», «Nezhnosty», «Lyubava», «Gaspadinya» are the sources of the separately fruiting. The breeding of red beet based on fertility and cytoplasmic male sterility is conducted. The best sources for heterosis are cv. «Nezhnosty», «Odnorostkovaya», «Lyubava», «Gaspadinya». The best sources for early-ripening are cv. «Nesravnennaya A-463», «Gribovskaya ploskaya», «Podzimnyaya A-474». Because of the high adaptability, the cv. «Bordo 237» can be recommended for breeding programs in all regions of Russia. The volume of sales and seed production of these varieties are shown.

  14. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    was formed which bound the meat pieces together thereby making the product sliceable. However, in two of the food products some unwanted side effects were observed. The enzymes did not only catalyse the cross-linking, but also oxidised the anthocyanins in the black currant juice and short chained fatty acids......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  15. THE METHOD OF DETERMINING THE RUNTIME PROJECT PORTFOLIO SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Васильович СИДОРЧУК

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The determining method of runtime project portfolio of sugar beet harvesting is grounded. The method is based on consideration of the probability components of the project environment. The main components affecting these startups of project portfolio are determined. Their value – amount of the harvest are determined too. The creation needs of statistical simulation model application to account the probability agrometeorological conditions impact on the project-technological (harvesting works and effective startup of appropriate portfolios projects are proved. It notes that the availability of statistical models of the soil physical maturity completion time and duration of fine and inclement periods of the autumn-winter period, and knowledge of the daily rate of sugar beet harvesting, is the main database for statistical simulation modeling of these projects.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  17. Review on sugar beet salt stress studies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayamim, S.; Noshad, H.; Jahadakbar, M. R.; Fotuhi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran.

  18. Enzyme production by anaerobic fermentation of beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, K.; Arntz, H.J.

    1988-03-01

    The detailed analysis of hydrolysis of beet pulp by anaerobic mixed cultures showed that a wide range of extracellular enzymes can be found. Notably pectinases, pectin lyases, arabanases, galactanases and cellulases are secreted. Under appropriate conditions high levels of enzyme concentrations can be observed. Intermediate accumulation of oligosaccharides makes probable well known mechanisms of enzyme induction and repression. A two stage system with membrane filtration and ultrafiltration allowed for convenient production of concentrated stable enzyme solutions.

  19. Composition of Coccinelid communities in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Thalji Ragheb A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the results obtained during a long- -term investigations conducted on the distribution of aphidophagous coccinellid species and their quantitative and qualitative structure in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina. Composition of coccinellid communities and the annual changes in abundance of species are influenced by many variable environmental factors, but also by the prey availability during the season. Chemical treatments against flea beetles in May or/and again...

  20. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  1. The addition of sugar beet to ethanol pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the GHGenius model is used to estimate the life cycle emissions of primary greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as the criteria pollutants from combustion sources. The model can be used to analyze the emissions from conventional and alternatively fuelled combustion engines and fuel cell powered trucks and vehicles, as well as light duty powered electric vehicles. Over 140 vehicle and fuel combinations can be used. This paper examined the effects of adding energy used to produce materials consumed in the production of alternative fuels in GHGenius energy balance calculations, as well as vehicle emission calculations on a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) eq/GJ of fuel consumed basis. This paper also examined the addition of sugar beet ethanol pathways to GHGenius. Energy balances were obtained and a number of process improvements to sugar beet ethanol processing were examined as sensitivity cases. GHGenius was used to calculate the energy consumption of each stage in the production cycle. Estimates included the energy required to produce the chemicals used in the ethanol processing procedure. Results were then compared with results obtained from gasoline, corn and wheat ethanols. Results of the study showed that energy balances were lower than corn or wheat ethanol. Feedstock transmission and processing requirements were also higher due to the higher moisture content of the feedstock. The results of several European studies considering the use of sugar beet ethanol were also included. 17 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective. PMID:25492122

  3. Distribution and Rate of Movement of the Curtovirus Beet mild curly top virus (Family Geminiviridae) in the Beet Leafhopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Maria J; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of the curtovirus Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV, previously named the Worland strain of Beet curly top virus) was developed and used to investigate the BMCTV-beet leafhopper interaction. Using PCR and a BMCTV-specific primer pair, an approximately 1.1-kb BMCTV DNA fragment was amplified from adult leafhoppers and from the organs involved in circulative transmission: the digestive tract, hemolymph, and salivary glands. The temporal distribution of BMCTV in the leafhopper was determined using insects given acquisition access periods (AAPs) ranging from 1 to 48 h on BMCTV-infected shepherd's purse plants. BMCTV was detected in the digestive tract after all AAPs, in the hemolymph after AAPs of 3 h or greater, and in the salivary glands after AAPs of 4 h or greater. The amount of virus detected in the hemolymph and salivary glands increased with AAP length. The virus persisted for up to 30 days in leafhoppers (given a 3-day AAP on BMCTV-infected plants) maintained on corn plants, a nonhost for BMCTV, but transovarial transmission was not detected. These results are consistent with a persistent but nonpropagative mode of circulative transmission.

  4. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    -de-açúcar.The main target pest on maize is the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, which, by their seasonal and geographical distribution is one of the most damaging species in tropical regions of America. The objective was the evaluation of S. frugiperda fitness stage on 17 host plant species, cultivated or wild, most common in the Brazilian agro ecosystem. The plants were cultivated in five planting times, between 2006 and 2008, using corn as standard of comparison. Newly hatched larvae of S. frugiperda were individualized and confined in 50 mL plastic pots, where they were fed with new leaves of each host. Food was replaced every other day with fresh leaf sections of each plant host. Four biological variables were evaluated and used to estimate the Fitness Index (FI. The initial larval survival ranged from 100% on maize to 46% on rice. The larval period ranged from 12.6 days on maize to 27.1 days on bahiagrass. The pupa biomass ranged from 173.1 mg on burgrass to 294.2 mg on maize. The fitness index, calculated on the base of S. frugiperda fitness on each host ranged from 17.43 on maize cultivated at time I to 1.46 on sugarcane cultivated at time III. In order to correct the time effect on S. frugiperda fitness stage on hosts, the Relative Fitness Index (RFI was calculated in relation to maize crop. According to this index, the host rank to S. frugiperda fitness was in decreasing order: grain sorghum, johnson grass, millet, guinea grass, peanut, bread grass, surinam grass, green amaranth, wheat, soybean, cotton, bean, rice, burgrass, bahiagrass and sugarcane.

  5. Characterization of A Baculovirus of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae Isolated from Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Wijonarko

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A Baculovirus has been isolated from cadaver of larvae of Spodoptera litura, a Noctuidae of agricultural pest, importance due to its wide-range hosts and the damage to their respective host. Phase contrast light microscopy observation from infected larvae showed that the fat body, hemocyte cells, and cells surrounding the trachea or tracheolus were the most tissue invaded by polyhedra. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the occlusion body purified from diseased larva showed that the baculovirus envelope containing multiple nucleocapsid. Digestion of viral DNA with three restriction enzymes showed that the genome pattern of baculovirus isolated from Bantul were close to SpliNPV isolated from Japan and those of Spodoptera littoralis and quite distinct from those isolated from Southeast Asia region. Bioassay test performed on first to fifth instar larvae showed that the virus effectively control the young larvae, but showed some level of resistance against older larvae of Spodoptera litura.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Isa C.; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Veloso, Maria M.; Simoes-Costa, Maria C.; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Oct?vio S.; Ricardo, C?ndido P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and...

  7. Genetic diversity and physiological performance of Portuguese wild beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from three contrasting habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Catarina Ribeiro; Carla Pinheiro; Carla Pinheiro; Carla Maria Ribeiro; Maria Manuela Veloso; Maria Manuela Veloso; Maria Cristina Simões-Costa; Isabel Evaristo; Octávio Salgueiro Paulo; Cândido Pinto Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial...

  8. Effect Of Beauveria Bassiana Doses On Spodoptera Litura Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is a parasitic mold for insect it is commonly used as a control agent. Spodoptera litura is insect pest attacked tobacco plants in Salatiga. This studied would give analysis the effectiveness of B. Bassiana on S. litura larvae mortality with various doses. B. bassiana was obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board BPTBUN in Salatiga Central Java as dust formulation. The S. litura. larvae were obtained from tobacco farm then adapted to laboratory environment for two days before used for Bioessay. There were five different doses treatment 1g 100 mL-1 2g 100 mL-1 4g 100 mL-1 8g 100 mL-1 and 0 g 100 mL-1 as control. Each treatment used 10 larvae and repeated five times. The result showed that B. bassiana with 8 g100 mL-1 concentration was more effective to kill S.litura larvae than others doses. The important finding of this research is that B. Bassiana can be used to control S. litura larvae safely and not pollute the environment.

  9. Feruloyl Oligosaccharides from Cell Walls of Suspension-Cultured Spinach Cells and Sugar Beet Pulp : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi, ISHII; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    1994-01-01

    Cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp were separately hydrolyzed with Driselase. A feruloyl arabinobiose was isolated from both spinach cells and sugar beet. Four feruloyl oligosaccharides were obtained from sugar beet. The four oligosaccharides were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and FAB-MS.

  10. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... sector. CCC distributed the FY 2012 beet sugar allotment of 5,139,472 STRV (54.35 percent of the OAQ...

  11. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  12. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for biorefinery

  13. Effects of Pre-Converted Nitrite from Red Beet and Ascorbic Acid on Quality Characteristics in Meat Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Young-Boong

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid on color development in meat emulsions. The pH of meat emulsions containing red beet extract decreased with an increase in the amount of extract added. The redness of the treated meat emulsions was higher than that of the control with no added nitrite or fermented red beet extract (p

  14. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment

    Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for

  15. First report of QoI resistance in Alternaria spp. infecting sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) of sugar beet is caused by Alternaria spp. in the A. alternata species complex. ALS is common wherever sugar beet is grown, but historically has been a minor issue for sugar beet production in the USA with damage usually not affecting crop yield significantly. Occurrence o...

  16. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity of verticillium dahliae isolates from sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of the disease, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms in Idaho was conducted in 2007...

  17. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity in verticillium dahliae from sugar beet and historical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of Verticillium wilt, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms (leaves with yellow or n...

  18. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Susanne; Lambert, Wietske; Blomqvist, Anna; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2008-08-11

    During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2), and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible.

  19. Detection of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Pakistan using bait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Northwestern plains of Pakistan are the major sugar beet producing region in the country, providing an important alternative to sugar cane for sugar production when sugar cane is absent in the fields. We surveyed this region for four consecutive years and found that Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is prevalent ...

  20. Soil dynamics of the origination of soil tare during sugar beet lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Koolen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    High soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil after uprooting with share lifters is usually attributed to the fact that the soil becomes sticky due to mechanical impact during uprooting. Results of field experiments have shown good potential for obtaining low soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil

  1. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    OpenAIRE

    А. С. Лейбович; Д. В. Борисов; А. В. Кулик

    2009-01-01

    In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  2. Estimating plant stem emerging points (PSEPs) of sugar of beets in early growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2012-01-01

    Successful intra--row mechanical weed control of sugar beet 
(beta vulgaris) in early growth stages requires precise 
knowledge about location of crop plants.
A computer vision system for locating Plant Stem Emerging Point (PSEP) 
of sugar beet in early growth stages was developed and tested...

  3. Molecular selection of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. by resistance to biotic and abiotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Корниенко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular selection (MAS makes the newest trend in breeding that has been progressively applied in many agricultural crops, including sugar beet. The article reviews papers on sugar beet MAL in Russia and overseas consi­ ering the methods applied and results obtained, das well as prospects for further development of this trend.

  4. First report of DMI insensitive Cercospora beticola on sugar beet in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is an economically important foliar disease of sugar beet in Ontario, Canada and worldwide. Fungicides are an important tool in the control of CLS. The first demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide for sugar beet was regi...

  5. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis in sugar beet: identification of SNP markers associated to Fusarium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. cause severe damage in many agricultural crops including sugar beet. Sugar beet needs to be protected from these soil borne pathogens to guarantee an optimal sugar yield in the field. The genetic control is the key to overcoming this disease. Identification of single nucleotide polymor...

  6. Yield Estimation of Sugar Beet Based on Plant Canopy Using Machine Vision Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Latifaltojar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield estimation is one of the most important parameters for information and resources management in precision agriculture. This information is employed for optimizing the field inputs for successive cultivations. In the present study, the feasibility of sugar beet yield estimation by means of machine vision was studied. For the field experiments stripped images were taken during the growth season with one month intervals. The image of horizontal view of plants canopy was prepared at the end of each month. At the end of growth season, beet roots were harvested and the correlation between the sugar beet canopy in each month of growth period and corresponding weight of the roots were investigated. Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the beet yield and green surface area of autumn cultivated sugar beets. The highest coefficient of determination was 0.85 at three months before harvest. In order to assess the accuracy of the final model, the second year of study was performed with the same methodology. The results depicted a strong relationship between the actual and estimated beet weights with R2=0.94. The model estimated beet yield with about 9 percent relative error. It is concluded that this method has appropriate potential for estimation of sugar beet yield based on band imaging prior to harvest

  7. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  8. Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet = Epidemiologie van rhizomanie bij suikerbiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuitert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the

  9. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  10. Steam explosion and fermentation of sugar beets from Southern Florida and the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beets have recently gained interest for cultivation in southern Florida for their economic potential as cattle feed, a feedstock for ethanol production and their use to improve the quality of water via soil nutrient accumulation. Sugar beets grown in southern Florida, Minnesota and Nebraska we...

  11. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp : structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  12. The most important sugar beet pests in Ukraine and integral measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Vitaly P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The report delivers the origins of the insect complex formation on sugar beet fields in Ukraine. Biological, ethological and ecological peculiarities of the most numerous pest species have been shown. Regularities of many-year dynamics of pests, the problems of phytosanitary state of agrocenosis of sugar beet fields and conceptual grounds of pest control in contemporary conditions have been substantiated.

  13. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  14. Effect of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of Talisia esculenta and Sapindus saponaria on fall armyworm

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Wander Laizo dos; Freire, Maria das Graças M.; Bogorni, Paulo Cesar; Vendramim, José Djair; Macedo, Maria Lígia R.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extracts of Talisia esculenta (T.E.) and Sapindus saponaria (S.S.), were evaluated on the development and mortality of 8-14th day-life Spodoptera frugiperda, an important pest of maize. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extracts (1% w/v) and offered as food to the caterpillars. The treated corn leaves with the extracts caused larval mortality (26.71%/T.E.; 63.3%/S.S.) and also showed effect on the larval weight (237.50 mg/T.E.; 86.65 mg/S.S.) when compared with the ...

  15. Construction and characterization of a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Cornelia; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schulz, Britta; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library from the doubled haploid accession KWS2320 encompassing 115 200 independent clones was constructed and characterized. The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to be 39 kbp on average, thus representing 5.9-fold coverage of the sugar beet genome (758 Mbp). PCR screening of plate pools with primer pairs against nine sugar beet genes supported the insert size estimation. BLAST searches with 2951 fosmid end-sequences originating from 1510 clones (1536 clones attempted) revealed little contamination with organellar DNA (2.1% chloroplast DNA, 0.3% mitochondrial DNA). The sugar beet fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the sugar beet genome. Fosmids will be publicly available in the format of plate pools and individual clones.

  16. Beet fed as such or ensiled with maize and fresh potatoes in diets for finishing bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucqué, C V; Fiems, L O; Cottyn, B G

    1994-01-01

    The use of beet for beef production after ensiling together with maize was studied in two experiments involving 112 and 114 White-blue bulls. In the first experiment maize silage (I) was compared with mixed silage of maize and fodder beet (II) or sugar beet (III) (ratio: 2/1, DM-basis). In the second experiment maize silage (I) was compared with mixed silage of 0.67 maize and 0.33 sugar beet (II) or maize silage and fresh sugar beet (ratio: 2/1, DM basis) (III) or fresh sugar beet and potatoes afterwards at 4% of the live weight and maize silage (IV). From day 113 onwards, mixed silage was also fed to group III and sugar beet were replaced by raw potatoes in group IV. The basic diet was always supplemented with concentrate at 0.75% of the live weight. In experiment 1 live weight gain was slightly but not significantly higher for the mixed silages, although daily net energy intake per kg metabolic weight was higher. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among groups. Mixed silages yielded more fat in the carcass. In the second experiment initial growth rates were not significantly affected by the use of sugar beet or mixed silages. Afterwards, they were increased in comparison with maize silage. Also in this experiment, daily net energy intake was increased by sugar beet, or by potatoes. Energy efficiency did not differ among groups. This experiment did not show significant differences for the carcass composition. However, EUROP fatness score was higher for diets containing one third sugar beet. Most meat quality parameters were not affected by the diets. Only the lightness was different between III and IV.

