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Sample records for beeswax

  1. 21 CFR 582.1973 - Beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beeswax. 582.1973 Section 582.1973 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... Beeswax. (a) Product. Beeswax (yellow wax). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1975 - Bleached beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bleached beeswax. 582.1975 Section 582.1975 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1975 Bleached beeswax. (a) Product. Bleached beeswax (white wax). (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1973 Beeswax (yellow and white). (a) Beeswax (CAS.... Beeswax is prepared from honeycombs after removal of the honey by draining or centrifuging. The combs...

  4. Residues in beeswax: a health risk for the consumer of honey and beeswax ?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmart, O; Legrève, A; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Reybroeck, W.; Urbain, B; de Graaf, DC; Steurbaut, W.; Delahaut, P; Gustin, Pascal; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    A scenario analysis in regard to the risk of chronic exposure of consumers to residues through the consumption of contaminated honey and beeswax was conducted. Twenty-two plant protection products and veterinary substances of which residues have already been detected in beeswax in Europe were selected. The potential chronic exposure was assessed by applying a worst-case scenario based on the addition of a “maximum” daily intake through the consumption of honey and beeswax to the theoretical m...

  5. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%.

  6. Residues in Beeswax: A Health Risk for the Consumer of Honey and Beeswax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmart, Olivier; Legrève, Anne; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Reybroeck, Wim; Urbain, Bruno; de Graaf, Dirk C; Steurbaut, Walter; Delahaut, Philippe; Gustin, Pascal; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-11-09

    A scenario analysis in regard to the risk of chronic exposure of consumers to residues through the consumption of contaminated honey and beeswax was conducted. Twenty-two plant protection products and veterinary substances of which residues have already been detected in beeswax in Europe were selected. The potential chronic exposure was assessed by applying a worst-case scenario based on the addition of a "maximum" daily intake through the consumption of honey and beeswax to the theoretical maximum daily intake through other foodstuffs. For each residue, the total exposure was finally compared to the acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that the food consumption of honey and beeswax contaminated with these residues considered separately does not compromise the consumer's health, provided proposed action limits are met. In regard to residues of flumethrin in honey and in beeswax, "zero tolerance" should be applied.

  7. Transfer of sulfamethazine from contaminated beeswax to honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybroeck, Wim; Jacobs, Frans J; De Brabander, Hubert F; Daeseleire, Els

    2010-06-23

    A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of sulfa drugs in beeswax was developed. When performing residue control on beeswax intended for the fabrication of wax foundations, residues of sulfonamides were found. A migration test was set up to study whether sulfonamide-containing beeswax could lead to the contamination of honey. The higher the concentration of sulfamethazine doped in the wax, the higher was the concentration of sulfamethazine found in the honey. The maximum transfer was 15.6, 56.9, and 29.5% of the initial amount spiked in the wax foundation. In a second experiment, the percentage of sulfamethazine migrating from medicated winter feed to beeswax in relation to the concentration in the syrup and the contact time was studied. The maximum transfer of sulfamethazine from medicated sucrose syrup to beeswax was 3.1%.

  8. Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera) Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2014-01-01

    The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“) that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“). A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes) were identif...

  9. The Role of Fatty Acids in the Mechanical Properties of Beeswax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeswax is a mixture of many organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, wax esters, and fatty acids. While the composition of beeswax is well known, how each of the components contribute to the overall functions of wax is less well understood. Because fatty acids in beeswax also serve as social si...

  10. Energetic feedings influence beeswax production by Apis mellifera L. honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice, T2 (sugar syrup and T3 (inverted sugar. Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up into the honeybee nest and beeswax built area was measured weekly. Total reducing sugar, calorimetry, dry matter and ashes of all feedings were analyzed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tukey’s test to determine differences among averages. The average consumption of inverted sugar was significantly lower than that of other treatments. The highest beeswax production average occurred in the sugar syrup treatment. The highest average of ashes, dry matter and reducing sugar occurred, respectively, in sugar-cane juice, inverted sugar and sugar syrup. Sugar syrup may be an alternative energy source for beeswax production, although sugar-cane juice may be more profitable.

  11. Encapsulation of Menthol in Beeswax by a Supercritical Fluid Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Linjing Zhu; Hongqiao Lan; Bingjing He; Wei Hong; Jun Li

    2010-01-01

    Encapsulation of menthol in beeswax was prepared by a modified particles from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS) process with controlling the gas-saturated solution flow rate. Menthol/beeswax particles with size in the range of 2–50 μm were produced. The effects of the process conditions, namely, the pre-expansion pressure, pre-expansion temperature, gas-saturated solution flow rate, and menthol composition, on the particle size, particle size distribution, and menthol encapsulation rate were inv...

  12. Fluorescent beeswax for surface flow velocity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, S.; Tauro, F.; Petroselli, A.; Mocio, G.; Capocci, I.; Rapiti, E.; Rapiti, R.; Cipollari, G.; Porfiri, M.

    2012-12-01

    Watershed surface processes control downstream runoff phenomena, waste and pollutant diffusion, erosion mechanics, and sediment transport. A quantitative understanding of the flow physics is currently limited by the lack of effective tracing techniques suitable for basin-scale observations. More specifically, field experiments require environmentally resilient, non-invasive, and low cost measurement systems that can potentially operate in remotely-controlled or unmanned conditions. Traditional tracing methodologies are largely not capable to cope with extreme in-situ conditions, including practical logistic challenges as well as inherent flow complexity. Specifically, most of available technologies need physical sampling to estimate the tracer concentration and do not allow for continuous-time measurements. In addition, commonly used tracers, such as isotopes, dyes, and chemicals, are not directly applicable to monitor surface hillslope processes and large-scale microchannel networks due to elaborate detection processes and dispersion issues. In this context, the feasibility of using buoyant fluorescent microspheres as particle tracers in natural water flows is investigated. Specifically, a novel fabrication methodology is designed to manufacture particles from natural beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. The fabrication procedure allows for adjusting the size of the particles from tens of microns up to a few millimeters and their density from positively to negatively-buoyant with respect to water. An array of experimental techniques is employed to conduct a thorough characterization of the fluorescence and morphology of the tracers. In addition, ad-hoc experiments are designed to assess the fluorescence response due to Ultra Violet (UV) exposure and thermal processes. Proof-of-concept laboratory analysis are conducted to illustrate the integration of the novel particle tracers in existing tracing methods for surface flow

  13. Encapsulation of Menthol in Beeswax by a Supercritical Fluid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation of menthol in beeswax was prepared by a modified particles from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS process with controlling the gas-saturated solution flow rate. Menthol/beeswax particles with size in the range of 2–50 μm were produced. The effects of the process conditions, namely, the pre-expansion pressure, pre-expansion temperature, gas-saturated solution flow rate, and menthol composition, on the particle size, particle size distribution, and menthol encapsulation rate were investigated. Results indicated that in the range of studied conditions, increase of the pressure, decrease of the gas-saturated solution flow rate, and decrease of the menthol mass fraction can decrease the particle size and narrow particle size distribution of the produced menthol/beeswax microparticles. An N2-blowing method was proposed to measure the menthol release from the menthol/beeswax microparticles. Results showed that the microparticles have obvious protection of menthol from its volatilization loss.

  14. Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“ that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“. A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes were identified in virgin beeswax and beeswax collected from brood combs. However, the studies showed differences in the content of n-alkanes in the beeswax obtained from light and dark coloured combs. In comparison to the virgin beeswax, the beeswax obtained from dark combs had higher content of the total n-alkanes, higher total contents of even-numbered alkanes and odd-numbered alkanes, and higher contents of certain alkanes. Furthermore, it has been found that the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax did not depend on the collection period.

  15. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: sbirrazz@unice.fr [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  16. Enhanced water vapour barrier and grease resistance of paper bilayer-coated with chitosan and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xiao, Huining; Qian, Liying

    2014-01-30

    In order to overcome the deficiencies of single layer coating, bilayer coated papers were prepared by two separate coating procedures using various combinations of proteins or polysaccharides with beeswax. Among those combinations, chitosan-beeswax bilayer coated paper showed the best water vapour barrier property. It was observed that as the concentration of chitosan solution increased from 1.0 to 3.0 wt%, its water vapour transport rate (WVTR) decreased from 171.6 to 52.8 g/m(2)/d but using reduced beeswax coating weight (from 10.1 to 4.9 g/m(2)). It also displayed an enhanced performance of grease resistance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that beeswax layer was fitted to chitosan layer so closely that these two layers are indistinguishable. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) further confirmed the existence of an integrated chitosan film between beeswax layer and paper base and a thin composite layer consisting of chitosan and beeswax.

  17. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS) technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50%) were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of para...

  18. High-pressure homogenization lowers water vapor permeability of soybean protein isolate-beeswax films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Guo, Kuan; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2012-03-07

    Soybean-protein isolate (SPI) has excellent film-forming capacity. However, the water vapor permeability of SPI film is high, which will cause the moisture lose of packaged products. The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the water vapor permeability of SPI-beeswax films was evaluated. The HPH was effective at lowering the water vapor permeability of SPI-beeswax films to about 50% of the control. The HPH reduced the particle size of films and made their matrix more compact. The HPH improved the hydrophobicity of SPI-beeswax films. For the first time, we proved that the HPH improved the bound-beeswax content in SPI-beeswax films. The bound beeswax was effective at lowering the water vapor permeability of films rather than the free beeswax in the film matrix. In summary, the HPH lowered water vapor permeability of SPI-beeswax films by reducing their particle size and raising their hydrophobicity and bound-beeswax content.

  19. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  20. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  1. Beeswax: A minireview of its antimicrobial activity and its application in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Cilia, Giovanni; Turchi, Barbara; Felicioli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Beeswax is the substance that forms the structure of a honeycomb; the bees secrete wax to build the honeycombs where to store honey. Thanks to its rich hydrophobic protective properties, the beeswax is in fact present within cosmetics and body products. Also, beeswax is used in the food industry: as a film to wrap cheese for maturing or as a food additive (E901) to give shine to the products. Exactly as the honey which it contains, beeswax is also characterized by several therapeutic properties of great interest to us; it is thought to be particularly effective in healing bruises, inflammation and burns. Recently, the interest of researchers has moved even on antimicrobial properties of beeswax although there are still few studies in the literature focused only on the action of beeswax. The few studies showed an antimicrobic effectiveness of beeswax against overall Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger; these inhibitory effects are enhanced synergistically with other natural products such as honey or olive oil. This minireview aims to be a collection of major scientific works that have considered the antimicrobial activity of beeswax alone or in combination with other natural products in recent years.

  2. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50% were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of paraffin available on the market, differ qualitatively and quantitatively as far as their hydrocarbon compositions are concerned. In all kinds of paraffin, we found homologous series of n-alkanes that were much longer than those in beeswax. In beeswax, the amount of added paraffin that is possible to detect, differs and depends on the kind of paraffin used for adulteration. In this study, the minimum estimated percent that was detected using the GC-MS technique, was 3%. The adulteration is indicated by the presence of hydrocarbons containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, and by the higher contents of n-alkanes (C20H42 - C35H72, in comparison to the concentration of these compounds determined in pure beeswax. We also presented the results of the quality control of commercial beeswax. Based on our results, it can be stated that beeswax adulteration is currently a problem.

  3. Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, J. [Public Health Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cerne, K. [Chemical Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1993-11-01

    Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. An Approach for Routine Analytical Detection of Beeswax Adulteration Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svečnjak Lidija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beeswax adulteration represents one of the main beeswax quality issues, there are still no internationally standardised analytical methods for routine quality control. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure suitable for routine detection of beeswax adulteration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For the purpose of this study, reference IR spectra of virgin beeswax, paraffin, and their mixtures containing different proportions of paraffin (5 - 95%, were obtained. Mixtures were used for the establishment of calibration curves. To determine the prediction strength of IR spectral data for the share of paraffin in mixtures, the Partial Least Squares Regression method was used. The same procedure was conducted on beeswax-beef tallow mixtures. The model was validated using comb foundation samples of an unknown chemical background which had been collected from the international market (n = 56. Selected physico-chemical parameters were determined for comparison purposes. Results revealed a strong predictive power (R2 = 0.999 of IR spectra for the paraffin and beef tallow share in beeswax. The results also revealed that the majority of the analysed samples (89% were adulterated with paraffin; only 6 out of 56 (11% samples were identified as virgin beeswax, 28% of the samples exhibited a higher level of paraffin adulteration (>46% of paraffin, while the majority of the analysed samples (50% were found to be adulterated with 5 - 20% of paraffin. These results indicate an urgent need for routine beeswax authenticity control. In this study, we demonstrated that the analytical approach defining the standard curves for particular adulteration levels in beeswax, based on chemometric modelling of specific IR spectral region indicative for adulteration, enables reliable determination of the adulterant proportions in beeswax.

  5. Quality assurance of commercial beeswax. Part I. Gas chromatography-electron impact ionization mass spectrometry of hydrocarbons and monoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; Aumente, S; del Nozal, Ma J; Martín, Ma T; Bernal, J

    2004-01-23

    The use of low-temperature capillary gas chromatography coupled to electron impact mass spectrometry for the characterization of crude beeswaxes yielded by Apis mellifera is described. The system allows the identification of a great number of compounds, some of them not reported till now in beeswax, such as a family of ethyl esters, tetracosyl oleate, and several saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The information acquired makes possible the differentiation between pure beeswax and some foundation beeswax samples where mixture of pure beeswax with another substances is suspected.

  6. KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT EDIBLE FILM BUAH KOLANG-KALING (Arenge Pinnata) DAN LILIN LEBAH (Beeswax) [Characterization of Composite Edible Film Derived from Palm Fruit (Arenge pinnata) and Beeswax

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Santoso

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study of the characteristics of edible film after addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The research used of Factorial Block Randomized Design with two treatments and each treatment was replicated three times. The first treatment was concentrations of the kolang-kaling (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%), and the second treatment was concentrations of the beeswax (0%, 0,5%, 1%, and 1,5%). The parameters were water content, tensile stre...

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-6, -8, and -20 sorbitan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, R S; Yamarik, T A

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-6, -8, and -20 Sorbitan Beeswax are ethoxylated derivatives of Beeswax that function as surfactants in cosmetic formulations. Only PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax is currently reported to be used, at concentrations up to 11%. Few data on the PEGs Sorbitan Beeswax ingredients were available. This safety assessment relied upon the available data from previous safety assessments of Beeswax, Synthetic Beeswax, Sorbitan Esters, PEGs, and PEG Sorbitan fatty acid esters, also known as Polysorbates. The ester linkage of PEG Sorbitan fatty acid esters was hydrolyzed after oral administration, and the PEG Sorbitan moiety was poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitan Stearate was hydrolyzed to stearic acid and anhydrides of sorbitol in the rat. PEGs are readily absorbed through damaged skin and are associated with contact dermatitis and systemic toxicity in burn patients. PEGs were not sensitizing to normal skin. PEGs did not cause reproductive toxicity, nor were tested PEGs mutagenic or carcinogenic. Sorbitol was not a reproductive or developmental toxin in multigenerational studies in rats. Neither Beeswax nor Synthetic Beeswax produced significant acute animal toxicity, ocular irritation, skin irritation, or skin sensitization. Polysorbates produced no acute or long-term effects, were generally not irritating or sensitizing, and were noncarcinogenic, although studies did demonstrate enhancement of the activity of chemical carcinogens. Sorbitan fatty acid esters were relatively nontoxic via ingestion, generally were not skin irritants or sensitizers, and were not mutagenic or carcinogenic. Sorbitan Laurate was a cocarcinogen in a mouse skin-painting study. PEG-6 Sorbitan Beeswax delivered via a stomach tube was nontoxic in rats in acute studies. Undiluted PEG-6 Sorbitan Beeswax was nonirritating to the eyes of rabbits and was non-irritating to intact and abraded skin of rabbits. PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax was only minimally irritating to

  8. Antimicrobial beeswax coated polylactide films with silver control release capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abad, Antonio; Lagarón, Jose Maria; Ocio, María Jose

    2014-03-17

    Although the application of silver based antimicrobial systems is a widespread technology, its implementation in areas such as food packaging is still challenging. The present paper describes the fabrication of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coated with beeswax with controlled release properties for sustained antimicrobial performance. Release of silver ions from the polymers was monitored voltammetrically under various conditions (surface contact, immersion in various liquid media and at different pH values) throughout at least 7days. A higher release was noted with decreasing pH while surface release was much slower than the release when immersed in liquid medium. While uncoated films demonstrated a high burst release which in some instances implied surpassing some current migration restrictions (beeswax layer allowed a sustained release of the antimicrobial compound. Increasing the thickness of the beeswax layer resulted in an increase in the water barrier properties of the films while reducing the relatively constant values of sustained release. Antimicrobial performance was correlated with the release of silver ions, indicating threshold concentrations for biocide action of <6μg/L and 9-14μg/L for surface contact and in liquid media, respectively. Either by surface contact or by immersion in growth medium or vegetable soup, the coated films displayed a strong bactericidal effect against Salmonella enterica. The application of this functional barrier thus offers the possibility of tuning the release profiles of the films to suit a specific application and puts forth the possible suitability of these materials for food packaging or other migration sensitive applications.

  9. Authentication of beeswax (Apis mellifera) by high-temperature gas chromatography and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Miguel; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-01-15

    Chemical characterization and authentication of beeswax of Apis mellifera was performed by high temperature capillary gas chromatography coupled to electron impact mass spectrometry or to flame ionisation detection and chemometric analysis. Many major components (>50) of beeswax, odd and even hydrocarbons, oleofin, palmitate, oleate and hydroxypalmitate monoesters were detected, and for the first time palmitate and oleate monoesters esterified with 1-octadecanol and 1-eicosanol are reported to be present in beeswax. Unsupervised pattern recognition procedures, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were used to find data patterns and successfully differentiate authentic and paraffin adulterated beeswax based on the chemical profile obtained. Independent assessment of beeswax quality and performance of the unsupervised classification methods were performed using classical analytical parameters. The discrimination power of the chemometric unsupervised methods for detection of paraffin adulterated beeswax was superior to the discriminating power of classical analytical parameters. Using linear discriminant analysis, classification rules for authentic and paraffin adulterated beeswax samples were developed. The model was validated by leave-one-out cross validation and showed good recognition and prediction abilities, 100% and 99%, respectively.

  10. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g(-1). At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer.

  11. KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT EDIBLE FILM BUAH KOLANG-KALING (Arenge Pinnata DAN LILIN LEBAH (Beeswax [Characterization of Composite Edible Film Derived from Palm Fruit (Arenge pinnata and Beeswax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study of the characteristics of edible film after addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The research used of Factorial Block Randomized Design with two treatments and each treatment was replicated three times. The first treatment was concentrations of the kolang-kaling (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, and the second treatment was concentrations of the beeswax (0%, 0,5%, 1%, and 1,5%. The parameters were water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The result showed that the addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax significantly afected the water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The thickness increased with the increasing concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The water vapor transmission rate, tensile strength, and elongation percentage were decreased. The tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate of edible film were 0,342 Kgf cm-2, 52,5%, 0,025 mm and 53,439 gm-2hari-1 respectively. The best treatment was achived by using concentration of kolang-kaling at 5% and concentration of beeswax at 1,5%.

  12. 'Wax bloom' on beeswax cultural heritage objects: Exploring the causes of the phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, B; Kobera, L; Drábková, K; Ďurovič, M; Brus, J

    2015-07-01

    The term 'wax bloom' is used to describe a thin whitish crystalline layer that develops on the surface of beeswax objects under specific conditions. This phenomenon is undesirable, especially in the cases of objects with aesthetic or informational value, such as wax sculptures or historical seals. A combination of solid-state NMR and FTIR measurements allowed to obtain fairly detailed insight into the problem and to suggest a probable mechanism of its development. Secondary crystallization of unsaturated hydrocarbons from beeswax was determined as a primary cause. After the macroscopic solidification of beeswax from the melt, these molecules remain for months in a highly mobile, liquid-like state. This facilitates their diffusion to the surface, where they eventually crystallize, forming the 'wax bloom' effect. Although these results are of particular interest with respect to the conservation of beeswax artifacts, they are relevant to this material in general and help with understanding its unique properties.

  13. Deterioration of ancient Korean paper (Hanji), treated with beeswax: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myung-Joon; Bogolitsyna, Anna; Jo, Byoung-Muk; Kang, Kyu-Young; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje

    2014-01-30

    In the early 15th century, beeswax coating was applied to some of the cellulosic documents in a futile attempt to better conserve the paper. However, this treatment caused much more severe degradation compared to untreated Hanji. In the current study, the degradation pathway of this beeswax-treated Hanji has been clarified for the first time. The degradation of cellulose was investigated by labeling of oxidized groups combined with gel permeation chromatography, providing profiles of carbonyl and carboxyl groups relative to the molar mass distribution. The beeswax caused purely hydrolytic damage, leading to a decrease in molar mass to about one fifth of the original value. Oxidative degradation, by contrast, did not occur to any significant extent. Hydrolysis was not caused by acids but by microorganism feeding on the beeswax and excreting cellulolytic enzymes, which cause similar cellulose damage patterns. The hydrolytic enzymes were identified by typical metabolites present in the Hanji.

  14. Transfer of nitroimidazoles from contaminated beeswax to honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2017-04-01

    Nitroimidazoles are not authorised for the treatment of honey bees in the European Union. However, they can be found in honey largely because they are illegally used in apiculture for the treatment of Nosema. The aim of the study was to examine the possible transfer of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole) from contaminated beeswax to honey. The wax foundations fortified with a mixture of four nitroimidazoles at three concentration levels (1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg(-)(1)) were placed in beehives to let the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) draw out the contaminated wax foundations to honeycombs. At 1 month from the start, the frames filled with capped honey were removed from the hives for a first sampling of honey. Next, the honeycombs were further incubated for 5 months in the laboratory at 35°C and sampled monthly. In the sampled honey, the concentrations of nitroimidazoles and their main metabolites (hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, hydroxyipronidazole) were determined by LC-MS/MS and compared with those determined in the nitroimidazole-containing wax foundations. Each of the tested nitroimidazoles could migrate from beeswax to honey kept in the contaminated combs at each tested concentration level. Higher maximum concentrations of residues in honey sampled from contaminated combs at 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg(-)(1) were observed for metronidazole (28.9, 368.5 and 2589.4 μg kg(-)(1) respectively) and ronidazole (27.4, 232.9 and 2351.2 μg kg(-)(1) respectively), while lower maximum concentrations were measured for dimetridazole (0.98, 8.4 and 67.7 μg kg(-)(1)) and ipronidazole (0.9, 7.9 and 35.7 μg kg(-)(1) respectively). When we took into account that a frame completely filled with honey on both sides of the comb contained 110 g of beeswax and 2488 g of honey, and that this ratio was constant, then maximum amounts of initial metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole

  15. Quality assurance of commercial beeswax II. Gas chromatography-electron impact ionization mass spectrometry of alcohols and acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; Aumente, S; Toribio, L; Bernal, J

    2003-07-25

    Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was used to find the fraction of alcohols and acids present in pure beeswax from Apis mellifera. Some new compounds not described till now were found, such as a family of unsaturated linear fatty acids, several hydroxyacids and 1,2,3-propanetriol monoesters. The chromatographic profiles obtained from pure beeswax and bee-rejected foundation beeswax can be used to discriminate them; they mainly differ in the amount of some acids and alcohols.

  16. Application of Gas Chromatography with the Mass Detector (GC-MS) Technique for Detection of Beeswax Adulteration with Paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2015-01-01

    To detect beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin), gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS) technique was used. The method has been verified here on beeswax samples with different addition (3, 5, 10, 30, and 50%) of paraffin and validated under the conditions of repeatability and within - laboratory reproducibility. The addition of paraffin to beeswax can already be detected on the basis of an analysis of the chromatograms. The intensity of individual alkan...

  17. Application of Gas Chromatography with the Mass Detector (GC-MS Technique for Detection of Beeswax Adulteration with Paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To detect beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin, gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS technique was used. The method has been verified here on beeswax samples with different addition (3, 5, 10, 30, and 50% of paraffin and validated under the conditions of repeatability and within - laboratory reproducibility. The addition of paraffin to beeswax can already be detected on the basis of an analysis of the chromatograms. The intensity of individual alkane peaks increased with the increase of the amount of paraffin added to the beeswax. This increase was the mostly visible for the alkanes with even numbers of carbon atoms in the molecule: C24H50, C26H54, C28H58, C30H62, C32H66, and C34H70. These observations have also been proven by quantitative analysis performed using the internal standard method. Adding paraffin to beeswax resulted in an increase in the total contents of n-alkanes as well as individual alkanes, and in particular, of the even-numbered alkanes. The addition of paraffin to beeswax also resulted in the appearance of alkanes containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, which were not detected in beeswax. The method for determination of beeswax hydrocarbons with the GC-MS technique is characterised by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. This method can be used for the detection of beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin.

  18. STUDY OF THE PROLONGED RELEASE OF A DRUG FROM ENCAPSULATED GRANULES PREPARED WITH BEESWAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Elechi* and H. C. Mital

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro dissolution studies of encapsulated sodium salicylate granules coated with beeswax is presented. The factors investigated were the effects of concentration, presence of a hydrophilic fatty material, polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000, and technique (pan-coating, fusion and granulation on the sustained release of drug when coated with beeswax. Comparison of release rates was based on the use of a parameter, t70% (time for 70% of drug to be released. The greater the concentration of beeswax, ranging from 13.04 to 28.75%, the more prolonged the release. The presence of PEG 6000 at a concentration of 1:9 beeswax in the coating fluid significantly (p<0.05 increased the release rate, and at a concentration of 1:1 nullified the sustained release effect of beeswax. The t70% for the fusion, granulated and pan-coated batches were in the increasing order of 25min., 1hr.35min. and 2hr.45min, respectively.

  19. Beeswax-chitosan emulsion coated paper with enhanced water vapor barrier efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xiao, Huining; Qian, Liying

    2014-05-01

    For lipid-hydrocolloid emulsion based film, the increase of lipid amount would improve its water vapor barrier property, but also reduce the mechanical strength of the film in the meantime thus leading to a compromised lipid content in the film. However, when the emulsion is coated on paper surface, more lipid could be used for emulsion preparation to enhance the moisture resistance without considering the weakened strength of the film induced by lipid, because the mechanical properties of emulsion coated paper is mainly governed by the strength of base paper instead of the coating layer. In this study, beeswax-chitosan emulsion was first prepared and then coated on paper surface to improve paper's water vapor barrier and water resistance properties. The range and variance analysis of orthogonal test design showed that the order of priorities of the factors accordingly was beeswax solid content, drying temperature and chitosan concentration. The effect of drying temperature on water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and water contact angle of coated paper was further investigated using 1.2 wt% chitosan and 96% beeswax solid content in the coating layer. The results indicated that water vapor barrier property was in accordance with the density of the coating layer. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was also used to characterize the surface morphology and explain the hydrophobicity of beeswax-chitosan coated paper. It was found that surface beeswax particles melted to wrinkle at high drying temperatures, while roughness values maintained at micro-scale over the temperature range investigated.

  20. Preparation of the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites for enhancing antibacterial and water resistance properties of paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liang, Hunan; Nasrallah, Joseph; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-05-20

    An effective method of preparing composites containing inorganic (Ag) and organic (beeswax) particles was established in this study. Ag nanoparticles were first immobilized on the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) during the reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of CNC, then mixed with beeswax by high speed stirring. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images indicated that Ag and beeswax particles were uniformly dispersed and stable in the network structure formed by CNC. Upon coating on a paper surface, a layer of beeswax film was evident based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The dynamic contact angle and antibacterial activity tests indicated that the contact angle of coated paper reached 113.06° and the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli increased to 99.96%, respectively, at a coating amount of 21.53 g/m(2). When applied onto paper surface by coating, the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites can impact paper with antibacterial property and improved water resistance.

  1. Study of acaricide stability in honey. Characterization of amitraz degradation products in honey and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta, E; Bakkali, A; Berrueta, L A; Gallo, B; Vicente, F; Kilchenmann, V; Bogdanov, S

    2001-12-01

    A study on the possible degradation of amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos, chlordimeform, cymiazole, flumethrin, and tau-fluvalinate during the storage of honey was carried out by HPLC. Except amitraz, the other acaricides are stable in this medium for at least 9 months. Degradation studies of amitraz in honey and beeswax were carried out; the degradation products detected in both matrices were 2,4-dimethylphenylformamide (DMF) and N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N'-methylformamidine (DPMF). The reaction rate constants and the half-lives of the amitraz degradation in honey and wax were calculated. Amitraz was nearly completely degraded within 1 day in beeswax and within 10 days in honey. When amitraz-spiked combs are recycled into new beeswax, DMF was found to be the principal degradation product left in pure wax.

  2. D-002 (beeswax alcohols): concurrent joint health benefits and gastroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vivian; Mas, R; Carbajal, D

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs include the traditional drugs and more selective COX-2 inhibitors. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use is hampered by their gastrotoxicity, while COX-2-inhibitors increase the cardiovascular risk. The search of safer substances for managing inflammatory conditions is updated, a challenge wherein dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors have a place. This review summarizes the benefits of D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, on joint health and gastric mucosa. D-002 elicits gastroprotection through a multiple mechanism that involves the increased secretion and improved quality of the gastric mucus, the reduction of hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, neutrophil infiltration and the increase of antioxidant enzymes on the gastric mucosa. Consistently, D-002 inhibits NSAIDs, ethanol, pylorus-ligation and acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats, and has reduced gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical studies. Early results found that D-002 was effective in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced pleurisy model in rats, lowering pleural leukotriene B4 levels without causing gastrointestinal ulceration. However, D-002 effects on inflammation received little attention for years. Recent data have shown that D-002 inhibited both COX and 5-LOX activities with a greater affinity for 5-LOX and could act as a dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor. This mechanism might explain efficacy in experimental inflammatory and osteoarthritic models as well as clinical efficacy in osteoarthritic patients while supporting the lack of D-002 gastrotoxicity, but not the gastroprotective effects, which appear to be due to multiple mechanisms. In summary oral D-002 intake could help manage inflammatory conditions that impair joint health, while offering gastroprotection.

  3. Interspecific variation in beeswax as a biological construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R; Otis, Gard

    2006-10-01

    Beeswax is a multicomponent material used by bees in the genus Apis to house larvae and store honey and pollen. We characterized the mechanical properties of waxes from four honeybee species: Apis mellifera L., Apis andreniformis L., Apis dorsata L. and two subspecies of Apis cerana L. In order to isolate the material effects from the architectural properties of nest comb, we formed raw wax in to right, circular cylindrical samples, and compressed them in an electromechanical tensometer. From the resulting stress-strain curves, values for yield stress, yield strain, stress and strain at the proportional limit, stiffness, and resilience were obtained. Apis dorsata wax was stiffer and had a higher yield stress and stress at the proportional limit than all of the other waxes. The waxes of A. cerana and A. mellifera had intermediate strength and stiffness, and A. andreniformis wax was the least strong, stiff and resilient. All of the waxes had similar strain values at the proportional limit and yield point. The observed differences in wax mechanical properties correlate with the nesting ecology of these species. A. mellifera and A. cerana nest in cavities that protect the nest from environmental stresses, whereas the species with the strongest and stiffest wax, A. dorsata, constructs relatively heavy nests attached to branches of tall trees, exposing them to substantially greater mechanical forces. The wax of A. andreniformis was the least strong, stiff and resilient, and their nests have low masses relative to other species in the genus and, although not built in cavities, are constructed on lower, often shielded branches that can absorb the forces of wind and rain.

  4. D-002 (beeswax alcohols: Concurrent joint health benefits and gastroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs include the traditional drugs and more selective COX-2 inhibitors. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use is hampered by their gastrotoxicity, while COX-2-inhibitors increase the cardiovascular risk. The search of safer substances for managing inflammatory conditions is updated, a challenge wherein dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors have a place. This review summarizes the benefits of D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, on joint health and gastric mucosa. D-002 elicits gastroprotection through a multiple mechanism that involves the increased secretion and improved quality of the gastric mucus, the reduction of hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, neutrophil infiltration and the increase of antioxidant enzymes on the gastric mucosa. Consistently, D-002 inhibits NSAIDs, ethanol, pylorus-ligation and acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats, and has reduced gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical studies. Early results found that D-002 was effective in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced pleurisy model in rats, lowering pleural leukotriene B4 levels without causing gastrointestinal ulceration. However, D-002 effects on inflammation received little attention for years. Recent data have shown that D-002 inhibited both COX and 5-LOX activities with a greater affinity for 5-LOX and could act as a dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor. This mechanism might explain efficacy in experimental inflammatory and osteoarthritic models as well as clinical efficacy in osteoarthritic patients while supporting the lack of D-002 gastrotoxicity, but not the gastroprotective effects, which appear to be due to multiple mechanisms. In summary oral D-002 intake could help manage inflammatory conditions that impair joint health, while offering gastroprotection.

  5. Beeswax in Asante Castings: The Then, Now and the Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Baah Kissi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax used for Asante casting by Krofofrom artisans and the Asantehene gild of metalsmiths in the 1700`s are extracted naturally without further chemical treatment to enhance their workability. Although modelling with this wax is very effective, mass production technique now adopted by local artisans and the inflow of machine made artefacts due to globalization has crippled the sale of locally manufactured artefacts. This research dives into various ways of manipulating the natural beeswax using conventional waxes to help achieve complex and competitive designs suitable for the international feed. Qualitative research design approach was used and the descriptive and experimental research methodologies were employed. A comparative analysis was conducted on the production processes employed in the 1700`s and those practiced by various cultures in Africa and experiment was conducted on beeswax to ascertain a suitable wax formulation for the production of complex shapes and sizes using simple Jewellery technique less employed by local metal artisans for casting. It was found that the addition of various additives to the beeswax improved its workability and also the use of Plaster of Paris in wax modelling should be adapted as used in this research for traditional mass production for maximum yield and less stress.