  17. Aerial, ground and chemigation spray deposition on corn for the control of spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae Deposição de calda por aplicação aérea, terrestre e via água de irrigação na cultura do milho para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be applied by aircraft, ground-sprayers or sprinkler irrigation. However, selecting the best option is complicated by the limited number of studies comparing these techniques. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the chlorpyrifos insecticide deposition applied by aircraft (30 L ha-1, tractor-mounted sprayer (200 L ha-1 and chemigation (70,000 L ha-1 for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in two corn (Zea mays L. populations (70,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1. Active ingredient residue on the corn plant leaves was evaluated by gas chromatography, immediately and ten days after the treatments. Armyworm numbers in each plot and control were also evaluated. The experiment was set up in randomized blocks with four replications. Aerial and ground applications of chlorpyrifos led to greater active ingredient deposition in the leaves than chemigation. Neither plant population (70,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1 affected the insecticide deposition in the corn leaves. S. frugiperda control was similar for all three application methods. Chemigation, however, resulted in less deposition on the plants and consequently in a greater insecticide loss to the soil, which should be considered in environmental impact.A aplicação de produtos fitossanitários pode ser feita, utilizando-se avião agrícola, pulverizadores terrestres ou via água de irrigação. Contudo, a seleção da melhor técnica é difícil, dada à pequena quantidade de estudos comparativos entre elas. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a deposição do inseticida clorpirifós na cultura do milho, empregando aplicação aérea (30 L ha-1, tratorizada (200 L ha-1 e via água de irrigação (70.000 L ha-1, para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda em duas populações de plantas (70.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1. O resíduo do ingrediente ativo nas folhas, imediatamente e dez dias após as aplicações, foi avaliado por cromatografia gasosa. O número de

  18. Distribución temporal y espacial de poblaciones larvarias de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae en diferentes hospederos en provincias del norte de la Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae larval populations on different host plants in northern Argentina provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Murúa

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la distribución temporal y espacial de larvas del "cogollero del maíz" Spodoptera frugiperda en diferentes plantas hospederas, se realizaron muestreos sistemáticos desde el año 2004 al 2007 en diferentes asociaciones de cultivos en las provincias de Tucumán, Salta y Santiago del Estero. Se consideró "asociación de cultivos" a una zona donde coexistían simultáneamente (en tiempo y espacio más de dos cultivos colindantes. Los cultivos monitoreados fueron maíz, sorgo granífero, alfalfa, caña de azúcar, soja, trigo, cártamo, garbanzo y malezas. En cada uno se muestrearon cinco puntos al azar de 1 m² y se revisaron las plantas, recolectándose las posturas y/o larvas presentes. Se encontraron 3620 larvas. La mayor cantidad se recolectó durante los meses del verano en las tres campañas monitoreadas en todas las provincias. Su presencia estuvo relacionada con la aparición de los cultivos estivales como el maíz y el sorgo granífero, en todas las provincias. La mayor cantidad de larvas se obtuvieron en maíz (2894, independientemente de los otros cultivos que formaban parte de la asociación. Siguiendo en orden de importancia, los otros hospederos con larvas fueron: sorgo granífero (272, alfalfa (125 y malezas (282. En base al número de larvas encontradas, la soja, trigo y caña de azúcar, cultivos que estuvieron presentes en casi todas las asociaciones, no son hospederos preferenciales de esta especie.In order to study the spatial and temporal distribution of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda larval populations on different host plants, systematic samplings were made from 2004 to 2007 in different crop associations in the provinces of Tucumán, Salta and Santiago del Estero. A zone where more than two adjacent crops coexisted simultaneously (in time and space was considered a crop association. Sampled crops were corn, sorghum, alfalfa, sugarcane, soybean, wheat, safflower, chickpea and weeds. Five one

  19. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a tr

  20. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  1. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Syed Wajahat Ali Shah; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    classifiers. The validation experiments showed that sunlight followed by the size of the plant, which is related to its growth stage, are the two most important factors affecting the classification. In this study, the best results were achieved for images of young sugar beet (in the seventh week) under...... for vegetation extraction (CIVE) offered the highest average accuracy, above 90%. The feature set was reduced to four important indices following a PCA analysis, but the classification accuracy was similar to that obtained by only combining ExG and GB which was around 95%, still better than an individual index...

  2. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  3. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R.; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Ocsachoque, Marco A.; Romanelli, Gustavo P.; Ortiz, Erlinda del V.; Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M.; Castro, Eduardo A.

    2009-01-01

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED 50 feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-(α-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED 50 = 1.162.

  4. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R., E-mail: pabloducho@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Goodarzi, Mohammad [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ocsachoque, Marco A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Romanelli, Gustavo P. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Ortiz, Erlinda del V. [Facultad de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Av. Maximio Victoria 55, (4700), Catamarca (Argentina); Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M. [Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Castro, Eduardo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-12-20

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED{sub 50} feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-({alpha}-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED{sub 50} = 1.162.

  5. Beets for biogas. News from the laboratory and practice; Rueben fuer Biogas. Neues aus Labor und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeche, Ulrike [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany). Vertrieb Zuckerruebe Deutschland und Oesterreich; Schaffner, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    Being a multi-talented crop, sugar beets are increasingly convincing biogas plant owners with their positive properties. In a mixture of substrates, they are a perfect partner for biogas production as they can push gas yield. In breeding, the experts mainly focus on increasing dry matter yield. There is a close correlation with sugar yield. The market already offers a multitude of highly performing sugar beet varieties for most diverse cropping conditions. The beets are harvested and transported from the field to the biogas plant with harvesting and transport technology which has proved its efficiency for many years. Other than harvested for other purposes, sugar beet for biogas production are stripped of their leaves instead of being topped. Stocking sugar beet at the biogas plant is a quite demanding issue. Sugar beets may be stocked as ensiled, whole beet, as pulp, or as crushed beet in mixed silage. There is a whole range of most diverse storage and crushing concepts. When used as a substrate for biogas production, sugar beet mostly need to be cleaned and stones need to be discarded before feeding the beets into the digester. In the meanwhile, the market offers a large choice of cleaning technique to pave the ways for sugar beets as a substrate. (orig.)

  6. Insecticidal effect of furanocoumarins from fruits of Angelica archangelica L. against larvae Spodoptera littoralis Boisd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, MAY 2013 (2013), s. 33-39 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Keywords : Angelica archangelica * furanocoumarins * essential oil s * plant extracts * spodoptera littoralis * botanical insecticides * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  7. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, M.M. van; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, R.A. de

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  8. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  9. Insecticidal activity of compounds from Ailanthus altissima against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Tylová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2014), s. 101-112 ISSN 0552-9034 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11133 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : insectidical activity * Ailanthus altissima * spodoptera * larvae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2014

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Antonio Rog?rio Bezerra do; Fresia, Pablo; C?nsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expr...

  11. Growth inhibitory effect of extracts from Reynoutria sp. plants against Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Šerá, Božena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2008), s. 573-584 ISSN 1405-3195 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D28.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Reynoutria * Spodoptera littoralis * growth inhibition * botanical insecticides * toxicity test * plant extracts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.232, year: 2008

  12. Identification and recombinant expression of a novel chymotrypsin from Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Combes, E.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel chymotrypsin which is expressed in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua is described. This enzyme, referred to as SeCT34, represents a novel class of chymotrypsins. Its amino-acid sequence shares common features of gut chymotrpysins, but can be clearly distinguished from

  13. Diversity and biological activity of nucleopolyhedroviruses of the leafworm Spodoptera litura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Ghulam

    2018-01-01

    Increased resistance of emerging cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura in Pakistan and elsewhere to chemical insecticides calls for an alternative method of control. Isolates of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPVs) of S. litura (SpltNPV) were collected from infected larvae in different

  14. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis In Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was investigated on roots of various plants from Chenopodiaceae. The most important host plants were various species of lambsquarters (above all Chenopodium album. Furthermore sugar beet (Beta vulgaris provar. altissima, red beet (B. vulgaris provar. conditiva and oraches (Atriplex spp act as host plants. Infestation of sugar beet by P. fuscicornis never exceeded 5% at single locality in Slovakia. Dry and warm weather create presumptions for strong harmfulness. In Slovakia, Chenopodium album is a very important indicator of sugar beet aphid presence allowing evaluation of control requirements. During the study, the larvae of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae were detected as important natural enemies of sugar beet aphid. The species occurred at each location evaluated.

  15. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Theory of Vibrations of Sugar Beet Leaf Harvester Front-Mounted on Universal Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulgakov Volodymyr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harvest and transport of sugar beet leaves during harvesting can be considered a current task in the area of sugar beet growing system development. A rotary sugar beet leaf cutting mechanism is used for achieving the significant increase in the harvester forward speed during harvest. This leads to intensive vibrations of the topping mechanism in the longitudinal vertical plane causing the decrease of harvest quality. Therefore, it is necessary to analytically determine the effect of kinematic and design parameters of the sugar beet topping mechanism front-mounted on the tractor and to discover the value of the amplitude of oscillations in the longitudinal vertical plane of its sugar beet topping mechanism. We have constructed a mathematical model of the estimated motion of this machine by means of dynamics equations in Lagrange II-kind form. A system consisting of two non-linear differential equations was obtained by developing the equivalent scheme of selected generalized coordinates and by performing the necessary mathematical transformations. This system describes the vibrations of the sugar beet topping mechanism in the longitudinal vertical plane. The optimal design and kinematic parameters of the sugar beet topper mechanism front-mounted on the tractor were determined by means of our own software and numerical solution of the differential equation system, which allows the reduction of mentioned vibrations.

  17. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  18. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  19. Biological hydrogen production from sucrose and sugar beet by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, John [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Bakker, Robert; Vrieje, Truus de; Claassen, Pieternel [Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Koukios, Emmanuel [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen production needs to be based on renewable resources in order to be sustainable. Sugar beet is an ideal raw material for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU and possibly in the USA due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in these areas. In this work, the fermentative production of hydrogen from sucrose of analytical grade and sugar beet extract by pure cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated, under uncontrolled and controlled conditions. In the first case, growth of pure cultures of C. saccharolyticus on sucrose derived from sugar beet was compared to growth of the microorganism on sucrose of analytical grade. The production of hydrogen and organic acids (acetate and lactate) from sugar beet was largely equal to or slightly higher than the production of the control. In the second case, fermentation of sugar beet extract at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen yield was slightly higher on sugar beet extract. In particular, hydrogen yields of 2.9 and 3.0 mol/mol hexose were determined in fermentations of sucrose and sugar beet extract, respectively, corresponding to 73% and 75% of the theoretical value of 4 mol hydrogen/mol hexose. Acetic acid was the main product and very low production of lactic acid was observed. (orig.)

  20. Beet yellows virus: the importance of being different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolja, Valerian V

    2003-03-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomic relationship: Type member of the genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae. A member of the alphavirus-like supergroup of positive-strand RNA viruses. Physical properties: Virions are flexuous filaments of approximately 1300 nm in length and approximately 12 nm in diameter that are made up of a approximately 15.5 kb RNA and five proteins. The major capsid protein forms virion body of helical symmetry that constitutes approximately 95% of the virion length. The short virion tail is assembled by the minor capsid protein, Hsp70-homologue, approximately 64-kDa protein, and approximately 20-kDa protein. Viral proteins: The 5'-most ORFs 1a and 1b encode leader proteinase and RNA replicase. The remaining ORFs 2-8 are expressed by subgenomic mRNAs that encode 6-kDa membrane protein, Hsp70 homologue, approximately 64-kDa protein, minor and major capsid proteins, approximately 20-kDa protein, and approximately 21-kDa protein, respectively. Hosts: The principal crop plants affected by Beet yellows virus (BYV) are sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea). In addition, BYV was reported to infect approximately 120 species in 15 families. Most suitable propagation species are Nicotiana benthamiana, Tetragonia expansa, and Claytonia perfoliata.

  1. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2014-01-23

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant

  2. INFLUENCE VARIOUS REAGENTS ON THE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION INDEX OF SUCROSE FROM BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food products from vegetable raw materials play a special role in the food industry. Sugar is one of the strategically important products. The significance of its is great due to its wide use in confectionery, bakery, liquor, canning, biochemical, pharmaceutical and other branches of human activity. Effective development of the domestic sugar industry depends on the terms of competition with European partners. Production of granulated sugar includes a significant amount of energy-intensive and technologically complex operations, one of which is the extraction of sucrose from beet chips by means of hot countercurrent extraction. The most important criterion for the extraction process efficiency evaluation is the coefficient of molecular diffusion. The efficiency of using of beet chips thermo chemical processing before extraction depending on the quality of processed beet was investigated. It was found out that when using a low quality beet the diffusion coefficient decreases compared to healthy beet. The use of solutio ns of some salts for beet chips heat treatment has an overall positive effect on the diffusion coefficient. A method for recovering sucrose from beet with the use of compounds of Al2(SO4, Ca(SO4, and (NH42SO4 as the extractants was proposed. It was found out that beet samples treatment with solutions of proposed salts provides a sucrose smooth transition from the pores of sugar beet tissue into the extractant due to intense convective washout. It is caused by the high degree of tissue cells plasmolysis achieved in its processing with solutions of proposed reagents. The results obtained indicate a significant increase of the sucrose diffusion coefficient in the ammonium sulfate solution used as the extractant.

  3. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    OpenAIRE

    Tomashevska Olga A.; Petrynyak Natalia S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region) and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sug...

  4. New findings on the biogas production from sugar beets; Neue Erkenntnisse zur Biogasproduktion aus Zuckerrueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Hinnerk; Schlaefer, Ottmar; Sievers, Michael [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Trommler, Marcus; Postel, Jan [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Felde, Andreas von; Harling, Hinrich; Rother, Beate [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany); Franke, Henning; Tkocz, Lisa [INPUT Ingenieure GmbH, Sehnde (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Main purpose of the project is the process improvement to acquire the full potential of sugar beet based biomethane production. This covers the optimization of breeding and cultivation, as well as improvements of the overall logistic and production process. The project results show that breeding of regional adapted sugar beets can lead to higher yields in cultivation as well as technical enhancements within the biogas production chain can lower the production costs. Both approaches are part of an overall optimization of sugar beets for biomethane production. Project findings indicate a competitive position in comparison to biomethane based on different agricultural feedstock. (orig.)

  5. MacoNPV baculovirus midgut-specific gene expression during infection of the bertha armyworm, Mamestra configurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donly, B. Cameron; Kaplanoglu, Emine; Theilmann, David A.; Baldwin, Doug; Sieminska, Edyta; Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Erlandson, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have two forms, occlusion derived virus (ODV) which is responsible for primary infection in host midgut tissue and budded virus (BV), which infects all other host tissues during secondary infection. This study examined the primary infection by ODV of midgut cells of bertha armyworm Mamestra configurata fourth instar larvae and measured the expression of viral genes over a time course of infection. Both digital PCR and RNA sequencing methods showed the profile of transcription to be different from those produced by AcMNPV BV infection of in vitro cell cultures. This included having unique collections of genes expressed early, as well as much greater late gene expression of p6.9 and much reduced expression of polh and p10. These differences likely reflect characteristics unique to the critical step of in vivo midgut cell infection, and provide insights into the processes that regulate viral gene expression in different host tissues. -- Highlights: •The transcriptome of MacoNPV ODV in larval midgut was measured by RNA-seq and digital PCR. •The earliest genes expressed included fusion protein, hoar, and me53. •p6.9 was highly expressed late but polH and p10 were less so. •These patterns are unique from BV of other baculoviruses in tissue culture cells.

  6. Recovery Effects of Oral Administration of Glucosylceramide and Beet Extract on Skin Barrier Destruction by UVB in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tokudome

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purified glucosylceramide from beet extract (beet GlcCer and beet extract containing an equal amount of GlcCer were administered orally to ultra violet B (UVB-irradiated mice, and differences in the protective effects against skin barrier dysfunction caused by UVB irradiation were compared. In the beet GlcCer group, epidermal thickening and the decrease in stratum corneum (SC ceramide content caused by UVB irradiation were reduced. In the group that was orally administered beet extract containing glucosylceramide, effects similar to those in the beet GlcCer group were observed. Oral administration of beet GlcCer had no obvious effects against an increase in TEWL or decrease in SC water content after UVB irradiation, but there was improvement in the beet extract group. Oral administration of beet GlcCer is effective in improving skin barrier function in UVB-irradiated mice. Beet extract contains constituents other than GlcCer that are also effective in improving skin barrier function.

  7. Multi-trait association mapping in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Benjamin; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schulz, Britta; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-10-01

    Association mapping promises to overcome the limitations of linkage mapping methods. The main objective of this study was to examine the applicability of multivariate association mapping with an empirical data set of sugar beet. A total of 111 diploid sugar beet inbreds was selected from the seed parent heterotic pool to represent a broad diversity with respect to sugar content (SC). The inbreds were genotyped with 26 simple sequence repeat markers chosen according to their map positions in proximity to previously identified quantitative trait loci for SC. For SC and beet yield (BY), the genotypic variances were highly significant (P sugar beet breeding context for detection of marker-phenotype associations. Furthermore, based on our results multivariate association mapping can be recommended as a promising tool to discriminate with a high mapping resolution between pleiotropy and linkage as reasons for co-localization of marker-phenotype associations for different traits.

  8. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  9. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated

  10. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  11. Sugar beet molasses: Properties and applications in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Ljubiša Ć.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molasses is an important by-product of sugar beet or sugar cane refining industry and it was one of the first sweeteners used in human nutrition. Sugar cane molasses has unique characteristics that can make it suitable for application in food industry, especially in confectionery and bakery products. On the other hand, sugar beet molasses has not had greater application in the human diet, primarily because of its strong smell and taste of the beet, which makes it unattractive for consumption. Since recent investigations showed that sugar beet molasses can be used as a hypertonic solution in osmotic dehydration of different materials of plant and animal origin, the objective of this work was to review recently studied sugar beet molasses in terms of its applications in osmotic dehydrations of fruits and vegetables. Previous studies showed that sugar beet molasses is an excellent medium for osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables (apple, carrot, plum, etc. primarily due to a high content of dry matter (80%, w/w and specific nutrient content. An important advantage of using sugar beet molasses as a hypertonic solution is an enrichment of the dehydrated material in minerals and vitamins, which penetrate from molasses into the plant tissue. Concentration of sugar beet molasses solution and immersion time had the biggest influence on the process of osmotic dehydration of fruit and vegetables, while the temperature of the solution was the least influential parameter. The effect of immersion time on the kinetics of osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses increases with an increase in concentration of hypertonic solution. Fruit and vegetables dehydrated in sugar beet molasses had a higher dry matter content compared to samples treated in sucrose solutions. Besides, application of sugar beet molasses in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables had some other advantages such as lower cost of molasses compared to sugar and its liquid aggregate

  12. [The "crystals" in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, G A; Romanova, A K

    2011-01-01

    Crystal containing cells widely distributed in plant tissues, though the origin of the crystals and their functions are still opened to question. Membrane vesicles in beet leaves are visible in electronic microscope. They originate in cytoplasm and penetrate into vacuole by pinocytosis with participation of tonoplast. In light microscope, vesicles are luminous likewise crystals in crystal cells. Such vesicles-"crystals" fulfill crystal cells also. The content of vesicles-"crystals" are electronic transparent at every path of leaf development. It was proposed that distinct vesicles-"crystals" in cytoplasm and vacuole and mass of them in crystal cells, vein bundles, and epidermal cells--all of them are lytic compartments. Later, obviously, true crystals are formed.