  6. New backing layer for transdermal drug delivery systems: coatings based on fatty acid and beeswax on chitosan films

    OpenAIRE

    Rullier-Birat, Bénédicte; Cazalbou, Sophie; Nassar, Maria Alejandra; Sandrine, Cavalie; Tourrette, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Fatty acids and beeswax are known to improve barrier properties of biodegradable materials. Thanks to their hydrophobic character, they can act as a barrier against water giving to the material more occlusive properties. This work was aimed at preparing fatty acid and beeswax coatings for a transdermal drug delivery system. In order to study occlusive properties of these coatings, water vapor permeability and contact angle measurements were carried out. The most homoge...

  7. Encapsulation and characterization of controlled release flurbiprofen loaded microspheres using beeswax as an encapsulating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjha, Nazar M; Khan, Hafeezullah; Naseem, Shahzad

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to extend the use of flurbiprofen in clinical settings by avoiding its harmful gastric effects. For this purpose, we designed the controlled release solid lipid flurbiprofen microspheres (SLFM) by emulsion congealing technique. Drug was entrapped into gastro resistant biodegradable beeswax microspheres which were prepared at different drug/beeswax ratios 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 using gelatin and tween 20 as emulsifying agents. The effect of emulsifiers and the effect drug/beeswax ratios were studied on hydration rate, encapsulating efficiency, micromeritic properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (X-RD) analysis and in vitro drug release at pH 1.2 for 2 h and at pH 6.8 for 10 h. SEM revealed that microspheres made with tween 20 were smooth while microspheres made with gelatin showed porous morphology, however, they were all spherical in nature. The practical yield (recovery) showed a dependence on drug-beeswax ratio and it was variable from 53 to 84%. High loading encapsulating efficiency of flurbiprofen from 8 to 94% was achieved. FTIR and DSC analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction indicating drug stability during microencapsulation. X-RD of pure flurbiprofen shows sharp peaks, which decreases on encapsulation, indicating decrease in the crystallinity of drug in microspheres. The micromeritic studies confirmed the presence of excellent and good flow properties of microspheres. Entrapment efficiency, morphology, practical yield, hydration rate, flow properties demonstrated their dependence on the HLB value of emulsifiers and emulsifiers with higher HLB were found more appropriate for effective microencapsulation of flurbiprofen. The release kinetics followed zero order mechanism of drug release at pH 6.8. Release pattern depends on the morphology of flurbiprofen microspheres and amount of beeswax used in

  8. Sample preparation methods for beeswax characterization by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; del Nozal, M A J; Martín, M A T; Bernal, J

    2006-10-06

    New and simpler methods of sample preparation to determine several families of compounds in beeswax by conventional and high temperature gas chromatography are proposed. To analyze hydrocarbons and palmitates, a dilution of sample is enough whereas for the total acid content, a hydrolysis and simultaneous methylation with BF3-methanol results more effective than the usual methods; for the total content of alcohols, a further acetylation with acetic anhydride is necessary. Free alcohols are directly acetylated in a sample dissolution but for free acids and monoesterified 1,2,3-propanetriols analysis, a previous extraction with acetonitrile is required. The concentrations of all the compounds studied are expressed in weight percentage referred only to one standard: octadecyl octadecanoate. The precision of the analytical methods has been evaluated showing its importance in the analysis of beeswaxes used in apiculture.

  9. Effect of Fatty acids and beeswax addition on properties of sodium caseinate dispersions and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, M J; Jiménez, A; Atarés, L; Talens, P; Chiralt, A

    2009-06-08

    Edible films based on sodium caseinate and different saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, or beeswax were formulated. Film-forming emulsions were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, rheological behavior and surface tension. In order to evaluate the influence of lipids on sodium caseinate matrices, mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties were studied, taking into account the effect of water content and film structure on such properties. Saturated fatty acids affected the film properties in a particular way due to the formation of bilayer structures which limited water vapor permeability, giving rise to nonflexible and more opaque films. Oleic acid and beeswax were less effective as water vapor barriers, although the former imparted more flexibility to the caseinate films and did not reduce the film transparency notably.

  10. Beeswax corticosterone implants produce long-term elevation of plasma corticosterone and influence condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michelle L; Davies, Scott; Moore, Ignacio T; Schoenle, Laura A; Kerman, Kaan; Vernasco, Ben J; Sewall, Kendra B

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids can play a critical role in modulating life-history trade-offs. However, studying the effects of glucocorticoids on life-history often requires experimentally elevating plasma glucocorticoid concentrations for several weeks within normal physiological limits and without repeated handling of the animal. Recently, implants made of beeswax and testosterone (T) were shown to have release dynamics superior to some currently available T implants, and these beeswax implants dissolved, eliminating the need to recapture the animal. We evaluated the utility of beeswax implants containing four different dosages of corticosterone (CORT; the primary glucocorticoid in birds) and their effect on several condition indices in a captive colony of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). The three implants with the greatest CORT doses (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5mg) produced spikes in plasma CORT concentrations 20h after treatment, but were within the limits that zebra finches may normally experience. The 0.5mg CORT implant elevated plasma CORT between typical baseline and restraint stress levels reported in other studies of zebra finches for the entire 35day experiment. Birds in the 0.5mg implant group were heavier, had greater furcular fat scores, and had lower hematocrit than birds in the control and other CORT implant groups. Beeswax CORT implants are a low cost method of elevating plasma CORT for a prolonged time. Furthermore, because there is no need to remove these implants at the end of a study, this method may be amenable to studies of free-ranging animals.

  11. Effect of starch-beeswax coatings on quality parameters of blackberries (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gallardo, Alfonso; García-Almendárez, Blanca; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo; Pimentel-González, Diana; Reyes-González, L R; Regalado, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    There is increased interest in berry fruits due to health benefits, and maintenance of fruit quality for longer periods of time has been a priority. We previously found that starch based coatings applied on raspberries was associated to volatile compounds production due to anoxic conditions. The objective of this work was to design more hydrophobic coatings with reduced thickness. A starch-beeswax dispersion containing 2 % (w/v) modified tapioca starch added with either 0.5 or 1.0 % (w/v) beeswax microparticles was produced, and used for spray coating freshly harvested blackberries (Rubus spp.). Coatings were air dried, packed in plastic trays and stored up to 16 days at 4 °C and 88 % relative humidity. Storage quality parameters such as hardness, respiration rate, anthocyanins content, total phenols, color changes and weight loss were evaluated. We did not find Interactions among coating ingredients, and incorporation of beeswax reduced moisture transfer rate. Coatings did not occlude the stomata and apparently did not over-hydrate the cuticle. This characteristic allowed appropriate gas exchange (O2 and CO2), and reduced accumulation of volatile compounds associated to fermentative metabolism. Respiration rates were 4.207 ± 0.157, 4.557 ± 0.220 and 4.780 ± 0.050 mmol CO2 kg(-1) h(-1) for control, 0.5 and 1 % of wax content in coatings, respectively. However, ethylene production increased throughout storage time along with beeswax concentration, indicating stressful conditions for the fruit. This trend appears to be related with changes in total phenols and anthocyanins during storage. Edible coatings based on starch and hydrophobic particles should be reformulated to maintain quality of stored berry fruits.

  12. Development of soybean protein-isolate edible films incorporated with beeswax, Span 20, and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhang; Yue, Ma; Xiaoyan, Zhao; Dan, Ma

    2010-08-01

    The effect of the beeswax, Span 20, and glycerol content on qualities of soybean-protein-isolate edible films was evaluated. Beeswax and Span 20 were selected to improve qualities of soybean-protein-isolate films from 11 emulsifiers. The content of beeswax, Span 20, and glycerol was further optimized by response surface analysis. The optimal composite emulsifier was beeswax (1.87% of soybean protein-isolate), Span 20 (10.25% of soybean protein-isolate), and glycerol (29.12% of soybean protein-isolate) with tensile strength of 908 MPa, percentage elongation at break of 25.8%, water vapor permeability of 19.2 g/m.d.MPa, and oxygen permeability of 0 cm(3)/m.d.MPa. The quality of soybean-protein-isolate films incorporated with the optimal composite emulsifier was 2.34 times higher than that of the control. Furthermore, the disulfide bond content of soybean-protein-isolate films showed a positive correlation with their quality, which provided a simple and rapid way to rank quality of soybean-protein-isolate films. Therefore, our result will not only give an instruction to soybean-protein-isolate-film production, but also give a simple and rapid way to rank film qualities. Practical Application: Our results give the optimal composite emulsifiers for the soybean-protein-isolate-film production. The soybean-protein-isolate films based on the optimal composite emulsifiers show their tensile strength of 908 MPa, percentage elongation at break of 25.8%, water vapor permeability of 19.2 g/m.d.MPa, and oxygen permeability of 0 cm(3)/m.d.MPa, being stronger than the control. Moreover, our results give a simple and rapid way to rank film qualities, because the disulfide bond content of soybean-protein-isolate films showed a positive correlation with their quality. Hence, the disulfide bond content was an indicator to rank qualities of soybean-protein-isolate films.

  13. Determination of sulfonamides in beeswax by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2015-12-01

    The manuscript presents the development of a new method for the quantification of 16 sulfonamides in beeswax. Different sample preparation techniques were tested and modified to maximise the recovery of the target analytes and minimise the amount of coeluted impurities under conditions that provide reproducible results. The proposed method consisted of melting and dilution of beeswax in a mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol followed by extraction with 2% acetic acid. The extract was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using strong cation exchange phase. Determination of the sulfonamides was achieved by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a pentafluorophenyl analytical column and applying a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.01% acetic acid as mobile phases. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 1 to 2μg/kg and from 2 to 5μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries varied between 65.2% and 117.8% while coefficient of variation of the method was less than 24.2% under intermediate precision conditions. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of real samples of beeswax from beekeepers and commercial foundations manufacturers.

  14. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods

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    Giedre Kasparaviciene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically. Physical properties of lipsticks melting point were determined in a glass tube; the hardness was investigated with texture analyzer. Sensory analysis was performed with untrained volunteers. The optimized mixture of sea buckthorn oil and grapeseed oil mixture ratio 13.96 : 6.18 showed the highest antioxidative activity (70±0.84% and was chosen for lipstick formulation. According to the sensory and instrumental analysis results, optimal ingredients amounts for the lipstick were calculated: 57.67% mixture of oils, 19.58% beeswax, and 22.75% cocoa butter. Experimentally designed and optimized lipstick formulation had good physical properties and high scored sensory evaluation. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between sensory and instrumental evaluations.

  15. Impact of the use of fluvalinate on different types of beeswax from Spanish hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Sabine; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Bayarri, Susana; Herrera, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Acaricides are applied in agriculture as phytosanitary products against pests and in apiculture to control the bee parasite Varroa destructor. Poor apicultural practices could result in an accumulation of residues in honeybees, in the environment, and in beeswax and other bee products by migration from the wax comb into stored honey through a process of diffusion and consequently constitute a potential risk for humans. In this study, six different types of beeswax samples were analysed for the determination of residues of fluvalinate, coumaphos, and bromopropylate and its metabolite 4,4'-dibromobenzophenone, all of which are the most commonly acaricides used by Spanish beekeepers against V. destructor. The analytic method consists of solid-phase extraction on a SPE Florisil cartridge and high-performance liquid chromatography separation using a photo diode array detector. The results show that fluvalinate residues were detected in 36.3% of samples, ranging from 1.2 to 6.6 microg/g wax. Residues of coumaphos, bromopropylate, and 4,4'-dibromobenzophenone were not found to be greater than their detection limits. This study indicates that the analysis of these compounds in beeswax samples could be used as bioindicators of fluvalinate sanitary treatment and handling practices applied by beekeepers.

  16. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Savickas, Arunas; Kalveniene, Zenona; Velziene, Saule; Kubiliene, Loreta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically. Physical properties of lipsticks melting point were determined in a glass tube; the hardness was investigated with texture analyzer. Sensory analysis was performed with untrained volunteers. The optimized mixture of sea buckthorn oil and grapeseed oil mixture ratio 13.96 : 6.18 showed the highest antioxidative activity (70 ± 0.84%) and was chosen for lipstick formulation. According to the sensory and instrumental analysis results, optimal ingredients amounts for the lipstick were calculated: 57.67% mixture of oils, 19.58% beeswax, and 22.75% cocoa butter. Experimentally designed and optimized lipstick formulation had good physical properties and high scored sensory evaluation. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between sensory and instrumental evaluations.

  17. Topical Formulation Containing Beeswax-Based Nanoparticles Improved In Vivo Skin Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro; Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves

    2017-02-17

    Lipid nanoparticles have shown many advantages for treatment/prevention of skin disorders with damaged skin barrier function. Beeswax is a favorable candidate for the development of nanosystems in the cosmetic and dermatological fields because of its advantages for the development of products for topical application. In the present study, beeswax-based nanoparticles (BNs) were prepared using the hot melt microemulsion technique and incorporated to a gel-cream formulation. The formulation was subsequently evaluated for its rheological stability and effect on stratum corneum water content (SCWC) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) using in vivo biophysical techniques. BNs resulted in mean particle size of 95.72 ± 9.63 nm and zeta potential of -9.85 ± 0.57 mV. BN-loaded formulation showed shear thinning behavior, well adjusted by the Herschel-Bulkley model, and a small thixotropy index that were stable for 28 days at different temperatures. BN-loaded formulation was also able to simultaneously decrease the TEWL and increase the SCWC values 28 days after treatment. In conclusion, the novel beeswax-based nanoparticles showed potential for barrier recovery and open the perspective for its commercial use as a novel natural active as yet unexplored in the field of dermatology and cosmetics for treatment of skin diseases with damaged skin barrier function.

  18. Molecular structure of crude beeswax studied by solid-state 13C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2004-01-01

    13C solid-state NMR experiments were performed to investigate the structure of beeswax in the native state (crude beeswax) for the first time. From quantitative direct polarization 13C MAS NMR spectrum, it was found that the fraction of internal-chain methylene (int-(CH2)) component compared to other components of crude beeswax was over 95%. The line shape of the int-(CH2) carbon resonance region was comprehensively analyzed in terms of NMR chemical shift. The 13C broad peak component covering from 31 to 35 ppm corresponds to int-(CH2) carbons with trans conformation in crystalline domains, whereas the sharp signal at 30.3 ppm corresponds to gauche conformation in the non-crystalline domain. From peak deconvolution of the aliphatic region, it was found that over 85% of the int-(CH2) has a crystal structure and several kinds of molecular packing for int-(CH2), at least three, exist in the crystalline domain.

  19. Effect of Soil Contact on the Modulus of Elasticity of Beeswax-Impregnated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Németh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use beeswax impregnation as a wood preservative method and to evaluate its suitability to protect wood species with low resistance to decay. Poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. Pannonia and beech (Fagus sylvatica samples were impregnated with beeswax and exposed to soil contact for 18 months. Impregnated samples were separated into three groups, on the basis of their degrees of pore saturation (DPS. With progressing decay, the load-bearing capacity and modulus of elasticity (MOE of the woods decreased. After one month of soil contact, there was a marked decrease in MOE, which is explained by the increase in the moisture content of the wood. After 18 months, control samples were completely decayed. Nevertheless, impregnated samples showed less decay and a noticeable remaining load-bearing capacity. Impregnation efficiency had a pronounced effect on decay resistance. In both investigated species, samples with higher DPS resulted in less of a decrease in MOE than in samples with lower DPS. Although beeswax is a bio-based material, it showed noticeable decay resistance effects against soft rot. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the impregnation has a barrier effect, mostly in the longitudinal direction, against the spread of the fungi.

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of the Nd:YAG laser removal of beeswax on Galician granite at 355 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Aldara; Rebollar, Esther; Conde, J. Carlos; Lusquiños, Fernando; Chiussi, Stefano; León, Betty

    2010-09-01

    Beeswax coatings applied to seal off the granitic surfaces of many monuments have resulted in detrimental effects with time passing. Conservation procedures must be carried out in a selective way, removing the beeswax without any degradation of the stone. In this study we present an experimental analysis of the removal of beeswax using a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm which is absorbed weakly by the beeswax. For this reason, an important percentage of the laser radiation reaches the granite substrate and the influence of the layer thickness must be studied. At each laser fluence, for single-pulse irradiation we find a maximum thickness for complete removal of the film. For thicker layers, the beeswax is not removed and additional effects such as color changes and thickness increase are observed. The experimental results suggest that a photomechanical mechanism is dominant and that granite absorption plays a fundamental role. Multiple-pulse irradiation is also performed to determine the optimal parameters for laser cleaning. Finally, infrared thermography measurements allow for the determination of the granite surface temperature after laser irradiation and theoretical calculations allow one to estimate the absorption behavior of granite at 355 and to explain the results obtained.

  1. Extraction of thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, and camphor residues from honey and beeswax. Determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Jiménez, J J; González, M J; Higes, M

    2002-04-19

    A gas chromatographic method to determine thymol, eucalyptol (cineole), menthol and camphor residues in honey and beeswax is proposed. To isolate the compounds, three methods involving liquid-liquid extraction with methylene chloride, distillation, or solid-phase extraction on octadecylsilica cartridges can be used. The GC separation is carried out on a 60 m x 0.53 mm Stabilwax DA capillary column, using a flame ionization detector. The method is applied to the analysis of natural honey and also honey and beeswax samples from beehives treated with the above compounds.

  2. Characterization of multilayered and composite edible films from chitosan and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Alves, Vitor D

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan-based edible films were prepared and subjected to cross-linking reactions using sodium tripolyphosphate and/or to beeswax coating on both films interfaces. In addition, chitosan-beeswax emulsion-based films were produced. The goal of these modifications of the chitosan films was the improvement of their barrier to water vapor and to decrease their affinity to liquid water maintaining or improving the mechanical and optical properties of the original chitosan films. The cross-linking with tripolyphosphate decreased both the water vapor permeability and the water absorption capacity to about 55% and 50% of that of the original chitosan films, respectively. However, there was an increase in the films stiffness, revealed by the increased Young modulus from 42 kPa up to 336 kPa. The multilayered wax-chitosan-wax films exhibited a similar improvement of the barrier properties to water vapor, with the advantage of maintaining the mechanical properties of the original chitosan films. However, these wax-coated films showed a higher water absorption capacity, which is believed to be a consequence of water entry into small pores between the film and the wax layers. Regarding the film samples subjected to cross-linking and further coating with beeswax, a similar behavior as the uncoated cross-linked films was observed. The emulsion-based composite films were characterized by a substantial decrease of the water vapor permeability (40%), along with a decrease in their stiffness. Regarding the optical properties, all films presented a yellowish color with similar values of lightness, chroma, and hue.

  3. Determination of Beeswax Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Detector (GC -MS Technique

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    Waś Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS . Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL, then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm. Qquantitative analysis of n-alkanes was conducted by the method of internal standard with squalane used as the internal standard. The basic parameters of validation (linearity and working range, limit of determination, repeatability and reproducibility, recovery were determined. For all of the identified compounds, satisfactory (≥0.997 coefficients of correlation in the working ranges of the method (from 0.005 to 5.0 g/100 g were obtained. The elaborated method was characterized by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The average coefficients of variation for the total n-alkanes did not exceed 2% under conditions of repeatability or 4% under conditions of reproducibility. The recovery for individual n-alkanes was above 94%; for their total content, it was 100.5%. In beeswax originating from Apis mellifera, n-alkanes containing from 20 to 35 carbon atoms in their molecules were determined. The total content of these alkanes was between 9.08 g and 10.86 g/100 g (on average, 9.81 g/100 g. Additionally, apart from the saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and dienes were identified.

  4. Radiocarbon dates for beeswax figures in the prehistoric rock art of northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.E. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Archaeology; Chaloupka, G. [Northern Territory Museum, Darwin, NT (Australia); Chippindale, C. [Cambridge Univ. Museum (United Kingdom); Alderson, M.S. [Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Jabiru, NT (Australia). Kakadu National Park; Southon, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages have been taken for a test suite of small samples of material removed from some of the ``beeswax`` art figures found in rock shelters in northern Australia. The results indicate that we can reliably date this unique form of rock art with no noticeable damage. We had not expected to find figures of any great antiquity, and so were surprised to find that the ages obtained spanned the time period from the recent past to about 4000 BP. (Author).

  5. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles made from beeswax and carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmandnia, Soheila; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Nosrati, Mohsen; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2010-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been proposed as suitable colloidal carriers for delivery of drugs with limited solubility. Ketoprofen as a model drug was incorporated into SLNs prepared from a mixture of beeswax and carnauba wax using Tween 80 and egg lecithin as emulsifiers. The characteristics of the SLNs with various lipid and surfactant composition were investigated. The mean particle size of drug-loaded SLNs decreased upon mixing with Tween 80 and egg lecithin as well as upon increasing total surfactant concentration. SLNs of 75 ± 4 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.02 were obtained using 1% (vol/vol) mixed surfactant at a ratio of 60:40 Tween 80 to egg lecithin. The zeta potential of these SLNs varied in the range of -15 to -17 (mV), suggesting the presence of similar interface properties. High drug entrapment efficiency of 97% revealed the ability of SLNs to incorporate a poorly water-soluble drug such as ketoprofen. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis indicated the stability of nanoparticles with negligible drug leakage after 45 days of storage. It was also found that nanoparticles with more beeswax content in their core exhibited faster drug release as compared with those containing more carnauba wax in their structure.

  6. A new approach for preparing a controlled release ketoprofen tablets by using beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, Melike; Gönüllü, Umit; Yener, Gülgün; Altinkurt, Turan

    2005-01-01

    Solid lipid ketoprofen micropellets (SLKM) at different drug/beeswax ratios [(1:1) and (1:2)] were prepared by emulsion congealing technique and then compressed into tablets. Ketoprofen in solid state was incorporated into the melted beeswax at 90 degrees C and the mixture was emulsified in the hot aqueous Tween 80 solution by stirring at a constant rate. The SLKM were obtained by cooling the coarse emulsion down to room temperature and filtering. Drug entrapment efficiency and particle size analysis by laser diffractometry (LD) were determined, and existence of a drug-lipid interaction was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the SLKM, before being compressed into the tablets by direct compression method. Finally, in vitro release studies were performed and the release kinetics of the waxy tablets were calculated. A commercial ketoprofen retard tablet (reference: Profenid Retard 200 mg) was also examined to compare the release properties. While the data obtained from DSC were indicating absence of drug-lipid interaction in the SLKM, it was determined that 28.62% (+/-2.08), 38.60% (+/-1.91) and 47.00% (+/-1.82) of ketoprofen was released from the tablets containing (1:2) and (1:1) SLKM and Profenid Retard 200 mg in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution after 8 h, respectively.

  7. Characterization of archaeological beeswax by electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Rolando, Christian; Regert, Martine

    2002-10-01

    To better detect and identify beeswax in ancient organic residues from archaeological remains, we developed a new analytical methodology consisting of the analysis of (i) the trimethylsilylated organic extract by GC/MS and (ii) the crude extract by ESI-MS. Selective scanning modes, such as SIM or MRM, permit separate quantification of each chemical family (fatty acids, monoesters, monohydroxyesters, and diesters) and allow an improvement in sensitivity and selectivity, allowing the crude extract to be treated without further purification. GC/MS (SIM) was revealed to be a powerful method for the detection of components, with a detection limit down to a total lipid extract in the range of approximately 50 ng in a complex matix, such as archaeological degraded material, whereas ESI-MS/MS is instead used for the detection of nonvolatile biomarkers. Identification by GC/MS (SIM) and ESI-MS/ MS (MRM) of more than 50 biomarkers of beeswax in an Etruscan cup at the parts-per-million level provides the first evidence for the use of this material by the Etruscans as fuel or as a waterproof coating for ceramics.

  8. The antimicrobial activity of honey, bee pollen loads and beeswax from Slovakia

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    Kacániová Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the antimicrobial activity of propolis, bee pollen loads and beeswax samples collected in the year 2009 from two locations in Slovakia to pathogenic bacteria, microscopic fungi and yeasts. The antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested using the agar well diffusion method. For extraction, 99.9% and 70% methanol (aqueous, v/v and 96% and 70% ethanol (aqueous, v/v were used. Five different strains of bacteria, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes ccM 4699, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ccM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus ccM 3953; Salmonella enterica ccM 4420, Escherichia coli ccM 3988, three different strains of microscopic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and seven different strains of yeasts Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, were tested. After 48 hours S. aureus was the bacterium most sensitive to the 70% ethanol extract of pollen, A. fumigatus was the most sensitive microscopic fungus (70% ethanol and C. glabrata the most sensitive yeast (70% methanol. Microorganisms most sensitive to propolis extracts were L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus (70% ethanol and G. candidum (70% methanol. Most sensitive to beeswax extracts were E. coli, A. niger and C. tropicalis.

  9. Pesticide residues in beeswax samples collected from honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Faucon, Jean-Paul

    2007-11-01

    In 2002 a field survey was initiated in French apiaries in order to monitor the health of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). Studied apiaries were evenly distributed across five sites located in continental France. Beeswax samples were collected once a year over 2 years from a total of 125 honey bee colonies. Multiresidue analyses were performed on these samples in order to identify residues of 16 insecticides and acaricides and two fungicides. Residues of 14 of the searched-for compounds were found in samples. Tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and endosulfan residues were the most frequently occurring residues (61.9, 52.2 and 23.4% of samples respectively). Coumaphos was found in the highest average quantities (792.6 microg kg(-1)). Residues of cypermethrin, lindane and deltamethrin were found in 21.9, 4.3 and 2.4% of samples respectively. Statistical tests showed no difference between years of sampling, with the exception of the frequency of pyrethroid residues. Beeswax contamination was the result of both in-hive acaricide treatments and, to a much lesser extent, environmental pollution.

  10. Further characterization of theobroma oil-beeswax admixtures as lipid matrices for improved drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attama, A A; Schicke, B C; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2006-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in lipid based drug delivery systems due to factors such as better characterization of lipidic excipients and formulation versatility and the choice of different drug delivery systems. It is important to know the thermal characteristics, crystal habit, texture, and appearance of a new lipid matrix when determining its suitability for use in certain pharmaceutical application. It is line with this that this research was embarked upon to characterize mixtures of beeswax and theobroma oil with a view to applying their admixtures in drug delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. Admixtures of theobroma oil and beeswax were prepared to contain 25% w/w, 50% w/w, and 75% w/w of theobroma oil. The admixtures were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (IMC). The melting behavior and microstructures of the lipid admixtures were monitored by polarized light microscopy (PLM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the internal structures of the lipid bases. DSC traces indicated that the higher melting peaks were roughly constant for the different admixtures, but lower melting peaks significantly increased (p beeswax in all the lipid matrix admixtures at all stages of the study. PLM micrographs revealed differences with regard to the thermal and optical behaviors depending on the composition of the matrix. The lipid matrix consisting of 75% w/w of theobroma oil showed a spherulite texture after 4 weeks of isothermal storage. Crystallization exotherms of lipid matrices containing 50% w/w and 25% w/w of theobroma oil showed change in modification after 30 min with the latter having a greater time-dependent crystallization. Generally, low non-integral Avrami exponents and growth rate constants were obtained for all the lipid matrices, with the admixture

  11. A randomized controlled pilot study comparing aqueous cream with a beeswax and herbal oil cream in the provision of relief from postburn pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Wright, Kay; Webster, Anne; Steer, Matthew; Rudd, Michael; Doubrovsky, Anna; Gardner, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Postburn itch is reported to affect up to 87% of the burn population. Although treatments for postburn itch are multimodal, they remain consistently ineffective. However, recent anecdotal evidence from several outpatients at a tertiary referral hospital suggests that a cream combining beeswax and several herbal oils may be effective in the minimization of postburn itch. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream against the standard treatment of aqueous cream in the provision of relief from the symptoms of postburn itch. A randomized controlled trial compared two groups using a visual analog scale, frequency of cream application, itch recurrence after cream application, use of antipruritic medications, and sleep disturbance to determine the effect of itch severity and duration. Fifty-two participants were enrolled in the study (84% male) with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 16) and mean burn TBSA of 7.2% (SD = 7.7). Study results found that the beeswax and herbal oil cream reduce itch after application more frequently than aqueous cream (P = .001). In addition, when managed with beeswax and herbal oil cream, participants found that their itch recurred later (P ≤ .001) and their use of antipruritic medications was lower (P = .023). Findings of this study suggest beeswax and herbal oil cream to be more effective in the minimization of postburn itch than aqueous cream. Given this, a larger study examining the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream appears warranted.

  12. A novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Miguel; Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-03-30

    In this work, a novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by paraffin, microcrystalline wax, tallow and stearic acid using single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy was developed. The use of the absorbance ratios of [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] allows a minimum of 5% paraffin/microcrystalline wax and tallow adulteration and 0.5% stearic acid adulteration of beeswax to be detected. The upper and lower critical limits for beeswax authenticity were established from the analysis of virgin beeswax and were validated by independent analysis of real sheet and comb beeswax samples using high-temperature gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. In addition to its simplicity with respect to sample handling, the amount of sample and the time needed are far less than those required in previously described methods, which are based on chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques. These advantages result in time and cost savings, an increase in the number of samples that can be analyzed, and, most importantly, the detection of the main beeswax adulterants using a single method.

  13. Mass spectrometric methods prove the use of beeswax and ruminant fat in late Roman cooking pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpe, K; Jacobs, P A; Waelkens, M

    2002-08-30

    Lipid extracts of sherds of archaeological late Roman cooking pots were analysed using high temperature-gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer detection (LC-APCI-MS). With these advanced techniques the use of beeswax was shown through identification of the constituting alkanes, mono and diesters. The detection of high amounts of saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) further indicated that animal fat was processed in these pots. Part of the animal fat was characterised as originating from ruminants due to the presence of trans-fatty acids. The distribution of saturated TAGs and the higher concentration of stearic acid compared to palmitic acid in the transesterified lipid extract indicated that this was sheep fat. The results illustrate how complex mixtures can be unravelled and original contents of ancient ceramic vessels can be determined using specialised analytical equipment.

  14. Clinical and mycological benefits of topical application of honey, olive oil and beeswax in diaper dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, N S

    2005-02-01

    Twelve infants suffering from diaper dermatitis were treated four times daily for 7 days with a mixture containing honey, olive oil and beeswax. The severity of erythema was evaluated on a five-point scale. Three infants had severe erythema and ulceration, four had moderate erythema, and five had moderate erythema with maceration. The initial mean lesion score of 2.91 +/- 0.79 declined significantly (p < 0.05) to 2.0 +/- 0.98 (day 3), 1.25 +/- 0.96 (day 5) and 0.66 +/- 0.98 (day 7). Candida albicans was isolated initially from four patients, but from only two patients after treatment. This topical treatment was safe and well-tolerated, and demonstrated clinical and mycological benefits in the treatment of diaper dermatitis.

  15. Distribution of sulfathiazole in honey, beeswax, and honeybees and the persistence of residues in treated hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Marianna; Baggio, Alessandra; Gallina, Albino; Mutinelli, Franco

    2013-09-25

    This study was performed to evaluate the distribution and depletion of sulfathiazole in different beehive matrices: honey, honeybees, "pre-existing" honeycomb, "new" honeycomb, and capping wax. Sulfathiazole was dissolved in sugar syrup or directly powdered on the combs, the matrices were sampled at different time points, and sulfathiazole residues were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In honey, the higher concentration of sulfathiazole (180 mg kg(-1)) occurred 2 weeks after the last treatment in syrup. In beeswax, drug concentration was higher than in honey, particularly with powder administration, with a maximum level (340 mg kg(-1)) 3 days following the last treatment. The strongest contamination in honeybees (28 mg kg(-1)) was achieved with sulfathiazole administered in powder 3 days after the second treatment. The high persistence of sulfathiazole in the different beehive matrices suggests that it could be a reliable marker of previous treatments performed by beekeepers.

  16. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of nitroimidazole residues in beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a new method for the determination of 12 nitroimidazoles and their hydroxymetabolites (metronidazole, hydroxymetronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, hydroxydimetridazole, ipronidazole, hydroxyipronidazole, carnidazole, ornidazole, secnidazole, ternidazole, tinidazole) in beeswax has been developed and validated. The optimized sample preparation procedure included melting and dilution of beeswax in a mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol followed by extraction with 2% acetic acid. The extracts were purified on strong cation exchange based solid-phase extraction cartridges and evaporated in a vacuum system with vortex motion. The separation and detection of the nitroimidazoles in the beeswax extracts were achieved within 12 min by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a pentafluorophenyl analytical column and applying a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.01% acetic acid as mobile phases. The method performance characteristics were evaluated at three concentration levels (1, 2, and 5 μg/kg) and the method was found to be suitable for determination of all tested nitroimidazoles. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.2-0.5 and 0.5-1 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries varied from 71.2 to 104.9% while the relative standard deviations were less than 13.8% under the intermediate precision conditions.

  17. Determination of acaricide residues in saudi arabian honey and beeswax using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Determination of acaricide residues of flumethrin, tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos, and amitraz in honey and beeswax was carried out using a rapid extraction method utilizing C-18 SPE cartridges and an analytical method utilizing GC with ECD, NPD, and MSD detectors for the four acaricides. Recovery percentages from the extraction method ranged from 90-102%, while the minimum detection levels ranged from 0.01-0.05 mg/kg for the acaricides. Nine of the 21 analyzed samples were found to be contaminated with the acaricides tau-fluvalinate and coumaphos. Neither flumethrin nor amitraz was detected in any of the honey or wax samples. Coumaphos was found only in honey samples in which two samples exceeded the tolerance levels set by EPA and EC regulations. It has not been detected in beeswax. Five honey samples and eight beeswax samples were found to be contaminated with tau-fluvalinate. One of the wax samples was contaminated with a relatively high residue of tau-fluvalinate and contained above 10 mg/kg.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of double-phased mucoadhesive suppositories of lidocaine utilizing Carbopol and white beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, R; Onishi, H; Machida, Y

    1999-08-27

    In an attempt to restrict drug absorption from suppositories to only the lower rectum, mucoadhesive lidocaine (LID) suppositories were prepared using Witepsol H-15 as a base, and Carbopol 934P (CP) and white beeswax (WAX) as additives. CP has a mucoadhesive property and WAX gives the suppositories stiffness. The suppositories containing 10% CP and 20% WAX stayed in the lower recta of rats for at least 2 h. Double-phased suppositories consisting of a front layer containing 10% CP and 20% WAX and a terminal layer containing LID and various amounts of CP were prepared. In vitro release profiles of LID from double-phased suppositories were similar to conventional single-phased suppositories containing CP alone. Values of AUC(0-6 h) and MRT of LID after administration of double-phased suppositories to rabbits were larger than those for single-phased suppositories with or without CP. On the other hand, the initial plasma metabolites concentrations after administration of double-phased suppositories were significantly lower and tended to exhibit delayed T(max) compared to single-phased suppositories. These results suggest that the double-phased mucoadhesive suppositories suppress initial metabolism of LID, and may be useful for improving bioavailabilities of drugs, like LID, which accept first-pass effect considerably.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of D-002: an active product isolated from beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, M L; Más, R; Magraner, J

    1998-10-01

    D-002 is a natural mixture of high molecular weight alcohols isolated and purified from beeswax, which contains triacontanol among its main components. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of D-002 administered by the oral route in two animal models commonly used in the pharmacological screening of anti-inflammatory drugs. D-002 administered orally to rats (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced a mild but significant reduction of exudate volume in carrageenan-induced pleuritic inflammation that was accompanied by a marked and significant decrease of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels in the exudate. D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) also significantly diminished the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma in rats. In both cases, D-002 was less effective than indomethacin, which was used as an established anti-inflammatory reference drug. On the other hand, D-002 administered from 25-1000 mg/kg did not induce erosions or gastromucosal lesions in rats, which differs from results usually obtained with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These results indicate that D-002 is a mild anti-inflammatory agent without any ulcerogenic effect associated. The results suggest that these effects are probably not mediated through an inhibition of cyclooxygenase, but a reduction in LTB4 levels induced by D-002 could explain these results.

  20. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R B Kozowyk

    Full Text Available The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives.

  1. Hydrophobicity, thermal and micro-structural properties of whey protein concentrate-pullulan-beeswax films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Khanzadi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Dehnad, Danial; Chegini, Faramarz Khodaian; Maghsoudlou, Yayha

    2015-09-01

    In this research, effects of beeswax (BW) on functional properties of whey protein concentrates (WPC):pullulan (PUL) films were investigated. For this purpose, 0, 10, 20 and 30w/w(glycerol)% BW rates and 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30w/w% WPC:PUL ratios were applied. Films containing 70% WPC:30% PUL (WPC70) and 30% BW (BW30) justified the highest contact angle (92.4°) among all films; SEM micrographs indicated that BW could come toward the surface of films during drying stage and resulted in a higher hydrophobic behavior of bilayer films compared with blend films. WPC70 supplied the lowest T(g) values (36-48 °C) among different proportions of WPC-PUL; the highest melting points were just assured in the absence of BW regardless of combination ratio for WPI:PUL. BW30 films deserved lower roughness rates than BW20 (and even BW10) films, indicating more advantageous microstructure and higher hydrogen connections in BW30 films and justifying similar melting points attained for BW30 films to BW20 or 10 ones. Overall, application of WPC70 and BW30 was recommended to obtain optimum combination of final properties for WPC-PUL-BW bilayer films as SEM exhibited flexible and elastic structures of such films.

  2. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Langejans, G H J; Poulis, J A

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives.

  3. Comparative analysis of olive oil organogels containing beeswax and sunflower wax with breakfast margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop olive oil organogels with sunflower wax (SW) and beeswax (BW) at 3%, 7%, and 10% addition levels and to compare these organogels with breakfast margarine (BM). The organogels and BM sample were stored at 2 different temperatures (4 and 20 °C), and the peroxide values (PVs) and textural properties were monitored for 3 mo. The PVs of all organogels were within legal limits and the gels were structurally stable throughout the storage period. The textural properties of 3% SW and 7% BW organogels were closely similar to BM. The solid fat contents of the organogels were lower than that of the BM. Moreover, the thermal properties of 3% BW gel were more similar to that of the BM. The results of X-ray diffraction peaks, approximately 3.70 and 4.10 Å, were similar to β' polymorphic form. In conclusion, both of the organogel types may have value in replacing BMs.

  4. Determination of fluvalinate residues in beeswax by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigouri, A; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, U; Thrasyvoulou, A T; Diamantidis, G C

    2000-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method is described for the determination of residual fluvalinate in beeswax. The procedure consists of partitioning on a disposable column of diatomaceous earth (Extrelut), followed by chromatographic cleanup on a Florisil cartridge. The final extract is analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Briefly, wax samples were dissolved in n-hexane, and the solutions were sonicated and transferred to Extrelut columns. The fluvalinate was extracted with acetonitrile, and a portion of the extract was cleaned up on a Florisil cartridge. The fluvalinate was eluted with diethyl ether-n-hexane (1 + 1) and directly determined by GC-ECD. Recoveries from wax samples spiked at 5 fortification levels (100-1500 microg/kg) ranged from 77.4 to 87.3%, with coefficients of variation of 5.12-8.31%. The overall recovery of the method was 81.4 +/- 3.2%, and the limit of determination was 100 microg/kg.

  5. Characterisation of beeswax in works of art by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2004-03-05

    Pyrolysis (Py) with in situ derivatisation with hexamethyldisilazane-gas chroma-break tography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure based on microwave-assisted saponification were used to identify the organic components in small sized beeswax samples. With the latter procedure quantitative recoveries can be made and hydrocarbons, alcohols and omega-1-diols in the neutral fraction, and fatty acids and omega-1-hydroxy acids in the acidic fraction can be efficiently separated and detected. Both procedures were used to characterise a wax anatomic sculpture "The Plague" (1691-1694) by Gaetano Zumbo, resulting in the identification of beeswax and a Pinaceae resin. The GC-MS analysis brought to light some essential differences in beeswax composition between the raw material and the old modelled wax thus giving some clear indications about the recipe used by the sculptor.

  6. Determination of spinosad at trace levels in bee pollen and beeswax with solid-liquid extraction and LC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Karen P; Martín, María T; Bernal, José L; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the use of a new LC method with a fused-core analytical column coupled to ESI-MS to determine residues of the biopesticide spinosad in bee pollen and beeswax. The method analyzes the active ingredients, spinosyns A and D, with a simple and efficient sample treatment (recovery between 90 and 105%) consisting of a solid-liquid extraction with acetone (bee pollen) or acetonitrile (beeswax). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, and precision. The LOD and LOQ values ranged between 0.1-0.2 and 0.4-0.7 μg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the precision obtained within the linear concentration range (LOQ 500 μg/kg) was satisfactory (RSD lower than 5%). Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze bee pollen and beeswax samples collected from apiaries located close to fruit orchards in two Spanish regions.

  7. Effect of Beeswax, Gelatin and Aloe vera Gel Coatings on Physical Properties and Shelf Life of Chicken Eggs Stored at 30°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Iroshan Mudannayaka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was to determine the effect of beeswax, gelatin and Aloe vera gel coatings on internal quality and shelf life of chicken eggs compared to uncoated and mineral oil coated eggs. Four hundred and seventy five brown shell eggs were obtained from 32 weeks old Lohmann classic brown layers and all the eggs were randomly divided into five groups as ninety five eggs per group. Mineral oil, beeswax, Aloe vera gel and gelatin coatings were applied on eggs as four treatments and one group of eggs were uncoated and kept as control group. Then all the eggs were stored at 30°C and relative humidity of 70% - 75% for six weeks of storage period. Beeswax and gelatin coated eggs showed significantly (P<0.05 lower weight loss values and preserved albumin and yolk quality of eggs than uncoated eggs. Eggs coated with mineral oil and beeswax showed similar results for weight loss, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen and yolk pH. Based on the Haugh Unit, eggs can be classified into four grades as AA (above 72, A (72-60, B (59-31 and C (below 30. Quality of uncoated eggs, Aloe vera coated eggs and gelatin coated eggs dropped from AA to B and mineral oil and beeswax coated eggs changed from initial AA quality to A quality after six weeks of storage at 30°C. Results of microbiological analysis showed that all coated eggs were microbiologically safe throughout the storage period. The present study demonstrated that, in comparison to the mineral oil and the uncoated eggs, beeswax is a better novel coating material and gelatin can also be successfully used as coating material in preserving the internal quality and extending the shelf life of chicken eggs stored at 30 °C for six weeks.

  8. Comparative evaluation of UV-vis-IR Nd:YAG laser cleaning of beeswax layers on granite substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A.; Chiussi, S.; González, P.; Serra, J.; León, B.

    2011-04-01

    The beeswax treatment applied in the sixties to prevent rain water from penetrating the outer stone surface of valuable granitic Galician monuments is contributing to the acceleration of the superficial degradation process of these monuments. At present, the northern sector of the renaissance frieze in the Cloister of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is one of the most representative examples. Conventional wax removal methods (water, chemical and mechanical cleaning) can possibly destruct important details of the relief. Therefore laser removal is considered as a good alternative. In this work, we report systematic investigations of the effect of laser cleaning at different Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) on representative samples of the real historical surfaces. Laser removal of beeswax on granite at neither of the four wavelengths of the Nd:YAG laser is not a layer by layer removal process. For each irradiance and wavelength there is a maximum thickness that can be completely removed by a single pulse. Above this thickness the waxy material is not removed, although it undergoes thermal modifications; since the fraction of radiation that reaches the granite substrate is not enough to trigger the ejection of material. Our results show that the wax-granite interface plays a fundamental role in granite cleaning, and when the wax is weakened by absorption of radiation at 266 nm, the removal process becomes more efficient.

  9. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method to determine resveratrol and piceid isomers in beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ana M; González, Yolanda; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José L; Higes, Mariano; Bernal, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents the first report of a liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for simultaneously analyzing resveratrol and piceid isomers (cis and trans) in beeswax. An efficient extraction procedure has been proposed (average analyte recoveries were between 89 and 95%); this involved a solid-liquid extraction using a mixture of ethanol and water (80:20, v/v) and a concentration step in a rotary evaporator. The separation of all the compounds was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed of ammonium formate 0.03 M in water and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, limits of detection and quantification, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 1.0 to 1.7 and 3.5 to 5.5 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze beeswax samples collected from experimental and organic apiaries.

  10. Comparative evaluation of UV-vis-IR Nd:YAG laser cleaning of beeswax layers on granite substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, A., E-mail: aldarapan@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n. Campus Universitario Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Chiussi, S.; Gonzalez, P.; Serra, J.; Leon, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n. Campus Universitario Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The beeswax treatment applied in the sixties to prevent rain water from penetrating the outer stone surface of valuable granitic Galician monuments is contributing to the acceleration of the superficial degradation process of these monuments. At present, the northern sector of the renaissance frieze in the Cloister of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is one of the most representative examples. Conventional wax removal methods (water, chemical and mechanical cleaning) can possibly destruct important details of the relief. Therefore laser removal is considered as a good alternative. In this work, we report systematic investigations of the effect of laser cleaning at different Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) on representative samples of the real historical surfaces. Laser removal of beeswax on granite at neither of the four wavelengths of the Nd:YAG laser is not a layer by layer removal process. For each irradiance and wavelength there is a maximum thickness that can be completely removed by a single pulse. Above this thickness the waxy material is not removed, although it undergoes thermal modifications; since the fraction of radiation that reaches the granite substrate is not enough to trigger the ejection of material. Our results show that the wax-granite interface plays a fundamental role in granite cleaning, and when the wax is weakened by absorption of radiation at 266 nm, the removal process becomes more efficient.

  11. Beeswax-Colophony Blend: A Novel Green Organic Coating for Protection of Steel Drinking Water Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdikheibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax-colophony blend is mainly used as a sealant mixture for preservation applications. The beeswax itself, however, has had a long way in history taking part in conservation processes including mummification. In this research, this blend was used as a protective coating for drinking water distribution tanks. Initially, a layer with 400 μm thickness was applied on a sand blasted mild steel plate. The long-term electrochemical behavior of the coating was investigated by open circuit potential (OCP and electrochemical microbiological characteristics of the coating, microbial and chemical examinations were performed on drinking water samples that had been in contact with the coating. Furthermore, its behavior in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR in a wastewater treatment plant was investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Regarding the consistency of experimental results, it was concluded that this proposed recyclable blend could be considered as a novel green organic coating and also a good corrosion barrier even in aggressive environments.

  12. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of D-002 (beeswax alcohols).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Yazmin; Molina, Vivian; Carbajal, Daisy; Fernández, Lilia; Fernández, Julio C; Arruzazabala, María L; Más, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    D-002, a mixture of six higher aliphatic alcohols purified from beeswax, displayed anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. The aim of the present study was to confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of D-002 and to explore its potential analgesic effects. Xylene-induced mouse ear oedema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate responses for the analgesic activity, and the open field and horizontal rotarod tests for motor performance. For anti-inflammatory tests, mice were randomised into a negative vehicle control and five xylene-treated groups: the vehicle, D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) and indomethacin 1 mg/kg (reference drug). Treatments were given for 15 days. Effects on oedema formation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were tested. For analgesia and motor performance tests, mice were randomised into a vehicle control and D-002-treated groups (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg). Two sets of experiments were done, which included acute and repeat (15 days) dosing. D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased xylene-induced ear oedema (44.7, 60.8 and 76.4%, respectively) and the increase of MPO activity induced by xylene (38.0, 47.0 and 57.0%, respectively), while indomethacin significantly inhibited xylene-induced oedema (59.9%) and MPO activity (57.5%). Single and repeat doses of D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses by 21.2, 28.2 and 40.1%, for the single doses; 25.2, 35.1 and 43.2%, respectively, for the repeat doses, but did not affect the hot plate, open field and rotarod behaviours. Aspirin 100 mg/kg significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and morphine (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the latency of the hot plate response. This study confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of D-002 and demonstrated its analgesic effects on the acetic acid-induced writhing, but not on the hot plate

  13. Effect of high-intensity ultrasound and cooling rate on the crystallization behavior of beeswax in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sarbojeet; Martini, Silvana

    2014-10-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of wax concentration (0.5 and 1%), cooling rate (0.1, 1, and 10 °C/min), and high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) on the crystallization behavior of beeswax (BW) in six different edible oils. Samples were crystallized at 25 °C with and without HIU. Crystal sizes and morphologies and melting profiles were measured by microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively, after 7 days of incubation. Higher wax concentrations resulted in faster crystallization and more turbidity. Phase separation was observed due to crystals' sedimentation when samples were crystallized at slow cooling rates. Results showed that HIU induced the crystallization of 0.5% BW samples and delayed phase separation in sunflower, olive, soybean, and corn oils. Similar effects were observed in 1% samples where HIU delayed phase separation in canola, soybean, olive, and safflower oils.

  14. Determination of synthetic acaricides residues in beeswax by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Sabine; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Herrera, Antonio

    2007-01-02

    A multiresidue HPLC method for identification and quantification of the synthetic acaricides fluvalinate, coumaphos, bromopropylate and its metabolite 4,4'-dibromobenzophenone in beeswax has been developed. Different techniques were tested and modified. The method consists of a sample preparation with isooctane followed by solid phase extraction using Florisil columns. Determination of the synthetic acaricides is achieved by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Analytical performance of the proposed method, including sensitivity, accuracy and precision was satisfactory. The LOD for the analytes varied between 0.1 and 0.2 microg g(-1) wax and the recoveries between 70 and 110%. Relative standard deviation of the repeatability of the method is <15% and reproducibility is <31%.

  15. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with ion trap detector (GC-ITD) analysis of amitraz residues in beeswax after hydrolysis to 2,4-dimethylaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenícek, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Novotná, Andrea Rychtecká; Vásová, Eva; Titera, Dalibor; Veselý, Vladimír

    2006-06-30

    An analytical method for the determination of amitraz residues in beeswax after hydrolysis to 2,4-dimethylaniline is reported. It consists of wax extraction with an acid buffer solution, head space solid phase microextraction and GC-ITD analysis. The limit of determination is 1 ng g(-1). Wax samples from beekepers and commercial foundations were analysed, content of residues varied from <1 to 20.5 ng g(-1).

  16. Towards more physiological manipulations of hormones in field studies: comparing the release dynamics of three kinds of testosterone implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Rene; Trappschuh, Monika; Gahr, Manfred; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Hormone manipulations are of increasing interest in the areas of physiological ecology and evolution, because hormones are mediators of complex phenotypic changes. Often, however, hormone manipulations in field settings follow the approaches that have been used in classical endocrinology, potentially using supra-physiological doses. To answer ecological and evolutionary questions, it may be important to manipulate hormones within their physiological range. We compare the release dynamics of three kinds of implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets, and beeswax pellets, each containing 3mg of testosterone. These implants were placed into female Japanese quail, and plasma levels of testosterone measured over a period of 30 days. Testosterone in silastic tubing led to supraphysiological levels. Also, testosterone concentrations were highly variable between individuals. Time-release pellets led to levels of testosterone that were slightly supraphysiological during the first days. Over the period of 30 days, however, testosterone concentrations were more consistent. Beeswax implants led to a physiological increase in testosterone and a relatively constant release. The study demonstrated that hormone implants in 10mm silastic tubing led to a supraphysiological peak in female quail. Thus, the use of similar-sized or even larger silastic implants in males or in other smaller vertebrates needs careful assessment. Time-release pellets and beeswax implants provide a more controlled release and degrade within the body. Thus, it is not necessary to recapture the animal to remove the implant. We propose beeswax implants as an appropriate procedure to manipulate testosterone levels within the physiological range. Hence, such implants may be an effective alternative for field studies.

  17. Determination of seven neonicotinoid insecticides in beeswax by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-mass spectrometry using a fused-core column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Karen P; Bernal, José L; Nozal, María J; Martín, María T; Bernal, José

    2013-04-12

    A new method has been developed to measure seven neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) in beeswax using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection. Beeswax was melted and diluted in an n-hexane/isopropanol (8:2, v/v) mixture. After this, liquid extraction with water was performed followed by a clean-up on diatomaceous material based cartridges. The compounds were eluted with acetone, and the resulting solution was evaporated until dry and reconstituted with a mixture of water and acetonitrile 50:50 (v/v). The separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 15 min using a C18 reverse-phase fused-core column (Kinetex C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) and a mobile phase composed of a mixture of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode at 0.5 mL/min. This method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, precision and recovery. Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.4 to 2.3 μg/kg, and from 1.5 to 7.0 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied to an analysis of neonicotinoid residues in beeswax samples from apiaries located close to fruit orchards.

  18. Lipid particle size effect on water vapor permeability and mechanical properties of whey protein/beeswax emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gago, M B; Krochta, J M

    2001-02-01

    Lipid particle size effects on water vapor permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/beeswax (BW) emulsion films were investigated. Emulsion films containing 20 and 60% BW (dry basis) and mean lipid particle sizes ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 microm were prepared. BW particle size effects on WVP and mechanical properties were observed only in films containing 60% BW. WVP of these films decreased as lipid particle size decreased. As drying temperature increased, film WVPs decreased significantly. Meanwhile, tensile strength and elongation increased as BW particle size decreased. However, for 20% BW emulsion films, properties were not affected by lipid particle size. Results suggest that increased protein-lipid interactions at the BW particle interfaces, as particle size decreased and resulting interfacial area increased, result in stronger films with lower WVPs. Observing this effect depends on a large lipid content within the protein matrix. At low lipid content, the effect of interactions at the protein-lipid interfaces is not observed, due to the presence of large protein-matrix regions of the film without lipid, which are not influenced by protein-lipid interactions.

  19. Distillate yield improvement using a parabolic dish reflector coupled single slope basin solar still with thermal energy storage using beeswax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aondoyila KUHE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single slope solar still, integrated with latent heat thermal energy storage system coupled to a parabolic concentrator was designed with the aim of improving productivity. 14 kg of beeswax was used as phase change material (PCM between the absorber plate and the bottom of the still to keep the operating temperature of the still high enough to produce distilled water even during the sunset hours. The bottom of the still is covered by 0.2 m aluminum sheet painted black on the side facing the parabolic concentrator to help in absorbing solar radiation reflected from the parabolic concentrator and conducting same to the PCM. To determine the effect of PCM, a solar still without PCM was used to compare with the solar still with PCM. The temperature of water, air temperature, inner surface glass temperature and outer surface glass temperature were measured. Experimental results show that the effect of thermal storage in the parabolic concentrator-coupled single slope solar still increased the productivity by 62%.

  20. Fatty acid effect on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-beeswax edible film properties and postharvest quality of coated 'Ortanique' mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Tarazaga, María Ll; Del Río, Miguel A; Krochta, John M; Pérez-Gago, Maria B

    2008-11-26

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of fatty acid (FA) type and content on mechanical properties, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of hydroxypropyl methycellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW) stand-alone edible films. The effect of these films formed as coatings on the postharvest quality of 'Ortanique' mandarins was also studied. Selected FAs were stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), and oleic acid (OA), using BW/FA ratios of 1:0.5 and 1:0.2 (w/w). HPMCBW coatings reduced weight and firmness loss of 'Ortanique' mandarins, without compromising flavor quality compared to uncoated mandarins. Coatings containing OA provided the best weight loss control at both concentrations tested; however, when the BW/OA ratio was 1:0.5, the coatings increased fruit internal CO2, ethanol, and acetaldehyde contents of 'Ortanique' mandarins, therefore reducing flavor compared to the rest of the coatings studied. Although barrier and mechanical properties might be used to understand coating performance, differences observed between film oxygen permeability and coating permeability indicate that permeance should be measured on the coated fruit.

  1. Physical and mechanical properties in biodegradable films of whey protein concentrate-pullulan by application of beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzadi, Mehrdad; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Chegini, Faramarz Khodaian; Maghsoudlou, Yayha; Dehnad, Danial

    2015-03-15

    Different ratios of whey protein concentrate (WPC):pullulan (PUL) (70:30, 50:50, 30:70%w/w) and various rates of beeswax (BW) (0, 10, 20, and 30%w/wglycerol) were applied to prepare biodegradable WPC-PUL films containing glycerol as a plasticizer, for the first time. Thickness, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, colour, and mechanical properties of prepared films were measured. Higher ratios of WPC:PUL led to more desirable physical and mechanical properties; in other words, lower rates of thickness, moisture content, water solubility and water vapour permeability, and higher elongations were achieved. Application of BW (especially in higher contents) could successfully improve colour indices, diminish water solubility (nearly 12%) and water vapour permeability (approximately 3×10(-11)gm(-1)s(-1)Pa(-1)), and increase tensile strength (by about 7MPa) of WPC-PUL blend films. Our edible films enjoyed great whiteness and ignorable yellowness indices, making it a suitable alternative for application in food products. Overall, WPC70-PUL30 containing 30% BW resulted in the best performance of physical and mechanical aspects as an optimum film.

  2. Non-destructive imaging of fragments of historical beeswax seals using high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography and micro-tomography with large area photon-counting detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Jakub; Bartl, Benjamin; Dudak, Jan; Zemlicka, Jan; Krejci, Frantisek

    2016-12-01

    Historical beeswax seals are unique cultural heritage objects. Unfortunately, a number of historical sealing waxes show a porous structure with a strong tendency to stratification and embrittlement, which makes these objects extremely prone to mechanical damage. The understanding of beeswax degradation processes therefore plays an important role in the preservation and consequent treatment of these objects. Conventional methods applied for the investigation of beeswax materials (e.g. gas chromatography) are of a destructive nature or bring only limited information about the sample surface (microscopic techniques). Considering practical limitations of conventional methods and ethical difficulties connected with the sampling of the historical material, radiation imaging methods such as X-ray micro-tomography presents a promising non-destructive tool for the onward scientific research in this field. In this contribution, we present the application of high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography and micro-tomography for the investigation of beeswax seal fragments. The method is based on the application of the large area photon-counting detector recently developed at our institute. The detector combines the advantages of single-photon counting technology with a large field of view. The method, consequently, enables imaging of relatively large objects with high geometrical magnification. In the reconstructed micro-tomographies of investigated historical beeswax seals, we are able to reveal morphological structures such as stratification, micro-cavities and micro-fractures with spatial resolution down to 5μm non-destructively and with high imaging quality. The presented work therefore demonstrates that a combination of state-of-the-art hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors and currently available micro-focus x-ray sources makes it possible to apply X-ray micro-radiography and micro-tomography as a valuable non-destructive tool for volumetric beeswax seal morphological studies.

  3. The Safety and Efficacy of a Mixture of Honey, Olive Oil, and Beeswax for the Management of Hemorrhoids and Anal Fissure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori S. Al-Waili

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax was effective for treatment of diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and skin fungal infection. The mixture has antibacterial properties. A prospective pilot study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effect of topical application of the mixture on patients with anal fissure or hemorrhoids.Fifteen consecutive patients, 13 males and 2 females, median age 45 years (range: 28–70, who presented with anal fissure (5 patients or first- to third-degree hemorrhoids (4 with first degree, 4 with second degree, and 2 with third degree, were treated with a 12-h application of a natural mixture containing honey, olive oil, and beeswax in ratio of 1:1:1(v/v/v. Bleeding, itching, edema, and erythema were measured using a scoring method: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe, and 4 = very severe. The pain score was checked using a visual analog scale (minimum = 0, maximum = 10. Efficacy of treatment was assessed by comparing the symptoms' score before and after treatment; at weekly intervals for a maximum of 4 weeks. The patients were observed for evidence of any adverse effect such as appearance of new signs and symptoms, or worsening of the existing symptoms. The honey mixture significantly reduced bleeding and relieved itching in patients with hemorrhoids. Patients with anal fissure showed significant reduction in pain, bleeding, and itching after the treatment. No side effect was reported with use of the mixture. We conclude that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax is safe and clinically effective in the treatment of hemorrhoids and anal fissure, which paves the way for further randomized double blind studies.

  4. The safety and efficacy of a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax for the management of hemorrhoids and anal fissure: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod S; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N

    2006-02-02

    We have found that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax was effective for treatment of diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and skin fungal infection. The mixture has antibacterial properties. A prospective pilot study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effect of topical application of the mixture on patients with anal fissure or hemorrhoids. Fifteen consecutive patients, 13 males and 2 females, median age 45 years (range: 28-70), who presented with anal fissure (5 patients) or first- to third-degree hemorrhoids (4 with first degree, 4 with second degree, and 2 with third degree), were treated with a 12-h application of a natural mixture containing honey, olive oil, and beeswax in ratio of 1:1:1(v/v/v). Bleeding, itching, edema, and erythema were measured using a scoring method: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe, and 4 = very severe. The pain score was checked using a visual analog scale (minimum = 0, maximum = 10). Efficacy of treatment was assessed by comparing the symptoms' score before and after treatment; at weekly intervals for a maximum of 4 weeks. The patients were observed for evidence of any adverse effect such as appearance of new signs and symptoms, or worsening of the existing symptoms. The honey mixture significantly reduced bleeding and relieved itching in patients with hemorrhoids. Patients with anal fissure showed significant reduction in pain, bleeding, and itching after the treatment. No side effect was reported with use of the mixture. We conclude that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax is safe and clinically effective in the treatment of hemorrhoids and anal fissure, which paves the way for further randomized double blind studies.

  5. Protective effect of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Yohani; Oyárzabal, Ambar; Mas, Rosa; Molina, Vivian; Jiménez, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, produces gastroprotective and antioxidant effects. To investigate the gastroprotective effect of D-002 against indomethacin-induced ulcers, oxidative variables and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the rat gastric mucosa were examined. Rats were randomized into six groups: a negative vehicle control and five indomethacin (50 mg/kg) treated groups, comprising a positive control, three groups treated orally with D-002 (5, 25 and 100 mg/kg) and one group with omeprazole 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl groups (PCG), hydroxyl radical generation and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MPO enzyme activities in the rat gastric mucosa were assessed. Indomethacin increased the content of MDA and PCG, the generation of *OH radical and MPO enzyme activity, while it decreased the CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activities as compared to the negative controls. D-002 (5-100 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced indomethacin-induced ulceration to 75 %. Also, D-002 decreased the content of MDA and PCG, the generation of hydroxyl radicals and MPO activity as compared to the positive controls. The highest dose of D-002 (100 mg/kg) increased significantly GSH-PX and SOD activities, while all doses used increased CAT activities. Omeprazole 20 mg/kg, the reference drug, reduced significantly the ulcers (93 %), MDA and PCG, the generation of hydroxyl radicals and MPO activity, and increased the CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activities. D-002 treatment produced gastroprotective effects against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, which can be related to the reduction of hydroxyl radical generation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and MPO activity, and to the increase of the antioxidant enzymes activities in the rat gastric mucosa.

  6. QuEChERS-based method for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in beeswax by LC-MS/MS and GC×GC-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Silvina; Cesio, Verónica; Hepperle, Julia; Doerk, Daniela; Kirsch, Larissa; Kolberg, Diana; Scherbaum, Ellen; Anastassiades, Michelangelo; Heinzen, Horacio

    2014-04-30

    The validation of an analytical procedure for the determination of pesticide residues in beeswax, an interesting matrix for environmental pollution monitoring, is presented. Using the QuEChERS template, the impacts of wax particle size, sample amount, and cleanup procedure (water addition, dispersive solid phase extraction, freeze-out, and combinations thereof) on extraction yield and coextractive load were studied. Sample preparation through liquid-liquid partitioning between acetonitrile and melted wax (∼80 °C), followed by freeze-out and primary-secondary amine dispersive cleanup, was performed on incurred and pesticide-free samples for 51 residues. Determinations were made through LC-MS/MS and GC×GC-TOF, and the whole procedure was validated. Matrix effects were evaluated, with recoveries between 70 and 120% and RSDs below 20% in almost all cases. LC-MS/MS LOQs ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg for most pesticides, but for GC-amenable pesticides, GC×GC-TOF sensitivity was lower (0.1-0.2 mg/kg). This methodology can be applied for routine analysis of pesticide residues in beeswax.

  7. Study on New Extraction Technique of Higher Aliphatic Alkanols from Beeswax%蜂蜡中提取高级脂肪醇的新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡力创; 罗晓燕; 欧阳克氙; 肖正强; 刘建平

    2011-01-01

    The extraction conditions of higher aliphatie alkanols from beeswax by improved saponification hydrolysis were studied and discussed in this paper. By screening materials and opimizing the influencing factor of saponification hydrolysis, the optimal extraction conditions were researched and obtained. Chinese beeswax from Ganzhou was used as material, aviation kerosene was used as solvent and reaction time was 4.5 hour. As a result, the yield rate of higher aliphatic alkanols could be reached up from 33% to 35%. From the analytic identification and quantification of the higher aliphatic alkanols by C,C,the content of octacosanol and triacontanol was found to be up to 12% and 70% respectively.%研究探讨皂化水解法从蜂蜡中提取高级脂肪醇的工艺条件,通过筛选原料和优化皂化水解反应的影响因素,得出最佳工艺条件:选择赣州的中蜂蜡为原料,航空煤油为溶剂,反应时间为4.5 h,此时的高级脂肪醇的得率为33%~35%。通过GC对高级脂肪醇分析,二十八烷醇的含量达到12%,且三十烷醇含量达到70%。

  8. Analysis of volatile constituents in beeswax using HS-GC/MS%顶空-气质联用测定黑龙江地产蜂蜡中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 张宁; 雷勇; 孙慧峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究蜂蜡挥发性成分.方法:采用顶空-气质联用手段进行测定,利用ChemStation、AMDIS、NIST05库相结合的方法对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用相对峰面积法计算相对百分含量.结果:分离得到色谱峰34种,确定了其中29种化合物,其中大部分成分在蜂蜡中首次报道.结论:应用顶空气一质联用技术能够全面、便捷测定蜂蜡中挥发性成分.%Objective: To study the volatile constituents from beeswax sample. Methods: The volatile constituents of beeswax which were analyzed by Head Space-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectra. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra using ChemStation, AMDIS and NIST05. The relative percentage of volatile constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas. Results: Thirty-four kinds of chemical constituents in beeswax were separated, of which twenty-nine compounds were characterized. Conclusion: HS-GC/MS was simple and less sample-demanding and can be used for the fast analysis of the volatile constituents of beeswax.