  13. Effect of seed stimulation on germination and sugar beet yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prośba-Białczyk, U.; Szajsner, H.; Grzyś, E.; Demczuk, A.; Sacała, E.; Bąk, K.

    2013-03-01

    Germination and sugar beet yield after seed stimulation were investigated. The seeds came from the energ'hill technology and were subject to laser irradiation. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions. Lengthening of germinal roots and hypocotyls was observed. A positive effect of the stimulation on the morphological features was observed for the Eh seeds and laser irradiation applied in a three-fold dose. The energ'hill seeds exhibited a significantly higher content of carotenoids in seedlings and an increase in the content of chlorophylls. Laser light irradiation favourably modified the ratio of chlorophyll a to b. The leaves and roots of plants developed from the energ'hill and irradiated seeds were characterized by higher dry matter content thanin non-stimulated seeds. Seed stimulation had a positive influence on yielding and the saccharose content.

  14. Induction and micropropagation potential of sugar beet haploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagl Nevena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was obtaining sugar beet haploids via gyno-genesis and their micropropagation. Haploids were obtained by ovule culture from fourteen diploid, monogerm, fertile genotypes. On the tested nutrient media genotypes exhibited different gynogenic potential. Eight haploid plant were chosen for further investigation and after development of first leaves put on micropropagation medium. The presence of cyto-kinin in medium stimulated development of axillary buds, while in some genotypes adventitious buds developed as well. Multiplication rate was not consistent, although number of developed plants grew after each sub-cultivation. Differences in plant multiplication started to differ after four subcultures. By testing of differences between correlation coefficients, i.e. multiplication rate during six subcultivations, it was determined that they significantly differ between tested genotypes.

  15. Flora and Fauna in Roundup Tolerant Fodder Beet Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    three times. The results are reported at http://www.sns.dk/natur/bioteknologi/ roundup_art.htm. In 2000, six different fields were visited but only once (in June), in order to examine flora and fauna in field cultivated on different soil types, under different weather conditions and under different....... Thus, the conservation potential in RR-beets can be improved if dosage is reduced. At the studied sites there was a scope for dosage reduction without yield loss. Use of insecticides in fields with delayed weed control will counteract the benefits to the fauna from the herbicide regime. In the present...... study insecticide was only used as seed dressing. A dense and diverse weed flora is believed to benefit the fauna in several ways. Firstly, occurrence and density of the host affect herbivorous insect species thriving on specific weed species. Secondly, the microclimate and habitat structure of weedy...

  16. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Kimberly M.; Broccardo, Carolyn J.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Wintermantel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on be...

  18. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  19. Sugar beet for bioethanol production: An approach based on environmental agricultural outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Pérez-Hernández, Pedro P.; Martín-Lozano, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The EU imports both bioethanol and the raw material needed to produce it. Thirty percent of bioethanol is produced from sugar beets in the EU. However, sugar beet cultivated area and yields have fallen due to the 2006 sugar regime reform. Given the potential uncertainty about the future for sugar beet farmers, biofuels may represent an alternative market. This paper analyses potential contribution to the efficiency, in terms of environmental output, of the sugar beet crop both when production is oriented toward bioethanol and regarding the use of input. An empirical application is performed in Spain by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results show that 4% of farms have full technical efficiency, while the rest have an average efficiency of 55.9%. The figures show that inputs can be reduced over 40%, and also show the low average level of input-use efficiency. In addition, it cannot be said that there is a relationship between efficiency and farm scale. The consideration of aspects such as the environmental advantages of using sugar beet production for bioethanol can open new lines of action to support this crop in the EU. In addition, boosting sugar beet production may reduce potential dependency on importation. - Highlights: ► Analysing environmental outputs from agricultural input use and production orientation to bioethanol. ► DEA is applied to model farms’ efficiency in GHG emission and nitrous oxides emissions. ► A very low level of efficiency is found in sugar beet farms. ► Efficiency increase should be supported to reduce fertilizers and pesticides. ► Environmental advantages of addressing sugar beet to bioethanol open new lines to support crops

  20. Competition and critical periods in spring sugar beet cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla Martínez José

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High yields with low costs require that sugar beets be kept free of weeds, during critical periods, using labor or chemical treatments. Since the critical periods for this crop in Castilla - La Mancha (Spain are unknown, the first goal of this study was to determine the effect of early and late competition on yield. The second goal was to determine the critical periods, while taking into consideration the semiarid climatic conditions of this region. Two irrigation farms located in the province of Albacete are dedicated to sugar beet cultivation. These two farms were chosen to carry out the tests March (140,000-150,000 seeds ∙ ha-1 and harvested in October. Two simultaneous and complementary experiments were carried out in each year and farm. Two scenarios were considered with eight different treatments each. In the first one (With Weeds Until - WWU, plots were infested by weeds up to a certain date. In the second one (Free of Weeds Until - FWU, plots were kept free of weeds up to a certain date. For each test, a randomised experimental blocked field was designed and there were four repetitions, each of them containing eight elemental plots (12 m2. Each plot was weeded by hand or weeds were left to grow till a definite date.The results indicated that a 1% loss of yield was reached in the early competition after 14 days, while a loss of 5% was reached after a period of 41 days after it was infested. The results also indicated that in late competition, if a crop is kept clean for 124 days and it is infested afterwards, a 1% loss is reached. However, the loss increases to 5% if the plot is kept clean for 111 days. For a 1% loss the critical period is 110 days and 70 days for a 5% loss.

  1. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  2. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Frese, Lothar; Castro, Sílvia; Duarte, Maria C; Paulo, Octávio S; Loureiro, João; Romeiras, Maria M

    2018-01-01

    Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris ) is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-wild gene flow, yet, for breeding programs genetic variability associated with agronomically important traits remains unexplored regarding abiotic factors. To accomplish such association from phenotype-to-genotype, screening for wild relatives occurring in habitats where selective pressures are in play (i.e., populations in salt marshes for salinity tolerance; populations subjected to pathogen attacks and likely evolved resistance to pathogens) are the most appropriate streamline to identify causal genetic information. By selecting sugar beet CWR species based on genomic tools, rather than random variations, is a promising but still seldom explored route toward the development of improved crops. In this perspective, a viable streamline for sugar beet improvement is proposed through the use of different genomic tools by recurring to sugar beet CWRs and focusing on agronomic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, identification of genomic and epigenomic landscapes associated to adaptive ecotypes, along with the cytogenetic and habitat characterization of sugar beet CWR, will enable to identify potential hotspots for agrobiodiversity of sugar beet crop improvement toward abiotic stress tolerance.

  3. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-wild gene flow, yet, for breeding programs genetic variability associated with agronomically important traits remains unexplored regarding abiotic factors. To accomplish such association from phenotype-to-genotype, screening for wild relatives occurring in habitats where selective pressures are in play (i.e., populations in salt marshes for salinity tolerance; populations subjected to pathogen attacks and likely evolved resistance to pathogens are the most appropriate streamline to identify causal genetic information. By selecting sugar beet CWR species based on genomic tools, rather than random variations, is a promising but still seldom explored route toward the development of improved crops. In this perspective, a viable streamline for sugar beet improvement is proposed through the use of different genomic tools by recurring to sugar beet CWRs and focusing on agronomic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, identification of genomic and epigenomic landscapes associated to adaptive ecotypes, along with the cytogenetic and habitat characterization of sugar beet CWR, will enable to identify potential hotspots for agrobiodiversity of sugar beet crop improvement toward abiotic stress tolerance.

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  5. Response of sugar beet to humic substances and foliar fertilization with potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wilczewski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. requires fertile soils with high biological activity, rich in minerals and organic nutrients. Biological properties of soil, such as enzymatic and microbial activity, can be effectively improved through the application of humic substances. This enables an increase in growth dynamics and, consequently, in the yield. The aim of this study was to assess sugar beet germination, depending on the soil application of the humic preparation Humistar (12% of humic acids, 3% of fulvic acids as well as to assess the yield of sugar beet storage roots and the content of sugar in these storage roots, depending on soil applications of Humistar and/or foliar application of potassium fertilizer Drakar (31% K2O, 3% N. The field experiment was conducted in the soil classified as Mesic Typic Hapludalfs. Soil application of Humistar contributed to a reduction in sugar beet germination, measured as % of plants germinated within 14 days after sowing. However, the growth of plants in soil with Humistar was more intensive than in the control. A significant, positive influence of Humistar and Drakar on the yield of sugar beet roots has been found. Application of the two treatments did not produce better results than the use of each of them separately. Sugar content in roots was not affected by experimental factor. The study showed that both soil application of humic substances and the use of foliar potassium fertilizer can improve the yield of sugar beet and, consequently, increase the biological yield of sugar from storage roots.

  6. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kimberly M; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Prenni, Jessica E; Wintermantel, William M

    2014-04-09

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  7. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Frese, Lothar; Castro, Sílvia; Duarte, Maria C.; Paulo, Octávio S.; Loureiro, João; Romeiras, Maria M.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-wild gene flow, yet, for breeding programs genetic variability associated with agronomically important traits remains unexplored regarding abiotic factors. To accomplish such association from phenotype-to-genotype, screening for wild relatives occurring in habitats where selective pressures are in play (i.e., populations in salt marshes for salinity tolerance; populations subjected to pathogen attacks and likely evolved resistance to pathogens) are the most appropriate streamline to identify causal genetic information. By selecting sugar beet CWR species based on genomic tools, rather than random variations, is a promising but still seldom explored route toward the development of improved crops. In this perspective, a viable streamline for sugar beet improvement is proposed through the use of different genomic tools by recurring to sugar beet CWRs and focusing on agronomic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, identification of genomic and epigenomic landscapes associated to adaptive ecotypes, along with the cytogenetic and habitat characterization of sugar beet CWR, will enable to identify potential hotspots for agrobiodiversity of sugar beet crop improvement toward abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:29467772

  8. Study of Spectral Reflectance Time Series and Vegetative Indices of Sugar Beet Fields Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bazrafshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technology is widely used in environmental and agricultural research, and nowadays it has become a valuable and reliable source of information for the management of crop production and assessment of global supply and demands for these products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using MODIS data and vegetation indices based on sugar beet growth monitoring. For this purpose, MODIS 8-day red and near infrared surface reflectance data at 250 m spatial resolution (MOD09Q1 collection 5 was used. Imagery data was acquired from mid-May to the end of December 2011 from the sugar beet fields located in Eqlid, Fars province, Iran. Results showed that although red and near infrared reflectance differences were relatively small at the beginning of sugar beet growing season, these differences were enhanced with canopy development and ground cover. The most red absorption and near infrared reflectance were in the maximum ground cover, and the most dramatic declines in the near infrared reflectance and relative increase in red reflectance were observed at harvest time. It was found that the RVI is able to show the status of red absorption and reflection during the growth of sugar beet canopy. The SR and NDVI change patterns demonstrated how to grow sugar beet over the growing season. Thus in the existing climate and crop management conditions in Fars province and Iran, MODIS data and vegetation indices can be used to monitor changes in canopy growth of such crops as sugar beet.

  9. Effect of Azotobacter croococcum on productive traits and microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzevski Janja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different inoculation methods with selected Azotobacter chroococcum strains on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, as well as on the total number of microorganisms and azotobacter in rhizosphere. The results of this two-year study showed that effectiveness of the tested inoculation methods in increasing root yield and sugar content varies greatly, depending on year and azotobacter strains. Effectiveness of inoculation methods was not largely impacted by year on granulated sugar. Achieved granulated sugar yield was significantly higher by using pre-sowing azotobacter application, than by using seed inoculation. A significantly increased number of microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere was determined, not only by using pre-sowing azotobacter application but also by using sugar beet seed inoculation. Pre-sowing azotobacter application and inter-row cultivation both caused an equal increase in the number of these bacteria in sugar beet rhizosphere (42.2% and 46.9%. Use of sugar beet seed inoculation caused an increase of 33.7% in the number of azotobacter. In order to achieve higher effectiveness in applying azotobacter on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, and considering determined interaction between a certain year, an inoculation method and a strain, it is necessary for future research to focus on determining efficiency of these strains when they are in a mixture.

  10. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  11. Integrated Bioethanol Fermentation/Anaerobic Digestion for Valorization of Sugar Beet Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of waste biomass are generated in sugar factories from the processing of sugar beets. After diffusion with hot water to draw the sugar from the beet pieces, a wet material remains called pulp. In this study, waste sugar beet pulp biomass was enzymatically depolymerized, and the obtained hydrolyzates were subjected to fermentation processes. Bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen were produced directly from the substrate or in combined mode. Stillage, a distillery by-product, was used as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion. During biosynthesis of ethanol, most of the carbohydrates released from the sugar beet pulp were utilized by a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red, and Scheffersomyces stipitis LOCK0047 giving 12.6 g/L of ethanol. Stillage containing unfermented sugars (mainly arabinose, galactose and raffinose was found to be a good substrate for methane production (444 dm3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS. Better results were achieved with this medium than with enzymatic saccharified biomass. Thermal pre-treatment and adjusting the pH of the inoculum resulted in higher hydrogen production. The largest (p < 0.05 hydrogen yield (252 dm3 H2/kg VS was achieved with sugar beet stillage (SBS. In contrast, without pre-treatment the same medium yielded 35 dm3 H2/kg VS. However, dark fermentation of biohydrogen was more efficient when sugar beet pulp hydrolyzate was used.

  12. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor; Tsoutsos, Theocharis

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO 2 e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: → Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. → In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. → Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  13. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira; Dirceu Pratissoli; Eder Pin Pedruzzi; Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  14. Patogenisitas Beberapa Isolat Cendawan Entomopatogen Metarhizium spp. terhadap Telur Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizelia Trizelia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium spp. is one of the entomopathogenic fungus that can be used to control Spodoptera litura. The purpose of this research was to study the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. to Spodoptera litura eggs. The isolates were collected from rhizosphere of different crops i.e., cabbage, onion, leek and chili. The results showed that there was effect of all isolates on egg mortality. Mortality of S. litura eggs depend on the fungal isolates, ranged between 19.79%-75.70%. First instar larvae was also died 3 days after eclosion. The maximum mortality of first instar larvae was 58.65%. At a concentration of 108 conidia/ml, isolate Mt-kb had the highest virulence which caused higher mortality of eggs and first instar larvae.

  15. Theory of the interaction of flat sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bulgakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet leaves now are very widely used for livestock feeding, as an organic fertiliser, and also as a raw material for the production of biogas. Therefore the harvest of the sugar beet tops (including leaves can be considered as current task for the sugar beet growing system. Modern technologies involve harvest of the tops of sugar beet in two stages: flat basic cut and collecting of the entire green mass at higher altitude and the subsequent cutting of the heads of root crops from the residues. Therefore, topical issues of the sensing of the heads of sugar beet roots arranged in rows, are related to the majority of the sugar beet toppers, cleaners of the sugar beet heads, leaves cutters and, digging up working bodies of some designs. The aim of this study is theoretical determination the optimum design and kinematic parameters of a new sensing mechanism of the sugar beet heads located in the soil on the basis of the theory of interaction of flat passive swath board sensing organ with the sugar beet heads during their topping when located in the soil. In the study there are used methods of creation of mathematical models of functioning of the agricultural machines and their working bodies with the using of main provisions of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, programming and numerical calculations on the PC. In this paper, there is presented a theoretical study of the interaction of passive sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root when there are located residues of the leaves on a root head spherical surface in the form of short elastic rods. Thus, for such an interaction of the sensing organ and the head of sugar beet root head there is taken into account elastic-damping properties of the sugar beet leaves residues. In the study there was first of all developed a new design of the topper for sugar beet heads with the use of a flat swath board sensing organ, there was developed the equivalent scheme of the interaction of the

  16. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pestsova, Elena; Meinhard, Juliane; Menze, Andreas; Fischer, Uwe; Windhövel, Andrea; Westhoff, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among...

  17. Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae.

  18. Diet dependent metabolic responses in three generalist insect herbivores Spodoptera spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Walker, W B; Vogel, H; Chattington, S; Larsson, M C; Anderson, P; Heckel, D G; Schlyter, F

    2016-04-01

    Adaption to dietary changes is critical in the evolution of host plant ranges in polyphagous insects. We compared three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores from the predominantly generalist genus Spodoptera showing different degrees of polyphagy: Spodoptera littoralis, with a broad host range including both mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and two Spodoptera frugiperda strains [Corn (i.e. maize) (C) and Rice (R)] adapted primarily to different grass species. When feeding on maize we show a lower performance in the broad generalist taxon compared to the grass adapted taxa. Among these taxa, the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain generally performed better than the R-strain on maize leaves. On artificial pinto diet, all taxa performed well. Our RNA-Seq analysis of midgut transcriptomes from 3rd instar larvae feeding on maize showed broader transcriptional readjustments in the generalist S. littoralis compared to grass adapted S. frugiperda strains. Substantial alteration in the expression levels of midgut physiological function related transcripts, such as digestive and detoxifying enzymes, transporters, immunity, and peritrophic membrane associated transcripts, existed in all taxa. We found high background expression of UDP-glucosyl transferases, which are known to neutralize maize leaf toxins, in the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain, contributing to its fitness on maize compared to the R-strain. Our findings provide evidence for divergent diet specific response of digestive physiology within these Spodoptera taxa. Unexpectedly, the C- and R-strains of S. frugiperda fed on the same diet showed large differences in expression patterns between these two closely related taxa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesis and involvement in sulphotransferase reactions in the insect, Spodoptera littoralis.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, R E; Phua, K K; Rees, H H

    1982-01-01

    1. Synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate from ATP and 35SO4(-2) was demonstrated by homogenates of gut. Malpighian tubules and fat body of Spodoptera littoralis. 2. The enzyme system was most active in the gut tissue, and was primarily located in the cytosol fraction of the cell. Gut cytosol preparations were used as a source of the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate generating system for more detailed studies. 3. Maximum synthesis required an incubation mixture containing T...