  9. KAJIAN PENURUNAN TITIK LELEH LILIN LEBAH (Apis cerana DALAM PEMBUATAN MARGARIN OLES RENDAH KALORI 1 [Study on Decreasing the Melting Point of Beeswax (Apis cerana in the Production of Low -Calorie Margarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita L. Sarungallo 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax has been used to replace fat in order to produce low calorie margarine; however, the quality of the product was still low. To produce a good quality of beeswax-containing margarine, the melting point of beeswax must be lowered close to human body temperature. The o objectives of the research were : (1 to study the effect of addition of palm olein oil, fat solvent, emulsifier and stabilizer on the decrease of the melting point of beeswax, (2 to study the effect of enzymatic transesterification process, and (3 to produce margarine with low melting point and organoleptically acceptable. The results of the study revealed that addition of margarine ingredient lowered the melting point and solid fat content of the mixture, eventhough the melting point only reduced by 10°C, i.e. 64°C to 54°C. The process of transesterification was carried out on beeswax and palm olein with ratio of 50:50 and 40:60 using lipozyme IM 20 transesterification from Mucor miehei as a catalyst at 78,5°C for 24 hours with agitation at 200 rpm. Using this transesterification condition, the ratio of beeswax and palm oil of 50,50 produced fat with iodine value of 36,3 acid value of 18,5, free fatty acid of 8.45%, and melting point of 53°C, while ratio of 40: 60 produced fat with iodine value of 42,5, acid value of 15.44, free fatty acid of 7.24% and the melting point of 52°C produce fat with iodine value of 36,31 and 42,51, acid value of 18,5 and 15,44, free fatty acid of 8,45% and 7,24% at the melting point of 53°C and 52°C. It also produced solid fat content (40oC of 26,06% and 18,13%, with the consistency of 9,75 mm sec/gr and 13,96 mm sec/gr, respectively. The transesterification and non-transesterification beeswax with palm olein oil also can produce a low calorie margarine with the value of 12,3% - 50,5% lower than the comercial margarine, with the same physical and sensory characteristics

  10. Effects of a Combined Therapy With D-002 (Beeswax Alcohols) Plus D-003 (Sugarcane Wax Acids) on Osteoarthritis Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Roberto Antonio; Illnait, José; Mas, Rosa María; Carbajal, Daisy María; Mendoza, Sarahí; Ceballos, Alfredo; Fernández, Julio César; Mesa, Meilis; Reyes, Pablo; Ruiz, Dalmer

    2016-06-01

    Context • Nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs effectively relieve osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms but also induce adverse effects (AEs) that limit their long-term use, which drives a search for safer treatments. D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, and D-003, a mixture of sugarcane wax acids, have been effective in experimental and clinical studies for patients with OA. Objective • The study intended to investigate the effects on OA symptoms of a combined therapy using D-002 and D-003 (D-002/D-003), which were administered for 6 wk. Design • The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting • The study was conducted at the Surgical Medical Research Center in Havana, Cuba. Participants • Participants were patients with mild-to-moderate OA. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups-(1) a control group, which received a placebo; (2) the D-002 group (intervention group), which received 50 mg/d of D-002; (3) the D-003 group (intervention group), which received 10 mg/d of D-003; or (4) the D-002/D-003 group (intervention group), which received a combined therapy of 50 mg/d of D-002 plus 10 mg/d of D-003. The control group received tablets that were indistinguishable in appearance from the D-002 and D-003 tablets and had a similar composition, except that the active ingredients were replaced by lactose. The groups took the medications once per day for 6 wk. Outcome Measures • Symptoms were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Individual Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary outcome was the reduction in the total WOMAC score. The subscale scores on the WOMAC for pain, stiffness, and physical function, the VAS scores, and the use of rescue medications were secondary outcomes. Results • Of the 120 enrolled participants, 116 completed the study. The treatments with D-002, D-003, and D-002/D-003 reduced the mean total WOMAC scores significantly from baseline to

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction for the determination of lipophilic pesticides in beeswax by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection and matrix-matched calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; del Nozal, Ma J; Alonso, C

    2004-09-03

    Analytical methods for the simultaneous analysis of lindane, chlorpyriphos, z-chlorfenvinphos, endosulfan A and B, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-TDE, acrinathrine, bromopropylate, tetradifon, coumaphos and fluvalinate in pure beeswax samples are studied. For the analysis of bleached beeswaxes, a liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up on polymeric cartridges is the best option in terms of recovery and precision. However, some interferences that hinder the identification and quantification of important varroacides are found when non-bleached beeswaxes are analyzed. The analysis of all compounds in the latter samples require a clean-up by coupling an ODS cartridge before the polymeric cartridge. Considerations about the influence of the matrix in the quantitative analysis by a classical external standard calibration are also made and the use of a matrix-matched calibration is advised. Recoveries resulted to be about 100% with coefficients of variation between 10% and 20% (n = 5) for concentrations of 0.5 and 5 mg/kg.

  12. Chitin sesame oil beeswax cream in promoting diabetes foot healing coagulant research progress%甲壳素麻油蜂蜡膏促进糖尿病足创面愈合的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳辉; 冯自波; 高瑞超

    2011-01-01

    It is an important clinical work to use appropriate dressings and good create wound healing environment were created for the chronic wounds. Years of clinical application showed that chitin sesame oil beeswax creams had the effect promoting chronic wounds healing ( including diabetes foot ulcer ). Chitin, sesame oil and beeswax could promote the surface wound healing effectively. Chitin sesame oil beeswax cream promote wound healing more effectively and its application would provide more choice for the clinical dressing.%慢性创面(包括糖尿病足溃疡)合适敷料的应用,创造良好的伤口愈合环境,是临床工作面临的课题.甲壳素、麻油、蜂蜡能有效促进体表创面的愈合,甲壳素麻油蜂蜡膏更能有效促进创面的愈合,为临床敷料的应用提供更多的选择.

  13. 超声幅照蜂蜡皂化反应研究%Study of Beeswax Saponification with Supersonic Wave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕平; 高红核; 汪毓海; 吴毅为; 曹居东

    1999-01-01

      简要阐述了声化学原理并介绍运用超声辐照下的蜂蜡皂化法,制取新型植物促生长剂——三十烷醇的实验研究工作。以皂化值、皂化率为判据,研究了不同条件下的皂化反应。并获得一套较为理想的实验数据。为超声辐照这一新型实验手段的运用和推广作出了有价值的探讨工作。%  This paper introduced the fundamentals of sonar-chemistry and presented our experiment, which developed a new type plant growth promoter triacontanolby using beeswax saponification with supersonic wave irradiation. Based on the saponification value and rate, the saponification in different reactionconditions was studied and a set of data by using routine experimental method was collected in this paper. It was believed that as a new way, supersonic waveirradiation would be a valuable practice for the future study.

  14. Effect of plasticizer type and amount on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-beeswax edible film properties and postharvest quality of coated plums (cv. Angeleno).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Tarazaga, Maria Ll; Sothornvit, Rungsinee; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2008-10-22

    The effect of the composition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW) edible coatings on stand-alone film properties and on postharvest quality of coated 'Angeleno' plums was studied. Glycerol (G) and mannitol (M) were tested as plasticizers at two different plasticizer/HPMC ratios (100:1 and 300:1 molar basis). BW content was 20 or 40% (dry basis). An increase in G content increased film flexibility and vapor permeability (WVP), whereas an increase in M content enhanced film brittleness without affecting WVP. An increase in BW content reduced film flexibility and reduced WVP of only G-plasticized films. Coatings reduced plum softening and bleeding, but were not effective in reducing plum weight loss. At low plasticizer content, coatings reduced texture loss effectively. Low BW also lowered plum bleeding. Plasticizer type affected only ethanol and acetaldehyde contents without affecting the remaining quality parameters. Therefore, HPMC-BW coatings have the potential to extend the shelf life of plums. However, this effect depends on coating composition. Differences between coating and film performance indicate that data from stand-alone films may be used as a preliminary screening, but coating performance should be analyzed on coated fruit.

  15. The Extraction Process of Octacosanol from Beeswax%蜂蜡中二十八烷醇的制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 李利龙; 吴信; 向洋

    2012-01-01

    Octacosanol was prepared by beeswax. Temperature and time for saponification, NaOH concentration , the effect of the solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of saponification were studied. The result of orthogonal test and variance analysis showed that the optimal saponification conditions were: 95 ℃, 3.5 h, 8 % of the mixture of NaOH and CH3CH2OH, 1:8 of solid - liquid ratio. By purification and molecular distillation technology 89.78% of alcohol had obtained.%以蜂蜡为原料制备二十八烷醇,研究了皂化温度、皂化时间、NaOH体积分数、固液比等单因素对皂化提取过程的影响,通过正交试验及其方差分析结果确定最优皂化条件为:皂化温度95 ℃C、皂化时间3.5h、NaOH体积分数为8%、固液比为1∶8.然后经过分子蒸馏技术纯化可以制得最高纯度为89.78%的二十八烷醇.

  16. Honey and a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil-propolis extract in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrhman, Mamdouh; Elbarbary, Nancy Samir; Ahmed Amin, Dina; Saeid Ebrahim, Rania

    2012-04-01

    In spite of being one of the most investigated subjects among supportive care in cancer, no therapy has been found effective in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Based on the observations that honey bees products have anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects, the present study tried to evaluate the effect of topical application of honey and a mixture of honey, olive oil-propolis extract, and beeswax (HOPE) in treatment of oral mucositis. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted on 90 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and oral mucositis grades 2 and 3. The mean age of enrolled patients was 6.9 years. The patients were assigned into 3 equal treatment groups: Honey, HOPE, and control groups. Topical treatment for each patient consists of honey, HOPE, and benzocaine gel for honey, HOPE, and control groups, respectively. Recovery time in grade 2 mucositis was significantly reduced in the honey group as compared with either HOPE or controls (P < .05). In grade 3 mucositis, recovery time did not differ significantly between honey and HOPE (P = 0.61) but compared with controls, healing was faster with either honey or HOPE (P < .01). Generally, in both grades of mucositis, honey produced faster healing than either HOPE or controls (P < .05). Based on our results that showed that honey produced faster healing in patients with grade 2/3 chemotherapy-induced mucositis, we recommend using honey and possibly other bee products and olive oil in future therapeutic trials targeting chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  17. Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil delivery to swine gastrointestinal tract using gelatin microcapsules coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitprasert, Pakamon; Sutaphanit, Polin

    2014-12-31

    Holy basil essential oil (HBEO) can be applied as a feed additive; however, its benefits depend on the available amount in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the physicochemical properties, including the release properties of three different microcapsules, HBEO-loaded gelatin microcapsules (UC), UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose (CC), and UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-beeswax composite (CB), were compared. The encapsulation efficiency, HBEO content, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity for the microcapsules were 95.4 ± 0.17%, 66.7-67.7%, and 94.3-96.5%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed nonuniform HBEO distributions in honeycomb-like networks in the microcapsules. An X-ray diffraction analysis determined that UC and CC microcapsules were amorphous, but CB microcapsules were semicrystalline. UV-vis spectrophotometer and CLSM analyses results determined that HBEO was released from CC and CB microcapsules in greater amounts than from UC microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid. Therefore, the HBEO amount reaching the intestine can be controlled using the optimal encapsulation system.

  18. 不同浓度蜂蜡涂膜剂对台湾青枣保鲜效果的影响%Effects of Different Concentrations of Beeswax Coating Agent on Taiwan Green Jujube during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 曹雪丹; 朱水星

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of beeswax coating agent on Taiwan green jujube at the room temperature (10-15 ℃) were studied in the paper. The preservation effect of Taiwan green jujube fruit coated with 1‰ and 2‰ beeswax respectively both better than the control. The results showed that, Taiwan green jujube fruit coated with 2‰ beeswax could significantly reduce water loss and inhibit respiration intensity, it also maintained total soluble solids and titratable acid content effectively. The rate of fresh fruit was close to 70% after 15 days of storage, which was obviously higher than the control.%以浙江台州地区的脆蜜台湾青枣为试材,研究不同浓度的蜂蜡涂膜剂处理对常温(10~15℃)条件下台湾青枣贮藏保鲜效果的影响.结果表明:在试验范围内,1‰和2‰浓度的蜂蜡涂膜剂处理台湾青枣果实的保鲜效果均好于对照(不涂膜),其中以2‰浓度的蜂蜡涂膜剂处理保鲜效果最好,可以明显控制果实的失水,降低呼吸强度,延缓可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量的下降速率,贮藏15 d好果率接近70%,显著高于对照.

  19. Preventive effect of D-002, a mixture of long-chain alcohols from beeswax, on the liver damage induced with CCl4 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sarahí; Noa, Miriam; Pérez, Yohani; Mas, Rosa

    2007-06-01

    D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols purified from beeswax with antioxidant effects. Acute hepatotoxicity induced with CCl4 in rats has been related to increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and prevented with some antioxidants. This study investigated whether D-002 could prevent the acute CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were randomly distributed into four groups: a negative control treated orally with the vehicle and three groups injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg) and treated orally either with the vehicle (positive control) or with D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg). Eighteen hours after CCl4 dosing, rats were anesthetized, and livers were removed for histopathological studies. Some portions were taken and homogenized for assessing malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Positive, but not negative, controls showed ballooned cells, swollen hepatocytes, and lipid-included hepatocytes, as well as necrotic areas and inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly (P < .01) decreased the frequency of all abnormal liver cell types and increased that of normal hepatocytes compared with the positive controls, not showing necrotic areas or inflammatory infiltrates. D-002 dose-dependently decreased hepatic MDA levels, but only in the highest dose group were these levels significantly lower than in the positive control. In conclusion, D-002 effectively prevented the histological liver disturbances and lowered MDA levels, a marker of cellular lipid peroxidation, in rats treated with CCl4. Since increased liver lipid peroxidation has been postulated as a cause of CCl4-induced liver damage in rats, the preventive effects of D-002 could be due to its antioxidant action, but such a proposal still requires further research.

  20. Utilização de cera de abelhas na determinação da densidade do solo Utilization of beeswax in procedures of soil bulk density determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. B. Silva

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos têm-se empenhado em desenvolver métodos e técnicas de análises de solos que forneçam resultados confiáveis e a baixos custos, envolvendo, para isto, a reciclagem de materiais diversos ou o aproveitamento de produtos naturais que, ao contrário dos sintéticos, tendem a ter um baixo custo ambiental. A cera de abelhas atende, pelo menos, ao último destes requisitos. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se realizar a caracterização física da cera de abelhas e avaliar a possibilidade de sua utilização como revestimento impermeável, em substituição total a parafina, na determinação da densidade do solo. Para determinar a densidade do solo, utilizou-se o método do torrão impermeabilizado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2 x 2, sendo seis tipos de solos, dois revestimentos e dois diâmetros médios de torrões, com três repetições. A cera de abelhas apresentou características físicas semelhantes às da parafina, principalmente no que se refere a ponto de fusão, tempo de solidificação e densidade específica. Os valores obtidos para densidade do solo, utilizando cera de abelhas como revestimento impermeável, não diferiram estatisticamente dos valores obtidos utilizando parafina como revestimento. Desta forma, a parafina pode ser substituída totalmente pela cera de abelhas na impermeabilização de torrões para determinar a densidade do solo, sem prejuízos aos resultados.Analysis methods and techniques in large numbers which bring forth trustworthy results at low costs have been developed, some of which imply the recycling of diversified materials or the use of natural products. These, opposite to synthetic ones, normally have a low environmental cost. Beeswax fulfills, at least, this last condition. Our study had the aim of characterizing the physical properties of beeswax, and evaluating the possibility of using it as an impermeable covering in the determination of

  1. Effect of Beeswax and Glycerol Incorporation on Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Soy Protein Isolate Films%蜂蜡和甘油含量对大豆蛋白膜机械性能和阻隔性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宽; 张超; 马越; 李喜宏; 赵晓燕

    2011-01-01

    The effect of beeswax and glycerol incorporation on mechanical and barrier properties of soy protein isolate films was evaluated.Soy protein isolate films, containing beeswax of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 6%, 8% or 10%(beeswax/protein) ,and glycerol of 40% or 50% (glycerol/protein) respectively,were prepared.The beeswax addition ,which presented as dispersing granule in soy protein isolate film matrix, increased the tensile strength, oxygen permeability and contact angle of the soy protein isolate films, while the water vapor permeability and percentage elongation at break decreased.The glycerol improvement was helpful to the molecular interaction of beeswax and soy protein isolate and improved the film properties.%研究添加蜂蜡(质量分数分别为1%、20%、3%、4%、6%、8%和10%)和甘油(质量分数分别为40%和50%)交互作用对大豆蛋白膜机械性能和阻隔性能的影响.结果表明,蜂蜡以固体小颗粒的状态分散于大豆蛋白膜中,能够提高大豆蛋白膜的抗张强度、氧气透过率、阻水性能和表面接触角,降低水蒸气透过率以及断裂延伸率.甘油浓度升高有助于蜂蜡与大豆蛋白分子相结合,提高大豆蛋白膜的综合性能.

  2. Effects of D-002, a product isolated from beeswax, on gastric symptoms of patients with osteoarthritis treated with piroxicam: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illnait, José; Terry, Héctor; Más, Rosa; Fernández, Lilia; Carbajal, D

    2005-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are indicated for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, but often induce gastric adverse experiences (AE), including gastric ulcers and complications. Inhibitors of proton pump and H(2) antagonists are very effective for duodenal ulcer; meanwhile, cytoprotective drugs are more effective for gastric ulcer. D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols obtained from beeswax, wherein triacontanol is the most abundant. D-002 induces anti-ulcer effects through a cytoprotective mechanism, being more effective in protecting against ethanol- and NSAID-induced ulcers. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of D-002 on gastric symptoms associated to piroxicam use on patients suffering osteoarthritis. Fifty-nine patients, all taking piroxicam, 20 mg/day, were randomized to placebo or D-002 (40 or 100 mg/day) for 14 days. The primary efficacy variable was the reduction on the frequency of patients with gastric AE compared with placebo. Pain evolution was investigated to discard any influence on D-002 on the analgesic effect of piroxicam. The frequency of patients treated with D-002, 40 and 100 mg/day, reporting acidity [0 of 18 (0%) and 1 of 21 (4.8%), respectively] was lower (P < .05) than in placebo [6 of 20 (30%)]. Also, the frequency of patients treated with 100 mg/day reporting some gastric AE [5 of 21 (23.8%)] was lower (P < .05) than in placebo [13 of 20 (65.0%)]. The analgesic effect of piroxicam was unaffected with D-002. Treatment was well tolerated. Two patients discontinued from the study because of gastrointestinal AE: one in the placebo group and the other treated with D-002, 40 mg/day. Other three patients discontinued because of other AE: mildly uncontrolled hypertension (one in the placebo group, one treated with D-002, 40 mg/day) and headache (one treated with D-200, 100 mg/day). It is concluded that D-002 could be useful for

  3. GC/TOF-MS法分析不同蜂蜡净油的挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Components in Four Beeswax Absolute Samples by GC/TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨眉; 冒德寿; 李智宇; 洪鎏; 刘强

    2013-01-01

    利用气相色谱/飞行时间质谱,对4家公司不同蜂蜡净油的挥发性成分进行了分析,通过质谱库检索、保留指数比对及标准品验证,共检出186个化合物.其中,样品A与B的香气特征和挥发性组分类似,疑为调配精油,共同检出的物质有107种,主要成分包括乙酸香叶酯、(E)-大茴香脑、苯甲醇、香兰素、苯乙酸苯乙酯等;样品C与D的香气特征和挥发性组分类似,为天然精油,共同检出的物质有83种,主要成分包括棕榈酸乙酯、苯甲酸、硬脂酸乙酯、亚油酸、棕榈酸等.研究结果为蜂蜡净油的产品开发和品质控制提供了技术支撑.%The volatile components of beeswax absolute from different companies were identified by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. With the MS library search, 186 compounds were confirmed by using retention index or comparing with the standard compounds in a typical sample. 107 compounds were identified both in sample A and B, and the main components were geranyl acetate, (E)-anethole, benzyl alcohol, vanillin, phenylacetic acid phenethyl ester and so on. 86 compounds were identified both in sample C and D, and the main components were ethyl palmitate, benzoic acid, ethyl stearate, linoleate, palmitic acid and so on. The results provide technical support for the development and quality control of beeswax absolute.

  4. GC-MS Determination of Restricted Ingredients in Beeswax Absolute%气相色谱-质谱法测定蜂蜡净油中限用成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世娟; 冒德寿; 蔡炳彪; 李智宇; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    A method for determination of restricted ingredients in beeswax absolute by GC-MS was proposed.The sample was dissolved with mixed solvent of CH2Cl2-CHCl3(1+1),separated on two chromatographic columns with different polarity,and determined by MS under select ion monitoring(SIM) mode.Ninety-six components were identified,among which the coumarin and mossoia lactone were included to restricted ingredients.Linearity ranges between values of peak area and mass concentration of 7 restricted ingredients,including benzoic alcohol,cinnamic alcohol,coumarin,mossoia lactone,benzyl benzoate,benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate,were obtained in the same range of 0.08-80 mg·L-1,with detection limit(3S/N) in the range of 0.01-0.23 mg·kg-1.Values of recovery found by standard addition method were in the range of 86%-101%,with RSD′s(n=6) less than 4.0%.%提出了气相色谱-质谱法测定蜂蜡净油中限用成分含量的方法。样品经二氯甲烷-三氯甲烷(1+1)混合溶剂溶解,采用不同极性的两根色谱柱分离后,选择离子监测模式下质谱法进行测定。共鉴定出96种化合物,其中香豆素和马索亚内酯是禁用成分。苯甲醇、肉桂醇、香豆素、马索亚内酯、苯甲酸苄酯、水杨酸苄酯和肉桂酸苄酯等7种限用物质的质量浓度在0.08~80mg.L-1范围内呈线性关系,检出限(3S/N)在0.01~0.23mg.kg-1之间。样品加标回收率在86%~101%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)小于4.0%。

  5. 纳米α-Fe2O3改性聚乙烯醇基蜂蜡复合涂膜材料工艺优化%Technology optimization of nanosizedα-Fe2O3 and beeswax modified polyvinyl alcohol based composite packaging material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璨; 王佳媚; 龙门; 刘瑶; 刘桂超; 顾凤兰; 章建浩

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol has been widely used as a packaging substrate, but its water resistance is poor. Improving the water resistance of polyvinyl alcohol is critical. In this study the major modification methods were to add nano-materials, fats or oil substances and crosslinking agents. Functional nanomaterials have small size, large surface area that combine the hydroxyl group with polyvinyl alcohol to reduce the hydrophilic. Beeswax is a composition material by fats and oils. It has higher melting point, acid corrosion, water-blocking performance characteristics. Furthermore it can form a stable emulsion, resulting in long shelf life, high solid content, good dispersion and other fine features. Beeswax is widely used in fruit and vegetable preservation, fruits and vegetables can reduce the water loss rate and respiration. In this experiment a stable emulsion with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was formed from hydrophobic of beeswax and the small surface area, high activity of nanosizedα-Fe2O3 to reduce film water vapor transmission rate of packing material of polyvinyl alcohol efficiently. By adding beeswax and nanosizedα-Fe2O3 to polyvinyl alcohol based composite coating material, the impacts of film-forming water vapor transmission rate and its interaction was studied through analyzing the response surface between the two experimental factors. The result showed that the increasing amount of beeswax and then nosizedα-Fe2O3 could reduce the water vapor transmission rate of polyvinyl alcohol composite material effectively. Therefore two materials have mutual impacts (P<0.05). The beeswax dosage was 0.739 g/100mL, and nanosizedα-Fe2O3 was 0.04 g/100mL based on the regression optimization. The water vapor transmission rate reached the lowest point, which was lower than the former Liquid paraffin-polyvinyl alcohol film 73.76% (P<0.05). Meanwhile, nanosizedα-Fe2O3 could be used as a new nano-material. Its narrow band gap generally was 2.2 eV, the maximum absorption

  6. Beeswax: a platform for private web apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré Jean-Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if a web-based messaging service offered confidential channels, how would users know whether their keys, or indeed even their plaintext, was not being exfiltrated? What if a variety of applications offered confidentiality? How would a user gain trust in all of them?

  7. The Honey and Beeswax Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the honey and bees wax value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve

  8. Modern study of beeswax%蜂蜡的现代研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 张宁; 雷勇; 孙慧峰

    2010-01-01

    中药蜂蜡药用历史悠久,现代研究发现蜂蜡中的主要成分为十六烷酸与三十烷醇形成的酯类,还包括部分烷烃类、游离长链脂肪酸类、游离长链脂肪醇类.近10年来研究发现,蜂蜡的主要药理活性成分为其中的长链脂肪醇族(D-002)及长链脂肪酸族(D-003),药理活性包括抗溃疡、抗皮肤炎症、降血脂、抗氧化、抗血栓等.

  9. A new composite coating containing HPMC, beeswax and shellac for 'Valencia' oranges and 'Marisol' tangerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial coatings used for citrus fruit include carnauba and shellac waxes or resins, which provide an attractive shine to the fruit, but are not necessarily made of 100% food grade ingredients. A new food grade formulation based on bee's wax (BW), shellac resin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (...

  10. 13C solid-state NMR analysis of heterogeneous structure of beeswax in native state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2005-12-01

    I investigated the molecular structure of natural wax from Japanese bees (Apis cerana japonica) in its native state (neither purified nor recrystallized) by 13C and 1H solid-state NMR. Two strong 13C peaks at 32.9 and 34.0 ppm were attributed to signals from internal-chain methylene carbons [int-(CH2)] in two types of crystal form. The peak at 32.9 ppm was assigned to an orthorhombic crystal form, and that at 34.0 ppm was assigned to a triclinic or monoclinic form. In both crystalline regions, bi-exponential decay of 13C spin-lattice relaxation [T1(C)] for the crystalline peaks due to chain diffusion was observed. 1H spin-lattice relaxation [T1(H)] values for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the crystalline and amorphous regions were identical; this was interpreted as being due to averaging of the T1(H) relaxation rates via spin diffusion. In contrast, although the T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) decay curves for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the amorphous and orthorhombic forms were almost identical, those of the triclinic or monoclinic forms were different. This unhomogeneous character of T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) was interpreted as resulting from differences in the molecular composition of each crystal form. Moreover, two components with long and short 1H spin-spin relaxation [T2(H)] values, arising from the mobile and rigid phases, respectively, were observed at above about -30 °C.

  11. Properties of High Amylose Starch-Beeswax Inclusion Complexes Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose is known to form inclusion complexes with a large number of polar and non-polar organic compounds including fatty acids. Amylose inclusion complexes are proposed to be employed as carrier for delivering ligands with desired functional properties in food and nutritional supplement products. ...

  12. Beeswax-health products%蜂胶--保健佳品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ 在对抗疗法日渐失效的今日,越来越多人寻求大自然的力量,来协助自己对抗不可知的病菌.随着生机饮食的盛行,天然的"蜂胶"俨然成了捍卫健康的守护神.蜂胶的特殊抗菌、杀菌成份,提供给人们人工抗生素之外的另一选择.

  13. {sup 13}C solid-state NMR analysis of heterogeneous structure of beeswax in native state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Tsunenori [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2005-12-21

    I investigated the molecular structure of natural wax from Japanese bees (Apis cerana japonica) in its native state (neither purified nor recrystallized) by {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H solid-state NMR. Two strong {sup 13}C peaks at 32.9 and 34.0 ppm were attributed to signals from internal-chain methylene carbons [int-(CH{sub 2})] in two types of crystal form. The peak at 32.9 ppm was assigned to an orthorhombic crystal form, and that at 34.0 ppm was assigned to a triclinic or monoclinic form. In both crystalline regions, bi-exponential decay of {sup 13}C spin-lattice relaxation [T{sub 1}(C)] for the crystalline peaks due to chain diffusion was observed. {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation [T{sub 1}(H)] values for protons of the CH{sub 3} group and for int-(CH{sub 2}) in the crystalline and amorphous regions were identical; this was interpreted as being due to averaging of the T{sub 1}(H) relaxation rates via spin diffusion. In contrast, although the T{sub 1{sub {rho}}}(H) decay curves for protons of the CH{sub 3} group and for int-(CH{sub 2}) in the amorphous and orthorhombic forms were almost identical, those of the triclinic or monoclinic forms were different. This unhomogeneous character of T{sub 1{sub {rho}}}(H) was interpreted as resulting from differences in the molecular composition of each crystal form. Moreover, two components with long and short {sup 1}H spin-spin relaxation [T{sub 2}(H)] values, arising from the mobile and rigid phases, respectively, were observed at above about -30 deg. C.

  14. Historical evolution of beeswax pill%蜡丸的历史演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜隆; 朱建平

    2014-01-01

    蜡丸的历史演变经历了4个时期:晋代出现蜡和蜜混合作黏合剂的蜜蜡丸,是蜡丸的雏形;唐代首次出现了纯蜡作黏合剂的蜡丸;宋代是蜡丸的成熟时期,对蜡丸的理论认识亦达到新的高度;宋以后蜡丸的制作基本上是沿袭宋代的成果.

  15. Effects of Abexol® (beeswax alcohols in patients with gastric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Fernández-Travieso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios experimentales y clínicos han demostrado que el tratamiento oral con Abexol® (previamente D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos superiores purificada de la cera de abejas, produce efectos gastroprotectores y antioxidantes. Bajos niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C han sido reportados en sujetos que sufren de gastritis crónica con respecto a voluntarios sanos. El presente estudio aleatorizado, a doble ciegas, controlado con placebo tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del Abexol® en sujetos con síntomas habituales de gastritis, así como investigar también sus efectos sobre los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C. En la consulta 2 (inclusión 45 hombres y mujeres (edad media: 67 años elegibles recibieron aleatoriamente Abexol® (50 mg o placebo, dos tabletas/d durante seis semanas. Después de tres semanas de tratamiento la dosis fue titulada a tres tabletas diarias en los casos que no mejoraron los síntomas. Los síntomas fueron evaluados a través de la Escala de Gradación de Síntomas Gastrointestinales [Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS] y la percepción de salud a través de un sistema de tres puntajes. La variable primaria de eficacia fue obtener una reducción significativa del puntaje GSRS total comparado con el placebo, mientras que la reducción de los distintos dominios de la encuesta y la mejoría de la percepción de salud fueron variables secundarias y el aumento de los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C fue una variable colateral. En el grupo placebo no se produjeron cambios significativos. Tras seis semanas de tratamiento, el Abexol® redujo significativamente el puntaje total GSRS con respecto al nivel basal y al grupo placebo (80,2 % diferencia vs. placebo, reducción que fue significativa desde el control intermedio (tres semanas de tratamiento. Al final del estudio, la frecuencia de sujetos tratados con Abexol® que reportaron una mejoría en su percepción de salud (21/21, 100 % fue significativamente mayor que en el grupo placebo (0/24, 0 %. Ningún sujeto tratado con Abexol® (0/21, 0 %, en comparación con 24/24 (100 % y 23/24 (95,8 % del grupo placebo, requirió titulación de la dosis ni consumo de antiácidos, respectivamente (p < 0.0001 para ambas comparaciones. El Abexol® no afectó los indicadores físicos o de laboratorio, con excepción de un aumento significativo de los niveles de vitamina C, con relación al grupo placebo. El Abexol® fue bien tolerado, ningún sujeto abandonó el ensayo y solo tres del grupo placebo reportaron EA durante el estudio. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que el Abexol® (100 mg/d administrado durante seis semanas mejoró los síntomas en sujetos con padecimientos gastrointestinales habituales, ya que redujo el puntaje total de la escala GSRS, mejoró la percepción de salud y redujo el consumo de antiácidos con respecto al placebo. Además, el Abexol® también produjo un aumento significativo de los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C.

  16. Effects of Abexol (beeswax alcohols on gastrointestinal symptoms in middle-aged and older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los alcoholes de la cera de abejas (ACA (Abexol® (anteriormente D-002, mezcla de seisalcoholes alifáticos purificada de la cera de abejas, han demostrado efectos gastroprotectores en estudios experimentales y clínicos. Estudios experimentales demostraron que los ACA reducen el daño gástrico mediante un mecanismo citoprotector multifactorial que involucra, entre otros, efectos antioxidantes sobre la mucosa gástrica y el aumento de la cantidad de mucus gástrico y de su contenido de proteínas totales, glicoproteínas neutrales y macromoleculas sulfatadas, relevantes factores defensivos de la mucosa gástrica. Estudios clínicos previos han demostrado que el Abexol® (ACA es efectivo en reducir síntomas gastrointestinales comúnmente presente en la población general, en individuos tratados con antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINEs y en pacientes con úlceras duodenales, pero ninguno de ellos había utilizado una escala de síntomas validada internacionalmente. Este estudio aleatorizado, a doble ciegas y controlado con placebo investigó los efectos del Abexol® sobre los síntomas gastrointestinales de sujetos de edad media y avanzada de ambos sexos, sanos por demás, utilizando la Escala Graduada de Síntomas Gastrointestinales (EGSG. Sesenta individuos fueron aleatoriamente distribuidos para recibir tabletas de Abexol® (ACA - 50 mg o placebo dos veces al día durante 8 semanas. Al culminar la semana 4 de tratamiento, la dosis se aumentó a tres tabletas/d en aquellos sujetos que no percibieron mejoría de los síntomas. Las características basales estuvieron bien balanceadas en ambos grupos. Tras 8 semanas de tratamiento, el Abexol® redujo significativamente (p < 0,000 1 el puntaje total de la escala EGSG respecto a los valores basales y al placebo (40,8 % versus placebo, reducción que resultó significativa desde la segunda semana de tratamiento. La frecuencia de casos que consumieron tres tabletas por día fue menor en el grupo Abexol® (4/30, 13,3 % (p < 0,01 que en el placebo (16/30, 53,3 %. Comparado con el placebo, el Abexol® redujo significativamente los síntomas siguientes: acidez/pirosis, regurgitación, distensión abdominal, sensación de vaciado estomacal y flatulencia. El Abexol® no afectó ningún indicador físico o sanguíneo. Hubo siete bajas (cinco placebo, dos Abexol®, pero solo una (placebo se debió a una experiencia adversa (aumento transitorio de presión arterial. En conclusión, el Abexol® (100 a 150 mg/d administrado durante 8 semanas mejoró el puntaje total de la escala EGSC (la cual refleja el total de síntomas gastrointestinales y específicamente, algunos síntomas característicos de trastornos ácido pépticos en sujetos de edad media y avanzada. El Abexol® resultó seguro y bien tolerado. Estos resultados son consistentes con los preliminares de otros estudios clínicos y sustentan la utilidad del Abexol® en sujetos de edad media y avanzada que experimentan síntomas gastrointestinales.

  17. 7 CFR 322.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including, but not limited to, beeswax for beekeeping, pollen for bee feed, or honey for bee feed... remaining after the beeswax rendering process. It is composed of beeswax mixed with debris or refuse...

  18. 粗制蜂蜡脱色过程研究%Study on the Bleaching Process of Crude Beeswax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静波; 张玉军; 陈方平; 李亚萍; 陈述

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究粗制蜂蜡的脱色过程,以期为蜂蜡生产提供理论指导.[方法]以过氧化氢为脱色剂对粗制蜂蜡进行脱色,研究了不同试剂用量、脱色温度、脱色时间与搅拌速度对蜂蜡色泽及酸价的影响.[结果]蜂蜡色泽随过氧化氢用量增加而降低,过氧化氢用量为0.3 ml/g时色泽达到1级;脱色时间对蜂蜡脱色效果的影响与过氧化氢用量有关与蜂蜡酸价无关;而脱色温度对蜂蜡色泽的影响与脱色时间有关,随脱色温度升高蜂蜡胶价低.脱色时,随着搅拌速度的提高,蜂蜡色泽变浅;但转速太高会造成蜂蜡色泽回升.[结论] 在该试验条件下,过氧化氢用量0.3 ml/g,脱色时间60 min,脱色温度80 ℃,搅拌速度700 r/min,脱色效果达到1级.蜂蜡脱色过程受多种因素影响,并且伴随有回色现象发生,需结合具体情况确定最为经济高效的脱色条件.

  19. The Determination of the Adulterations in Beeswax%蜂蜡中掺杂物的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤艳; 赵天波

    1999-01-01

    蜂蜡较贵,而市场上出售的蜂蜡又常被加入一些掺杂物,这些掺杂物会极大地影响蜂蜡用户的最终产品的质量.通过样品外观的观察初步定性是否掺有杂质;利用纯蜂蜡在苯中溶解,而掺入的石膏、面粉和淀粉等杂质在苯中不溶而定量鉴定这类杂质;由酸值变化和乙醇溶解物的量,测定掺入的硬脂酸等酸性物质或其它的非酸性物质;由皂化值变化,定量测定掺入的动物脂等酯类物质或其它的非酯类物质;根据蜂蜡中的烃类在浓硫酸中可被炭化,加入的石蜡等矿物蜡不被炭化来测定此类掺杂物.由此初步建立了一个蜂蜡中多种掺杂物同时存在时各掺杂物的种类和含量测定的分析体系.所用仪器简单,宜于推广应用.

  20. Brief Introduction of Beeswax and Analysis of Laboratory Identification Methods%蜜蜡简介及实验室鉴定方法简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 陈静茹; 肖建芳; 韩陈; 章若红

    2016-01-01

    蜜蜡是琥珀的一种,成矿年份在2千多万年至l亿年.随着仿造工艺的提高,对蜜蜡的鉴定出现了很多传统方法之外的现代化仪器鉴别理论,文章介绍了目前出现的几类方法,对原理和效果的做了对比分析,提出通过传统与现代相结合的方式去鉴别蜜蜡真伪.

  1. Design of Pipe-reactor for Beeswax Made of Paraffin%石蜡氧化制蜂蜡管式反应器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨基和; 赵世勇; 季建银

    2004-01-01

    根据石蜡氧化制蜂蜡实验测定了反应动力学基础数据,推导了反应时间和转化率的关系,在此基础上由最小二乘法则算出动力学方程速率常数和反应级数,并建立了反应器计算模型;根据Mandhne气液流型确定了反应管内两相流动情况,计算出年产800t蜂蜡的反应停留时间、反应器总管长、管径、体积.最后进行了管式反应器压降计算.

  2. Study on biological active components in beeswax overview%蜂蜡中生物活性成分的研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向洋; 杨浩; 吴信; 刘建平

    2012-01-01

    蜂蜡的利用历史悠久,现在蜂蜡已被广泛应用于多个领域,但大都只是经过简单的初级加工,附加值较低.现代科学研究表明,蜂蜡中含有大量的天然活性成分,这些成分具有多种独特的生理调节功能,并且有安全、绿色、高效等优点.本文主要概述了蜂蜡中几种常见的活性成分及其生理功能,希望对蜂蜡的深加工和利用起到一定的促进作用.

  3. Chemical Volatile Composition of the Absolute Oil of Beeswax%蜂蜡净油挥发性成分的分析和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小琴; 李军

    2003-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术,通过质谱库检索并结合保留指数,对蜂蜡净油的挥发性成分进行了定性分析;同时采用气相色谱技术,对其中的大部分挥发性成分进行了定量分析,共检出76个组分,主要成分为:1,8-桉树脑(1.70%)、芳樟醇(6.53%)、乙酸芳樟酯(12.51%)、乙酸松油酯(1.85%)、苯乙酸甲酯(2.59%)、苯乙酸乙酯(2.60%)、苯甲醇(5.67%)、丁酸苯乙酯(2.11%)、洋茉莉醛(1.05%)、苯乙酸(14.79%)、香兰素(8.01%)、苯乙酸苄酯(10.97%)、肉桂酸苄酯(2.55%)等.

  4. Multi-Stakeholder Platform Contribution to Value Chain Development : The Honey & Beeswax, Milk & Milk Products, Pineapple and Edible Oil & Oilseeds Value Chains in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); F. Mandefro (Fenta)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMulti-stakeholder platforms are increasingly recognized by researchers and practitioners as promising mechanisms for stimulating economies in developing countries. An increasing number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and private enterprises are participating in such platforms, h

  5. 浓缩乳清蛋白/魔芋葡甘聚糖复配蜂蜡膜%Beeswax Film by Compounding Whey Protein Concentrate/Konjac Glucomannan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安瑞琪; 黄建初; 李崇高; 陈涵; 杨丹; 梅桂斌; 庞杰; 郑玉玺

    2016-01-01

    为了对魔芋葡甘聚糖(KGM)薄膜进行优化,在魔芋葡甘聚糖溶胶中加入浓缩乳清蛋白(WPC)和蜂蜡(BW)制备KGM复合薄膜.分析了KGM-WPC和BW不同比例复合薄膜的力学性能、含水量、溶胀性、可溶性物质含量、水蒸气透过率、气体透过率以及红外光谱的变化.结果表明,浓缩乳清蛋白和蜂蜡的加入,魔芋葡甘聚糖薄膜的力学性能和疏水性能得到显著改善.随着蜂蜡的增加,薄膜的厚度增加,在不同比例的KGM WPC/BW中,KWB20 (m(KGM-WPC)∶m(BW)=8∶2)的断裂伸长率最大,但阻水性能不好;KWB60(m(KGM-WPC)∶m(BW)=4∶6)的溶胀性较小,可溶性物质较少,但拉伸强度和断裂伸长率较小;KWB80(m(KGM-WPC)∶m(BW)=2∶8)的溶胀性能最小可溶性物质最少,但气体透过率太高,拉伸强度和断裂伸长率过小,不利于成膜;加入蜂蜡的红外光谱有所变化.总的来说,KWB40(m (KGM-WPC)∶m(BW)=6∶4)的组合是能够获得KGM WPC/BW复合薄膜最佳性能的组合.

  6. 蜂胶对小鼠血糖和血脂的影响%Effects of Beeswax on Blood Sugar and Lipid in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文; 王庭欣; 马晓彤; 秦淑贞; 蒋东升; 宋立江

    2005-01-01

    蜂胶是工蜂从植物体上采集的树脂与其上腭腺的分泌物和蜂蜡形成的有粘性的固体胶状物,含有黄酮类、萜类、酚类等生物活性成分及蛋白质、脂肪、多种维生素和矿物质等营养素。本研究通过复制高血糖和高血脂动物模型,探讨蜂胶对实验动物血糖和血脂的影响。

  7. Study on Preservation of Nanfeng Mandarin by Coating with Beeswax%蜂蜡涂膜剂保鲜南丰蜜桔的研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖锡湘

    2009-01-01

    用蜂蜡涂膜剂对南丰蜜桔进行涂膜处理.在室温条件下贮藏保鲜.测定了果实腐烂率、失重率、可溶性固形物、vc、可滴定酸、总糖、呼吸强度等指标的变化,并与未经涂膜的进行对比,以试验比较蜂蜡涂膜剂保鲜对延长南丰蜜桔货架期的可行性及其效果.实验结果表明:蜂蜡涂膜剂保鲜效果明显优于未经涂膜的对照组.

  8. Validation of an analytical method for quality control of residual solvents (n-hexane and acetone) in D-002: new active ingredient from beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, Ernesto Méndez; Quiñónez, Yaisme Balcinde; Canavaciolo, Víctor González; Cruz, Esperanza Rodríguez

    2008-07-15

    D-002 is a new natural product consisting of a mixture of aliphatic fatty alcohols, which shows antioxidant and anti-ulcer effects in experimental models. A new validated methodology for determining simultaneously residual n-hexane and acetone in D-002 using the headspace gas chromatography (HS/GC) is described. The very poor solubility of D-002 in most solvents did necessary sample preparations in solid state. Limit test conditions allowed a detection of residual n-hexane and acetone more sensitively than that recommended for such purposes in the general method of the European Pharmacopoeia. Validation assays, applied to both D-002 residual solvents, proved: suitable sensitivity; very high linearity (correlation coefficients > or =0.999, R.S.D. of slopes < or =0.8% and R.S.D. of response factors < or =5% and no biases) and accuracy (average recoveries between 94.7 and 100.1%); and precision was < or =2.1%. The method was found suitable for quality control and stability studies of this new product.

  9. 基于蜜蜡制作首饰模型的研究%Study on Jewelry Model Made of Beeswax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英福

    2006-01-01

    在对蜜蜡成分分析的基础上,认为蜜蜡中的主要成分黄蜡、松脂、石蜡的调配比例不同,可得到不同的蜜蜡纹理.在首饰设计中,可充分利用蜜蜡纹理的流动线条,实现设计者的设计内容,改变传统雕刻材料铸造后表面质感单一的缺陷,从而拓宽首饰创新设计领域.

  10. STUDY ON FADING FACTORS OF BEESWAX BY ORTHOGONAL OPTIMIZATION%正交试验法优选蜂蜡脱色因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段琼芬; 陈韦成; 孙龙; 赵虹

    2003-01-01

    以色白度、光亮度、结晶紧密度等8个试验指标,采用正交试验法对蜂蜡的精制工艺及脱色因子进行优选.优化工艺路线为:粗蜂蜡→吸附→EDTA二钠洗→水洗→冷却→成型→产品.最佳工艺条件为:白土用量4%,脱色温度85℃,脱色时间25 min.

  11. 葡甘聚糖/蜂蜡复合膜工艺优化研究%Study on optimization of konjac glucomannan (KGM)-beeswax (BW) composite membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖明耀; 林好; 汪秀妹; 冯瑞; 兰润; 庞杰

    2013-01-01

    以魔芋葡甘聚糖(KGM)和蜂蜡(BW)为原料制备复合膜,以其拉伸强度为考察指标,通过单因素试验,分别研究KGM/BW配比、甘油添加量、烘干温度对复合膜力学性能的影响,从而得出其最适合的理论工艺,再采用响应面法优化其工艺条件.研究结果表明,KGM/BW配比、甘油添加量、烘干温度对复合膜的拉伸强度均有显著影响,且最优条件为KGM/BW配比6.14∶1、甘油添加量0.42%、烘干温度70.71℃,复合膜的拉伸强度理论预测值为42.156 0 MPa,验证值为41.78 MPa.

  12. GC-MS analysis of fatty acids in three kinds of natural beeswax%3种天然蜂蜡中脂肪酸的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜婧; 李超; 邱芳萍

    2014-01-01

    利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对蜜盖蜡、新巢蜡、老巢蜡3种天然蜂蜡中的脂肪酸进行分离鉴定,并采用峰面积归一化法测定各组分的相对含量.结果显示,3种天然蜂蜡共分离出9种脂肪酸,相对含量较高的包括棕榈酸、油酸、蜡酸、硬脂酸等,其中大部分为饱和脂肪酸,约占总脂肪酸的86.2%;3种天然蜂蜡中的脂肪酸组成基本一致,但相对含量有一定差异.

  13. Effects of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, on the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice: a comparison with naproxen, aspirin, and paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Carbajal-Quintana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available D-002 es una mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos superiores purificados de la cera de abejas con efectos antiinflamatorios demostrados en modelos experimentales sin efectos gastrotóxicos o hepatotóxicos. Algunos estudios han demostrado el efecto analgésico del D-002 relacionado con su acción antiinflamatoria. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en comparar el efecto del D-002, naproxeno, aspirina y paracetamol sobre el modelo de contorsiones inducidas por ácido acético en ratones . Los ratones fueron distribuidos en 13 grupos (10 animales/grupo:un control con vehículo, cuatro con D-002 (25, 50, 200 y 400 mg/kg, tres con naproxeno (10, 20 y 50 mg/kg tres con aspirina (50, 100 y 300 mg/kg y dos con paracetamol (100 y 400 mg/kg por vía oral. Una hora después del tratamiento, los ratones fueron inyectados con ácido acético (1,0 % y el número de contorsiones durante 15 min registrado. El tratamiento oral con D-002 (50, 200 y 400 mg/kg inhibió significativamente las contorsiones abdominales (36, 43 y 40 %. El número de contorsiones disminuyó significativamente con 100 y 300 mg/kg de aspirina (47 y 83 %; naproxeno 20 y 50 mg/kg (37 % con ambas dosis y paracetamol 400 mg/kg (24 %. La menor dosis de cada tratamiento no mostró efecto analgésico. El efecto del D-002 (400 mg/kg fue comparable al naproxeno (20 and 50 mg/kg. La máxima dosis efectiva de D-002 (200 mg/kg y naproxeno (20 mg/kg fueron menos efectivas que la aspirina (300 mg/kg en inhibir las contracciones por ácido acético, mientras que el paracetamol (400 mg/kg resultó el tratamiento menos efectivo.

  14. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containing more than 50 percent beeswax. (4) The Domestic Industry is the U.S. producers as a whole of the... petroleum wax, except for candles that contain more than 50 percent beeswax. (5) An Importer is any...

  15. Pelapisan Lilin Lebah Untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Buah Selama Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaidi, Ismed

    2010-01-01

    An experiment to study the effect of beeswax coating on the quality of fruits during their storage at room temperatur was conducted in Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, USU, Medan. Beeswax coating were applied in 5 concentrations, i.e: 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%. The fruits wich coated by beeswax coating were banana, orange, and salak. The quality components observed were weight loss, vitamin C, and soluble solid. The result showed that beeswax coating had significant effect in the...

  16. Drug: D08835 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08835 Mixture, Drug Zinc oxide - lard - hardened oil - white beeswax mixt; Wilson'...s (TN) Zinc oxide [DR:D01170], Lard [DR:D05301], Hardened oil, White beeswax [DR:D04969] Therapeutic categor...ers D08835 Zinc oxide - lard - hardened oil - white beeswax mixt PubChem: 96025518 ...

  17. 葡甘聚糖/蜂蜡复合液膜对鲜切琯溪蜜柚保鲜研究%Study on fresh-cut pomelo fresh-keeping by konjac glucomannan(KGM)-beeswax(BW)composite membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖明耀; 兰润; 李雪晖; 庞杰

    2014-01-01

    该文研究室温(20℃)条件下葡甘聚糖/蜂蜡(KGM/BW)涂膜、葡甘聚糖(KGM)涂膜及对照组对鲜切琯溪蜜柚贮藏期间主要感观品质和理化性质影响。结果表明:KGM涂膜,尤其是KGM/BW涂膜能降低贮藏期间鲜切柚子的水分损失、抑制呼吸作用、减缓营养物质流失,具有良好的保鲜效果。%The effects of KGM/BW coating,KGM coating and the control group under the room temperature(20 ℃)on the sensory quality and physicochemical property of the fresh-cut honey pomelo(Guanxi)during postharvest storage were studied.The results showed that KGM/BW coating, compared to KGM coating group and the control,could protect the flesh-cut fruit best during storage from water loss and inhibit respiration as well as preserve the nutritious quality of the honey pomelo fruit.

  18. 蜂蜡膏促进糖尿病新西兰兔创面愈合的实验研究%Experimental study on beeswax ointment in diabetic rabbit's model of wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付辉; 王新建; 卢焕福; 徐奇玮

    2007-01-01

    [目的]观察蜂蜡膏对糖尿病新西兰兔创面愈合的影响.[方法]采用四氧嘧啶人工复制糖尿病新西兰兔模型9只,14 d后在背部各制备3个面积为2.54 cm2的全层皮肤缺损创面,将创面分为3组,即蜂蜡膏组,湿润烧伤膏组(MEBO)和空白组.通过观察残余创面面积,创面愈合时间,组织病理学量化和免疫组化结果来评价治疗效果.[结果]治疗8、12和16 d后,蜂蜡膏组创面面积较空白组明显减小(1.51±0.16)cm2、(1.80±0.11)cm2,(0.46±0.11)cm2、(1.15±0.23)cm2,(0.19±0.09)cm2、(0.59±0.19)cm2,P<0.05,愈合时间明显缩短(18.9±1.4)、(22.0±2.3)d,P<0.01.组织病理学检测蜂蜡膏组治疗的创面,成纤维细胞和新生毛细血管数量与空白组比较,差异有显著性意义(60.8±6.7、50.6±11.0,P<0.05;15.12±3.10、10.28±3.17,P<0.01).经免疫组织化学方法检测蜂蜡膏组增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)的表达与空白组比较,差异有显著性意义(163.1±8.8、171.3±4.6,P<0.05).综合各项指标,表明蜂蜡膏组与湿润烧伤膏组药理作用强度相似.[结论]蜂蜡膏能加速糖尿病新西兰兔创面的愈合.

  19. 基于GC-MS和主成分分析的蜂蜡质量控制方法研究%Study on control method of beeswax quality by GC-MS and principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洋; 耿放; 尹丽颖; 雷霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:为确保蜂蜡质量稳定可控,建立建全蜂蜡的质量控制方法.方法:收集14个不同产地的蜂蜡,利用柱前衍生化气质联用技术对蜂蜡中成分进行分析,利用指纹图谱对14个不来源不同的蜂蜡样品进行鉴定分析,随后采用主成分分析进行结果验证,并找出引起质量差异的化合物,建立简单快捷的质量评价方法.结果:主成分(PCA)分析的结果表明,存在样品质量差别的最明显原因可能是由化合物2、6、9、14、17、21、22、24、29、33、37、39、44等造成.结论:蜂蜡质量标准应该控制总烷酸类含量的同时也控制烷烃及游离烷酸的含量.

  20. Preparation of Substitute of Natural Beeswax from Saponified Wax by Catalytic Oxidation%皂化蜡催化氧化制备天然蜂蜡替代品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 廖克俭; 丛玉凤; 孙凤娇; 于洪波

    2009-01-01

    以皂化蜡为主要原料,经催化氧化反应制得氧化蜡,并对氧化蜡进行物理改性.试验结果发现:当催化剂用量m(催化剂)m(皂化蜡)为0.02%、助催化剂用量m(催化剂)m(皂化蜡)为1.0%、空气流量0.20 m3h(皂化蜡100 g)、反应温度150 ℃和反应时间7 h时,得到最佳氧化蜡;加入6.0%[m(AC-6聚乙烯)m(氧化蜡)]的AC-6聚乙烯调和之后得到的改性蜡的性能与天然蜂蜡的非常接近.

  1. Determination of Extracting Carbon Hydrogen Compound in Beeswax by Using Active Aluminum Oxide as Adsorbent%活性氧化铝吸附法测定蜂蜡中碳氢化合物含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 辛长波; 李雨露

    2000-01-01

    本文阐述了用活性氧化铝做吸附剂,成功地选择了各种条件来提取组成复杂的天然产物--蜂蜡中的碳氢化合物,从而计算出碳氢化合物含量.用石蜡进行验证实验,准确度可达99.5%以上.

  2. STUDY ON EMULSIFICATION OF SYNTHETIC BEESWAX PREPARED FROM CATALYZED OXIDATION PARAFFIN WAX%石蜡催化氧化制备人造蜂蜡的乳化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 李会鹏; 赵华; 廖克俭

    2014-01-01

    将石蜡与微晶蜡按质量比4∶1进行混合,经催化氧化后制备人造蜂蜡,并进行红外光谱分析.将制备的人造蜂蜡进行乳化,对乳化剂的选择及乳化工艺进行研究,实验结果表明:以石蜡为主要原料制备的人造蜂蜡,采用FS18/OP-9(3 g/2 mL)为乳化剂,在乳化温度为85℃,乳化时间为30 min,搅拌速度为1 000~1 200r/min的条件下进行乳化,既能降低乳化蜡的成本,又提高了乳化液的稳定性.

  3. PURIFICATION OF 1-TRICONTANOL FROM PARAFFIN WAX OXIDATION INSTEAD OF BEESWAX%氧化蜡替代天然蜂蜡分离提纯三十烷醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉玲; 黄玮; 丛玉凤

    2008-01-01

    以石蜡和微晶蜡为原料,在自制氧化反应装置上进行了催化氧化反应,经精制,皂化,萃取,重结晶等工艺制得三十烷醇纯品,并与从天然蜂蜡中提取的三十烷醇进行了对比,通过红外光谱加以定性分析.结果表明,在氧化温度155~160℃、氧化时间4~6 h时,得到的氧化石蜡性质与天然蜂蜡相近,能替代天然蜂蜡来提取三十烷醇;皂化时间为5 h,NaOH-乙醇溶液浓度为2 mol/L时的皂化效果较好,选择苯作溶剂从产物中分离提纯三十烷醇的效果较好;从氧化蜡中提取的三十烷醇与从蜂蜡中提取的三十烷醇的性质相近.

  4. 蜂胶蜂蜡防治果树真菌病害的试验研究%Propolis Beeswax Experimental Study on the Prevention and Control of Fruit Tree Fungus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩云; 黄斌; 张世文; 王顺; 逯彦果; 程瑛; 贠建民

    2014-01-01

    为了提高果品质量、果实产量以及果树寿命,克服化学药剂给果实、果树、人体以及环境带来的副作用,将蜂蜡、蜂胶液与中草药液复合,形成的深咖啡色膏体状制剂对于果树真菌病害具有较好的防治效果.在实验室分别用蜂胶和中草药提取液进行抑菌试验,结果表明稀释浓度为50%的蜂胶液对圆弧青霉(Penicillium cyclopium)和黑曲霉Aspergillus niger)有显著的抑制效果;稀释浓度为20%的中药液对这2种真菌有极显著的抑制效果.采用2因素3水平,进行正交试验(无交互作用)与抑制真菌试验,发现组合A1B3为最优水平组合,其对2种真菌的抑制率达到90%以上.在果园中对修剪枝及患腐烂病害的果树涂抹蜂胶蜂蜡复合制剂,能起到良好的保护和防治功效.

  5. Treatment of NVB Chemotherapy-Induced Local Response by Beeswax and Traditional Therapy%蜂胶外敷结合传统疗法治疗诺维本所致局部反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉莉; 姜广荣; 饶红霞

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨蜂胶外敷结合传统疗法治疗诺维本外渗致局部反应的效果.方法 对7例诺维本外渗致局部反应病例,运用蜂胶外敷结合传统疗法治疗,并对溃疡疼痛、疗程、静脉血管弹性进行观察.结果 采用该方法治疗护理后,最短5 d,最长35 d,平均17.4 d创面愈合,静脉炎好转,血管恢复弹性.结论 蜂胶外敷结合传统疗法可有效治愈诺维本外渗所致局部反应.

  6. 天然蜂蜡皂化水解工艺的优化及棕榈酸含量测定%Optimization of Saponification Technology for Natural Beeswax and Content of Palmitic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜婧; 邱芳萍; 李超

    2014-01-01

    利用响应面法优化天然蜂蜡的皂化水解工艺,并采用红外光谱法和气相色谱法对水解产物之一的棕榈酸进行定性及定量分析.分别对天然蜂蜡皂化反应的温度、时间、氢氧化钠浓度、液固比等条件进行响应曲面试验设计,建立天然蜂蜡皂化水解的最佳工艺.通过气相色谱法对天然蜂蜡皂化水解并经酸化处理后得到的脂肪酸中棕榈酸的含量进行分析测定.结果表明,最佳皂化水解工艺为氢氧化钠乙醇溶液1.89 mol/L,皂化时间4.5 h,皂化温度87℃,液固比10.05∶1(mL/g).在此试验条件下,天然蜂蜡的皂化率可达97.49%,天然蜂蜡脂肪酸中棕榈酸的含量为61.32%.

  7. 河南市场部分蜂胶产品中蜂蜡含量监测分析%Monitoring and analysis of beeswax content in some propolis products in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光升

    2014-01-01

    目的 检测目前河南部分市售蜂胶产品的质量.方法 采用称重法测定蜂胶中蜂蜡含量水平,紫外可见分析法测定蜂胶总黄酮含量,高锰酸钾滴加法测定氧化时间指标.结果 样品S1、S2和S3蜂蜡含量大于样品S4、S5和S6;样品S4、S5和S6氧化值指标均明显好于S1、S2和S3样品,具有较强的抗氧化能力;总黄酮含量均在16%以上,其中样品S2和S3含量较少,S5和S6含量较高.蜂胶质量和蜂胶中的醇提取物含量成正比,和含蜡量、氧化时间成反比.结论 在所有蜂胶产品中,S1、S2、S3为合格品,S4、S5为良品.S6为优等品.

  8. Study the Impact of Beeswax Removal on the Content of Total Flavonoids from Propolis%蜂胶除蜡工艺对黄酮类成分含量影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 王昌利; 张文平

    2010-01-01

    目的 蜂胶除蜡后对蜂胶中黄酮类化合物含量的影响. 方法 选用紫外分光光度法,以芦丁为对照品,测定总黄酮含量. 结果蜂胶除蜡后,有8.5%的总黄酮类成分损失,但胶层与水层中总黄酮量仍大于未除蜡蜂胶的总黄酮量. 结论除蜡对蜂胶中总黄酮量影响不大,在其治疗心脑血管疾病复方制剂开发应用时可作为杂质除去.

  9. Effect of beeswax on properties of soybean-protein-isolate/carboxymethyl cellulase composite materials%蜂蜡对大豆分离蛋白/羧甲基纤维素复合材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 郭晓飞; 李武; 马越; 赵晓燕

    2013-01-01

    研究蜂蜡对大豆分离蛋白/羧甲基纤维素复合材料性能的影响.当蜂蜡添加量增加,复合材料的颜色变黄;透明度、水蒸气透过率和断裂伸展率降低,氧气透过率升高.

  10. Bi-axial Vibration Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    layer of beeswax [50] was employed at the interface between the ME transducer and the upper magnet to minimise shear movement. Measurements of the...Measurement of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Beeswax ,” Mat. Sci. and Tech., Vol. 18, p. 463, 2002. 51. Material Data Matrix, Ferroperm

  11. Environmentally Safe, Sprayable, Waterproof, Rapid Three Minute Room Temperature Cure Resin for the Manufacturing of Aerospace Composite Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    test specimens with a composite wax composed of 60% white beeswax and 40% Fisher Tissueprep. Molten asphalt or wax is required for permeance tests...polyurethane test specimens with a composite wax composed of 60% white beeswax and 40% Fisher Tissueprep. 2) Molten asphalt or wax is required for permeance

  12. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  13. Evaluation of sustained release suppositories prepared with fatty base including solid fats with high melting points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Toshihito; Shimono, Norihito; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kimura, Toshikiro

    2004-07-08

    To prepare the sustained release suppositories, solid fats such as polyglycerol ester of fatty acids (PGEFs) or beeswax were utilized with a fatty suppository base, Witepsol H15. PGEFs such as decaglycerol heptabehenate (HB750) and hexaglycerol pentastearate (PS500), and beeswax have relatively high melting points. The addition of PGEFs or beeswax to Witepsol H15 increased the apparent viscosity of suppository bases at 37 degrees C without any large change in the melting point of Witepsol H15. Moreover, the apparent viscosity of a mixed base with HB750, PS500 or beeswax at 37 degrees C was significantly correlated with the amount of each solid fat in a mixed base. The release of acetaminophen (AAP), a model drug, from suppositories was delayed by HB750, PS500 or beeswax, and an excellent correlation was observed between the apparent viscosity of these mixed bases and Higuchi's rate constants in each mixed base suppository, suggesting that these solid fats could regulate the drug release from the mixed base suppositories by changing their viscosity. In the in vivo absorption study in rats, several suppositories made from Witepsol H15-HB750 or Witepsol H15-beeswax mixed bases prolonged the rectal absorption of AAP without reducing AUC. In conclusion, by using solid fats such as HB750 and beeswax with relatively high melting points, it is possible to control the rate of drug release from fatty base suppositories for maintaining the plasma concentration of drugs for longer time periods.

  14. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as an oral supplement and as a cream. Propolis. Also known as synthetic beeswax, this is available ... exercises and meditation. Your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication for you to take on a regular ...

  15. Description of Manufacture - Optical Elements for Five Control Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-01

    wide range, many different types of glass can be produced. Certain characteristics of the glass can be controlied further by dissolving oxides...operation is the same for both slab glass and formed blanks., The pieces, whether square or triangular* are put together with beeswax side by side...squares are cleaned and mounted firmly, with beeswax , on metal strips so that the diagonal corners of each square lie on ä line drawn along the

  16. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 17. Analogue Signal Conditioning for Flight Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    tube (Fig. 47). The mercury and wires are sealed in the tube with a soft seal- ant (refined beeswax warmed and poured down the tube provides a...According to Moffat, an electrolyte was created when the color-coded dyes dissolved in the water. In the Stanford University iron/Constantan...62 MATERIAL A COPPER WIRE THERMOCOUPLE WIRE COPPER WIRE MATERIAL B COPPER WIRE CORKTUBEGLASS TUBE REFINED BEESWAX .. :i, INSULATION ICE AND WATER

  17. RDX-Polyethylene Wax Formulations as Potential Replacements for Tetryl in Fuze Leads, Boosters and Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    prepared by the solvent cut method, PBX-9407, are listed for comparison with RDX and Tetryl in Table 2. The substantial decrease in impact sensitivity...earliest MRL studies dealt with RDX grade ~ 1 1 % polyethylene wax as a potential replacement for beeswax in Comp. B RD~/~~~/ beeswax 60:40:1 [6,71. Some... solvent or toxic vapours, and all major ingredients are of low toxicity. The polyethylene wax is readily available through local suppliers and the

  18. Melatonin and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) alter the response of the male Syrian hamster to natural photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, M. K.; Little, J. C.; Powell, D. C.; Puig-Domingo, M.; Reiter, R. J.

    1988-06-01

    Adult male hamsters bearing either a blank beeswax, 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (6-MBOA), or melatonin pellet were exposed to 8 weeks (Oct. 6 Dec. 6) of natural autumn decreasing photoperiod (beeswax pellet. When one compares the various effects of 6-MBOA and melatonin (2 mg/month) on the reproductive system of the male hamster, 6-MBOA is not as effective as melatonin in altering reproductive responses to short photoperiod and cool temperatures at the dose administered.

  19. Drug: D04969 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04969 Crude, Drug White beeswax (JP16); Wax, white (NF); White wax (TN) Apis indic...swax (JP16); Wax, white (NF) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D04969 White beeswax CAS: 8012-89-3 PubChem: 17398240 NIKKAJI: J269.255D ... ...n [BR:br08301] 7 Agents not mainly for therapeutic purpose 71 Dispensing medicines 712 Ointment bases 7121 Oil bases D04969 White bee

  20. Effect of the particle size and photon energy on the X-ray attenuation by CuO compounds;Efeito do tamanho de particula e da energia dos fotons na atenuacao de raios X por compostos de CuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marcel Z. [Centro Universitario Franciscano, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kuenzel, Roseli; Okuno, Emico [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Bergman, Carlos Perez [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EE/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Levenhagen, Ronaldo S. [Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torunsky, Caroline G. [STAFF - Solucoes em Fisica Medica e Radioprotecao, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the x-ray transmission through microsize CuO and nanosize CuO materials, each one incorporated separately to beeswax, is compared. For comparison purpose, transmission through pure beeswax was also evaluated. The concentration of CuO particles, with a crystallite size in the microsize and nanosize scale, incorporated to beeswax was 5%. The dispersion of the CuO particles in the beeswax was accessed by means of radiographic images provided by a digital mammography equipment. X-ray transmission was evaluated for beams produced by a mammography unit, with a Mo/Mo anode/filter combination and by a conventional x-ray equipment, with a W target. Air kerma values transmitted through material thicknesses between 2 and 12 mm were measured with an ionization chamber. Results shows that the transmission through microsize and nanosize CuO was almost the same for x-ray beams generated at 60 kV tube voltages. However, for x-ray beams generated at 26 kV tube voltages the transmitted air kerma values are lower for the samples with nanosize CuO incorporated to beeswax than those measured for microsize CuO particles incorporated to beeswax. (author)

  1. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定蜂蜡中硝基呋喃类代谢物%Determination of metabolites of nitrofuran antibiotics in beeswax using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷美康; 彭芳; 祝子铜; 章应俊; 安钦燕; 徐佳文; 余琪; 吴晓勤

    2015-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱-串联质谱检测蜂蜡中呋喃唑酮代谢物(AOZ)、呋喃它酮代谢物(AMOZ)、呋喃西林代谢物(SEM)、呋喃妥因代谢物(AHD)残留的分析方法.试样采用正己烷预溶解,酸性水溶液中衍生化,经HLB固相萃取小柱净化,用Agilent Eclipse Plus-C18柱(100 mm ×2.1 mm,3.5um)分离,电喷雾离子源正离子(ESI+)、多反应监测(MRM)模式串联质谱进行测定.结果表明,4种硝基呋喃类代谢物在0.5~10 ng/mL范围内均具有较好的线性关系,相关系数大于0.995.在0.5,1.0和2.0ug/kg添加水平下,样品中4种硝基呋喃类代谢物的回收率在71.8%~119.0%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD,n=6)均小于10%,方法定量限(S/N> 10)为0.5μg/kg.方法适用于日常蜂蜡样品中4种硝基呋喃类代谢物残留的定性、定量分析.