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bacterial Community Associated with the Taproot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Okubo, Takashi; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Megumi; Kakizaki, Kaori; Hanzawa, Eiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asanome, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a metagenome of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in order to investigate the genes involved in plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, pyrroloquinoline quinone, siderophores, and plant disease suppression as well as methanol, sucrose, and betaine utilization. The most frequently detected gene among the PGPT categories encoded β-1,3-glucanase (18 per 105 reads), which plays a role in the suppression of plant diseases. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization (e.g., for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase), methanol utilization (e.g., for methanol dehydrogenase), siderophore production (e.g. isochorismate pyruvate lyase), and ACC deaminase were also abundant. These results suggested that such PGPTs are crucially involved in supporting the growth of sugar beet. In contrast, genes for IAA production (iaaM and ipdC) were less abundant (~1 per 105 reads). N2 fixation genes (nifHDK) were not detected; bacterial N2 -fixing activity was not observed in the 15N2 -feeding experiment. An analysis of nitrogen metabolism suggested that the sugar beet microbiome mainly utilized ammonium and nitroalkane as nitrogen sources. Thus, N2 fixation and IAA production did not appear to contribute to sugar beet growth. Taxonomic assignment of this metagenome revealed the high abundance of Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Streptomyces, suggesting that these genera have ecologically important roles in the taproot of sugar beet. Bradyrhizobium-assigned reads in particular were found in almost all categories of dominant PGPTs with high abundance. The present study revealed the characteristic functional genes in the taproot-associated microbiome of sugar beet, and suggest the opportunity to select sugar beet growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:25740621

  1. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  2. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance.

  3. THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED SUGAR BEET JUICE AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Different methods of obtaining the product given were tested and rational modes for the proposed technology were chosen in the development of technology for production of sugar beet concentrated juice. The sugar beet concentrated juice is obtained as follows: sugar beets are washed in the continuous action washing machine, checked, rotten or spoiled beets are removed from the cycle, and insufficiently treated roots are directed to re-washing. Then with the help of thermal processing the sugar beet is peeled. The peeled roots are white. They are crushed to the 3-4 mm particles size, mixed with acidified to pH 3,5-4,0 water (hydromodule 1-1.2, then the resulting mass is heated to 80 0C temperature. The use of acidified water is necessary to prevent the darkening initiation. Then the received sugar beet mass is fed to pressing to obtain its juice. The pressed juice depending on the beet source contains 12 % of DS and 1.5-3 % reducing substances (RS of the total mass of dry substances. The juice concentration is under the suction of 0.008 MPa at the boiling temperature of up to 60 0C to the content of 70 % DS. Due to the delicate mode, the sugars breakdown is less intensive, the finished product is of good quality. At the simultaneous concentration with steam the volatile substances with a specific smell are removed, that improves the juice taste and smell. Under this mode, the sugar hydrolysis is intensive, there is a growth reducing substances up to 20 %, the color is increased to 40% density. The research results allow to recommend the product obtained as the sugar syrup substitute.

  4. Effect of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of Talisia esculenta and Sapindus saponaria on fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Laizo dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extracts of Talisia esculenta (T.E. and Sapindus saponaria (S.S., were evaluated on the development and mortality of 8-14th day-life Spodoptera frugiperda, an important pest of maize. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extracts (1% w/v and offered as food to the caterpillars. The treated corn leaves with the extracts caused larval mortality (26.71%/T.E.; 63.3%/S.S. and also showed effect on the larval weight (237.50 mg/T.E.; 86.65 mg/S.S. when compared with the control (11.3% and 293.45 mg, mortality and larval weight, respectively. The electrophoresis with gelatin (0.1% showed two very clear white areas (trypsin activity in the caterpillars midgut of all the treatments. Only the caterpillar treated with S. saponaria presented significant differences, showing trypsin activity (10.59%. Sapindus saponaria appeared better than Talisia esculenta and showed good potential to be used as control agent for S. frugiperda.Este estudo procurou avaliar o potencial inseticida dos extratos aquosos de sementes de Talisia esculenta (St. Hil. Radlk (Pitombal e Sapindus saponaria L. (Saboneteira, ambas da família Sapindaceae, sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, importante praga da lavoura de milho. As folhas de milho foram imersas nos tratamentos com extratos aquosos (1% p/v e oferecidas como alimento para as lagartas. Os resultados do período larval tais como mortalidade e peso médio foram respectivamente: para S. saponaria 63,15%, 86,65 mg; para T. esculenta 26,71%, 237,50 mg e para o controle 11,3%, 293,45 mg. A eletroforese com gelatina 0,1% mostrou duas regiões brancas muito nítidas (atividade tríptica no intestino médio das lagartas de todos os tratamentos. Somente as lagartas do tratamento S. saponaria, apresentaram diferenças significativas, com uma atividade tríptica 10,59% menor.

  5. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  6. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  7. Effects of Bio-char on Sugar Beet Growth in Clomazone Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yu-mei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on sugar beet growth were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment. The results showed that the safety threshold of sugar beet growth with clomazone residual was 0.12 mg·kg-1, and beyond this value, sugar beet growth was in inhibition with clomazone residues increased gradually; Early seedling growth under severe phytotoxicity inhibition rate reached 100% when clomazone concentration was greater than 0.48 mg·kg-1; Seedlings subjected to injury sym-ptoms generally reduced to no phytotoxicity after put into a certain amount of bio-car in soil, the plant growth and root shoot ratio increased. Sugar beet root tuber yield and total sugar yield were influenced after applying carbon, sugar content increased 1.10%, which showed significant difference compared with CK. It explained that the bio-char could promote the growth of sugar beet. Applying biochar to soil could reduce the biological hazardous taken by clomazone residues within certain scope.

  8. Biochemical characterisation and dietary fibre analysis of sugar beet supplemented cookies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.; Jahangir, M.F.; Akhter, S.; Manzoor, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned to utilize sugar beet powder as a rich source of dietary fibre in cookies. Purposely, five treatments namely T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% sugar beet powder addition in wheat flour were chosen to estimate fibre, antioxidant profiling and engineering properties of cookies. Results showed an increased content of all above mentioned parameters. With the increment in sugar beet powder addition in treatments, dietary fibre analysis have shown that total dietary fibre (TDF), insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) have depicted increasing trend with maximum for T5 for all dietary fibre types. Significant results were obtained for in vitro antioxidant studies including total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH that showed increasing trend with T1 0.6 mg GAE/g and maximum values for T5 with 2.0 mg GAE/g for TPC and for DPPH with T5 being maximum value of 1.7% and minimum for T1 with 1.3%. T5 treatment with 20% sugar beet gave best physicochemical results but disturbed sensory properties while T3 with 12% sugar beet powder showed good physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Therefore, T3 with 12% level is considered as the best source of dietary fibre in bakery products and can be considered as the prospective choice to address metabolic syndromes. (author)

  9. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berłowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter. Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae (1 g/L and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L, applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9±1.2 g/L and 86.5±2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

  10. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield. PMID:27722169

  11. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  12. Somaclonal variation of sugar beet resistant to pathogenic root rot Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazaliev Kairat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. - one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

  13. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  14. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  15. Uptake and incorporation of iron in sugar beet chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Adám; Kovács, Krisztina; Basa, Brigitta; Vértes, Attila; Sárvári, Eva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2012-03-01

    Chloroplasts contain 80-90% of iron taken up by plant cells. Though some iron transport-related envelope proteins were identified recently, the mechanism of iron uptake into chloroplasts remained unresolved. To shed more light on the process of chloroplast iron uptake, trials were performed with isolated intact chloroplasts of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Iron uptake was followed by measuring the iron content of chloroplasts in the form of ferrous-bathophenantroline-disulphonate complex after solubilising the chloroplasts in reducing environment. Ferric citrate was preferred to ferrous citrate as substrate for chloroplasts. Strong dependency of ferric citrate uptake on photosynthetic electron transport activity suggests that ferric chelate reductase uses NADPH, and is localised in the inner envelope membrane. The K(m) for iron uptake from ferric-citrate pool was 14.65 ± 3.13 μM Fe((III))-citrate. The relatively fast incorporation of (57)Fe isotope into Fe-S clusters/heme, detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy, showed the efficiency of the biosynthetic machinery of these cofactors in isolated chloroplasts. The negative correlation between the chloroplast iron concentration and the rate of iron uptake refers to a strong feedback regulation of the uptake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Movement of Heterorhabditis amazonensis and Steinernema arenarium in search of corn fall armyworm larvae in artificial conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Andaló

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is considered to be the main pest of maize crops in Brazil. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN may be used to control this pest and exhibit different, unique abilities to search for their hosts. The movement of EPN in relation to S. frugiperda was evaluated. To test for horizontal movement, a styrofoam enclosure filled with sand was divided into segments, nematodes were placed at the entrance to the enclosure and a larva was placed at the end of each division. The same approach was used to evaluate vertical movement; however, PVC pipes were used in this case. In general, the mortality was inversely proportional to the initial distance between host and nematodes. In the vertical displacement test, both nematodes were able to kill the larvae up to a distance of 25 cm. Therefore, the infective juveniles of H. amazonensis and S. arenarium can search out, infect and kill larvae of S. frugiperda at distances of up to 60 cm and 25 cm of horizontal and vertical displacement, respectively.

  17. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤vulgaris¤) into Danish populations of sea beet (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤maritima¤ (L.) Arcangeli)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.S.; Siegismund, H.R.; Meyer, V.

    2005-01-01

    seed propagation areas. A set of 12 Danish, two Swedish, one French, one Italian, one Dutch, and one Irish populations of sea beets, and four lines of sugar beet were analysed. To evaluate the genetic variation and gene flow, eight microsatellite loci were screened. This analysis revealed hybridization...... with cultivated beet in one of the sea beet populations from the centre of the Danish seed propagation area. Triploid hybrids found in this population were verified with flow cytometry. Possible hybrids or introgressed plants were also found in the French and Italian populations. However, individual assignment...... of genetic admixture among subspecies. This underlines that introgression beyond the first hybridization is not extensive. The overall pattern of genetic distance and structure showed that Danish and Swedish sea beet populations were closely related to each other, and they are both more closely related...

  18. Registration of SR98 sugar beet germplasm with resistances to Rhizoctonia seedling and crown and root rot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasms SR98 (PI 655951) and SR98/2 (659754) are being released as potential pollinators or populations from which to select pollinators for hybrid seed production, and were developed by the USDA-ARS, at East Lansing, MI, in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Developmen...

  19. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets who...

  20. Molecular characterization of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Greece and transgenic approaches towards enhancing rhizomania disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, O.I.

    2010-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is responsible for severe economic losses. Due to the widespread occurrence of BNYVV and the absence of other practical and efficient control measures, economic viability of the crop is to the largest extent

  1. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelian, S.; Kleine, M.; Spira, C.P.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Jung, C.

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from

  2. Isolation of DNA markers linked to a beet cyst nematode resistamce locus in Beta patellaris and Beta procumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Sandal, N.N.; Lange, W.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Krens, F.A.; Marcker, K.A.; Stiekema, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    In cultivated beet no useful level of resistance of the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii Schm. has been found, unlike the situation in wild species of the section Procumbentes. Stable introgression of resistance genes from the wild species into Beta vulgaris has not been achieved, but

  3. Sugar beet breeding lines evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine beet sugar beet breeding lines (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service breeding program at Fort Collins, CO, were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rcrr) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. The...

  4. Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that α-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sugar beet hybrids of new generation and their role in the process of intensification of the branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Роїк

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet hybrids are considered as a factor of intensification of the beet-sugar branch. At the modern stage of development of agriculture under condition of reduction of sugar beet sown area, shortage of material - technical resources which influence the formation of productivity of sugar beet as a crop of intensive type, hybrids must have a high genetically conditioned biological potential of productive ability, resistance to pests and diseases, abiotic stress factors, must have broad adaptive abilities. Analysis of the modern sugar beet hybrids included bately in the state Register of plant varieties of Ukraine is presented. Transfer of the branch to the intensive way of development is possible only under conditions of a complex approach to solving this problem.

  6. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Saccharifera vitroculture initiation from encapsulated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae PALCUT

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the optimal method of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera seed sterilization to "in vitro" cultures initiation, and to found a cultivar that is suitable to growth in specific conditions of vitroculture. The study was necessary because the literature does not refer to the method of initiating vitrocultures from encapsulated beet seeds and to avoid any losses that may occur in a massive micropropagation. The most optimal method for beet encapsulated seeds asepsization, prior inoculation on the vitroculture medium consists in the their dipping in sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 minutes, and the best cultivar which was suited to micropropagation was Evelina, but Diamant too, with 90 - 95% germination rate and a very good ulterior growth.

  7. Characterization of resistance mechanisms to powdery mildew (Erysiphe betae) in beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Prats, Elena; Emeran, Amero A; Rubiales, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Beet powdery mildew incited by Erysiphe betae is a serious foliar fungal disease of worldwide distribution causing losses of up to 30%. In the present work, we searched for resistance in a germplasm collection of 184 genotypes of Beta vulgaris including fodder (51 genotypes), garden (60 genotypes), leaf (51 genotypes), and sugar (22 genotypes) beet types. Resistant genotypes were identified in the four beet types under study. In addition, mechanisms underlying resistance were dissected through histological studies. These revealed different resistance mechanisms acting at different fungal developmental stages, i.e., penetration resistance, early and late cell death, or posthaustorial resistance. Most genotypes were able to hamper fungal development at several stages. The later are interesting for breeding aiming to resistance durability. Furthermore, characterization of defense mechanisms will be useful for further cellular and molecular studies to unravel the bases of resistance in this species.

  8. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Identification of Mutations in Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) in Wild and Cultivated Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccanello, Chiara; Pajola, Luca; Biscarini, Filippo; Richards, Chris; Panella, Lee; Hassani, Mahdi; Formentin, Elide; Chiodi, Claudia; Concheri, Giuseppe; Heidari, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were searched bioinformatically in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genome as potential candidates for improving resistance against different diseases. In the present study, Ion Torrent sequencing technology was used to identify mutations in 21 RGAs. The DNA samples of ninety-six individuals from six sea beets (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima) and six sugar beet pollinators (eight individuals each) were used for the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Target amplicons of about 200 bp in length were designed with the Ion AmpliSeq Designer system in order to cover the DNA sequences of the RGAs. The number of SNPs ranged from 0 in four individuals to 278 in the pollinator R740 (which is resistant to rhizomania infection). Among different groups of beets, cytoplasmic male sterile lines had the highest number of SNPs (132) whereas the lowest number of SNPs belonged to O-types (95). The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that the polymorphisms inside the gene Bv8_184910_pkon (including the CCCTCC sequence) can effectively differentiate wild from cultivated beets, pointing at a possible mutation associated to rhizomania resistance that originated directly from cultivated beets. This is unlike other resistance sources that are introgressed from wild beets. This gene belongs to the receptor-like kinase (RLK) class of RGAs, and is associated to a hypothetical protein. In conclusion, this first report of using Ion Torrent sequencing technology in beet germplasm suggests that the identified sequence CCCTCC can be used in marker-assisted programs to differentiate wild from domestic beets and to identify other unknown disease resistance genes in beet. PMID:29019931

  9. Biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases from the sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens B., is one of the most important pests of sugar beet plant in Iran. The petioles and leaves of sugar beet are attacked by larvae and adults of the sugar beet weevil. Chemical application is currently used for controlling the pest. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the sugar beet weevil is facilitated by some carbohydrases. Results of the in vitro studies indicated the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in the digestive tract of the pest. Highest activities of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase were at pH 5, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. No significant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in the pest's digestive system. Optimum temperatures for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity were determined at 45, 50 and 40 oC, respectively. alpha-amylase was more stable under acidic condition (pH 4 to pH 6 than under highly acidic and alkaline condition. Na+ and K+ increased alpha-amylase activity, but sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly decreased amylase activity. Also, the activity of alpha-amylase was inhibited by the other compounds such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and EDTA. Zymogram analysis using native-PAGE revealed one band of alpha-amylase activity in Lixus incanescens. High activity of carbohydrases in the digestive system of adults was determined and further researches are needed to be applied to design new strategies for controlling the sugar beet weevil based on natural carbohydrase inhibitors.

  10. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em lagartas de S. frugiperda e em larvas de T. molitor, em laboratório. A presa S. frugiperda proporcionou ao predador menor longevidade, maior produção e viabilidade de ovos do que as larvas de T. molitor. Esses resultados demonstram que a lagarta S. frugiperda melhora as características reprodutivas de P. nigrispinus, de forma que a sua utilização como presa alternativa pode servir para incrementar a produção massal desse inimigo natural.Nymphys of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have been reared on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, in laboratory conditions. However, there are no reports on P. nigrispinus predation, in field or laboratory, on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, one of the most damaging pests in crops in Brazil. This research had the objective to evaluate nymphal development and reproductive characteristics of the predator P. nigrispinus when reared on caterpillars of S. frugiperda and on larvae of T. molitor, in laboratory conditions. S. frugiperda provided a smaller longevity, higher egg production and viability to predator than T. molitor. The nutricional quality of this caterpillar improves the reproductive characteristics of the predator, so that its utilization as factitious host can increase mass production of this natural enemy.

  11. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  12. Sugar beet waste and its component ferulic acid inhibits external mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Almudena; Jakobsen, Iver; Egsgaard, Helge

    2011-01-01

    External arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) mycelium plays an important role in soil while interacting with a range of biotic and abiotic factors. One example is the soil organic amendment sugar beet waste. The fermented Aspergillus niger–sugar beet waste (ASB) increases growth and P uptake by the AM...... mycelium in soil whereas non-fermented waste (SB) had a strong inhibitory effect. The underlying mechanisms are not understood. We used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify differences in composition of water extracts of ASB and SB. The chromatograms showed that ferulic acid was present in SB...

  13. Nutritional value of biofuel residues from beet evaluated in sows and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J.V.; Hvelplund, T.; Fernandez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative substrate in the biogas or bioethanol production may be the sugar containing juice obtained after fractionation of beets into a juice used for fermentation and into a pulp used for feeding. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the fresh pulp of top and root from...... of sows and wethers were higher for root pulp than for top pulp, whereas there were no differences between the two beet varieties. The fresh root pulp may be considered a good energy source for both sows and ruminants, whereas the fresh top pulp may serve as a satiety-enhancing feedstuff for sows...

  14. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular...... weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased...

  15. Research on ethanol production and use from sugar beet in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icoez, Erkan; Mehmet Tugrul, K.; Icoez, Ebru; Saral, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 , CO, CH 4 and NO X from fossil fuel use are implicated in climate change. The use of bioethanol is one means to reduce fossil fuel use and emissions of greenhouse gases. This study investigated research to produce ethanol from sugar beet and use as fuel in Turkey. The calculated demand for bioethanol amounted to some 220,000 m 3 where a 5% ethanol mix in petrol was used. Turkey has the potential to produce 30 million ton of sugar beet, which is sufficient to meet the bioethanol demand. (author)

  16. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON RED BEET YIELD IN VARIOUS ZONES OF THE FORE-CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gaplaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the researches conducted in conditions of vertical zonality of the Chechen Republic, the high-yielding varieties of red beet in the certain climate and environmental conditions were selected. Moving from the plain zone to the piedmont and the mountain zones, the yield of red beet roots has increased by 1,6-3,4 t/ha regardless of early ripeness of cultivars and hybrids. Application of mathematical modeling allows the selection of the varieties, which are able to realize their yield potential in various conditions.

  17. Effect of processing on antioxidant potential and total phenolics content in beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Raupp, Dorivaldo da Silva; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Carbonar, Aline; Campos, Priscilla Faber de; Borsato, Aurélio Vinicius; Fett, Roseane

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of beet is associated with non-nutritive constituents, such as phenolic compounds. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of two different heat-processing techniques (drying and canned) on the antioxidant potential (ABTS) and phenolics content of beets. A forced air circulation dehydrator was used for the drying. Drying at high temperatures (100 + 90 °C/5.6 hours; 90 °C/6 hours) increased the antioxidant potential of the processed products while mild ...

  18. De novo biosynthesis of volatiles induced by insect herbivory in cotton plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pare, P.W.; Tumlinson, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In response to insect feeding on the leaves, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants release elevated levels of volatiles, which can serve as a chemical signal that attracts natural enemies of the herbivore to the damaged plant. Pulse-labeling experiments with [13C]CO2 demonstrated that many of the volatiles released, including the acyclic terpenes (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, (E)-beta-farnesene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool,(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetrane, as well as the shikimate pathway product indole, are biosynthesized de novo following insect damage. However, other volatile constituents, including several cyclic terpenes, butyrates, and green leaf volatiles of the lipoxygenase pathway are released from storage or synthesized from stored intermediates. Analysis of volatiles from artificially damaged plants, with and without beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hubner) oral secretions exogenously applied to the leaves, as well as volatiles from beet armyworm-damaged and -undamaged control plants, demonstrated that the application of caterpillar oral secretions increased both the production and release of several volatiles that are synthesized de novo in response to insect feeding. These results establish that the plant plays an active and dynamic role in mediating the interaction between herbivores and natural enemies of herbivores

  19. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eAziz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03 transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm. In contrast, a previously-characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against beet armyworm feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense.

  20. Combined effect of gamma radiation and azadirachtin on the growth and development of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.; Seth, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Spodoptera litura is an economically serious and polyphagous pest in the Indian subcontinent. This pest is reported to attack a wide range of food plants belonging to diverse origin 112 cultivated food plants belonging to 44 families all over the world. In order to explore an eco-friendly strategy that could be coupled up with this radio generic method, i.e. F-1 sterility technique, the present attempt was made to study the effect of a safe chemical (azadirachtin) for the effective management of lepidoteran pest, S. litura. The studies show that insecticidal toxicity can be altered if the insects are exposed to radiation prior to insecticidal treatment. (author)

  1. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Salmeron, Eloisa; Okuma, Daniela Miyuki; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm) (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2) and PowerCore(tm) (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F). In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm) and PowerCore(tm) corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality ...

  2. Developmental anatomy of the central nervous system of the cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis boisd.

    OpenAIRE

    El Banhawy, M. A [محمود احمد البنهاوي; Anwar, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    The central nervous system, C. N. S., of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (B.) develops from a median row of embryonic neuroblasts which divide repeatedly to form a double ganglionic chain. The two chains fuse together laterally giving rise to the larval C.N.S. which is differentiated into a brain, a frontal, a suboesophageal, three thoracic and seven abdominal ganglia. During the pupation period, the larval C.N.S. undergoes marked changes leading to the formation of the C.N.S. ...

  3. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J MARTIN RATHI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura (Fabricius is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

  4. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Harley Nonato de; Pratissoli,Dirceu; Pedruzzi,Eder Pin; Espindula,Marcelo Curitiba

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  5. Control of sugar beet powdery mildew with strobilurin fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoglanidis George S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae is a major foliar disease of sugar beet in areas with dry and relatively warm weather conditions throughout the world. In the present study, four fungicides belonging to the relatively new class of strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were evaluated in three different application doses (100, 150 and 200 mg a.i. ha–1 during 2003-2004 for the control of the disease. Among the four strobilurin fungicides tested trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl were the most effective with control efficiency values higher than 94% compared to the control treatment even when applied at lower application dose of 100 mg a.i. ha–1. Azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin showed a poor to modest activity against the disease even when applied at the highest application dose of 200 μg a.i. ha–1. Disease severity, in terms of AUDPC values was significantly correlated to decreased root yield, while no significant correlation existed among disease severity and sugar content of the roots or sucrose yield. In addition, the efficiency of tank mixtures of four strobilurin fungicides applied at 100 μg a.i. ha–1 with two sterol demethylation - inhibiting fungicides (DMIs, difenoconazole and cyproconazole applied at 62.5 and 25 mg a.i. ha–1, respectively, was evaluated. The mixtures of azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to the single application of each mixture partner, while the tank mixtures of trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to single application of difenoconazole or cyproconazole and similar control efficiency compared to the efficiency obtained by single application of the strobilurin fungicides.

  6. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  7. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  8. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unbehend, M.; Hänniger, S.; Vásquez, G.M.; Juárez, M.L.; Reisig, D.; McNeil, J.N.; Meagher, R.L.; Jenkins, D.A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this

  9. Beetle-specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin reduces larval growth and curbs reproduction in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Habuštová, Oxana; Sehnal, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2005), s. 1186-1192 ISSN 1526-498X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * Spodoptera littoralis * Bt applications Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2005

  10. Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daguang; Thurau, Tim; Tian, Yanyan; Lange, Tina; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Jung, Christian

    2003-04-01

    Sporamin, a sweet potato tuberous storage protein, is a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. Its capability of conferring insect-resistance on transgenic tobacco and cauliflower has been confirmed. To test its potential as an anti-feedant for the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.), the sporamin gene SpTI-1 was introduced into sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Twelve different hairy root clones expressing sporamin were selected for studying nematode development. Of these, 8 hairy root clones were found to show significant efficiency in inhibiting the growth and development of the female nematodes whereas 4 root clones did not show any inhibitory effects even though the SpTI-1 gene was regularly expressed in all of the tested hairy roots as revealed by northern and western analyses. Inhibition of nematode development correlated with trypsin inhibitor activity but not with the amount of sporamin expressed in hairy roots. These data demonstrate that the trypsin inhibitor activity is the critical factor for inhibiting growth and development of cyst nematodes in sugar beet hairy roots expressing the sporamin gene. Hence, the sweet potato sporamin can be used as a new and effective anti-feedant for controlling cyst nematodes offering an alternative strategy for establishing nematode resistance in crops.

  11. Predator preference for Bt-fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) prey: implications for insect resistance management in Bt maize seed blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Burkness, E. C.; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Hutchison, W. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2017), s. 1317-1325 ISSN 0022-0493 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) L200961652 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cry1Ab * fall armyworm * multicolored Asian lady beetle Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 1.824, year: 2016

  12. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora G. Montezano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius, 1794 were evaluated under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity, and fertility of 25 couples were evaluated. The longevity of females (12.9 days was not significantly different than that of males (12.4 days. The mean durations of the pre-, post- and oviposition periods were 3.0, 0.4 and 10.4 days, respectively. The mean fecundity was 4,086.0 eggs per female and mean fertility was 3,557.8 larvae per female. On average, a female copulated 1.4 times. The biotic potential of S. dolichos was estimated at 7.138 x 1018 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 1,711.98 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 56.19 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.133, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.142 per day. These results are compared with other species from Spodoptera and their relevance for management strategies of S. dolichos.

  13. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  14. Crop Rotational Effects on Yield Formation in Current Sugar Beet Production – Results From a Farm Survey and Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Josef Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, the framework for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers’ survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions. The dominating sugar beet cropping interval was ≥4 years in the farm survey with pronounced differences between regions. However, the cropping intervals 2, 3, and ≥4 years did not affect the sugar yield. Therefore, significant differences in sugar yield between regions were assumed to be caused by multiple interactions between year, site, and farmers’ skills. Throughout Germany, the dominating preceding crops in sugar beet cultivation were winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. In the field trials, the sugar yield was 5% higher after pea (Pisum sativum L. compared to maize (Zea mays L. as preceding crop, while differences between the preceding crops pea and winter wheat, and wheat and maize were not significant. Repeated measurements of canopy development and leaf color during the growing season revealed a higher N-availability after pea as preceding crop. However, decreased growth after maize was not completely compensated for by high N-fertilizer doses. Overall, the causes for the differences in sugar yield between the preceding crops remained open. The results do not support concerns about substantial yield losses in sugar beet production due to a reduction in the cropping interval from 3 to 2 years. Nevertheless, short rotations with maize and sugar beet might increase the risk of Rhizoctonia solani crown and root rot infestation. Leguminous crops such as pea offer the potential

  15. Crop Rotational Effects on Yield Formation in Current Sugar Beet Production – Results From a Farm Survey and Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Heinz-Josef; Trimpler, Kerrin; Jacobs, Anna; Stockfisch, Nicol

    2018-01-01

    In Europe, the framework for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers’ survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions. The dominating sugar beet cropping interval was ≥4 years in the farm survey with pronounced differences between regions. However, the cropping intervals 2, 3, and ≥4 years did not affect the sugar yield. Therefore, significant differences in sugar yield between regions were assumed to be caused by multiple interactions between year, site, and farmers’ skills. Throughout Germany, the dominating preceding crops in sugar beet cultivation were winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the field trials, the sugar yield was 5% higher after pea (Pisum sativum L.) compared to maize (Zea mays L.) as preceding crop, while differences between the preceding crops pea and winter wheat, and wheat and maize were not significant. Repeated measurements of canopy development and leaf color during the growing season revealed a higher N-availability after pea as preceding crop. However, decreased growth after maize was not completely compensated for by high N-fertilizer doses. Overall, the causes for the differences in sugar yield between the preceding crops remained open. The results do not support concerns about substantial yield losses in sugar beet production due to a reduction in the cropping interval from 3 to 2 years. Nevertheless, short rotations with maize and sugar beet might increase the risk of Rhizoctonia solani crown and root rot infestation. Leguminous crops such as pea offer the potential for higher

  16. The Role of Auxin-Ethylene Crosstalk in Orchestrating Primary Root Elongation in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Willem; Vandenbussche, Bert; De Proft, Maurice P.; Van de Poel, Bram

    2017-01-01

    It is well-established in Arabidopsis and other species that ethylene inhibits root elongation through the action of auxin. In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) ethylene promotes root elongation in a concentration dependent manner. However, the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin remains unknown during sugar beet seedling development. Our experiments have shown that exogenously applied auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) also stimulates root elongation. We also show that auxin promotes ethylene biosynthesis leading to longer roots. We have further demonstrated that the auxin treatment stimulates ethylene production by redirecting the pool of available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) toward ethylene instead of malonyl-ACC (MACC) resulting in a prolonged period of high rates of ethylene production and subsequently a longer root. On the other hand we have also shown that endogenous IAA levels were not affected by an ACC treatment during germination. All together our findings suggest that the general model for auxin-ethylene crosstalk during early root development, where ethylene controls auxin biosynthesis and transport, does not occur in sugar beet. On the contrary, we have shown that the opposite, where auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis, is true for sugar beet root development. PMID:28424722

  17. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet. Epidemiology, life cycle components and disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora 1eaf spot (CLS) in sugar beet, causes I reductions in sugar yield and financial returns. Section I describes the epidemiology of CLS. Two disease severity indices were compared and their relation with sugar yield modelled. A linear curve fitted the

  19. Colonization study of gfp-tagged Achromobacter marplatensis strain in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Li, Chun; Yang, HongMei; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yan; Chu, Min; Zeng, Jun; Lin, Qing; OuTiKuEr; Li, YuGuo; Huo, Xiangdong; Lou, Kai

    2017-04-01

    This study details the introduction of a gfp marker into an endophytic bacterial strain (Achromobacter marplatensis strain 17, isolated from sugar beet) to monitor its colonization of sugar beet (Beta. vulgaris L.). Stability of the plasmid encoding the gfp was confirmed in vitro for at least 72 h of bacterial growth and after the colonization of tissues, under nonselective conditions. The colonization was observed using fluorescence microscopy and enumeration of culturable endophytes in inoculated sugar beet plants that grew for 10 or 20 days. gfp-Expressing strains were re-isolated from the inner tissues of surface-sterilized roots and stems of inoculated plants, and the survival of the Achromobacter marplatensis 17:gfp strain in plants 20 days after inoculation, even in the absence of selective pressure, suggests that it is good colonizer. These results also suggest that this strain could be a useful tool for the delivery of enzymes or other proteins into plants. In addition, the study highlights that sugar beet plants can be used effectively for detailed in vitro studies on the interactions between A. marplatensis strain 17 and its host, particularly if a gfp-tagged strain of the pathogen is used.

  20. Association mapping in multiple segregating populations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Benjamin; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Heckenberger, Martin; Möhring, Jens; Schechert, Axel; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2008-11-01

    Association mapping in multiple segregating populations (AMMSP) combines high power to detect QTL in genome-wide approaches of linkage mapping with high mapping resolution of association mapping. The main objectives of this study were to (1) examine the applicability of AMMSP in a plant breeding context based on segregating populations of various size of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), (2) compare different biometric approaches for AMMSP, and (3) detect markers with significant main effect across locations for nine traits in sugar beet. We used 768 F(n) (n = 2, 3, 4) sugar beet genotypes which were randomly derived from 19 crosses among diploid elite sugar beet clones. For all nine traits, the genotypic and genotype x location interaction variances were highly significant (P < 0.01). Using a one-step AMMSP approach, the total number of significant (P < 0.05) marker-phenotype associations was 44. The identification of genome regions associated with the traits under consideration indicated that not only segregating populations derived from crosses of parental genotypes in a systematic manner could be used for AMMSP but also populations routinely derived in plant breeding programs from multiple, related crosses. Furthermore, our results suggest that data sets, whose size does not permit analysis by the one-step AMMSP approach, might be analyzed using the two-step approach based on adjusted entry means for each location without losing too much power for detection of marker-phenotype associations.

  1. Sugar Beet Extract (Beta vulgaris L.) as a New Natural Emulsifier: Emulsion Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralla, Theo; Salminen, Hanna; Edelmann, Matthias; Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-05-24

    The interfacial and emulsion-forming properties of sugar beet extract (Beta vulgaris L.) were examined and compared to a Quillaja extract that is widely used within the food industry. We investigated the influence of extract concentration on surface activity at oil-water and air-water interfaces and on the formation of oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w, pH 7). Sugar beet extract reduced the interfacial tension up to 38% at the oil-water interface, and the surface tension up to 33% at the air-water surface. The generated emulsions were negatively charged (ζ ≈ -46 mV) and had the smallest particle sizes (d 43 ) of ∼1.3 μm at a low emulsifier-to-oil ratio of 0.75:10. Applying lower or higher extract concentrations increased the mean particle sizes. The smallest emulsions were formed at an optimum homogenization pressure of 69 MPa. Higher homogenization pressures led to increased particle sizes. Overall, sugar beet extract showed high surface activity. Furthermore, the formation of small emulsion droplets was successful; however, the droplets were bigger compared to those from the Quillaja extract. These results indicate sugar beet as an effective natural emulsifier that may be utilized for a variety of food and beverage applications.

  2. Sugar Beets, Segregation, and Schools: Mexican Americans in a Northern Colorado Community, 1920-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Ruben

    2003-01-01

    What was unique about the Mexican American experience in Fort Collins (Colorado) was the extent to which the Great Western Sugar Company colonized Mexican workers. They lived in Mexican colonies, separate neighborhoods, or remote locations on sugar beet farms. In public schools, Mexican Americans were perceived as intellectually inferior and were…

  3. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain.