  2. 抗结核药物联合蜂蜡巴豆治疗耐药肺结核的疗效观察%The Observation of Clinical Effect of Anti-tuberculosis Drugs Combined with Beeswax Croton in Treatment of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢俊敏; 赵中夫

    2009-01-01

    目的:抗结核药物联合蜂蜡巴豆治疗耐药肺结核的临床疗效观察.方法:97例耐药患者入选,随机分配为A、B两组,A组47例,化疗联合蜂蜡巴豆;B组50例,单纯化疗.两组疗程均为18个月.结果:痰菌阴转率:治疗3个月末,A组60.87%,B组30.43%(P<0.05), 疗程结束时A组为84.8%,B组65.2%(P<0.05).A组病灶有效变化率为91.30%,B组为73.91%(P <0.0 5).虽然两组的病情好转情况无显著差异(P>0.05), 但A组不良反应发生率显著低于B 组(P<0.01).结论: 抗结核药物联合蜂蜡巴豆治疗耐药肺结核患者,对耐药结核有良好的治疗效果 ,并可减少化疗药物引起的毒副反应.

  3. Analysis on the physics-chemical indexes of beeswax from Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera and me suggestion for its standardization%中、西蜂蜂蜡理化指标分析及蜂蜡标准化建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 胡福良; 胡元强; 邵巧云; 唐慧洋

    2007-01-01

    本文对不同来源的中、西蜂蜂蜡样品中的杂质含量、碳氢化合物含量、密度、熔点、折光率、酸值、皂化值、酯值、碘值、总黄酮等10项理化指标进行了测定,并对蜂蜡质量指标项目的确定、质量指标值的调整等方面提出了建议.

  4. Determination of Six Acaricide Residues in Beeswax by Gas Chromatography Coupled with a Micro-electron Capture Detector%气相色谱微池电子捕获检测器测定蜂蜡中6种杀螨剂药物残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 李丹; 张金振; 黄京平; 赵静; 吴黎明

    2010-01-01

    建立一种准确、快速、简便的蜂蜡中杀螨剂类药物多残留检测技术.样品经恒温水浴液-液萃取、低温冷冻离心净化后用气相色谱微池电子捕获检测器测定.对提取溶剂的种类、体积及提取次数进行研究.结果表明:30.0mL乙腈-正己烷(V/V,2:1)是最佳提取溶剂.经两次冷冻及高速离心能将大部分的脂类基质去除.该方法的线性范围为0.01~4mg/L,相关系数均大于0.9878.检出限为0.96~4.69μg/kg,定量限为2.56~13.12μg/kg.该方法在3个不同浓度水平的添加均有很好的回收率(83.8%~110.4%),相对标准偏差为1.70%~6.60%.

  5. Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR study of the molecular structure of honeybee wax and silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Tamada, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the native-state crystal structure of beeswax from the Japanese bee, Apis cerana japonica, we determined the relationship between temperature and the 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift of methylene carbon of beeswax, with comparison to n-alkanes and polyethylene in the orthorhombic, monoclinic, or triclinic crystal form. Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations of n-alkanes and polyethylene revealed that the chemical shifts of methylene carbon in the orthorhombic crystal form increased linearly with increasing temperature, that of the triclinic form decreased, and that of the monoclinic form was unaltered. These relations were compared with results of variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observation of beeswax. Results clarified that the two crystal forms comprising the beeswax in the native state are orthorhombic and monoclinic. The variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations were also applied to interpret the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve of beeswax. They were used to clarify the structural changes of beeswax for widely various temperatures. For beeswax secreted by the Japanese bee, the transition from the orthorhombic form to the rotator phase occurred at 36 degrees C, that is from the crystalline to the intermediate state at 45 degrees C. Moreover, the variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR spectrum of honeybee silk in the native state was observed. Results demonstrated that the secondary structures of honeybee silk proteins in the native state comprised coexisting alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations and that the amount of alpha-helices was greater. The alpha-helix content of honeybee silk was compared with that of hornet silk produced by Vespa larvae.

  6. APRENDIZAGEM DA EXTENSÃO DA PROBÓSCIDE EM ZANGÕES AFRICANIZADOS (APIS MELLIFERA L. CONFINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Souza Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the olfactive learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are predominantly performed with worker bees. In this study, we used the classical conditioning of proboscis extension (PER to evaluate the effectiveness of 5 scents as conditioned stimuli (CS. Ten groups of 20 drones (A. mellifera L. each were used. The conditioned stimuli were the odors of Citral, Hexanal, Geraniol, beeswax (comb, and beeswax (foundation sheet. In addition to the acquisition of learning, we measured the persistence of conditioning when the unconditioned stimulus was no longer presented (i.e., extinction. The intertrial interval, the CS duration and US duration were 10 min, 2 sec, and 3 sec, respectively. The drones were able to demonstrate conditioning and storage of information. Citral, Hexanal, and beeswax (comb were the most efficient stimuli in classical conditioning with drones.

  7. The Behavior of Some Waxes in Composition B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    beeswax 14 10 Bareco X-715 Lot C-652 15 K 11 Bareco X-404 Batch B-610 16 12 Bareco X-718 Lot C-649 17 13 Bareco X-719 Batch 658 18 14 Bareco X-717 Lot C-655...Wax of Knoxville 123, Petrolite ES670, and Beeswax . Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant grade TNT and Holston Class A RDX were used in most of the...hydrocarbon standards against their retention volume. The molecular weights derived from the calibration curve are based upon the chain length of the dissolved

  8. Forced-Convection, Liquid-Cooled, Microchannel Heat Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    as electrical insulator) Flip chip over Clean chip (T,A,M,W/S,W,M,I) and dry Mount chip with beeswax to a glass slide (be sure wax coats the entire...resistor side of chip) Soak in BHF for 3 min Wash with Dl water and dry Demount chip from glass slide Mount chip with beeswax to a polishing...T,A,M,W/S,W,M,I) and dry Pre-etch the surface with full-strength potassium ferricyanide for 5 min (do not use solvents after this step to insure

  9. Study on Army Aspects on the Military Assistance Program in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-06-10

    of cajeput , waterlily, lotus, camellia, ling, and citronella oil are produced. Additional agricultural products include cassia, nux vomica, sweet...of secondary growth with limited commercial value. Pine oil , pitch, turpentine, natural rosins, waxes, balsams, and beeswax are produced primarily for...area are supplied with local chemicals. Chemical production also includes some B-43 output of fertilizers, vegetable oils , soaps, perfumes, paints, and

  10. Photon Avalanche Laser Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    axis). It is then sawed and filed into roughly the desired shape. The final step is polishing on beeswax laps with increasingly fine grades of polishing...level of this contamination can be measured by dissolving a small amount of crystal in H20. A white residue precipitates. This residue can be washed with

  11. Structure and Electrical Properties of RF Sputter Deposited Indium Antimonide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    out on beeswax using 0.03 micron alumina grit suspended in methanol. The wafers were then rinsed in trichloroethylene, acetone, and methanol; dried...a 200 KV JEOL transmission electron microscope. Films arown on NaCl and Nal were prepared for examination by dissolving the substrates in deionized

  12. Semiconductor Eutectic Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    plastic plate with one of the following materials: paraffin, stearic acid, beeswax or phenyl salicylate. It was found that phenyl salicylate is the most...44b. During alloying, the melt tin film dissolved a small amount of SnSe according to a solid solubility curve at the alloying temperature. And since

  13. Small Portable Analyzer Diagnostic Equipment (SPADE) Program -- Diagnostic Software Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    water in the lubricant, whether dissolved or free, has been found to encourage the propagation of’cracks. This is believed to be due to migration of...the beeswax -coated shaker table to guarantee good high-frequency transmission. The primary reference for performance evaluation was a sensor that is

  14. Isolongifolenone: A Novel Sesquiterpene Repellent of Ticks and Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    compound (Elston 1998, Fradin and Day 2002). However, it is a synthetic compound that dissolves certain plastics and safety and environ- mental concerns... beeswax between the layers. As with Schreck et al. (1995), it was necessary to screen I. scapularis nymphs for active individuals. Af- ter the treated

  15. Electrical Compensation in InP Produced by Background Impurities and Structural Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    parts HC1 and 1 part HNO 3) for a minimum of 20 minutes, to dissolve heavy metals, and then rinsed thorougly with DI water. 5. Step 3 a-e is repeated and...34Pellon" pad mounted on a ii,, . •.-,• • - -- - . . . . •- ’T -Pr-WW_ -7- tilted rotating table. The substrates are cemented with beeswax to a

  16. Ultraviolet-Ozone Cleaning of Semiconductor Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    beeswax and rosin mixture (5) lapping vehicle (23) (6) mechanical vacuum pump oil (24) (7) DC 704 silicone diffusion pump oil (25) (8) DC 705...breakdown of contaminant molecules. For example, benzene can be converted into carbon dioxide and water with this method. Ozone dissolved in

  17. Glossary of Terms--Nuclear Weapon Phenomena and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-15

    coupling). cow. A device in which a daughter radionuclide is cluted (removed by dissolving ) from an ion exchange column containing a parent...pressed wood, plexiglass, and beeswax [39]. phantom loop. Communication circuit derived from two other communication circuits or from one other circuit

  18. Experimental Study of the Plume Characteristics of an Aged Monopropellant Hydrazine Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Ref. 19) and the system was cycled between low and high pressures, dissolved nitrogen was prone to being trapped in the system. To avoid this...copper alone, beeswax melted onto the copper, and SEM quality Microstick ® glue dripped onto the copper and spread by moving the disks to and fro

  19. Thin Metal Films as Corrosion Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-03-01

    used during the preceding two years were replaced by quart glass jars with gasket sealed lids. All electric lead- in entrances were sealed with beeswax ...rinse, and the excess lanolin could be seen to dissolve quite rapidly. Apparently, however, a corrosion inhibiting layer of lanolin remained. At the 40

  20. Protection Against Radiations from Radium, Cobalt-60, and Cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-09-01

    be large enough for easy threading. Thread ends subject to fraying should be pre- pared with beeswax or plastic. Screw threads should be carefully cut...separate washings should be performed. Highly alkaline soaps, abrasives, organic solvents , or cleaners that tend to increase permeability of the skin should

  1. Engineering the Kentucky River: The Commonwealth’s Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    and 30,000 pounds of ginseng, deer skins, furs, honey, beeswax , and feathers worth $10,000.7 󈧢 Engineering The Kentucky River: The Commonwealth’s...4,000 in back rent on its lease.42 Company president J. J. Bullitt loaned the navigation company $12,000 to keep it solvent and the project

  2. Maintenance and Repair Materials Data Base for Concrete and Steel Structures (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    hydraulic cement paste other than portland OIL - Organic combustible liquid soluble in organic solvents but not water POLYMER - The product of polymerization...hydrocarbons obtained from distillates of wood, coal, petroleum, or shale oil; a substance resembling beeswax WOOD - A fibrous cellular substance consisting

  3. The Pulse Response of Electrets to Energetic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    of the electret. The first electrets produced were thermoelectrets made from a mixture of car- nauba wax, beeswax and white resin. Preliminary tests...beneath the foil. However, the hydrocarbon solvents used in the adhesive made it unsuitable for use in a vacuum system. Still, many of the corona

  4. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Acid Violet 73 Acid Violet 76 Acid Violet 99 Acid Yellow 114 Acid Yellow 127 Direct Yellow 81 Solvent Black 5 Solvent Brown 43 Solvent Yellow 63 Solvent Yellow 90 (b) The following names are adopted for the... (all 27 alphanumeric designations) Sodium Chondroitin Sulfate Synthetic Beeswax (c) The following...

  5. Dimensional Stabilization of Wood in Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    wall hydroxyl groups (which are brief description of each type will be in a volatile solvent forms an internal available in all three major cell wall...little recent attention is Parly research was done with com- wood. replacing cell wall water with waxes. mon beeswax and it would be in- Chemicals

  6. DoD Hazardous Materials Information System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    points to obtain a ILA assigned code. Since water is the most commonly used solvent and since it is not assigned a NIOSH code the following locally...cf* various materials, with its length greater than its other dimensions, e.g., solder. Not applicable to items such as soap, beeswax , buffing

  7. Development of Improved Seals and Closures for Dry Diving Suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-31

    Viking latex. The neoprene is more resistant to solvent than the latex. The multiple lip seal is easy to clean, its multiple chambers resist the...did not cause irritation to the diver under his weight belt nor limit his movement. The zipper was easy to lubricate with beeswax and allowed the

  8. Use of natural and biobased materials for controlled-release of urea in water: Environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urea pearls were encapsulated in cloisite-based matrices using different natural materials (lignin, beeswax and latex) to control the release of urea over time. It was found that all cloisite-based fertilizer tablets showed better release profiles than neat urea tablets. The best release profile was...

  9. Two Simple Tricks with Air-Rail Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1974-01-01

    Describes a technique for imparting essentially the same speed, in opposite directions, to two gliders to demonstrate that total momentum of equal masses traveling at the same speed in opposite directions is zero. Also describes a technique using a compression spring and beeswax for momentarily holding two gliders together prior to starting them…

  10. Quantitative determination of trisiloxane surfactants in beehive environments based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mullin, Christopher A

    2013-08-20

    Organosilicone surfactants are increasingly being applied to agricultural agro-ecosystems as spray adjuvants, and were recently shown to impact the learning ability of honey bees. Here we developed a method for analyzing three trisiloxane surfactants (single polyethoxylate (EO) chain and end-capped with methyl, acetyl, or hydroxyl groups; TSS-CH3, TSS-COCH3, or TSS-H) in beehive matrices based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach from less than 2 g of honey, pollen, or beeswax. Recoveries for each oligomer (2-13 EO) were between 66 and 112% in all matrices. Average method detection limits (MDL) were 0.53, 0.60, 0.56 ng/g in honey, 0.63, 0.81, 0.78 ng/g in pollen, and 0.51, 0.69, 0.63 ng/g in beeswax. Five honey, 10 pollen, and 10 beeswax samples were analyzed. Trisiloxane surfactants were detected in every beeswax and 60% of the pollen samples. Total trisiloxane surfactant concentrations were up to 390 and 39 ng/g in wax and pollen. The described method is proved suitable for analyzing trisiloxane surfactants in beehive samples. The presence of trisiloxane surfactants in North American beehives calls for renewed effort to investigate the consequence of these adjuvants to bee health and the ongoing global bee decline.

  11. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin, pinocembr

  12. Fluorescence from Varnishes for Oil Paintings under N2 Laser Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tadaki

    1987-05-01

    The fluorescence spectra of varnish films have been measured as a function of the storage time. The varnishes used were made from natural resins (copal, mastic and dammar), synthetic resin and beeswax. Peak wavelengths of the fluorescence shifted to longer wavelengths with long-time storage. The effect of light on the fluorescence spectrum was found to be small.

  13. Monitoring of the antiviral potential of bee venom and wax extracts against Adeno-7 (DNA) and Rift Valley fever virus (RNA) viruses models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Mohamed, Aly F; Amer, Moner A; Hammad, Kotb M; Riad, Saber A

    2015-04-01

    This study monitored the antiviral potential of bee venom and four wax extracts, ethanol white and black beeswax (EWW/EBW) and acetone white and black beeswax (AWW/ABW) extracts. Two different virus models namely Adeno-7 as DNA model and RVFV as RNA virus models. End point calculation assay was used to calculate virus depletion titer. The depletion of viral infectivity titer of ABW to Adeno-7 virus showed strong antiviral activity recorded a depletion of viral infectivity titer (1.66 log (10)/ ml) that gave equal action with bee venom and more than interferon IFN (1 log (10)/ ml). On the other hand, antiviral activity of EBW showed a moderate potential, while AWW showed no antiviral activity. Finally EWW showed synergetic activity against Adeno-7 virus activity. Thus, activity of wax extracts to RVFV was arranged in order of IFN bee venom > AWW & EBW > EWW and ABW recorded 3.34, 0.65, 0.5, 0.34 respectively. It is the first time to study the beeswax effect against DNA and RNA virus' models; acetone black beeswax recorded a depletion titer 1.66 log (10)/ml.

  14. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  15. And the Slate Shale Be Cleaved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, Homer

    1988-01-01

    Uses a demonstration done by John Tyndall in 1856 to show that geological processes can produce striking changes, such as slate formation, by slow and incremental means. Explains how Tyndall's demonstration can be replicated in the classroom using paraffin or beeswax to produce the layering change similar to slate. (CW)

  16. Bees trace the effects of the air traffic; Bienen spueren Folgen des Luftverkehrs nach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waeber, Monica [UMW Umweltmonitoring, Muenchen (Germany); Hergt, Volker [Flughafen Muenchen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The honey-monitoring at the Munich Airport addresses the question of whether the operation of a major airport affects the contamination of food produced in the neighborhood. Since 2008, honey, pollen and beeswax are tested for residues of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  17. Environ: E00038 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00038 White beeswax (JP16) Wax, white (NF) Crude drug Apis indica, Apis mellifera [TAX:7460], Api...atum [DR:D05332] In case of crude: Apidae Apis honeycomb wax (refined) CAS: 8012-89-3 ...

  18. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): evaluation of natural long-lasting materials containing pyriproxyfen to improve control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccacini, Emilia; Juan, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

    2014-09-01

    Natural materials such as beeswax or a paraffin/stearin mixture containing pyriproxyfen and used as a slow release formulation may convert any breeding place into a larvicidal ovitrap for Aedes aegypti (L.) control. Effectiveness and residual activity of beeswax and paraffin/stearin 1:1 discs containing from 10(-5) to 10(-1) % pyriproxyfen and sticked at the bottom of plastic jars were evaluated for adult emergence inhibition (EI) on late 3rd or early 4th instar A. aegypti larvae. At the initial time t = 0, the EI was 100% for vessels containing beeswax or paraffin/stearin 1:1 discs containing up to 10(-4)% pyriproxyfen. For the lowest pyriproxyfen concentration of 10(-5)%, paraffin/stearin mixture gave a higher EI% value than beeswax (100 and 50%, respectively). Jars were kept at room temperature, and water was totally replaced every 15 days. Bioassays for residual activity repeated monthly showed that at 30 days and for pyriproxyfen 10(-5) % and both matrices, the EI values were low and comparable to control values. For pyriproxyfen 10(-4) %, EI remained above 95% for at least 90 days and around 75% up to 180 days. The EI values are always higher for paraffin/stearin mixture than for beeswax. For all other higher concentrations, 100% EI was obtained at least during 300 days. In a semi-field trial, paraffin/stearin/sand O-rings (2:1:2), containing pyriproxyfen 1%, were sunken in 200-l water-storage tanks and held outdoors in a shadow place. After 72 h, a 250-ml aliquot was taken (t = 0) obtaining 100 % EI. Water level was completed to 200 l every 15 days and bioassays repeated monthly as before. Residual activity remains with 100% EI at least for 6 months.

  19. Development and Dosimetric Characterization of a Tissue Substitute (Bolus) For Use in Linear Accelerator Electron Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Trujillo, Jorge; Villaseñor Navarro, Luis Felipe; Mitsoura, Eleni

    2003-09-01

    We propose the design of a new custom made material, to be used as a tissue substitute in external beam electron radiotherapy, based on cotton fabric and beeswax. Due to its inexpensive, easy preparation, constant thickness, flexibility, uniform density and physical properties similar to those of soft tissue, this bolus will insure personalized optimal dose build up and dose distribution in irregular treatment regions. Materials and Methods: We used commercial Campeche beeswax and 100% cotton fabric to prepare the bolus. Beeswax's physical characteristics were determined by thermal and density analysis. Its chemical properties are to be determined by electronic microcopy. We performed quality control tests and calibration of the Varian 2100C linear accelerator. The tissue equivalence of the material is established for a range of electron energies (6, 9, 12, 16, 20 MeV) using a water equivalent solid phantom (PTW; Freiburg, Germany) and a plane parallel ionization chamber (PTW) associated to a PTW electrometer. Results: Beeswax's absolute density was found to be 0.9181g/ml at 21°C, with a melting point of 45°C. For the bolus elaboration, the cotton fabric was soaked in liquid beeswax and thin sheets of approximately 1 mm were obtained. These presented high flexibility, physical stability (color, texture, thickness) and homogeneity. Determination of this dosimetric characteristics and equivalent thickness are still in process. Discussion and conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that the tissue substitute is easily made, inexpensive to produce, molds well to the treatment area and its positioning is easy and reproducible over the course of the treatment. So we consider that it's a good alternative to the commercial bolus.

  20. Protective behaviour monitoring on wood photo-degradation by spectroscopic techniques coupled with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Giuseppe; Calienno, Luca; Pelosi, Claudia; Scacchi, Martina; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Agresti, Giorgia; Picchio, Rodolfo; Santamaria, Ulderico; Serranti, Silvia; Monaco, Angela Lo

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the investigation on the effect of protective materials on poplar (Populus sp.) wood modifications as consequence of artificial photo-degradation in controlled environment. The novelty of this work is to try to understand what happens to wood surface under the protective layer. Shellac, beeswax and Linfoil® were tested to compare traditional and novel products generally used for wood. The samples, uncovered and covered by these protective layers, were artificially aged. Colour and chemical modifications due to ageing were investigated at different time intervals by reflectance spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. The obtained data were elaborated by statistical and chemometric tools in order to verify their significance and to assess the relationship between groups of measurements. The results highlighted that shellac, beeswax and Linfoil® materials have a very low protective effect on wood photo-degradation for long times of exposure, by little reducing the changes of wood components.

  1. Identification of biogenic paraffins and their thermal phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotel'Nikova, E. N.; Platonova, N. V.; Filatov, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Natural normal paraffin hydrocarbons C n H2 n + 2 ( n = 17 41) of a biological origin were investigated in terms of their composition, structure, polymorph modification, and thermal phase transition. Paraffin compositions were studied from beeswax (honeycombs and their cappings), plant wax (apple and pumpkin rinds), as well as from different parts of rat cerebrum (cortex, subcortex, brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral hemispheres, myelin, chromatin, etc.). X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), chromatography, and high-temperature XRD, as well as original analytical methods elaborated upon by the authors, were used. The beeswax paraffin composition that corresponds to the six-component solid solution with a superperiodic four-layer orthorhombic cell was subjected to experimental modeling for the first time. The prepared mixture simulated a paraffin composition ( n = 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33) and the asymmetric distribution of homologues by n.

  2. A study of H{sup +} production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kondo, K.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Hayashizaki, N. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH{sub 2} and ZrH{sub 2}) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  3. A study of H+ production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Kondo, K.; Okamura, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2012-02-01

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH2 and ZrH2) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  4. Simulation of the honeycomb construction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanzhang, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    The construction process of the honeycomb by bees is an astonishing process. The original structure which the bees built is nothing more than a lot of rough cylinders. But keeping the beeswax semi-flow for a certain time, those rough structures become perfect hexahedral columns. A modified, simplified particle method was used here to simulate the semi-flow state of the material. Although the parameters used here were still rather subjective, the simulation still could demonstrate some behavior of that sort of material like beeswax. And the method that the bees used to build their honey comb, could be an efficient method to imitate when we are trying to manufacture cellular materials.

  5. Evaluation of the productive development of Melipona scutellaris beehives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Lima Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stingless beekeeping has drawn the general attention of beekeepers because of the easy management and the quality of products. Nevertheless, little is known about their production and biology. The present study evaluated the development of Melipona scutellaris hives, considering the production parameters in a beekeeping environment. The growth parameter of hives is food storage. In the case of M. scutellaris, storage is made inside beeswax pots. Therefore, beeswax pots in the hives were classified and counted as nectar pots, pollen pots, open pots, closed pots and empty pots. Hive dimensions were also taken and evaluated. The results indicated that hives show different amounts of pots that vary as a function of the number of individuals in the hive. It was confirmed that the availability of food resources determines the utilization of food storage, i.e., if there is resource limitation and foraging is compromised, bees utilize the food that is stored inside the pots.

  6. A study of H+ production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine M.; Kondo K.; Okamura, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2012-02-22

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH2 and ZrH2) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  7. Spectral analysis of pharmaceutical formulations prepared according to ancient recipes in comparison with old museum remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, M Cristina; Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Baraldi, P

    2011-10-01

    A study of the composition of the remains of ancient ointments from museums was undertaken to enable understanding of the preparation techniques. Comparison of ancient recipes from different historical periods and spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic and/or organic remains recovered in museum vessels enabled preparation of ancient pharmaceutical-cosmetic formulations. Farmacopea Augustana by Occo was one the most important books studied for the 14 formulations prepared in the laboratory. Three formulations are discussed in detail and raw materials and new preparations were proposed for ozone ageing. The most important micro Raman results are discussed. The spectra of the raw materials lipids, beeswax, and resins are discussed; beeswax and pig suet (axŭngia) Raman spectra were found to be similar, but different from those of the aged oils. SERS was applied to ancient ointments and galbanum and the Raman spectra are reported and discussed for the first time.

  8. Permeability of edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B; Khatkar, B S; Garg, M K; Wilson, L A

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m(2).day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m(2).day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm(3)cm cm(-2)s(-1)Pa(-1), with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrophilic (whey protein concentrate and carboxymethyl cellulose).

  9. Permeability of edible coatings

    OpenAIRE

    B Mishra; Khatkar, B. S.; Garg, M. K.; Wilson, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m2.day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m2.day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm3cm cm−2s−1Pa−1, with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrop...

  10. A study of H+ production using metal hydride and other compounds by means of laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M; Kondo, K; Okamura, M; Hayashizaki, N

    2012-02-01

    A laser ion source can provide wide variety of ion beams from solid target materials, however, it has been difficult to create proton beam efficiently. We examined capability of proton production using beeswax, polyethylene, and metal hydrides (MgH(2) and ZrH(2)) as target materials. The results showed that beeswax and polyethylene could not be used to produce protons because these targets are transparent to the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. On the other hand, the metal hydrides could supply protons. Although the obtained particle numbers of protons were less than those of the metal ions, the metal hydrides could be used as a target for proton laser ion source.

  11. Characterization of Oxidation Product Films on Lead in Aqueous Media by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    to an aqueous exposure, one of three different methods was used: 1) immersion in dilute nitric acid solution for five miuutes to dissolve the surface...coated with beeswax to allow only a measured area -’A or the sample to come in contact with the solution. The coi=nection between the copper wire and the...before introduction of the sample, the slution was stirred and purged of reactive dissolved gdsses by bubbling nitrogen throuqh it. The gas purge and

  12. Proceedings of the Tri-Service Gun Tube Wear and Erosion Symposium, ARRADCOM, Dover, NJ, 29-31 March 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    sequently released when the fibers were dissolved to form the lacquer in the hardening process. The presence of acidic materials in the finished...introduced a rifle-type ablative ammunition employing beeswax as the ablator in 1948 with some success but it was not until the last 10 years that...elevated temperatures, as elemental hafnium and columbium oxidize preferentially. The Hf2 then dissolves in the columbium oxide Cb 0 to form 611f0-Cb2 0

  13. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Raymond; Champagne, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions ...

  14. An Elastic Tube Gage for Measuring Static and Dynamic Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-05-01

    25 grams of granulated celluloid No. 2346 dissolved ; on one pound of ethyl acetate. + For maximum stability of operation, gage current should be...Compounds such as beeswax or ceresin wax were first employed for waterproofing, but their brittleness at low temperatures was found to be ob- jectionable...Bitumastics such, as Qzite B Jhave sbeen superior in that respect, but are dissolved by hydraulic- fluids and oils, to which strain gages .may Be

  15. Dependence of Expansion of a Salt-Saturated Concrete on Temperature and Mixing and Handling Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    concrete included: (1) compatibility with the host rock salt, such that it would bond to the rock rather than dissolving it; (2) a slump of more than 203...they were demolded and coated in beeswax twice, with foil between, to minimize gain or loss of moisture, and stored at laboratory ambient...concrete is placed, on or near the surface of the earth, the concrete would break down quickly. Chloride-containing components would be dissolved , altered

  16. Causes and Prevention of Structural Materials Failures in Naval Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    dissolved in mineral spirits using methyl trialkyl(C8-Clo) ammonium chloride (Aldrich Adogen 464) as a phase transfer catalyst. This combination (DNBM) was...the hydrogen embrittlement problem is from the viewpoint of its effect on the metal lattice (8, 9). Interstitially dissolved hydrogen in the metal...exposed parts except for the charging areas were masked with beeswax . Transient measurements of deflections were made using an amplifier and strip chart

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-09

    Soviet Union during 1946-1960.13 The binder consists of paraffin, beeswax , and stearic acid. Degreasing is conducted by injection molding of less than...of pm (in which the permeation of slurry solvent is possible) is softening treated, the film is vacuum adhered to the model, and transcription is made...fitted, the cavity section that should be molded is formed. Slurry is injected and filled in the cavity. The slurry solvent is subject to osmotic

  18. Evaluation of a Lightweight Protective Mask Concept for Respiratory Protection System 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    degree of exposure. Cauton shtald be exerci in using these I I results because they are based on only a couple of single layer materials and solvent ...no. 20) which can withstand relatively high temperatures. Several layers of parting compound consisting of beeswax and toluene were applied with...Cracking, Haze Polyfluorohalo:arbon Aclar Poor Bonding, .___ Flex Cracking Polyvinylidene Saran Darkens At FlexHigh Temp. Crazing Poor Solvent

  19. Fabrication Techniques for Fiber Optic Fire Control Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    using trichloroethylene. The blanks were then cleaned with naptha solvent and cheesecloth. ■ HHPP Figure 6. Configuration of Plano-Plano Fiber... Beeswax was used to cement the blanks to the blocking plate instead of stickum wax. The 11 same prcedure for rough grinding the first side of blanks...on a hot plate to melt the bees- wax. The blanks were then placed in a vapor degreaser and cleaned with a naptha solvent and cheesecloth. 3

  20. U S Navy Diving Manual. Volume 2. Mixed-Gas Diving. Revision 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    solvents , wiring insulation, and rubber and 0.55....... ........ plastic coatings can emit gaseous components which may cause injury to occupants in a...compound, beeswax , pounds 10 Valve, rubber, flapper 6 Tubing, elastic, yards 20 Washer, air hose, leather 50 Spare Parts Washer, amplifier 50 Drill...damaged, replace it. a cleaning solvent approved by Naval Sea Systems the Command for cleaning oxygen equipment. Blow high-pressure system, as in 14.11.1 A

  1. The Canadian Defence Input-Output Model DIO Version 4.41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    excluding potato chips and nuts 113 0960 Cocoa and chocolate 114 0979 Nuts DRDC CORA TM 2011-147 31 Index Code Commodity name 115 0989 Chocolate ...grains and fodder, imputed feed 12 0090 Fluid milk , unprocessed 13 0100 Eggs in the shell 14 0110 Honey and beeswax 15 0130 Fresh fruit, excluding...Fluid milk , processed 76 0680 Fresh cream 77 0690 Butter 78 0700 Cheese 79 0719 Evaporated and condensed dairy products 80 0720 Ice cream 81 0731

  2. Le cas des beurres végétaux et des cires d’origine naturelle

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Natural waxes such as Beeswax, Carnauba wax and Candelilla wax are widely used in the Cosmetic and Food industries. Thanks to their composition, and besides a compulsory high safety, they provide desirable properties such as strength, gloss, emolliency, barrier effect, making them essential in numerous applications. For example, lots of candies are coated with either one or a mix of these 3 waxes, while for Cosmetics, the waxy part of lipsticks contains various combinations of such waxes. Wit...

  3. 纳米 TiO 2对传统蜂蜡烫蜡木材表面性能的影响1)%Effce t of Nano-TiO2 on the Surface Properties of Beewax Tang-la Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓霆; 郭伟; 王逢瑚; 朱晓东

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the aging properties of beeswax light traditional hot wax surface , with Burmese rosewood for the substrate, nano-TiO2 was prepared by mixing beeswax blend direct way .By testing hot wax board chromatic parameters , surface gloss, contact angle, and texture, beeswax surface properties by adding TiO 2 were evaluated those by the traditional hot wax.Adding nano-TiO2 hot wax on the surface of the wood had a better performance , and nanoT-iO 2 of 0.5%worked best for hot wax beeswax wood surface improvement .%为了改善传统蜂蜡烫蜡表面的耐光老化性能,以缅甸花梨木为基材,通过直接共混的方式制备纳米TiO2混合蜂蜡。通过测试烫蜡单板的色度学参数、表面光泽度、接触角及纹理明显性的变化,评价TiO2添加量对传统蜂蜡烫蜡表面性能的影响。结果显示:纳米TiO2的应用对烫蜡木材的表面性能有较好的改善,纳米TiO2质量分数在0.5%时对蜂蜡烫蜡木材表面的改良效果最佳。

  4. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  5. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera, and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L, rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L, rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tales efectos.

  6. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa; Jiménez Despaigne, Sonia; Curveco Sánchez, Dayisell

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera), and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L), rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera) y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L), rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tale...

  7. First results on headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of volatile organic compounds emitted by wax objects in museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuati-Derieux, A; Thao, S; Langlois, J; Regert, M

    2008-04-11

    Sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a large variety of materials is nowadays a very useful technique for analytical purpose. In the field of cultural heritage, it can be applied to identify some constituents of museum artefacts off-gassing VOCs without sampling on the object itself. In this study, we focused on objects made of wax. First volatiles emitted by a reference beeswax were trapped and identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This allowed to identify numerous volatile biomarkers, namely saturated n-alkanes from C(10) to C(21), saturated n-carboxylic acids containing 6-12 carbon atoms, benzene and cinnamic derivatives that may be considered as volatile biomarkers of beeswax. The SPME strategy was then performed at the Orsay museum (Paris) in a showcase containing a wax sculpture "Le Mineur de la Loire" by J.-J. Carriès. The use of beeswax in this sculpture was unequivocally confirmed by the VOCs concentrated in the showcase, together with a set of characteristic molecular compounds identified by HT-GC/MS. HS-SPME-GC/MS thus appears to be a powerful in situ and non-invasive analytical technique that allows to identify natural substances in the field of cultural heritage without any sampling of solid matter from the object. The results obtained are promising for orientating the strategy of preventive conservation related to works of art characterised by important emission of VOCs.