  4. Root infection of sugar beet by Cercospora beticola in a climate chamber and in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sugar beet root infection by Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), was studied in a climate chamber and in the field. In the climate chamber, root incubation of susceptible seedlings with a conidial suspension resulted in disease incidences that were significantly

  5. Influence of external factors on growth and development of sugar-beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Several trials on the quantitative influence of photophase, chilling (vernalization) and high temperature (devernalization) on bolting of sugar-beet were analysed on the basis of a simple physiological model, in which bolting is considered as the final event of dynamic, momentary and quantitative

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet

  7. PIEteR: a field specific production model for sugar beet growing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Struik, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    PIEteR is a field-specific production model for sugar-beet growing. It can provide quantitative information about the technical, economic and environmental consequences of plant density, nitrogen application and harvest date. Its core is a growth model that simulates rates of emergence, development,

  8. Tagging of resistance gene(s) to rhizomania disease in sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... plasmodiophoride-like fungus, Polymyxa betae Keskin. (1964) (Tamada and Richard, 1992). Source of resistance to rhizomania were found in Holly sugar beet company source (Lewellen, 1987). Resistance in Holly is simply inherited by a single dominant gene(Rz1). (Lewellen et al., 1987; Scholten et al., ...

  9. A greenhouse test for screening sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Panella, L.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Lange, W.

    2001-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a serious plant pathogenic fungus, causing various types of damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). In Europe, the disease is spreading and becoming a threat for the growing of this crop. Plant resistance seems to be the most practical and economical way to control the

  10. Effects of limited irrigation on root yield and quality of sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This field study was conducted in order to investigate the yield and quality of sugar beet cv zargan in relation to different irrigation regimes during 2005 at Ardabil conditions. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replicates. In this experiment irrigation regimes were I1 = Irrigation at 13.3 ...

  11. Effects of partial replacement of barley with sugar beet pulp on pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen Zel ewes (BW = 37 ± 3.10 kg) were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp (BP), during late pregnancy and early lactation, on litter weight, lamb's daily gain, milk yield and milk composition. Dietary treatments were initiated approximately ...

  12. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  13. Regional characteristics of market production of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Simo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the trends in the development of industrial crop production in the case of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia from 1976 to 2013. Grouping of regions (4 regions without Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija and districts (25 districts in Serbia in 2013, according to the characteristics of land capacity, production of sugar beet and sunflower and level of development, was carried out by cluster analysis. Based on the median value of the important characteristics of available land capacity, production volume and economic development in municipalities, I-distance method were ranked districts in Serbia from 1 to 25. Similarities between the sugar beet and sunflower production regions in Serbia were determined by the method of complete-linkage clustering, and the results were presented in the dendrogram. According to data for 2013 it was found that 99.8% of sugar beet production and 93.9% of sunflower production in Serbia comes from the Vojvodina region. The average yields per hectare for analyzed crops in the areas of the Vojvodina region, on average, were by up to 10% higher compared to the yields in Serbia. According to the characteristics of land capacity and production, areas of the Vojvodina region belong to the highest rank 1-7, while according to the characteristics of the development level, these areas belong to rank 2-13.

  14. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  15. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Schols, Henk; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and lemon peel wastes (LPW) were used to obtain two mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides (denoted as SBPOS and LPOS, respectively). Oligogalacturonides in LPOS showed a larger molecular weight, higher degree of methylation and lower degree of acetylation than the ones in

  16. Project 722: Seedling diseases of sugar beet – diversity and host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In five years of testing, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. were commonly isolated from infected field-isolated diseased sugar beet seedlings. Which fungus is more commonly isolated from seedlings has varied over the seasons. For example, R. solani was the most frequently isolated pathogen in 201...

  17. Effect of nitrogen dressings on growth and development of sugar-beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, V.J.G.

    1973-01-01

    The growth and development of sugar-beet with different nitrogen dressings was studied by measurement of leaf area and of dry weight and chemical composition (inorganic cations and anions) of several plant parts during the growth season.

    For a correct interpretation of the data, the losses in

  18. Application of generalized Hough transform for detecting sugar beet plant from weed using machine vision method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. as the second most important world’s sugar source after sugarcane is one of the major industrial crops. The presence of weeds in sugar beet fields, especially at early growth stages, results in a substantial decrease in the crop yield. It is very important to efficiently eliminate weeds at early growing stages. The first step of precision weed control is accurate detection of weeds location in the field. This operation can be performed by machine vision techniques. Hough transform is one of the shape feature extraction methods for object tracking in image processing which is basically used to identify lines or other geometrical shapes in an image. Generalized Hough transform (GHT is a modified version of the Hough transform used not only for geometrical forms, but also for detecting any arbitrary shape. This method is based on a pattern matching principle that uses a set of vectors of feature points (usually object edge points to a reference point to construct a pattern. By comparing this pattern with a set pattern, the desired shape is detected. The aim of this study was to identify the sugar beet plant from some common weeds in a field using the GHT. Materials and Methods Images required for this study were taken at the four-leaf stage of sugar beet as the beginning of the critical period of weed control. A shelter was used to avoid direct sunlight and prevent leaf shadows on each other. The obtained images were then introduced to the Image Processing Toolbox of MATLAB programming software for further processing. Green and Red color components were extracted from primary RGB images. In the first step, binary images were obtained by applying the optimal threshold on the G-R images. A comprehensive study of several sugar beet images revealed that there is a unique feature in sugar beet leaves which makes them differentiable from the weeds. The feature observed in all sugar beet plants at the four

  19. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  20. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and dewatered residues from enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kucner, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp residues (SBPR) from hydrolysis and dewatering of beet pulp were co-digested with municipal sewage sludge (MSS). The highest biogas yields of nearly 512 dm(3)/kg VSfed (volatile solids fed) were achieved for SBPR, treated both as the monosubstrate and as a mixture with MSS (1 : 1 by weight). Simultaneously, the highest methane production of 348 dm(3) CH4/kg VSfed was determined when the sewage sludge was co-digested with 35% SBPR. The analysis of digestate showed that neither ammonia nor volatile fatty acids destabilized the biogas production. Processing of sugar beet pulp into bioethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation has become increasingly attractive. However, in this process, only the liquid fraction derived from hydrolysis is subjected into alcoholic fermentation, whereas the remaining solid fraction needs to be utilized. This study demonstrated that sugar beet pulp residues after bioethanol production can successfully be co-digested with sewage sludge to increase biogas productivity of anaerobic digesters located at wastewater treatment plants.

  1. Response of Alternaria spp. from sugar beet leaf spots to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf spot caused in sugar beet by Alternaria species has been a minor foliar disease issue in the United States. Recently in Michigan and other growing regions an increasing incidence of Alternaria leaf spot has been observed and without evidence of predisposing plant yellowing. One possible reason...

  2. Effect of beet flour on films made from biological macromolecules: Native and modified plantain flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Guzmán, Romel; Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Famá, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Biological macromolecules such as starches of different amylaceous sources have been used in the formulation of edible films. However, there are few studies aimed at evaluating edible and intelligent films with response to pH changes from natural pigments, this despite the importance of these materials. In this context, films from native and modified plantain flour, plasticized with glycerol, with or without the addition of beet flour were developed. The chemical and structural composition of the flours, and its incidence on thickness, water solubility, contact angle, and mechanical and microstructural properties were evaluated, thus as its response to pH changes of the developed films. The observations showed that the incorporation of beet flour allowed to obtain intelligent films front to pH changes alkaline. Likewise, the betalains that were found in beet flour interacted more efficiently with the phosphated plantain flour, limiting well its immediate response to pH changes. In the same way, proteins and sugars of beet flour allowed to obtain more flexible films, due to the hydrogen bond interactions between these constituents and the plantain flours. This latter could justify the decrease of contact angle, and the increase on thickness and solubility of these films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  4. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of beet western yellows virus on chickpea in Morocco.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.; Wilk, van der F.; Heuvel, van de J.F.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A luteovirus isolate infecting chickpea in Morocco was experimentally transmitted by Myzus persicae to Physalis floridana, on which it produced mild symptoms. When tested in western blots against antisera to known legume luteoviruses, this isolate reacted strongly to beet western yellows virus

  5. Enhancement of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet by organic amendments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of different organic soil amendments on disease suppression to Rhizoctoniasolani AG 2-2IIIB was tested in a bio-assay with sugar beet as a test plant. Lysobacter populations in soil were quantified as a possible mechanism for disease suppression. Disease spread through the bio-assay

  6. Preparation and properties of water and glycerol-plasticized sugar beet pulp plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP), the residue from sugar extraction, was compounded and turned into thermoplastic composite materials. The compounding was performed using a common twin screw compounding extruder and water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The plasticization of SBP utilized the water-solu...

  7. Changes in quality of selected red beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivars during the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red beet (Beta vulgaris L. may be consumed at all stages of growth, both in the form of small early vegetable during spring and later, during winter, when stored. Therefore, knowledge of the dynamics of changes in the content of individual components in subsequent stages of growth is very important.

  8. Efficient somatic embryogenesis in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, C.L.; Chen, D. F.; Kubaláková, Marie; Zhang, J.; Scott, N. W.; Elliott, M. C.; Slater, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2008), s. 209-221 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Sugar beet * somatic embryogenesis * culture medium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2008

  9. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an

  10. Effect of Irrigation Methods, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Abudlkareem, J.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at a research station near Adlib. Two irrigation methods, sprinkler irrigation and drip fertigation, two phosphorus rates and four nitrogen rates 0, 70, 140 and 210 kg N/ha were tested. All N fertilizers were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the sprinkler-irrigated treatments in six equally split applications. Neutron probe Results revealed that the introduction of drip fertigation was not proved to be a water saving relative to sprinkler irrigation. Dry matter production was slightly increased for the drip-fertigated treatments relative to sprinkler irrigated treatments. Nitrogen use efficiency was not improved under drip fertigation relative to that of sprinkler irrigation. Application of phosphorus fertilizer improved sugar beet yield as well as N uptake. No significant differences in sugar beet yield were observed due to the application of N fertilizer under drip fertigation. On the other hand, there was a trend toward increasing sugar beet yield grown under sprinkler irrigation. Drip fertigation had no negative effects on sugar content and other related properties, furthermore some of those properties were enhanced due to the employment of drip fertigation. Field water-use efficiency followed a similar trend and was increased under sprinkler irrigation relative to drip-fertigation for sugar beet yield parameter.

  11. Response of reproductive traits and longevity of beet webworm to temperature, and implications for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a facultative long-distance migratory insect pest of crops in many regions between latitudes 36-55°N. Reproductive performance of L. sticticalis is very sensitive to thermal conditions, such that outbreaks of larvae are clos...

  12. Formation of Information Support in Management of Production of Beet Growing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Viktoriia V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main methodical approaches to formation of information support in management of production of sugar beet. It conducts analysis, systematisation and generalisation of theoretical developments of scientists with respect to definition of the “information support” notion, which allows formulation of the author’s vision. The article considers definitions of the expenditures notion as one of the central categories in management of production and types of cost value as objects of management. The article proves that business accounting is in close connection with the managerial system, which, consequently, determines a specific role of expenditures in enterprise management. It identifies topical directions of formation of information support in management of production of sugar beet. On the basis of the study of practice of sugar growing enterprises the article forms main data carriers within stages of the accounting process with the aim to carry out efficient management of sugar beet production. The prospect of further studies is improvement of information support in the beet growing industry through: development of accounting policy; system of primary documents by means of formation of product quality indicators; automation of formation of their indicators with the purpose of operative control; development of budgets for planning production indicators with the purpose of management and control.

  13. Prospects of utilization of sugar beet carbohydrates for biological hydrogen production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced through dark anaerobic fermentation using carbohydrate-rich biomass, and through photofermentation using the organic acids produced from dark fermentation. Sugar beet is an ideal energy crop for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU due to its environmental profile

  14. Biodegradable composites from polyester and sugar beet pulp with antimicrobial coating for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totally biodegradable, double-layered antimicrobial composite Sheets were introduced for food packaging. The substrate layers of the sheets were prepared from poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) or poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and SBP by a twin-screw extruder. The ac...

  15. Effects of Water Stress on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Kai-hong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water stress and rewatering on sugar beet yield and its corresponding photosynthetic parameters, and to provide the basis of water management for the sugar beet fields, pool experiments in an artificial proof canopy were set up to observe changes of beet net photosynthetic rate(Pn, transpiration rate(Tr, water use efficiency(WUE and stomatal limitation (Ls, intercellular CO2 oncentration(Ci, and PSⅡ maximum quantum yield(Fv/Fm. The results indicated that the diurnal variation of Tr and Pn in CK treatment (whole growth period replenishment at different times near "unimodal" type; and water shortage treatments presented "twin peaks" change. Diurnal transpiration capacity(DTC under water stress at sugar accumulation stage reduced by 70.16%~74.81% and diurnal photosynthetic capacity(DPC was 63.48%~69.96% lower than that of CK, while diurnal water use efficiency(WUEd increased by 19.28%~22.39%. Rehydration helped Tr and Pn recovery, but did not reach unstressed levels. Ls changes under extremely dry environment had a midday trough "twin peaks" feature, and Ci was at "double-dip" in consistent with the timing of Ls; Water stress inhibited and inactivated photochemical reaction center of midday PSⅡ. Water stress led to irreversible decrease in the Pn and Tr, and prolonged the Pn inefficient period, which become the important factor of influencing the sugar beet yield.

  16. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  17. Closing the Yield Gap of Sugar Beet in the Netherlands—A Joint Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Hanse

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of “type top” (high yielding and “type average” (average yielding growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands. On the fields of those farmers, all measures of sugar beet cultivation were investigated, including cost calculation and recording phytopathological, agronomical and soil characteristics in 2006 and 2007. Although there was no significant difference in total variable costs, the “type top” growers yielded significantly 20% more sugar in each year compared to the “type average” growers. Therefore, the most profitable strategy for the growers is maximizing sugar yield and optimizing costs. The difference in sugar yield between growers could be explained by pests and diseases (50%, weed control (30%, soil structure (25% and sowing date (14%, all interacting with each other. The SUSY-project revealed the effect of the grower's management on sugar yield. As a follow up for the SUSY-project, a growers' guide “Suikerbietsignalen” was published, Best Practice study groups of growers were formed and trainings and workshops were given and field days organized. Further, the benchmarking and feedback on the crop management recordings and the extension on variety choice, sowing performance, foliar fungi control and harvest losses were intensified. On the research part, a resistance breaking strain of the Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV and a new foliar fungus, Stemphylium beticola, were identified

  18. Sexual crossing of thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica improved enzymatic degradation of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pontes, Maria Victoria; Zhou, Miaomiao; van der Horst, Sjors; Theelen, Bart; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass requires a complex mixture of many different enzymes. Like most fungi, thermophilic Myceliophthora species therefore have a large set of enzymes targeting different linkages in plant polysaccharides. The majority of these enzymes have not been functionally characterized, and their role in plant biomass degradation is unknown. The biotechnological challenge is to select the right set of enzymes to efficiently degrade a particular biomass. This study describes a strategy using sexual crossing and screening with the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica to identify specific enzymes associated with improved sugar beet pulp saccharification. Two genetically diverse M. heterothallica strains CBS 203.75 and CBS 663.74 were used to generate progenies with improved growth on sugar beet pulp. One progeny, named SBP.F1.2.11, had a different genetic pattern from the parental strains and had improved saccharification activity after the growth on 3 % sugar beet pulp. The improved SBP saccharification was not explained by altered activities of the major (hemi-)cellulases. Exo-proteome analysis of progeny and parental strains after 7-day growth on sugar beet pulp showed that only 17 of the 133 secreted CAZy enzymes were more abundant in progeny SBP.F1.2.11. Particularly one enzyme belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 5 (CE5) was more abundant in SBP.F1.2.11. This CE5-CBM1 enzyme, named as Axe1, was phylogenetically related to acetyl xylan esterases. Biochemical characterization of Axe1 confirmed de-acetylation activity with optimal activities at 75-85 °C and pH 5.5-6.0. Supplementing Axe1 to CBS 203.75 enzyme set improved release of xylose and glucose from sugar beet pulp. This study identified beneficial enzymes for sugar beet pulp saccharification by selecting progeny with improved growth on this particular substrate. Saccharification of sugar beet pulp was improved by supplementing enzyme mixtures with a previously

  19. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isa C; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M; Veloso, Maria M; Simoes-Costa, Maria C; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  20. Genetic diversity and physiological performance of Portuguese wild beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima from three contrasting habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Catarina Ribeiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill, Comporta (CMP, marsh and Oeiras (OEI, coastland, and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB, are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP, the inland ruderal beet (VMT and the sugar beet (SB. A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e. the capacity to physiologically adjust

  1. Redox and Reactive Oxygen Species Network in Acclimation for Salinity Tolerance in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Sazzad; ElSayed, Abdelaleim Ismail; Moore, Marten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fine-tuned and coordinated regulation of transport, metabolism and redox homeostasis allows plants to acclimate to osmotic and ionic stress caused by high salinity. Sugar beet is a highly salt tolerant crop plant and is therefore an interesting model to study sodium chloride (NaCl) acclimation in crops. Sugar beet plants were subjected to a final level of 300 mM NaCl for up to 14 d in hydroponics. Plants acclimated to NaCl stress by maintaining its growth rate and adjusting its cellular redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network. In order to understand the unusual suppression of ROS accumulation under severe salinity, the regulation of elements of the redox and ROS network was investigated at the transcript level. First, the gene families of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxiredoxins (Prx), alternative oxidase (AOX), plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) and NADPH oxidase (RBOH) were identified in the sugar beet genome. Salinity induced the accumulation of Cu-Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, Fe-SOD3, all AOX isoforms, 2-Cys-PrxB, PrxQ, and PrxIIF. In contrast, Fe-SOD1, 1-Cys-Prx, PrxIIB and PrxIIE levels decreased in response to salinity. Most importantly, RBOH transcripts of all isoforms decreased. This pattern offers a straightforward explanation for the low ROS levels under salinity. Promoters of stress responsive antioxidant genes were analyzed in silico for the enrichment of cis-elements, in order to gain insights into gene regulation. The results indicate that special cis-elements in the promoters of the antioxidant genes in sugar beet participate in adjusting the redox and ROS network and are fundamental to high salinity tolerance of sugar beet PMID:28338762

  2. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  3. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage. PMID:27807538

  4. Efficient callus formation and plant regeneration are heritable characters in sugar beet (Beta vulgarisL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Taguchi, Kazunori; Arakawa, Takumi; Kuroda, Yosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining dedifferentiated cells (callus) that can regenerate into whole plants is not always feasible for many plant species. Sugar beet is known to be recalcitrant for dedifferentiation and plant regeneration. These difficulties were major obstacles for obtaining transgenic sugar beets through an Agrobacterium -mediated transformation procedure. The sugar beet line 'NK-219mm-O' is an exceptional line that forms callus efficiently and is easy to regenerate, but the inheritance of these characters was unknown. Another concern was whether these characters could coexist with an annual habitat that makes it possible to breed short life-cycle sugar beet suitable for molecular genetic analysis. Five sugar beet lines including NK-219mm-O were crossed with each other and subjected to in vitro culture to form callus. F 1 s with a NK-219mm-O background generally formed callus efficiently compared to the others, indicating that efficient callus formation is heritable. The regeneration potential was examined based on the phenotypes of calli after placement on regeneration medium. Five phenotypes were observed, of which two phenotypes regenerated shoots or somatic embryo-like structures. Vascular differentiation was evident in regenerable calli, whereas non-regenerable calli lacked normally developed vascular tissues. In a half-diallel cross, the callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F 1 s progeny having a NK-219mm-O background were high. Finally, we crossed NK-219mm-O with an annual line that had a poor in vitro performance. The callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F 1 were high. The regenerated plants showed an annual habitat. Efficient callus formation and the high plant regeneration potential of NK-219mm-O were inherited and expressed in the F 1 . The annual habitat does not impair these high in vitro performances.