  8. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  9. Experimental wax mixtures for dental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1997-07-01

    Improvements in the properties of dental waxes were sought by alterations in their composition. Twenty-six blends of paraffin wax, beeswax and inorganic filler were subjected to the following tests: plastic deformation (flow), linear thermal expansion, elastic modulus and flexural strength. Flow tests were conducted in accordance with the corresponding ISO specification. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated using thermomechanical analysis. Mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine. Pure paraffin and beeswax were used as controls. The results were subjected to analysis using correlation and regression. Regression coefficients in the range of 0.90-0.99 were obtained in most cases, flow tests exhibiting the highest coefficients and flexural strength the lowest. The incorporated filler particles reduced the flow of the natural waxes, especially of the ester-containing beeswax, and improved the elastic modulus and strength. Good correlation was found between the ingredient proportions and measured properties, suggesting a relationship between them, although this is quite complicated in the case of tertiary wax mixtures. The experimental blends exhibited properties that are potentially useful for a range of clinical applications.

  10. Observation of Beswax and Benne Oil Dressing on Wound Healing of Rats%蜂蜡麻油敷料对大鼠皮肤创面愈合的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯娥; 李炳辉; 邹新华; 冯自波; 李春亭; 潘青云; 陈洪平; 刘浩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the beeswax and benne oil dressing in rat skin ulcer healing. Methods Three skin ulcer wounds were made on the back of the rat, the upper left, the upper right, and the lower left side were set to the saline group, the geoline group and the beeswax and benne oil group respectively. Dressing change was done every two days, photograph taken before dressing, and samples taken at intervals of one week. The epidermal growth factors(EGF) were determined by ELISA. Results On the seventh day, all the three groups on the rate of wound healing were not statistically different (P>0.05).On the fourteenth and twenty-first days, the rate of wound healing was highest in the beeswax and benne oil group, the rate of the beeswax and ben-ne oil group as comparing with those of the other two groups was significantly different(P < 0.01 and P <0.05). On the seventh, fourteenth and twenty-first day of the experiment, the epidermal growth factor was highest in the beeswax and benne oil group, with significant differences from the other two groups. Conclusion Bees-wax and benne oil dressing can promote the skin ulcer healing, beeswax and benne oil can be used as materials of dressing that should be widely used clinically, its effect maybe achieved through keeping wound moist and nu-trition.%  目的:观察蜂蜡麻油敷料对大鼠皮肤溃疡创面愈合的影响。方法:于大鼠背部制备3个缺损性皮肤溃疡,分别设为生理盐水敷料组、凡士林敷料组、蜂蜡麻油敷料组,每2 d换药1次,换药前摄像,每隔1周取标本1次,ELISA测定EGF的含量。结果:第14、21 d时大鼠皮肤创面愈合率,蜂蜡麻油组与其他两组比较有显著差异(P<0.01和P<0.05);第7、14、21 d麻油蜂蜡组创面EGF含量较凡士林组、生理盐水组升高,差异有统计学意义;免疫组化发现麻油蜂蜡组创面细胞中EGF表达增加,定量分析有统计学差异。结论:蜂蜡麻油敷料

  11. Beeswax–chitosan emulsion coated paper with enhanced water vapor barrier efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwei [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, 15 Dineen Drive, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Xiao, Huining, E-mail: hxiao@unb.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, 15 Dineen Drive, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); Qian, Liying [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The water vapor barrier efficiency of paper was enhanced via green-based emulsion coating. • Extremely high lipid content in the emulsion coating layer was firstly utilized to reduce WVTR in emulsion-based film. • A controlled WVTR of beeswax–chitosan emulsion coating could be obtained by dying at specific temperature. - Abstract: For lipid–hydrocolloid emulsion based film, the increase of lipid amount would improve its water vapor barrier property, but also reduce the mechanical strength of the film in the meantime thus leading to a compromised lipid content in the film. However, when the emulsion is coated on paper surface, more lipid could be used for emulsion preparation to enhance the moisture resistance without considering the weakened strength of the film induced by lipid, because the mechanical properties of emulsion coated paper is mainly governed by the strength of base paper instead of the coating layer. In this study, beeswax–chitosan emulsion was first prepared and then coated on paper surface to improve paper's water vapor barrier and water resistance properties. The range and variance analysis of orthogonal test design showed that the order of priorities of the factors accordingly was beeswax solid content, drying temperature and chitosan concentration. The effect of drying temperature on water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and water contact angle of coated paper was further investigated using 1.2 wt% chitosan and 96% beeswax solid content in the coating layer. The results indicated that water vapor barrier property was in accordance with the density of the coating layer. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was also used to characterize the surface morphology and explain the hydrophobicity of beeswax–chitosan coated paper. It was found that surface beeswax particles melted to wrinkle at high drying temperatures, while roughness values maintained at micro-scale over the temperature range investigated.

  12. Management of the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella with Neem Azal- T/S, in the Laboratory and under Semi-Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbehery Huda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S were used in an artificial diet, to study the mortality of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. A Neem formulation and different ages of natural beeswax combs were used for the effective management of the wax moth. While the diet was being prepared, Neem Azal-T/S was directly added ensure that the Neem formulation was distributed evenly in the diet at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. The obtained results showed that the different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S mixed in the prepared artificial diet had a significant efficacy against the tested 2nd instar larvae. An outstanding elongation of the 2nd larval instar was clear in comparison with the control, even at the least tested concentration (0.25%. Neem Azal-T/S at 4, 2,1, and 0.5% caused 100% mortality for all tested larvae. When using a 4% concentration, all the tested larvae died in the 2nd instar. However, when using a 2% concentration, the larvae died in the fifth instar. When using a decreased concentration of 1.0 and 0.5%, some of the larvae were tolerant and lived till the 6th instar. Feeding the larvae on beeswax combs treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, caused 100% mortality when fed on very old wax. When the diet was old wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 91% mortality was recorded. When the diet was new wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 90% mortality was recorded. A 4% Neem formulation caused mortality for all larvae during the first week of treatment on the different tested ages of beeswax combs.

  13. Conversion of Propellant Grade Picrite to Spherical Nitroguanidine, an Insensitive Filler for Melt-Cast TNT Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    methods. Two typical fillings are Composition B (TNT/RDX/ beeswax 40:60:1) and H-6 (TNT/RDX/Al/D2 wax/CaCl2 30:45:20ř:05). High production rate shell and...Recrystallization The methods of recrystallization used throughout the study fell into two broad types. Method A. NQ was dissolved by heating to 70 to...induce crystal modification were dissolved in either solution. The SNQ was recovered by gravity filtration. Method B: NQ was added to a solvent or mixture

  14. Feasibility of Open Tube Slider Growth of HgCdTe from Te-Rich Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    od of Equation (26), which assumes CdTe and HgTe molecules are dissolved in Te and that the solution is 3.2 percent less dense than the solid...finished slice is protected with a layer of beeswax and diced to the size of our slider system, either I 1Xlcm 2 or 2X3cm2 . Just before use, the...h time allowed for the solute to dissolve at 770’C produces ent with the annealing studies of Schrnt and Stelzer 1211 on 55 ’- IKIKE TRANSACTIONS ON

  15. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w)—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to opti...

  16. An investigation of the response of secondary explosives to conical-tipped projectiles and oblique impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. D.; Haskins, P. J.; James, H. R.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper new results are reported for conical-tipped impacts onto covered RDX/TNT (59:5:39.5+1% beeswax), and the similarities between these results and those from earlier work on PE4 (RDX/grease, 88:12) are discussed. In addition a connection is made between the initiation threshold for conical-tipped projectiles and flat-nosed rods impacting obliquely on bare explosive. Empirical relationships are established which describe the effects of both barrier thickness and impact angle on the initiation thresholds.

  17. Analytical studies of the Alexandrovo Thracian tomb wall paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavcheva, Z.; Yancheva, D.; Velcheva, E.; Stamboliyska, B.; Petrova, N.; Petkova, V.; Lalev, G.; Todorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    A profound study of samples obtained from Thracian tomb wall paintings at Alexandrovo, Bulgaria (dating back to the fourth century BC) were carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The current work provides a glimpse of the ingenious construction and painting techniques used in Thracian tomb at Alexandrovo. The results suggest that beeswax was used as a paint binder and also revealed presence of various nano-materials.

  18. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tauro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  20. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  1. BEE AS ENVIRONMENTAL BIOINDICATOR: FIRST RESULTS IN PIEDMONT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guaraldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many investigators have employed honeybees or honeybee products (honey, wax, pollen as tools for assessing environmental pollution in industrial areas. Several reports refer of their utility in monitoring environmental radionuclides or heavy metal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact of pollution on Biella area, located in the east of Piedmont region. A survey of 6 apiaries was carried out, samples of: honey, beeswax, bees and pollen were collected and analyzed for: pesticides and PCB, neonicotinoides and heavy metal; by GC/MS, LC/MS/MS or AAS. We found 23% of samples of bees contained neonicotinoides, suggesting the correlation with bees mortality.

  2. Organic Residues Analysis: The Case of a Beaker Found in Theban Necropolis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perla COLOMBINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous organic residues collected from a ceramic vessel from a tomb excavated in the Theban Necropolis (Egypt were chemically investigated by an analytical procedure based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Little is known about Egyptian ceramic vessels, thus retrieving valuable information on the use of ceramics from the chemical analyses of organic residues was a key aspect of this work. The results showed that the vessel was used in connection with a number of substances such as beeswax, fat/oil and Pinaceae resin. This enabled us to draw hypotheses on the possible function of artefact in connection with mummification practices.

  3. Screening of Excipients for Preparing Tablet Bait to Protect Antherae pernyi from Katydids%柞蚕害虫螽斯防控颗粒饵剂中的赋形剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立石; 牛雄雷; 张惠淳; 杨金琛; 刘洪丽; 陈有嗣; 季明刚; 倪振田

    2014-01-01

    Excipient is one of the main additives in pharmaceutical formulation.In the preparation of tablet bait formulations using pesticide acephate for protection of tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) against katydid,potato powder was used as nutrient material and sorbitol,agar and beeswax were used as excipient.Through measuring shape-forming ability,water retention capability and other properties of the prepared tablet bait,beeswax was found to be the best excipient.Furthermore,the dosage of excipient was optimized by taking into account the bait yield,stacking performance,water retention capability,anti-water erosion performance and average intake by katydids.When the mass ratio of beeswax to other ingredients (potato powder etc) was 0.4,the prepared bait had the maximum bait yield,excellent stacking,high water retention,anti-water erosion performance,and high intake amount by katydids.Therefore,the tablet bait prepared by using beeswax as excipient according to optimized formula is favorable for maintaining the toxicity of acephate against katydids.%赋形剂是药物制剂的主要助剂之一.在用杀虫剂乙酰甲胺磷制备防控柞蚕害虫螽斯的颗粒饵剂配方中,以马铃薯粉为营养成分,分别以山梨糖醇、琼脂和蜂蜡作为赋形剂,通过测定颗粒饵剂的成形性能和保水性能等指标,筛选蜂蜡为最佳赋形剂.进一步考察颗粒饵剂的物料收率、堆码性能、保水性能、耐水性能和螽斯平均取食量等指标,优化赋形剂蜂蜡的用量,当蜂蜡与其他辅料(马铃薯粉等)的质量比为0.4时,颗粒饵剂的物料收率达到最大值,堆码及保水、耐水性能好,螽斯的取食量也较高.以蜂蜡为赋形剂并按优化的配比制备的颗粒铒剂,有利于保持乙酰甲胺磷对螽斯的杀灭效果.

  4. Effect of local hemostatics on bone induction in rats: a comparative study of bone wax, fibrin-collagen paste, and bioerodible polyorthoester with and without gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    evaluated by light microscopy and 85Sr uptake analyses. Non-absorbable bone wax of 88% beeswax and absorbable bovine fibrin-collagen paste both significantly inhibited osteoinduction, whereas a bioerodible polyorthoester drug delivery system with or without 4% gentamicin did not. Bone wax was not absorbed...... and induced a chronic foreign body reaction. Fibrin-collagen paste induced less inflammation with numerous monocytes and macrophages with engulfed material. Bioerodible polyorthoester caused a very moderate tissue reaction and was mostly resorbed at week 4....

  5. Characterisation of embalming materials of a mummy of the Ptolemaic era. Comparison with balms from mummies of different eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchapla, Alain; Méjanelle, Philippe; Bleton, Jean; Goursaud, Serge

    2004-02-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been used to determine the nature of organic materials used in mummification balms. A comparative analysis of samples taken from Egyptian mummies is developed. The results are given in two parts. First, it is shown that the chemical composition of the balm is practically independent of the part of the mummy from which it is taken. This study was done on a Ptolemaic mummy (circa 100 BC from the Guimet Museum in Lyon). Fats, beeswax, and diterpenic resins were the main components: they were found everywhere. Castor oil was also very often detected (in half of the samples). This particular fat is present in the balm inside the thorax but not in the skull. Moreover it is shown that a vegetable tannin was employed. Components indicative of vegetable tannin input (gallic acid and inositols) were found in seven samples out of eighteen, particularly close to the body and on the canopic pack of the heart. Secondly, some conclusions from a comparative study of the composition of balms from mummies of various social levels as well as of different Egyptian periods are reported. It is shown that beeswax was used as from very early times (XVIIIth dynasty). The mixture of beeswax, fats, and diterpenoid resins would appear to be more recent. The balms of three mummies dating from more recent Egyptian periods (XIXth to XXVth dynasty) were analysed. No evidence of a resin, gum-resin, or plant gum could be found. Some mummies would appear to have been embalmed with fats or beeswax. Finally, the entrails canopic pack said to belong to Ramses II undoubtedly shows an embalming process with a triterpenic resin of the mastic type. The adopted analytical methodology enabled us to achieve simultaneous detection of four components of the balm of the Ptolemaic mummy. Analysis of the other five mummies revealed far less complex chemical compositions for the balms. This may be an indication of different embalming processes, although we should bear in

  6. Mechanical properties of carving wax with various Ca-bentolite filter composition

    OpenAIRE

    Widjijono Widjijono; Purwanto Agustiono; Dyah Irnawati

    2009-01-01

    Background: The carving wax is used as a medium in dental anatomy study. This wax composes of many waxes and sometimes a filler is added. Carving wax is not sold in Indonesian market. Whereas the gradients of carving wax such as beeswax, paraffin and bentonite are abundant in Indonesia. Based on that fact, to make high quality and standard,the exact composition if this carving wax should be known. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carving wax composition with Ca-...

  7. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  8. Schistosoma mansoni: assessment of effects of oleic acid, cercarial age and water temperature on parasite-host attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L; Sterling, Charles R; Lutz, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Although the lifecycle of Schistosoma spp. and pathophysiology of schistosomiasis have been established, the mechanism by which cercariae find their host is not well understood. Speculatively, host infection by random and accidental host contact is not as biologically plausible as a biochemical mechanism of mammalian attraction. A few studies have indicated that biochemical cues and temperature gradients may play a role in host identification, attraction and attachment triggers. This study aimed to elucidate these mechanisms more specifically through evaluation of biochemical, age and temperature influences leading to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attraction and attachment behaviors. Oleic acid, a common unsaturated free fatty acid in the outer layer of human skin, was tested for cercariae attraction across biologically relevant concentrations. Influence of media type (beeswax, nail varnish and agar), age-dependent behavior variability and environmentally appropriate temperatures (22 and 30 °C) were also evaluated. Results indicated that oleic acid at concentrations of 0.3, 0.9 and 1.8 g/mL in beeswax significantly increased median attachment to media (median attachment of 7.50%, 4.20% and 3.71%, respectively, P0.05). Biochemical, age and environmental factors influencing cercarial host attraction and attachment behavior have been elucidated by this study. This information will inform further development of devices for environmental surveillance and potentially improve cercarial exposure prevention strategies.

  9. 正交试验法优化葡萄籽软胶囊的制备处方%Optimization of Grape Seed Extract Soft Capsule Preparation by Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绪发; 唐秀芳; 李建英

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of Grape Seed Extract Soft Capsule was optimized by orthogonal design with evaluation indexes such as sedimentation ratio and redispersibility,by taking soybean oil as the disperse medium, beeswax as the suspending agent, and soybean phospholipid as the moistening agent. The results showed that the optimal proportion of soft capsule contents were made from Grape Seed Extract. soybean oil. beeswax and soybean phospholipid (18.2∶72.8∶6∶3)and the contents of soft capsule were well distributed with good stabilization and fluidity.%以大豆油为分散介质,蜂蜡为助悬剂,大豆磷脂为润湿剂,以沉降比和再分散性为指标,采用正交设计优化葡萄籽软胶囊的填充物处方。结果表明:葡萄籽软胶囊的填充物最佳配比为葡萄籽提取物-大豆油-蜂蜡-大豆磷脂(18.2∶72.8∶6∶3),制备得到的软胶囊填充物料液均匀、稳定、流动性好。

  10. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F.; Ubertini, Lucio; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads' matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers' surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles' use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz).

  11. A diagnosis of the yellowing of the marble high reliefs and the black decorations in the chapel of the tomb of Saint Anthony (Padua, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Alessia; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the chemical characterization of samples of black decorations and inscriptions, and of yellow-brown patinas collected from various panels of the ark from the chapel of Saint Anthony (Padua, Italy), using three analytical procedures based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Analytical pyrolysis in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis (Py-GC/MS) and two procedures based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after wet-chemical treatment of the samples (GC/MS) were chosen for the recognition of the organic substances (used originally or in the course of restoration) and of their degradation products. In terms of the two GC/MS procedures, one was used to characterize proteins, lipids, resins, waxes, bituminous materials and their degradation products, and the other to characterize saccharide materials. The three analytical procedures used enabled us to obtain information on the presence of egg proteins, lipid materials (beeswax, siccative oil and animal fatty material), saccharide materials and Pinaceae resin. Beeswax, animal fat, egg and saccharide materials have been used in the past as restoration materials, and pine resin and siccative oil were the main ingredients in the black decorations and inscriptions.

  12. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  13. Golden Perception: Simulating Perceptual Habits of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medieval times were neither dark nor grey; natural light illuminated colourful scenes depicted in paintings through coloured windows and via artificial beeswax candlelight. When we enter, for example, a church to inspect its historic treasures ranging from mosaics to depictions of saints, we do this under quite unfavourable conditions; particularly as we mainly depend on artificial halogen, LED or fluorescent light for illuminating the desired object. As these light spectrums are different from the natural light conditions under which the old masterpieces were previously developed and perceived, the perceptual effects may dramatically differ, leading to significantly altered affective and cognitive processing. Different qualities of processing might particularly be triggered when perceiving artworks which deal with specific material prone to strong interaction with idiosyncratic light conditions, for instance gold-leafed surfaces that literally start to glow when lit by candles. We tested the perceptual experiences of a figurative piece of art which we created in 3 (foreground by 3 (background versions, illuminated under three different light conditions (daylight, coloured light and beeswax candlelight. Results demonstrated very different perceptual experiences with stunning effects for the interaction of the specific painting depicted on a gold-leafed background lit by candlelight.

  14. 正交试验优选五倍子软膏处方%Optimization of gallnut extract ointment formula by orthogonal test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 程岚; 杨跃辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the best prescription of gallnut extract ointment. Methods With appearance and stability of ointment as index, orthogonal design experiment was carried out, with beeswax amount, the amount of emulsifier and the major adding method as the variables, the Theological parameters were determined. Results Optimized prescription was A2B3C2 ,which including 2% beeswax,4% span-80,and the way was to put the drug into oil phase. Conclusion The ointment formulation is reasonable, and the preparation has good stability.%目的 优选五倍子软膏剂的最佳处方.方法 以软膏的外观性状、稳定性为考察指标,采用正交设计法进行实验,以蜂蜡用量、乳化剂用量、主要的加入方式为可变因素,并测定流变学参数.结果 优化处方A2B3C2,即蜂蜡2%,span-80 4%,加药方式为药物加入油相.结论 该软膏处方设计合理,制剂稳定性较好.

  15. The Release of Egg White Lysozyme Containing EDTA from Composite Edible Film Based on Whey Protein, Konjac Flour and Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulia W. Apriliyani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out the effect of EDTA addition on antibacterial spectrum broadening of lysozyme on Gram negative bacteria and the release of lysozyme from composite edible film made of whey protein, konjac glucomannan and several lipids type and content. The research were conducted with 2 steps. Step I: The addition of EDTA on lysozyme aquaeous (Lysozyme (mg/mL: EDTA (mg/mL = 11.14:8.14; 11.14:11.14 and 11.14:14.14 using Randomyzed Block Design, the variables were, antibacterial of lysozyme on Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Escherichia coli. Step II: Lipid content (5 and 10% and kind of lipid (butter, margarine, palm oil and beeswax using nested Randomyzed Block Design, the variables were lysozyme release, Water Vapor Permeability (WVP, protein solublity and microstructure of composite edible film. The results were, step I: the treatment didn’t gave significantly effect (p>0.05 on lysozyme activity. EDTA decrease cell membrane stabilization and lysozyme made lysis of cell membrane. EDTA chelate Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts as bridge between Lypopolysachcharide (LPS in outer membrane so LPS released from cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. Step II: The treatment didn’t gave significantly effect (p>0.05 on release of lysozyme and water vapour permeability, but gave significantly effect (p<0.05 on protein solubility. The release of lysozyme from composite edible film gave the best lysozyme release from beeswax 10% addition.

  16. Optimization of Lutein Soft Capsule Preparation by Orthogonal Experiment%正交试验法优化叶黄素软胶囊制备处方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹俊涛; 鲁萍; 闫丽丽; 王新春

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of lutein soft capsule was optimized by orthogonal design with evaluation indexes such as sedimentation ratio and redispersibility, by taking soybean oil as the disperse medium, beeswax as the suspending agent, and soybean phospholipid as the moistening agent. The results showed that the optimal proportion of soft capsule contents were made from lutein,zeaxanthin,soybean oil,beeswax and soybean phosphoilpid ( 14.4: 0.6: 80: 1: 4) and the contents of soft capsule were welldistributed with good stabilization and fluidity.%以药用大豆油为分散介质,蜂蜡为助悬剂,大豆磷脂为润湿剂,以沉降比和再分散性为指标,正交设计优选叶黄素软胶囊内容物的制备处方.结果表明,叶黄素软胶囊内容物的最佳配比为叶黄素-玉米黄素-药用大豆油-蜂蜡-大豆磷脂(14.4:0.6:80:1:4),制备得到的软胶囊内容物均匀、稳定、流动性好.

  17. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermodynamic Studies of Nanoemulsion-Based Transdermal Delivery System for Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Loong Ngan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated in palm kernel oil esters stabilized by low amount of mixed nonionic surfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were established in the colloidal system of PKOEs/Tween 80 : Span 80/water incorporated with fullerene as antioxidant. Preformulation was subjected to combination of high and low energy emulsification methods and the physicochemical characteristics of fullerene nanoemulsions were analyzed using electroacoustic spectrometer. Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsions with particle sizes in the range of 70–160 nm were formed. The rheological characteristics of colloidal systems exhibited shear thinning behavior which fitted well into the power law model. The effect of xanthan gum (0.2–1.0%, w/w and beeswax (1–3%, w/w in the estimation of thermodynamics was further studied. From the energetic parameters calculated for the viscous flow, a moderate energy barrier for transport process was observed. Thermodynamic study showed that the enthalpy was positive in all xanthan gum and beeswax concentrations indicating that the formation of nanoemulsions could be endothermic in nature. Fullerene nanoemulsions with 0.6% or higher xanthan gum content were found to be stable against creaming and flocculation when exposed to extreme environmental conditions.

  18. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  19. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F. [Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States); Ubertini, Lucio [Sapienza University of Rome, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale (Italy); Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio, E-mail: mporfiri@poly.edu [Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads' matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers' surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles' use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz)

  20. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  1. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentration and then stored at temperature of 10 0C. The results show that the fruitfly of oriental fruitfly (Bactrocera dorsalis was completely killed by treating in deep water testing at temperature of 46 0C for 10 minutes or at 43 0C for 30 minutes. The VHT of papaya at fruit core temperature of 45.5-46.0 0C for 15-30 minutes following waxing using beeswax of 6% in concentration was found to be effective to control pest and diseases until 21 days of storage without any visible signs of heat injury and without adversely affecting the quality of the fruit.

  2. The resistance of surfaces treated with oils and waxes to the action of dry heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment of wood can be done with different coatings, and the choice of the appropriate system of processing depends on several factors, such as technological, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Raising awareness of the need to preserve the living and working environment has had a crucial impact on the increase in the use of natural materials for surface treatment of wood - oil and wax. The application of oils and waxes allows surface treated wood to keep the natural look, while protecting it from different influences, which can cause degradation and deterioration of the final product. The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of beech surface (Fagus silvatica L. processed with linseed oil and beeswax to the action of dry heat. In order to compare the quality of surface treated with oil and/or wax, beech wood treated with 2K-polyurethane coating is taken as a reference of surface treatment of wood. Surfaces treated with beeswax are less resistant to dry heat than those treated with linseed oil, and both showed significantly less resistance than surface treated with 2K-polyurethane coating.

  3. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-10-16

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  4. Development and in-vitro characterization of fish oil oleogels containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid as keratolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, K; Tan, C M; Zulfakar, M H

    2014-03-01

    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (pskin and stability.

  5. 蜂王浆机械化生产关键技术研究与应用(Ⅳ)--机械化取浆器设计及应用%Research and Application of Key Technique for Mechanized Production of Royal Jelly (Ⅳ)---Design and Application of A Machine for Gathering Royal Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘其忠; 林金龙; 吴小波; 周林斌; 张飞; 颜伟玉; 曾志将

    2013-01-01

    In the process of royal jelly production ,manual cutting of royal cells ,clipping of beeswax and gathering of royal jelly are the main factors influencing the royal jelly production efficiency .Based on predeces-sor’ s work,the project group designed a set of mechanized royal jelly-gathering devices to match the technolo-gy of non-grafting larvae technique .It included the beeswax-cutting device and spray royal jelly-gathering de-vice.Meanwhile,the project group studied the effects of the mechanized jelly-gathering device on cutting royal cells and gathering royal jelly .The results showed that the use of the mechanized jelly-gathering device could solve the problems in manual cutting of royal cells ,clipping of beeswax and gathering of royal jelly .The mecha-nized royal jelly-gathering device has laid the technological foundation for realizing mechanization of gathering royal jelly in China .%在蜂王浆生产过程中,人工割台、人工夹虫和人工取浆是影响蜂王浆生产效率的主要因素之一。项目组在总结前人工作基础上,同时考虑简便和实用的原则,设计一套与免移虫生产蜂王浆技术相配套的机械化取浆器,主要包括蜂王浆产浆割蜡器和蜂王浆喷雾取浆机。同时研究机械化取浆器进行割台、取浆的效果。结果表明:使用机械化取浆器,可以一次性解决人工割台、人工夹虫和人工取蜂王浆问题。机械化取浆器为实现我国蜂王浆生产中机械化取浆提供了技术支撑。

  6. 壳聚糖等复配改性剂改性蜂蜡及对压缩杨木表面性能影响∗%Modified beewax with such mixed modifiers as chitosan and its effect on compressed poplar surface performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽丽; 蔡英春; 任丽敏; 孙晓敏; 孔繁旭; 宣丽慧; 柴豪杰

    2016-01-01

    采用纳米TiO2、壳聚糖、酸性染料和中性染料,分别对蜂蜡进行直接共混改性,以压缩杨木为改性蜂蜡烫蜡基材,通过 SEM、TG 等手段对改性蜂蜡烫蜡基材进行表征.结果表明,烫蜡改性材料中 O、N、Au、S、Ti 等元素成功的渗透进压缩杨木的纹孔中,染色渗透性强,颜色丰富;当质量分数为10 g 蜂蜡、0.2%壳聚糖、0.05%中性红直接混合改性时,压缩杨木表面染色均匀,耐久性、表面光泽度、接触角及纹理明显性的变化有较好的改善,压缩杨木表面的涂饰效果最理想,即蜂蜡改性效果最佳.%Use nano-TiO2 ,chitosan,acid dyes,and neutral dyes for direct blending modification respectively in the procession.Treat the compressed poplar as based material polished with melted modified beeswax which is represented by methods including SEM,FT-IR,TG.Results as follows:elements including O,N,Au,S,Ti in the polished modification materials successfully permeated into poplar pits,which showed that modification beeswax had strong permeability,colorfully.When 10% mass fraction of beeswax,0.2% mass fraction of chi-tosan,0.05% mass fraction of neutral red were blended to modify,there was uniform color on compressed pop-lar surface and considerable improvement in respect of durability,surface glossiness,angle of contact and obvi-ous texture transition,to an extent that painting effect was perfect on the surface of compressed poplar or that wax modification gained a dreamful result.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of environmentally friendly fluorescent particle tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Rapiti, Emiliano; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Tracers are widely used in experimental fluid mechanics and hydrology to investigate complex flows and water cycle processes. Commonly used tracers include dyes, artificial tracers, naturally occurring isotopes and chemicals, microorganisms, and DNA-based systems. Tracers should be characterized by low detection limits and high accuracy in following water paths and flow structures. For natural studies, tracers are also expected to be nontoxic and with low sorption affinity to natural substrates to minimize losses in the environment. In this context, while isotopes are completely natural, their use in field studies is limited by their ubiquity and, therefore, by the high uncertainty in data processing methodologies. Further, the use of dyes and artificial tracers can be hampered by extremely low detection limits due to dilution in natural streams and microorganisms, while DNA-based system may require physical sampling and time-consuming functionalization and detection procedures. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of fluorescent beads incorporating an eco-compatible fluorophore for environmental and laboratory applications. The particles are synthesized from natural beeswax through an inexpensive thermal procedure and can be engineered to present variable densities and diameters. A thorough characterization of their surface morphology at the nanoscale, crystal structure and size, chemical composition, and dye incorporation into the beeswax matrix is described by using a wide array of microscopy techniques. In addition, the particle fluorescence response is studied by performing excitation and emission scans on melted beeswax bead samples. The feasibility of using the synthesized particles in environmental settings is assessed through the design of ad-hoc weathering agent experiments where the beads are exposed to high energy radiation and hot water. Further, a proof of concept test is described to understand the particles' potential as a

  8. STUDIES OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING ECOLOGICALLY BASED CREAM CAPSAICIN IN THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia PANDIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since herbal medicine makes strides to improve or cure of diseases or serious diseases to human, wherepreparations obtained by chemical are replaced successfully with herbal preparations obtained herbs, aromatic orthose of spontaneous. Thus, in this paper, several attempts are made to prepare a capsaicin based creams antrheumatic. This product is an environmentally friendly product, 100% vegetable produced in the laboratory as abase flossing a chilli extract obtained from private household, beeswax, distilled water, alcohol and peppermint oil.By obtaining this cream was intended to improve or cure people suffering from rheumatism, to relieve pain causedby arthritis, you know, is a readily available even at home, easy to manage, with immediate good results withoutside effects.

  9. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  10. Study of the crystallization and polymorphic structures formed in oleogels from avocado oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pérez-Monterroza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of monodiglycerides, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (SMS on the thermal behavior of oleogels prepared from avocado oil, as well as the effect of the cooling rate on the onset temperature (Tonset and the crystallization temperature (Tc, were evaluated by DSC and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the structuring agents have a significant effect (P<0.05 on the Tc and Tonset, which demonstrated their ability to form solid lipids. Moreover, it was found that the presence of SMS decreased the Tc and Tonset, possibly due to their cocrystallization process. It was found only in the presence of the polymorphic form β’ in the oleogels prepared. The Tc varied between 1.6 and 51.4 °C and Tonset between 3.9 and 53.8 °C.

  11. Bleaching of red lake paints in encaustic mummy portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Spaabaek, Lin; Romani, Aldo; Manuali, Valentina; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    The present paper reports on the study of the development of whitish opacity in pink paints in encaustic mummy portraits. Non-invasive measurements carried out on two encaustic portraits belonging to the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, by reflectance FTIR and UV-vis fluorescence have shown that the areas prone to the bleaching phenomenon had been painted with melted beeswax and an anthraquinone vegetal lake mixed with calcium sulphate hemihydrate and dihydrate. The hypothesis that the bleaching disease was neither related to a degradation of the dyes nor to an alteration of the wax but rather to a dehydration-hydration reaction of the CaSO4-H2O system, has been corroborated by the analyses of two microsamples from the bleached areas and ascertained by accelerated ageing experiments on encaustic models.

  12. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Bargańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of chemical compounds to the environment, especially of pesticides, is one of factors that may explain present honeybee colony losses. In this work, an analytical method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was optimized for the simultaneous screening of 19 pesticides which have not been yet determined in honeybee samples from northern Poland (Pomerania. The sample preparation, based on the QuEChERS method combining salting-out liquid-liquid extraction to acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean-up, was adjusted to honeybee samples by adding a small amount of hexane to eliminate beeswax. The recovery of analytes ranged from 70% to 120% with relative standard deviation ≤20%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.91–25 ng/g. A total of 19 samples of honeybees from suspected pesticide poisoning incidents were analyzed, in which 19 different pesticides were determined.

  13. Origin and Chemical Variation of Brazilian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Salatino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a hive product containing chiefly beeswax and plant-derived substances such as resin and volatile compounds. Propolis has been used as an antiseptic and wound healer since ancient times and interest for the product has increased recently. Probably few plant species contribute as major resin sources. Green propolis derives mainly from vegetative apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plants. However, wide variation detected in the chemical composition suggests contributions from alternative resin plant sources. Predominant components of the resin of green propolis are cinnamic acids, chiefly compounds bearing prenyl groups. Terpenoid compounds, such as sesqui, di and pentacyclic triterpenoids, have been detected in many, but not all, samples investigated. Propolis research has uncovered potentialities of substances previously isolated from plants and has detected constituents of plant origin that would hardly be known otherwise.

  14. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorset, Douglas L. [Electron Diffraction Department, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1999-06-07

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of 'bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene. (author)

  15. Temperature regulation in the mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: Effects of various photoperiods, pinealectomy and melatonin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, G. R.; Sullivan, J. K.; Gendler, S. L.