  5. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  6. Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váli, László; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Sárdi, Eva; Lugasi, Andrea; Kocsis, Ibolya; Blázovics, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) contains important bioactive agents (betaine and polyphenols), which have a wide range of physiologic effects. Because nutritive antioxidants may reduce the occurrence of complications and postoperative mortality, dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may greatly contribute to the survival of patients. Our aim was to determine the liver-protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-treated (n = 24) and fed with table beet (n = 8). For 10 days the second group was treated with lyophilized table beet (2 g/kg body weight daily) mixed into the rat chow. Hepatic ischemia was maintained for 45 min, followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion was carried out on animals from both groups. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration, Randox-total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry. Fatty acid (Shimadzu GC) and metal ion (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) concentrations were observed in the liver. As a result of feeding, global parameters (H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) of the liver were found to increase significantly, which indicated that the treatment had a positive effect on its redox state. The increase found in zinc and copper content may protect the hepatocytes against oxidative stress because these elements are required for the function of superoxide dismutase enzymes. In the table beet group the concentration of short-chain fatty acids decreased, whereas that of long-chain fatty acids increased. The changes in metal element and fatty acid concentrations confirmed that these elements have an essential function

  7. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  8. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethylene is differentially regulated during sugar beet germination and affects early root growth in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Willem; Van de Poel, Bram; Vandenbussche, Bert; De Proft, Maurice P

    2014-10-01

    By integrating molecular, biochemical, and physiological data, ethylene biosynthesis in sugar beet was shown to be differentially regulated, affecting root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a close relation between ethylene production and seedling growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yet the exact function of ethylene during this early developmental stage is still unclear. While ethylene is mostly considered to be a root growth inhibitor, we found that external 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) regulates root growth in sugar beet in a concentration-dependent manner: low concentrations stimulate root growth while high concentrations inhibit root growth. These results reveal that ethylene action during root elongation is strongly concentration dependent. Furthermore our detailed study of ethylene biosynthesis kinetics revealed a very strict gene regulation pattern of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), in which ACS is the rate liming step during sugar beet seedling development.

  10. Early detection of sugar beet pathogen Ramularia beticola in leaf and air samples using qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Hansen, Anne Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola causing Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet. R. beticola specific primers were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). The assay was applied on DNA extracted from...... spores trapped on tape from Burkard spore traps placed in an artificially inoculated sugar beet field trial and in two sugar beet fields with natural infections. R. beticola DNA was detected at variable amounts in the air samples 14 to 16 days prior to first visible symptoms. R. beticola DNA was detected....... beticola in plant material and in air samples prior to the appearance of visible symptoms. An early detection has potential as a tool, which can be part of a warning system predicting the onset of the disease in the sugar beet crop and helping to optimise fungicide application....

  11. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloos Dorothee U

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot analysis indicates the desired tissue specificity of these genes. The promoters for two chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes (Bvcab11 and Bvcab12 were isolated, linked to reporter genes, and transformed into sugar beet using promoter reporter gene fusions. Transient and transgenic analysis indicate that both promoters direct leaf specific gene expression. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that the Bvcab11 promoter is void of G-box like regulatory elements with a palindromic ACGT core sequence. The data indicate that the presence of a G-box element is not a prerequisite for leaf specific and light induced gene expression in sugar beet. Conclusions This work shows that SSH can be successfully employed for the identification and subsequent isolation of tissue specific sugar beet promoters. These promoters are shown to drive strong leaf specific gene expression in transgenic sugar beet. The application of these promoters for expressing resistance improving genes against foliar diseases is discussed.

  12. Ensiled sugar beets as dietary component and their effect on preference and dry matter intake by goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Katrin; Reimink, Anke; Messerschmidt, Ulrike; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the influence of ensiled sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) on preference and short-time dry matter (DM) intake of goats. Whole sugar beets were ensiled either without any silage additive (sugar beet silage (SBS)) or with a chemical additive (6 l/t) containing 85% formic and propionic acids (treated sugar beet silage (TBS)) and were chopped after ensiling. The influence of different proportions of SBS (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% of dietary DM) and TBS (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of DM) in partial mixed rations on short-time DM intake by goats (adult Saanen type wethers; n = 10) was studied in two separate, independent trials. Preference behaviour was investigated by offering the goats two different experimental diets per day and offer each possible combination of them (n = 10) once throughout the trial. On this basis, the mean DM intake (within 30 min and 3 h) of each experimental diet was determined. Both sugar beet silages showed good fermentation quality with low pH. By using the chemical silage additive, the production of ethanol was reduced and considerable amounts of sugar were preserved. In the short-term preference experiment, increasing concentrations of sugar beet silage in the ration increased DM intake (p < 0.05) in a linear way with a strong preference for those diets containing high amounts of sugar beet silage. Initial DM intake after 30 min was 4-5 fold increased for diets containing the highest beet concentration. It is assumed that the preference was positively influenced by sugar and sweet taste or the associated higher concentration of metabolisable energy.

  13. Substitution of beet sugar with plant Stevia rebaudiana and its effect on the sensory quality of selected products.

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠTA, Antonín

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to substitute beet sugar with Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni plant extract, and to assess effect of this substitution on sensory quality of selected products. Ten different samples of cherry jam were produced, using different combination of sweeteners in each of them. As sweeteners, beet sugar and Stevia leaf extract was used. This stevia leaf extract is even 400 times sweeter than common sugar. All samples of jam underwent sensory analysis and results have be...

  14. Fluorescence Indices for the Proximal Sensing of Powdery Mildew, Nitrogen Supply and Water Deficit in Sugar Beet Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Using potted sugar beet plants we aimed to investigate the suitability of four fluorescence indices to detect and differentiate the impact of nitrogen supply, water deficit and powdery mildew in two sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.). Plants were grown inside a polytunnel under two nitrogen levels combined with water deficit or full irrigation. Changes in plant physiology were recorded at two physiological stages with a multiparametric handheld fluorescence sensor and a fluorescence ima...

  15. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  16. Disease detection in sugar beet fields: a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach on different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hillnhütter, Christian; Mewes, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Steiner, Ulrike; Dehne, Heinz-Willhelm; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2009-09-01

    Depending on environmental factors fungal diseases of crops are often distributed heterogeneously in fields. Precision agriculture in plant protection implies a targeted fungicide application adjusted these field heterogeneities. Therefore an understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of pathogens is elementary. As shown in previous studies, remote sensing techniques can be used to detect and observe spectral anomalies in the field. In 2008, a sugar beet field site was observed at different growth stages of the crop using different remote sensing techniques. The experimental field site consisted of two treatments. One plot was sprayed with a fungicide to avoid fungal infections. In order to obtain sugar beet plants infected with foliar diseases the other plot was not sprayed. Remote sensing data were acquired from the high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imaging ROSIS in July 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 39 and from the HyMap sensor systems in August 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 45, respectively. Additionally hyperspectral signatures of diseased and non-diseased sugar beet plants were measured with a non-imaging hand held spectroradiometer at growth stage 49 in September. Ground truth data, in particular disease severity were collected at 50 sampling points in the field. Changes of reflection rates were related to disease severity increasing with time. Erysiphe betae causing powdery mildew was the most frequent leaf pathogen. A classification of healthy and diseased sugar beets in the field was possible by using hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from canopy reflectance.

  17. Non-thermal Production of Natural betalain Colorant Concentrate from Red Beet Extract by Using the Osmotic Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Amirasgari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Red beet extract concentrate can be used as a natural colorant in food products; however, destructive effects of thermal methods to produce juice concentrate decrease nutritional value in the final product. Materials and Methods: In this study, red beet extract was concentrated using osmotic distillation method, and the best pretreatment was evaluated to increase the efficiency of the concentration process. Also changes in some physicochemical properties such as betacyanins and betaxanthins contents, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red beet juice were evaluated by both the membrane and thermal concentration methods. Results: The results showed that the best concentration efficiency was obtained after pretreatment of the fresh juice with centrifugation at 1699 G for 17 min. Evaluation of the effect of both the membrane and thermal concentration processes on the physicochemical properties of juice showed that the membrane method did not change betacyanin and betaxanthin contents, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of the red beet extract. However, these properties decreased with the thermal concentration method by 26, 15, 11 and 13%, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results, osmotic distillation can produce red beet concentrate with more nutritional value than the concentrate produced with thermal method. Keywords: Membrane, Natural betalain colorant, Osmotic distillation, Red beet

  18. Purification of DNA for the transfection of a Spodoptera frugiperda cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jeffrey M; Lawrence, Susan D

    2002-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells have been widely used in baculovirus expression systems, transient gene expression studies and transgenic cell lines. These applications commonly require the transfection of bacterial plasmid DNA. One of the most reliable methods of preparing transfection-quality plasmid DNA is cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient centrifugation. However, the traditional CsCl DNA purification is a long and laborious process. We have made a series of modifications to the traditional method that makes it faster, safer and easier. In the current study we demonstrate that DNA prepared by our modified CsCl method was also better for the transfection of Sf-9 cells than DNA prepared by the traditional CsCl method.

  19. Influence of food diet in the radiosensitivity of spodoptera frugiperda smith abbot larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Labrada, A.; Fundora, Z.; Herrera, A.

    1988-01-01

    To apply the traditional method in pest control it is needed to know the reaction capability of the insect in reference to radiations as well as the influence which can be exerted over it by different factors. The radiosensitivity of Spodoptera Frugiperda Smith Abbot larvae raised with two different diets (natural and artificial) was studied using doses between 20 and 100 Gy, in Co-60 gamma source with a dose power of 13.4 Gy/min survival, formation and dimensions of pupas, adult emergency and other interesting aspects were determined. The multiple analysis of results showed the influence of the food diet on radiosensitivity of larvae. results of both diets are statistically compared

  20. effect of gamma radiation and heat stress on some biological aspects of Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    the present study dealt with the effects of exposure of full - grown pupa of the cotton leaf worm, spodoptera littoralis (Boise) to different high temperatures and/or substerilizing doss of gamma radiation on certain biological and histological aspects of the parental (P 1 ) and first filial (F 1 ) generations. it included the effect on adult longevity and malformation, mating, insemination, fecundity and egg hatchability; beside larval survival till adult emergence and sex ratio of produced adults at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex.special attention was given to inherited sterility as well as to the mating competitiveness ability of treated males. the histological changes in testes and ovaries of produced adults were included

  1. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  2. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering of Spodoptera exigua Hübner in regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Lin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inferential models are usually used to evaluate the effect of winter warming on range expansion of insects. Generally, correlative approaches used to predict changes in the distributions of organisms are based on the assumption that climatic boundaries are fixed. Spodoptera exigua Htibner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae overwinters as larvae or pupae in China regions. To understand the climate change impacts on overwintering of this species in regions of China, CLIMEX and Arc-GIS models were used to predict possible changes of distribution based on temperature. The climate change projection clearly indicated that the northern boundary of overwintering for S. exigua will shift northward from current distribution. Thus, the ongoing winter warming is likely to increase the frequency of S. exigua outbreaks.

  3. Antifeedant Activities of the Erythrinaline Alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidopteranoctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjala W. Cornelius

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers ofErythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual- choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis(Boisduval larvae. The new compound (+-11-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1 from the flowers, showedpotent dose dependant activity at concentration ³ 500 ppm while (+-10,11-dioxoerysotramidine (2 also newfrom the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration ³100 ppm. Three known compounds(+-erysotrine, (+-erysotramidine, (+-erythraline, (+-11-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dosedependant antifeedant activity at concentrations ³100 ppm while (+-10,11-dioxoerysotrine and (+-11b-hydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity atconcentrations ³ 300 ppm. Three known compounds (+-11-methoxyerysotramidine, (+-8-oxoerythralineand (+-15(16b-D-glucoerysodine showed no appreciable change in antifeedant activity with concentrationchange.

  4. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Dose Accumulation on the Histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Male Testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Shibel, M.M.; El-Dossouki, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50, 75 or 100 Gy. The effects of accumulating doses applied to these pupae through three consequent filial generations and the retarded influence on their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations progeny were examined. The histological observations showed that the damage in the testes was correlated with increasing the dose applied to the male parents and was the highest among the adults of F 1 . Also, the damage at any acute dose was less than the damage occurred in the same accumulated dose. The deteriorations on the testes were more evident in case of F 1 males resulting from parental males irradiated through two or three successive generations or three accumulated doses of 25 or 50 Gy

  5. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Goulart Montezano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001. However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002 and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.193, per week

  6. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Kinetic analysis of in vitro production of wild-type Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Farias de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the kinetic behavior of Sf9 and Sf21 cells used in the production of a baculovirus biopesticide to control the pest of corn Spodoptera frugiperda was analyzed. Kinetic variables such as maximum specific growth rate, cell productivity, mean rate of infection, as well as the mean rate of occlusion body production were determined during the infection of these cell-lines with the extracellular virus of the S. frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV. The Sf9 cell-line resulted in better viral production results (5.0 x 10(8 OB/mL than the Sf21 cell-line (2.5 x 10(8 OB/mL.Neste trabalho, analisou-se o comportamento cinético das células Sf9 e Sf21 utilizadas na produção de biopesticida para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda. Variáveis cinéticas, como velocidade específica máxima de crescimento, produtividade em células, velocidade média de infecção e a velocidade média de produção de OB foram determinadas durante a infecção destas linhagens com o vírus extracelular do nucleopoliedrovirus de S. frugiperda. A linhagem Sf9 resultou em melhores resultados de produção do baculovírus (5 x 10(8 OB/mL, quando comparada à linhagem Sf21 (2,5 x 10(8 OB/mL e outras linhagens da literatura.

  8. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Helle; Andersson, Mariette; Marttila, Salla; Thulin, Ingela; Hofvander, Per

    2014-04-23

    Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance.Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic.

  9. Feruloylated and Nonferuloylated Arabino-oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pectin Selectively Stimulate the Growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in Human Fecal in Vitro Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Lorentzen, Andrea; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The side chains of the rhamnogalacturonan I fraction in sugar beet pectin are particularly rich in arabinan moieties, which may be substituted with feruloyl groups. In this work the arabinan-rich fraction resulting from sugar beet pulp based pectin production was separated by Amberlite XAD hydrop...... feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides from sugar beet pulp and an initial indication of the potentially larger bifidogenic effect of relatively long-chain arabino-oligosaccharides as opposed to short-chain arabino-oligosaccharides....

  10. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  11. Impact of presowing laser irradiation of seeds on sugar beet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacała, E.; Demczuk, A.; Grzyś, E.; Prośba-Białczyk, U.; Szajsner, H.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of biostimulation on the sugar beet seeds. The seeds came from the specialized breeding program energ'hill or were irradiated by the laser in two doses. The impact of the biostimulation was analyzed by determining the nitrate reductase activity and the nitrate, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in leaves, as well as, the dry matter and sugar concentration in mature roots. The field experiment was established for two sugar beet cultivars. Biostimulation by irradiation and a special seed breeding program energ'hill had a positive influence on some examined parameters (particularly on nitrate reductase activity in Ruveta and in numerous cases on photosynthetic pigments in both cultivars). Regarding the dry matter accumulation and sugar concentration this impact was more favourable for Tiziana than for Ruveta cultivar.

  12. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  13. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin: Kinetics and rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin (SBP) is a marginally utilized co-processing product from sugar production from sugar beets. In this study, the kinetics of oxidative gelation of SBP, taking place via enzyme catalyzed cross-linking of ferulic acid moieties (FA), was studied using small angle oscillatory...... and at the elevated gelation rates (>100 Pa min−1) gels produced using laccase were stronger (higher G′) than HRP catalyzed gels at similar rates of gelation. Chemical analysis confirmed the formation of ferulic acid dehydrodimers (diFAs) by both enzymes supporting that the gelation was a result of oxidative cross...... activity dosage levels, the two enzymes produced different gelation kinetics and the resulting gels had different rheological properties: HRP (with addition of H2O2) catalyzed a fast rate of gelation compared to laccase (no H2O2 addition), but laccase catalysis produced stronger gels (higher G′). The main...

  14. Bioethanol production from grape and sugar beet pomaces by solid-state fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.A.; Toro, M.E.; Vazquez, F.; Correa-Daneri, M.L.; Gouiric, S.C.; Vallejo, M.D. [Biotechnology Institute, Engineering Faculty, National University of San Juan, Av. San Martin 1109 (Oeste), 5400 San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    A suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial waste. Grape pomace is the most abundant residue in San Juan and sugar beet pomace could be important in the region. Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) is a technology that allows transforming agroindustrial waste into many valuable bioproducts, like ethanol. This work reports a laboratory scale SSF to obtain alcohol from grape and sugar beet pomace by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The initial conditions of the culture medium were: sugars 16.5% (p/p); pH 4.5; humidity 68% (p/p). Cultures were inoculated with 10{sup 8} cells/g of pomace, and incubated in anaerobic environment, at 28 C, during 96 h. SSF showed ethanol maximum concentrations at 48 h and ethanol yield on sugars consumed was more than 82%. Yield attained creates expectation about the use of SSF to obtain fuel alcohol. (author)

  15. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  16. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  17. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloylated pectic polysaccharides from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    , identically composed, oil-in-water emulsion systems to study the effect of different methods of emulsion preparation on the emulsion stability in the presence of SBP and the kinetics of enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP. The result shows that the different methods of emulsion preparation affect...... beet pulp as a potential starting material for production of pectin derived products which could help maintain the competitiveness of the sugar beet based industry. The overall objective of this study has been focusing on understanding the kinetics of enzyme catalyzed oxidative crosslinking...... byproduct. In this study we investigated the effect of arabinans backbone length on the kinetics of horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) (HRP) catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid (FA) moieties esterified to ?-(1,5)-linked arabinans; taking into account that FA can be oxidatively cross...

  18. Genetic diversity analysis of tropical sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties in Bangladesh using RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Saclain Saidin; Latif Abdul; Bala Babul; Mallik Mithun; Islam Shahidul

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on intra-specific genetic variation of an organism is important for its genetic improvement and conservation. In order to estimate genetic variation and relatedness in eleven tropical Sugar beet varieties we used randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The RAPD analysis was performed using six decamer random primers, which amplified a total of 63 DNA fragments of which 43 (68.25%) were found polymorphic. The average polymorphic bands pe...

  19. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Filipa; Frese, Lothar; Castro, Sílvia; Duarte, Maria C.; Paulo, Octávio S.; Loureiro, João; Romeiras, Maria M.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-w...

  20. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Wadamori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW. Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW. The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  1. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgarisvar. cicla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Vanhanen, Leo; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-23

    Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet ( Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOSTATIC PROPERTIES OF CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS FOR BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the major causes of decline in the quality of granulated sugar is bacterial contamination of sugar beet. This is due to the fact that the beet-sugar industry is a good object for the development of different groups of microorganisms. The main sources of infection of products of sugar manufacture can be soil, water, air, packaging, packaging materials, vehicles, clothing, equipment. The higher the beet contamination with the microorganisms, the more they decompose sucrose and secrete metabolic byproducts. In this regard, there is a need to reduce the negative impact of various groups of microorganisms and to minimize the loss of sucrose from decomposition. In accordance with the problem given the studies to determine the bacteriostatic properties of chlorinated compounds for sugar production were carried out. We used the cultivated fluid colonized with a pure culture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and reagent treated as an object of study. In the experiments, we determined the accumulation of biomass of L. mesenteroides with nephelometric method by measuring the optical density of bacterial suspension. It was found out that after 24 hours of bacterial culturing the level of optical density in the control and active acidity were considerably higher compared with the sample treated with germicide. The number of microorganisms in the nutrient medium was determined by Vinogradsky-Shulgina-Brid’s. According to the study in the control is 1,7*10^16, in experiment with the introduction of the chlorinated compound it is 5,8*10^14. The experimental results show that the investigated chlorinated compound has bacteriostatic action against grampositive cocci saprophytic of L. mesenteroides and can be recommended for use in a sugar beet production.

  3. A new polymorphism on chromosome 6 associated with bolting tendency in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccanello, Chiara; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Biscarini, Filippo; Cantu, Dario; Saccomani, Massimo

    2015-12-07

    Premature flowering or bolting is an undesirable characteristic that causes severe sugar yield losses and interferes with harvesting. Vernalization is a prerequisite for the floral induction, achieved by exposure to low temperatures for 10-14 weeks. This process is also controlled by other environmental factors, such as long daylight photoperiods and a combination of genetic factors. The objective of this study was the identification of new genetic polymorphisms linked to bolting tendency in sugar beet. Two pollinators characterized by low and high bolting tendency were subjected to RAD-sequencing in order to detect discriminating SNPs between lines. 6,324 putative SNPs were identified. Of these, 192 were genotyped in a set of 19 pollinators, each comprising bolted and non-bolted individuals, for a total of 987 samples. Among the 192 candidate SNPs, the strongest overall association was found for SNP183 on chromosome 6 (p-value = 1.246 10(-13)). The association between SNP183 and bolting tendency was then confirmed in an independent population of 730 plants from 11 breeding lines (p-value = 0.0061). SNP183 is located in the intron of Bv_22330_orky, a sugar beet homolog of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene that could be implied in flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data support a significant association between an intronic SNP in the MMP gene located on chromosome 6 and the regulation of bolting tendency in sugar beet. The newly identified locus supports the polygenic nature of flowering control. The associated marker can be used to design SNP panels for the discrimination of bolters and non-bolters, to be used in sugar beet breeding programs for the development of improved germplasm with low bolting tendency.

  4. Genetic value pollenizer lines of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Doell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Яценко

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The features of sugar beet polygerm seed populations were studied. The ways of creation of combinationaluable pollenizers line –– component hybrid on sterile base were improve. The environment conditions had influenced on reaction of different types of genic interactions in specific sets of hybrids. The positive effects of interaction is a part of heterosis effects. It is proved that plasticity and stability effect depend on environment condition where genotype realization occurs.

  5. The effects of rinsing red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) juice on Streptococcus sp. dental plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Setyorini; Yani Corvianindya Rahayu; Tita Sistyaningrum

    2017-01-01

    Objective : The early attachment process of plaque formation is dominated by Streptococcus sp. Chemical antiplaque agent can optimize plaque control. Material and Methods : Materials of antiplaque have side effects, so it is necessary to do research of alternative antiplaque materials. One of them use red beet root because contain some antibacterial substance. The aim of this study was examine the effectiveness of rinsing red beetroot juice to Streptococcus sp. on dental plaque. Resul...

  6. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohdaly, Adel A A; Sarhan, Mohamed A; Smetanska, Iryna; Mahmoud, Awad

    2010-01-30

    Growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and screening of raw materials to identify new antioxidants. The food-processing industry generates substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. In this study the antioxidant properties and total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of three industrial by-products, sugar beet pulp, sesame cake and potato peel, extracted with various solvents were examined. Since different antioxidant compounds have different mechanisms of action, several methods were used to assess the antioxidant efficacy of extracts. Among the six solvents tested, methanol gave the highest extract yield of potato peel and sugar beet pulp, while diethyl ether gave the highest extract yield of sesame cake. Methanol exhibited the highest extraction ability for phenolic compounds, with total phenolics amounting to 2.91, 1.79 and 0.81 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight in potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts respectively, and also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in the three assays used. All three methods proved that potato peel extract had the highest antioxidant activity owing to its high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. On the basis of the results obtained, potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts could serve as natural antioxidants owing to their significant antioxidant activity. Therefore they could be used as preservative ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of different integrated weed management methods on weed density and yield of sugar beet crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare different weed management methods in sugar beet, two experiments were conducted at mashhad for two years in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Each experiment designed as a Complete Randomized Block with three replication. The treatments include: Metamitron(Goltix plus Phenmedipham (Betanal (Gol+Bet, Goltix plus Cultivation (Gol+Cu, Disk plus Betanal (Di+Bet, Disk plus Cultivation(Di+Cu, Cover Crop plus Betanal (Co+Bet, Cover Crop plus Cultivation (Co+Cu, Weeding (W and Betanal plus Weeding (Bet+W. Samplings were taken at three stages early season, after imposing the treatments and late season. Results showed that at early season in two experiments, density of weeds was lower in cover crop and disk treatment compared with other treats and the second sampling in first experiment, weeding and disk plus cultivation of treatments with 21.5 and 26.6 respectively plants per m2 and in second experiment year, weeding and application betanal plus weeding treatments, with 14 and 17.8 respectively plant in m2 showed the lowest. In the second experiment year, minimum and maximum sugar beet yield were obtained with cover crop plus betanal and weeding with 43 and 104 ton per hectare respectively. The lowest yield was obtained in check plots with 3.5ton per hectare. Maximum sugar contain (19.35% was obtained in betanal herbicide plus cultivation treatment and minimum (14.88% was obtained with hand weeding treatment. However maximum sugar beet yield was obtained with betanal plus weeding (17.85 ton per hectare and the minimum with cover crop plus betanal (7.5 ton per hectare. Key words: integrated weed management, cover crop, herbicide, cultivation, sugar beet.

  8. Application of Glycine, Tufool and Salicylic Acid in Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. under Drought Conditions

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    Mohammad Kheirkhah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of strategic products to supply sugar in water limited areas of Iran. Thus, proper managements to supply enouph water in production of sugar beet is very important. To evaluate the effects of some anti stress substances like salicylic acid, tyuful and glycine to irritigate the effect of early water deficit on suger beet, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Research Farm of Fariman Sugar Factory in 2013. Treatments consisted of control (without using anti stress substances, with three concentration of salicylic acid (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM, tyuful with three concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 liter per thousand and glycine with three concentration (1, 2 and 3 liters per thousand. The results showed that the effects of anti-stress materials significantly affected the sugar content, root yield, white sugar yield and harmful nitrogen. Highest sugar content (15.65%, root yield (83.82 t.ha-1 and white sugar percentage (11.15% were obtained by using tyuful 1.5 lit/1000. While, the lowest levels of these characters were obtained from control (not using anti stress substances. Maximum harmful nitrogen was produced in control treatment (4.38 and highest level of alkalinity with mean of 3.49 was observed by using 3 lit/1000 of glycine. Our results showed that all of the anti stress substances had positive effects on sugar beet under drought stress condition.

  9. Attempts at improving citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger in beet-molasses medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adham, N.Z. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Products Dept.

    2002-08-01

    Natural oils with high unsaturated fatty acids content when added at concentrations of 2% and 4% (v/v) to beet molasses (BM) medium caused a considerable increase in citric acid yield from Aspergillus niger. The fermentation capacities were also examined for production of citric acid using BM-oil media under different fermentation conditions. Maximum citric acid yield was achieved in surface culture in the presence of 4% olive oil after 12 days incubation. (author)

  10. Concurrent Beet Juice and Carbohydrate Ingestion: Influence on Glucose Tolerance in Obese and Nonobese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Joseph W; Binns, Scott E; Davis, Janelle L; Giordano, Gregory R; Klochak, Anna L; Paris, Hunter L; Schweder, Melani M; Peltonen, Garrett L; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Bell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO 3 - ) increases NO formation, via NO 3 - reduction to nitrite (NO 2 - ) by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults (34.0 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 ) ingested beet juice, supplemented with 25 g of glucose (carbohydrate load: 75 g), with and without prior use of antibacterial mouthwash to inhibit NO 3 - reduction to NO 2 - . Blood glucose concentrations after beet juice and glucose ingestion were greater in obese compared with nonobese adults at 60 and 90 minutes ( P = 0.004). Insulin sensitivity, as represented by the Matsuda Index (where higher values reflect greater insulin sensitivity), was lower in obese compared with nonobese adults ( P = 0.009). Antibacterial mouthwash rinsing decreased insulin sensitivity in obese (5.7 ± 0.7 versus 4.9 ± 0.6) but not in nonobese (8.1 ± 1.0 versus 8.9 ± 0.9) adults ( P = 0.048). In conclusion, insulin sensitivity was improved in obese but not in nonobese adults following coingestion of beet juice and glucose when oral bacteria nitrate reduction was not inhibited. Obese adults may benefit from ingestion of healthy nitrate-rich foods during meals.

  11. Concurrent Beet Juice and Carbohydrate Ingestion: Influence on Glucose Tolerance in Obese and Nonobese Adults

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    Joseph W. Beals

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO3- increases NO formation, via NO3- reduction to nitrite (NO2- by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3±0.8 kg/m2 (mean ± SE and 10 obese adults (34.0±0.8 kg/m2 ingested beet juice, supplemented with 25 g of glucose (carbohydrate load: 75 g, with and without prior use of antibacterial mouthwash to inhibit NO3- reduction to NO2-. Blood glucose concentrations after beet juice and glucose ingestion were greater in obese compared with nonobese adults at 60 and 90 minutes (P=0.004. Insulin sensitivity, as represented by the Matsuda Index (where higher values reflect greater insulin sensitivity, was lower in obese compared with nonobese adults (P=0.009. Antibacterial mouthwash rinsing decreased insulin sensitivity in obese (5.7±0.7 versus 4.9±0.6 but not in nonobese (8.1±1.0 versus 8.9±0.9 adults (P=0.048. In conclusion, insulin sensitivity was improved in obese but not in nonobese adults following coingestion of beet juice and glucose when oral bacteria nitrate reduction was not inhibited. Obese adults may benefit from ingestion of healthy nitrate-rich foods during meals.

  12. Assessment of Cultivation Method for Energy Beet Based on LCA Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Feng; Zu, Yuangang; Meng, Qingying; Zhu, Baoguo; Wang, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a supply system for energy resource coupled with the environment, the production technology of sugar beets was explored as a biological energy source. The low-humic andosol as the experimental soil, the panting method was direct planting, and cultivation technique was minimum tillage direct planting method. The control was conventional tillage transplant and no tillage direct planting. The results demonstrated that data revealed that the energy cost of no tillage and a d...

  13. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Ugrinovic; Mirjana Mijatovic; Jasmina Zdravkovic; Zdenka Girek; Djordje Kuzmanovic; Natasa Rasulic; Dragana Josic

    2014-01-01

    The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.), two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and ferti...

  14. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and Compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh; Siavash Salimian Rizi

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to...

  15. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of sugar beet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) genes modulated by the Beta vulgaris host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Smigocki, Ann C

    2018-04-01

    Sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis von Röder) is a major but poorly understood insect pest of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense responses are well documented, however, little information is available about complementary mechanisms for insect adaptive responses to overcome host resistance. To date, no studies have been published on SBRM gene expression profiling. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) generated more than 300 SBRM ESTs differentially expressed in the interaction of the pest with a moderately resistant (F1016) and a susceptible (F1010) sugar beet line. Blast2GO v. 3.2 search indicated that over 40% of the differentially expressed genes had known functions, primarily driven by fruit fly D. melanogaster genes. Expression patterns of 18 selected EST clones were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis predicted a dominance of metabolic and catalytic genes involved in the interaction of SBRM with its host. SBRM genes functioning during development, regulation, cellular process, signaling and under stress conditions were annotated. SBRM genes that were common or unique in response to resistant or susceptible interactions with the host were identified and their possible roles in insect responses to the host are discussed. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  18. Genetic determination of high productivity in experimental hybrid combinations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

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    М. О. Корнєєва

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creation of experimental sugar beet hybrid combinations of high sugar yield values and defining gene­tic determination of their heterotic effect. Methods. Diallel crossing and topcrossing, genetic analysis of quantitative traits. Results. The authors have studied the frequency of occurrence of sugar beet heterotic hybrid combinations for «sugar yield» trait created on the basis of two pollinator lines to be genetically valuable for productivity elements, CMS lines and single-cross sterile hybrids with the use of diallel and topcrossing system of controlled hybridization. The share of parental components’ effect and their interaction in CMS hybrids variability for productivity was determined. Expediency of heterotic forecasting based on high combining ability lines was substabtiated. Promising high-yielding sugar beet combinations were selected that exceeded the group standard by 4.1–16.3%. Conclusions. The theory of genetic balance by M. V. Turbin was confirmed. Such hybrids as [CMS 5OT 4]MGP 1 (116.3%, [CMS 1OT 2]MGP 1 (112.5% and [CMS 3OT 5]MGP 1 (113.2% were recognized as the best for their productivity, MGP 1 and MGP 2 lines – as the best for their combining ability.

  19. System dynamics approach for modeling of sugar beet yield considering the effects of climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Lia; Islam, Md Saiful

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for computation of yields and to investigate the dependency of yields on some major climatic parameters, i.e. temperature and rainfall, for Beta vulgaris subsp. (sugar beet crops) under future climate change scenarios. A system dynamics model was developed which takes account of the effects of rainfall and temperature on sugar beet yields under limited irrigation conditions. A relationship was also developed between the seasonal evapotranspiration and seasonal growing degree days for sugar beet crops. The proposed model was set to run for the present time period of 1993-2012 and for the future period 2013-2040 for Lethbridge region (Alberta, Canada). The model provides sugar beet yields on a yearly basis which are comparable to the present field data. It was found that the future average yield will be increased at about 14% with respect to the present average yield. The proposed model can help to improve the understanding of soil water conditions and irrigation water requirements of an area under certain climatic conditions and can be used for future prediction of yields for any crops in any region (with the required information to be provided). The developed system dynamics model can be used as a supporting tool for decision making, for improvement of agricultural management practice of any region. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. EFFECT OF YEAR AND ATONIK APPLICATION ON THE SELECTED SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION AND QUALITY PARAMETERS

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    I ČERNÝ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In a field trial, realised in a warm, slightly dry, maize growing region, an influence of different rates of Atonik (A: 0,6 + 0,6 l.ha-1; B: 0,4 + 0,6 + 0,6 l.ha-1; C: 0,25 + 1,0 + 0,6 l.ha-1 was observed on some technological and qualitative parameters of sugar beet (root yield, digestion, refined sugar yield. We have found a statistically high significant effect of both the yearly weather conditions and Atonik application on the development of production parameters of sugar beet in 1998 - 2000. In average, the highest values of observed parameters such as yield of sugar beet roots (54,04 t.ha-1, digestion (17,13 °S, refined sugar (14,30 % were obtained for Atonik-treated variant C (0,25 + 1,0 + 0,6 l.ha-1 in 1999.