    1980-03-01

    The white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, exhibits two responses to a decreasing series of photoperiods. The “winter” molt and reproductive regression occur in mice maintained on a photoperiods of 12 hours of light per day or less. Daily torpor and weight of lipid-free brown fat increase gradually between photoperiods of LD 13:11 — LD 12:12 and LD 10:14 — 9:15 LD. Pinealectomized mice maintained on a LD 9:15 photoperiod fail to exhibit the extent of daily torpor and increased nesting which are characteristic of sham-operated animals. Replacement therapy with chronically implanted beeswax pellets containing 3 mg of melatonin reverses the effects of pinealectomy.

  16. Neolithic and Eneolithic activities inferred from organic residue analysis of pottery from Mala Triglavca, Moverna vas and Ajdovska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Šoberl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper focused on the analysis and identification of organic residues either preserved as visible or absorbed organic remains on Neolithic and Eneolithic pottery from various archaeological and geographical contexts. These are connected with various food preparation strategies and past human activities, i.e. cave burials in Ajdovska jama (food as a grave good/offering, the rock shelter at Mala Triglavca (meat and dairy animal husbandry practices and Moverna vas, which had a long occupation sequence (complex farming and animal management. The preservation of biomarkers mirrored past human activities and different pottery uses at various types of sites. The carbon stable isotope ratios of primary fatty acids in lipid pottery extracts confirmed the presence of adipose and dairy fats as well as biomarkers of plant fats, beeswax and birch bark tar.

  17. Lipids, pots and food processing at Hočevarica, Ljubljansko barje, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ogrinc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lipid analyses of pottery samples from Ho≠evarica (Ljub- ljansko barje, Slovenia. Total lipid extracts were subjected to high temperature gas chromatography (HT-GC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS. The results show that some vessels were used for prepar- ing ruminant meat and vegetable, but also the remains of aquatic food were identified. The processing of non-ruminant meat was detected in a few samples. A high number of pottery samples yielded the presence of beeswax lipids. The charred residual on pottery was AMS 14C dated.

  18. Material analysis on the crucifix in San Michele: the filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Riganti

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanesque basilica S. Michele in Pavia there is a silver foil Crucifix that dates back to the XII century. During a precise restoration work carried out in 2003 the material was analyzed in order to obtain more precise information. In particular the analysis focused on the filling materials under the silver foil and on the characterization of their resins, which, according to the results, are colophony and beeswax. The filling material for the head is very probably the original one and its binder is wax, the filler of the body is different and very probably it was reintroduced during one of the previous restoration works on the crucifix, of which unfortunately we know nothing.

  19. Construction and test of a non-insulated insert coil using coated conductor tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, D.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2014-05-01

    A small coated conductor coil (central field 1 T at 200 A) was constructed and tested in order to evaluate the benefit and the possible disadvantages of non insulated, double pancake construction, in particular regarding quench protection. The insert coil consists of three double pancakes without turn to turn insulation, and it was impregnated with beeswax. The coil was equipped with voltage taps on each pancake, thermocouples and a quench heater. Quench tests were carried out because quench protection is one of the main issues in developing coil technology for coated conductors. Quenches were induced either by a heater or by exceeding the coil critical current; in all cases the quench protection system was able to detect the quench.

  20. High-contrast X-ray micro-tomography of low attenuation samples using large area hybrid semiconductor pixel detector array of 10 × 5 Timepix chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, J.; Krejci, F.; Bartl, B.; Dudak, J.; Kuba, J.; Kvacek, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide excellent imaging properties such as unlimited dynamic range, high spatial resolution, high frame rate and energy sensitivity. Nevertheless, a limitation in the use of these devices for imaging has been the small sensitive area of a few square centimetres. In the field of microtomography we make use of a large area pixel detector assembled from 50 Timepix edgeless chips providing fully sensitive area of 14.3 × 7.15 cm2. We have successfully demonstrated that the enlargement of the sensitive area enables high-quality tomographic measurements of whole objects with high geometrical magnification without any significant degradation in resulting reconstructions related to the chip tilling and edgeless sensor technology properties. The technique of micro-tomography with the newly developed large area detector is applied for samples formed by low attenuation, low contrast materials such a seed from Phacelia tanacetifolia, a charcoalified wood sample and a beeswax seal sample.

  1. A review on the materials used during the mummification processes in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, G.; El-Amin, A. R.

    Mummification is considered one of the most important in the history of ancient Egyptian civili-zation. The artificial mummification process started in the Fourth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom reached its peak in the New Kingdom. This review focuses on the usage of mummification materi-als such as Natron salt, Coniferous resin, Mastic, Myrrh, Beeswax, Bitumen, Cassia, Onions, Lichen, Henna and Gum Arabic in ancient Egypt to determine their effectiveness in the preservation of the body. For each material, the chemical formula, the history, and the role in the preservation of the body are presented. It is shown that natron salt was the most important material to desiccate a corpse, and that the vegetable materials mentioned above have anti-bacterial properties that pro-tected the body from microbial attack.

  2. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials tested, viz, calcium stearate, dioctyl phthalate, kaoline, diethylphthalate, dinitrotoluene, shelac varnish, and beeswax. Attempts were made to confirm the waterproofing ability of mineral jelly to ammonium nitrate using differential thermal analysisand x-ray diffraction patterns as an experimental tool. Suitability of mineral jelly as an additive for the gun propellant was also assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations using THERMprogram.

  3. Development of feedstock of tungsten-nickel-iron- polyformaldehyde for MIM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, D. V.; Parkhomenko, A. V.; Amosov, A. P.; Samboruk, A. R.; Chemashkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the results of the research and development of technology and formulation of the feedstock from domestic metal powders and polymers to fabricate complexshaped components from heavy alloy of VNZh 7-3 brand (90 wt. % tungsten - 7% nickel - 3% iron) by Metal Injection Molding (MIM technology). The metal part of the feedstock is composed of powders of tungsten, nickel and iron, and the polymer part is composed of polyformaldehyde with the addition of low-density polyethylene and beeswax. The modes of mixing the components and the influence of the composition of the feedstock on the melt flow rate and the homogeneity of the feedstock were investigated. The optimal formulation of the feedstock was determined. Microstructure, density and hardness of control samples fabricated by MIM technology from the developed feedstock, correspond to, and in some respects are superior to the samples of VNZh 7-3 alloy fabricated by technology of traditional powder metallurgy.

  4. Exhaust fumes of candles: Emissions of PCDD/F, PAH and short-chain aldehydes; Bestimmung und Bewertung der Emissionen von PCDD/PCDF, PAK und kurzkettigen Aldehyden in den Brandgasen von Kerzen. Untersuchung von Wachsen und Dochten - Bestimmung der Emissionen aus den Brandgasen von Kerzen - Toxikologische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwind, K.H. [Oekometric GmbH, Bayreuther Inst. fuer Umweltforschung, Bayreuth (Germany); Hosseinpour, J. [Oekometric GmbH, Bayreuther Inst. fuer Umweltforschung, Bayreuth (Germany); Fiedler, H. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany); Lau, C. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany); Hutzinger, O. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie, Univ. Bayreuth (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Exhaust fumes of paraffin, beeswax and stearin candles without any further paint or decorative element were analysed for the toxicological important substance classes of PCDD/PCDF, PAH and short chain aldehydes. The candle waxes and wicks were investigated for chlorinated dioxins, furans and some known precursors. Toxicological risk assessment shows that emissions of the investigated candles are much lower than all administrative limitation values - even under `worst case conditions`. Thus, they do not produce a toxicological risk for human health. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Untersuchungsprogrammes zur Schadstoffemission von Paraffin-, Stearin- und Bienenwachskerzen ohne Farb- und Lackbeimischungen wurden sowohl die Wachse und Dochte als auch die Brandgase dieser Kerzen auf die toxikologisch besonders relevanten Schadstoffklassen der PCDD/PCDF, PAK und kurzkettigen Aldehyde untersucht. Die toxikologische Bewertung kommt selbst bei einem angenommenen `worst case`-Szenario und unter Beruecksichtigung von geltenden Grenz- und Richtwerten zu dem Ergebnis, dass von den untersuchten Kerzen kein zusaetzliches Gesundheitsrisiko ausgeht. (orig.)

  5. A New Approach to Inventorying Army Hazardous Materials, A Study Done for the Eighth U.S. Army, Korea. Volume 2. Hazardous Material Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    W807M8 GL 30 30 2 WT4WTE W807M8 GL 300 100 Total: 460 210 6840006646610 DEODORANT ,GENERAL P CI 3 W80ADH W807M8 CO 8 8 6840006877904 DISINFECTANT DETERG...RQSTD DLVRD Code DOOAAC DODAAC Total Total b6650110,55623 ALARM CHiEMICAL AGENT FX 1 W80ADH W81FFM EA 9 9 683DC6646610 DEODORANT ,GENERAL P CI 3 W8OADH...BEESWAX TECHNICAL 2 3 WT4WTQ W807M8 CK 1 1 9160002638757 TALLOW , INEDIBLE 3 WT4WTQ W807M8 CN 2 6 A128 Table AS5-* (Cant’I d) FY90 Hazardous Material

  6. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  7. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  8. 复方烧伤膏收敛止痛的疗效观察%Analgesic effect and astringency of Compound burn ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Background:Burns are injuries caused by attaching factors such as high-temperature,strong acids,and bases etc.Areola and blister or vesticles appear at site in mild cases.Charring,serious toxic heat,consumption of yin fluid,fever,dizzy,thirst,constipation,and oliguria appear in severe cases.Compound burn ointment was developed according to modern traditional Chineses medicine principles and pathological changes of burned skin,which consisted of Sanguisorba root 120 g,Earth worm 120 g,Fibraurea stem 120 g,Dandelion herb 150 g,Dried rehmannia root 150 g,Huanglian 120 g,Yuanhu 150 g,Beeswax 120 g,Borneol 30 g,Oliva 2000 g. Objective:To investigate the analgesic and astringency of compound burn ointment. Unit: Affiliated Central Hospital of Shengyang Medical College.

  9. Permeability of starch gel matrices and select films to solvent vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur P; Ludvik, Charles; Shey, Justin; Imam, Syed H; Chiou, Bor-Sen; McHugh, Tara; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Orts, William; Wood, Delilah; Offeman, Rick

    2006-05-03

    Volatile agrochemicals such as 2-heptanone have potential in safely and effectively controlling important agricultural pests provided that they are properly delivered. The present study reports the permeability of starch gel matrices and various coatings, some of which are agricultural-based, that could be used in controlled release devices. Low-density, microcellular starch foam was made from wheat, Dent corn, and high amylose corn starches. The foam density ranged from 0.14 to 0.34 g/cm3, the pore volume ranged from 74 to 89%, and the loading capacity ranged from 2.3 to 7.2 times the foam weight. The compressive properties of the foam were not markedly affected by saturating the pore volume with silicone oil. The vapor transmission rate (VTR) and vapor permeability (VP) were measured in dry, porous starch foam and silicone-saturated starch gels. VTR values were highest in foam samples containing solvents with high vapor pressures. Silicone oil-saturated gels had lower VTR and VP values as compared to the dry foam. However, the silicone oil gel did not markedly reduce the VP for 2-heptanone and an additional vapor barrier or coating was needed to adequately reduce the evaporation rate. The VP of films of beeswax, paraffin, ethylene vinyl alcohol, a fruit film, and a laminate comprised of beeswax and fruit film was measured. The fruit film had a relatively high VP for polar solvents and a very low VP for nonpolar solvents. The laminate film provided a low VP for polar and nonpolar solvents. Perforating the fruit film portion of the laminate provided a method of attaining the target flux rate of 2-heptanone. The results demonstrate that the vapor flux rate of biologically active solvents can be controlled using agricultural materials.

  10. Evaluation of extended-release applications for solid dispersion hot-melt fluid bed coatings utilizing hydrophobic coating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J P; Niebergall, P J

    1998-02-01

    A new hot-melt fluid bed coating method was evaluated for potential extended-release applications. Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) USP was chosen as a model drug. The assays for drug release and content uniformity were dictated by the USP Official Monograph for a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Extended-Release Capsule. The fluid bed chamber was charged with CPM-loaded nonpareils and hydrophobic coating agents in the solid state. The method consists of four processing stages: (a) warming, (b) preheating, (c) melting-spreading, and (d) cooling-congealing. Various hydrophobic coating agent candidates were evaluated for extended-release potential by a preliminary screen at a coating agent level of 1.5% (w/w). A beeswax coating agent was identified as the most promising candidate of the preliminary screen. After the level of beeswax was increased to 2.0%, the dissolution profile met all of the specifications of the USP Drug Release Test 1 for a CPM Extended-Release Capsule. The potency and content uniformity remained unchanged by the process. Dual coatings demonstrated a cumulative extension of release superior to the capability of a single coat. The new method is a viable alternative to hot-melt spray-coating methodologies. Organic solvents, spraying equipment, steam jackets, and/or heating tape are eliminated from the process. A reduction of equipment costs, setup time, and cleanup time may be realized. The method has demonstrated extended-release capabilities. No excessive attrition of potency or content uniformity has been noted. Additive, multiple coatings that have a cumulative effect on release retardation are feasible.

  11. Vibrational sensitivity of the subgenual organ complex in female Sipyloidea sipylus stick insects in different experimental paradigms of stimulus direction, leg attachment, and ablation of a connective tibial sense organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    We document the sensitivity to sinusoidal vibrations for chordotonal organs in the stick insect tibia (Sipyloidea sipylus). In the tibia, the scolopidial subgenual organ (~40 scolopidial sensilla), distal organ (~20 scolopidial sensilla), and distal tibial chordotonal organ (~7 scolopidial sensilla) are present. We study the sensitivity of tibial sensory organs in all leg pairs to vibration stimuli as sensory thresholds by recording summed action potentials from Nervus cruris in the femur. The tibia was stimulated with a minishaker delivering vibrational stimuli. Because different experimental procedures may affect the vibration sensitivity, we here analysed possible effects of different experimental conditions: (1) the stimulus direction delivered in either horizontal or vertical direction to the leg; (2) recording responses only from the subgenual organ complex after ablation of the distal tibial chordotonal organ, and (3) the attachment of the leg to the minishaker by plastilin, beeswax-colophony, or freely standing legs. The tibial scolopidial organs give summed responses to vibration stimuli with highest sensitivity between 500 and 1000Hz for all leg pairs. In the different experimental series, we find that (1) thresholds were influenced by stimulation direction with lower thresholds in response to vertical vibrations, (2) ablating the distal tibial chordotonal organ by cutting the distal-most tibia did not change the summed sensory thresholds significantly, and (3) the attachment material between legs and the minishaker (plastilin or beeswax-colophony mixture) did not significant influence the sensory thresholds against free-standing tarsi. The distal tibial chordotonal organ is a connective chordotonal organ attached to a tendon and is likely a proprioceptive organ. These results emphasise that vibrational thresholds are mainly direction-sensitive. Thus, the direction of stimulus delivery during electrophysiological recordings is relevant for comparisons of

  12. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Wang, B.

    The objective of this study was to characterize the emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental test chamber. The target pollutants included particulate matters (PM 10, PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds. The average PM 10 concentrations for all tested mosquito coils exceeded Excellent and Good Classes objectives specified by Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [ HKEPD, 2003. Guidance Notes for the Management of Indoor Air Quality in Offices and Public Places. Indoor Air Quality Management Group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region]. The emission factors (mg g -1 mosquito coil) of mosquito coils combustion were: PM 2.5, 20.3-47.8; PM 10, 15.9-50.8; CO, 74.6-89.1; NO, 0.1-0.5; NO 2, n.d.-0.1; NO x, 0.1-0.5; CH 4, n.d.-4.7; NMHC, 0.1-5.7. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls species in the coil smoke. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene of all tested mosquito coils exceeded Good Class of IAQO. Nitrogen oxides were the most abundant gas pollutants relating to candle burning among all target air pollutants. The candle made of gel (CAN 4) would emit more air pollutants than the paraffin candles (CAN 1, 2 and 3) and beeswax candle (CAN 5). Among five candles tested, CAN 5, the one made of beeswax, generated relatively smaller amount of air pollutants. It was noted that the concentrations of most VOCs from candles combustion were below the detection limit.

  13. Mechanical properties of carving wax with various Ca-bentolite filter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carving wax is used as a medium in dental anatomy study. This wax composes of many waxes and sometimes a filler is added. Carving wax is not sold in Indonesian market. Whereas the gradients of carving wax such as beeswax, paraffin and bentonite are abundant in Indonesia. Based on that fact, to make high quality and standard,the exact composition if this carving wax should be known. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carving wax composition with Ca-bentonite filler on the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion. Methods: Five carving wax compositions were made with paraffin, Ca-bentonite, carnauba wax, and beeswax in ratio (% weight: 50:20:25:5 (KI, 55:15:25:5 (KII, 60:10:25:5 (KIII, 65:5:25:5 (KIV, 70:0:25:5(KV. All components were melted, then poured into the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion moulds (n = 5. Three carving wax properties were tested: melting point by melting point apparatus; hardness by penetrometer; thermal expansion by digital sliding caliper. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD0.05. Result: The Ca-bentonite addition influenced the melting point and thermal expansion of carving wax with significant differences between KI and other groups (p < 0.05. Ca-bentonite addition influenced the carving wax hardness and the mean differences among the groups were significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ca-bentonite filler addition on the composition of carving wax influenced the physical and mechanical properties. The carving wax with high Ca-bentonite concentration had high melting point and hardness, but low thermal expansion.

  14. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  15. Study on Inhibition of Water Evaporation by W/O Emulsion%油包水型乳化液抑制水分蒸发的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克刚; 罗辑; 柴向华; 唐忠盛

    2012-01-01

    [目的]比较几种常见食用蜡制备的W/O型乳化液对水分蒸发的抑制效果.[方法]在乳化温度80℃,乳化时间25 min,搅拌速度1 000 r/min条件下,探讨了不同蜡种类、乳化水含量、乳化剂的用量以及亲水亲油平衡值(HLB)等工艺条件对乳液的稳定性、抑制水分蒸发率以及水分蒸发损失率的影响.[结果]几种常见的食用蜡制备W/O型乳液均能不同程度地抑制水分蒸发,以蜂蜡的效果最好.对蜂蜡为油相制成的乳液,当乳化水含量为40%、乳化剂HLB值为7、乳化剂用量为5%时,抑制水分蒸发效果最好,且乳液稳定,外观均匀.[结论]为获得稳定性好的W/O型蜂蜡乳液,严格控制乳化工艺条件是关键,搅拌速度和乳化方法也不容忽视,尤其是W/O的搅拌速度不宜过快,否则会影响乳状液的形成及稳定.%[Objective] The study aimed to compared the inhibition effects of several common W/O emulsions prepared with the edible waxes on water evaporation. [ Method ] The influence of the technology conditions such as different kinds of wax, dosage of emulsified water and the amount of emulsifiers as well as HLB value on the stability of the emulsion, inhibition of the water evaporation rate and water evaporation loss rate were discussed under the conditions as the emulsifying temperature of 80 ℃ , emulsifying time of 25 min and stirring speed of 1 000 r/min. [ Result ] The several common W/O emulsions prepared with the edible waxes could inhibit the water evaporation to different degree, in which, the beeswax got the best effect. When the dosage of the emulsified water was 40% , HLB value of emulsifier was 7 and the dosage of the emulsifier was 5% , the emulsion prepared with the beeswax as the oil phase had the optimum effect of inhibiting the water evaporation, with stable emulsion and uniform appearance. [Conclusion] To obtain W/O beeswax emulsion with good stability, strictly controlling the e-mulsification process

  16. Uso da parafina incorporada à cera alveolada em colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera L. africanizadas para produção de mel Paraffin incorporation to beewax foundation in Apis mellifera L. Africanized colonies for honey production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar favos construídos a partir de três tratamentos, lâminas de cera alveolada, lâminas de cera alveolada com parafina e parte do quadro sem cera. Foram utilizadas dez colônias de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae existentes na região de Marialva, Estado do Paraná. Foram efetuados mapeamentos da área construída e ocupada com mel, a intervalos de aproximadamente 20 dias. Três quadros, cada um contendo os três tratamentos foram colocados nas posições lateral esquerda, central e lateral direita da melgueira vista por trás da colméia. As abelhas construíram a maior área e ocuparam com mel (p The aim of this paper was the evaluation of combs from three experimental treatments: beeswax foundation, beeswax with paraffin and a gap frame, partially without wax. The experiment was carried out using ten Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae Africanized honeybee colonies in Marialva - state of Paraná, in the south of Brazil. They were accomplished by mapping areas constructed and occupied with honey, at intervals of approximately 20 days. Three combs, containing, each one, the three treatments were placed at the positions right lateral, central and left lateral of the super observed the hive to the back. The honeybees built the greatest area and filled with honey (p < 0.05 when the comb was introduced in the central position of the hive, compared to other treatments in which differences were also observed (p < 0.05. The position of the wax comb mixed with paraffin produced the smallest area (p < 0.05 occupied with honey compared to the others. Results showed that paraffin mixed with wax comb should be used since the combs are placed in the central position and must be used for production of honey in sections.

  17. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Silva, Mallone Lopes; Luz, Diandra Araújo; Gomes, Antônio Rafael Quadros; Machado, Christiane Schineider; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP) rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control), EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg), or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls) 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance. The results obtained in the open field and in the elevated plus maze assay showed spontaneous locomotion preserved and anxiolytic-like activity. In the forced swimming test, EEYP demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. In the inhibitory avoidance test, EEYP showed mnemonic activity at 30 mg/kg. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the extract reduced the production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde without changing level of total antioxidant, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, induced by behavioral stress. Our results highlight that EEYP emerges as a promising anxiolytic, antidepressant, mnemonic, and antioxidant natural product. PMID:27822336

  18. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvacka, Josef

    2010-06-18

    High chromatographic resolution of wax esters (WEs) was achieved by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Nova-Pak C18 column by optimising the acetonitrile/ethyl acetate mobile phase gradient. The retention behaviour of WEs was studied in this chromatographic system. The WEs eluted according to their equivalent carbon number (ECN) values; within the group of WEs with the identical ECN, the most unsaturated species tended to elute first. The isobaric WEs with different positions of the ester moiety were separated from each other whenever the lengths of the chains were sufficiently different. The methyl-branched esters eluted at shorter retention times than the straight-chained analogues, and the resolution among methyl-branched WEs depended on the position of the branching. The analytes were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using data-dependent scanning. WEs provided simple full-scan spectra with abundant protonated molecules and low-intensity fragments. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) promoted identification of the WE molecular species. The responses of WEs were found to be dependent on the number of double bonds and on the alkyl-chain length; the limits of the detection ranged from 20micromol/L to 200nmol/L. The HPLC/APCI-MS was applied for the analysis of the WEs isolated from honeycomb beeswax, jojoba oil and human hair. Good agreement between reported results and the literature data was achieved, with several novel polyunsaturated WEs also being found.

  19. Localization of double bonds in wax esters by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the fragmentation of acetonitrile-related adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Háková, Martina; Pecková, Karolina; Urbanová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef

    2011-04-15

    Unsaturated wax esters (WEs) provided molecular adducts with C(3)H(5)N ([M + 55](+•)) in APCI sources in the presence of acetonitrile. CID MS/MS of [M + 55](+•) yielded fragments allowing the localization of double bond(s) in the hydrocarbon chains of the WEs. These fragments were formed by a cleavage on each side of the double bond. In methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated WEs, diagnostic fragments related to each double bond were detected; the most abundant were those corresponding to the cleavage of the C-C bond next to the first and the last double bond. To differentiate between those fragments differing in their structure or origin, a simple nomenclature based on α and ω ions has been introduced. Fragmentation of the α-type ions (fragments containing an ester bond) provided information on the occurrence of a double bond in the acid or alcohol part of the WEs. While no significant differences between the spectra of the WEs differing by cis/trans isomerism were found, the isomers were separated chromatographically. A data-dependent HPLC/APCI-MS(2) method for the comprehensive characterization of WEs in their complex mixtures has been developed and applied to natural mixtures of WEs isolated from jojoba oil and beeswax. More than 50 WE molecular species were completely identified, including the information on the acid and alcohol chain length and the position of the double bonds.

  20. Interaction of Artepillin C with model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazin, Wallance Moreira; Olivier, Danilo da Silva; Vilanova, Neus; Ramos, Ana Paula; Voets, Ilja Karina; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Ito, Amando Siuiti

    2017-05-01

    Green propolis, a mixture of beeswax and resinous compounds processed by Apis mellifera, displays several pharmacological properties. Artepillin C, the major compound in green propolis, consists of two prenylated groups bound to a phenyl group. Several studies have focused on the therapeutic effects of Artepillin C, but there is no evidence that it interacts with amphiphilic aggregates to mimic cell membranes. We have experimentally and computationally examined the interaction between Artepillin C and model membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) because phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most abundant phospholipids in eukaryotic cell membranes. PC is located in both outer and inner leaflets and has been used as a simplified membrane model and a non-specific target to study the action of amphiphilic molecules with therapeutic effects. Experimental results indicated that Artepillin C adsorbed onto the DMPC monolayers. Its presence in the lipid suspension pointed to an increased tendency toward unilamellar vesicles and to decreased bilayer thickness. Artepillin C caused point defects in the lipid structure, which eliminated the ripple phase and the pre-transition in thermotropic chain melting. According to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, (1) Artepillin C aggregated in the aqueous phase before it entered the bilayer; (2) Artepillin C was oriented along the direction normal to the surface; (3) the negatively charged group on Artepillin C was accommodated in the polar region of the membrane; and (4) thinner regions emerged around the Artepillin C molecules. These results help an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological action of propolis.

  1. Process and formulation variables in the preparation of wax microparticles by a melt dispersion technique. I. Oil-in-water technique for water-insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmeier, R; Wang, J; Bhagwatwar, H

    1992-01-01

    Ibuprofen-wax (carnauba, paraffin, beeswax, and the semisynthetic glyceryl esters--Gelucire 64/02 and Precirol ATO5) microparticles were prepared without organic solvents as an alternative to polymeric microparticles. In the melt dispersion technique, the drug-wax melt was emulsified into a heated aqueous phase followed by cooling to form the microparticles. The microparticles were characterized with respect to their drug loading, and morphological and release properties. They were spherical and non-agglomerated and drug loading close to 60 per cent were achieved. The more hydrophilic waxes (Gelucire 64/02 or Precirol ATO5) could be prepared without the use of surfactants. With the other waxes, increasing amounts of sodium lauryl sulphate in the external aqueous phase decreased the drug loading because of drug solubilization when compared to the polymeric stabilizer, poly(vinyl alcohol). The type of wax, the rate of cooling, and the temperature of the aqueous phase had no significant effect on the drug loading because of the low solubility of the drug in the external aqueous phase. The drug release was controlled by the hydrophobicity of the wax. Besides ibuprofen, other water-soluble drugs (ketoprofen, indomethacin, hydrocortisone) were also encapsulated by this method. The wax microparticles could be formulated into an aqueous sustained-release oral suspension dosage form.

  2. A synergistic effect of oestradiol and prolactin influencing the incidence of 3-methylcholanthrene induced cerivical carcinomas in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, J G; Breistein, L S

    1976-09-01

    Castrated NMRI mice were laparotomized and a thread impregnated with beeswax-methylcholanthrene was inserted into the uterine cervix. Beginning on the day of operation and for a further 5 days the animals were injected with oestradiol, prolactin, oestradiol-prolactin, oestradiol-prolactin-progesterone, or the solvents for the hormones only. One group of animals were injected with oestradiol-prolactin for 6 days and later with progesterone every third day until death. The animals were killed one or 4 weeks after the operation. Among the one-week animals the number of cervices presenting epithelial downgrowths ("buds") into the stroma was higher after treatment with a combination of oestradiol and prolactin than after treatment with each hormone separately or among the controls. Four weeks after operation, the incidence of squamous cervical carcinomas was seen to be significantly higher among animals injected with both oestradiol and prolactin than in controls or in those injected with oestradiol or prolactin alone. Progesterone had no definite effect on the oestradiol-prolactin induced incidence. The mechanism behind the synergistic effect of prolactin and oestradiol is discussed.

  3. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen) can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented. PMID:21631940

  4. Solubilizing excipients in oral and injectable formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickley, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    A review of commercially available oral and injectable solution formulations reveals that the solubilizing excipients include water-soluble organic solvents (polyethylene glycol 300, polyethylene glycol 400, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide), non-ionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH 40, Cremophor RH 60, d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, Solutol HS 15, sorbitan monooleate, poloxamer 407, Labrafil M-1944CS, Labrafil M-2125CS, Labrasol, Gellucire 44/14, Softigen 767, and mono- and di-fatty acid esters of PEG 300, 400, or 1750), water-insoluble lipids (castor oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, peppermint oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated vegetable oils, hydrogenated soybean oil, and medium-chain triglycerides of coconut oil and palm seed oil), organic liquids/semi-solids (beeswax, d-alpha-tocopherol, oleic acid, medium-chain mono- and diglycerides), various cyclodextrins (alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin), and phospholipids (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol). The chemical techniques to solubilize water-insoluble drugs for oral and injection administration include pH adjustment, cosolvents, complexation, microemulsions, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, micelles, liposomes, and emulsions.

  5. Py-GC/MS, GC/MS and FTIR investigations on Late Roman-Egyptian adhesives from opus sectile: new insights into ancient recipes and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribechini, Erika; Orsini, Sibilla; Silvano, Flora; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2009-04-06

    An analytical protocol based on optical microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Py-GC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation (GC/MS) was used in the chemical characterisation of the original adhesives used to fix monochrome and mosaic glass and stone plaques coming from the Late Roman archaeological site of Antinoopolis (Egypt). FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of calcite fragments, and Py-GC/MS and GC/MS analyses provided detailed molecular compositions, highlighting the presence of a wide range of compound classes including diterpenoid acids, tricyclic abietanes with a high degree of aromatisation, mid- and long-chain monocarboxylic fatty acids, mono- and di-hydroxy acids, alpha,omega-dicaboxylic fatty acids, n-alkanols, and n-alkanes. Characteristic biomarkers and their distribution patterns indicated the presence of pine pitch in all the adhesives, which in some cases was admixed with beeswax and brassicaceae seed oil. The results provided new insights into the complex recipes used by artisans in ancient Egypt in the production of adhesives and in the sophisticated manufacture of opus sectile decorations.

  6. Feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheb, Fatma; Benamara, Salem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design. First, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. The responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (YSp) and viscosity (YVis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (X1), the aqueous date seed extract (X2), and the beeswax (X3). Second, the cosmetic stability study was conducted by applying a full factorial design. Here, three responses were considered [spreadability (Sp), viscosity (Vis), and peroxide index (PI)], the independent variables being the concentration of the date seed oil (DSO) (x1), storage temperature (x2), and storage time (x3). Results showed that in the case of mixture design, the second-order polynomial equations correctly described experimental data. Globally, results show that there is a relatively wide composition range to ensure a suitable cosmetic cream from the point of view of Sp and Vis. Regarding the cosmetic stability, the storage time was found to be the most influential factor on both Vis and PI, which are considered here as indicators of physical and chemical stability of the emulsion, respectively. Finally, the elaborated and commercial cosmetics were compared in terms of pH, Sp, and centrifugation test (Ct).

  7. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions (DS) at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm) as compared to the larger (2.5 mm) ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides) used in the development of functional foods.

  8. Comparison of the concentrations of long-chain alcohols (policosanol) in three Tunisian peanut varieties (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Aicha O; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Kaabi, Belhassen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Pepe, Claude; Kallel, Habib

    2010-12-08

    Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic primary alcohols. Literature about the contents and compositions of PC derived from peanut varieties is scarce. Total PC composition and content in whole peanut grain samples from three varieties of peanut (two cultivars, AraC and AraT, and a wild one, AraA) were identified using a gas chromatograph system coupled with a mass spectrophotometer. The results show that, qualitatively, 21 components of peanut aliphatic alcohols were identified (C14-C30). Besides (C18=), the results exhibited a previously unreported mixture of PC compositions in the peanuts: the unsaturated PC (UPC), which are (C20=), (C21=), (C22=), and (C24=). The main components of total PC in Tunisian peanut kernels are docosanol (C22), (Z)-octadec-9-en-1-ol (C18=), hexadecanol (C16), and octadecanol (C18). Quantitatively, the total PC content of the whole peanut samples varied from 11.18 to 54.19 mg/100 g of oil and was higher than those of beeswax and whole sugar cane, which are sources of dietary supplements containing policosanol.

  9. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  10. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-01-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay. PMID:28181580

  11. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface.

  12. An Investigation of Optimum NLC-Sunscreen Formulation Using Taguchi Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Chi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used three kinds of wax and three kinds of oil, with fixed mixture ratio including UV-blocking materials of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, and avobenzone, and applied hot high-pressure homogenization process to prepare nanolipid sunscreen formulations. The measured particle size of the sunscreen formulations was 100~300 nm around PDI of 0.2 having a moderate polydisperse system. The distribution of zeta potential was −50 mV to −35 mV, showing a stable system. The UV light-absorbing range of 9 groups of sunscreen formulations was 275 nm~380 nm ranging within UVA and UVB. The rheological analysis found that the viscosity change is shear, thinning exhibiting colloid behavior. Taguchi analysis found that the optimum combinations are the carnauba wax and the blackcurrant oil combination for crystallinity and the beeswax and CPG oil for UV absorption. In addition, UV-blocking ability shows that the SPF was 51.5 and PFA was three stars for SU9 formulation. Finally, the effect of temperature on the properties of sunscreen formulations was also explored.

  13. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. LIMA-VERDE

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  14. Raman spectroscopic analysis of Mexican natural artists' materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Ortega-Avilès, Mayahuel; Castilleros, Dolores Tenorio; Moens, Luc

    2007-12-01

    This work represents the Raman spectra of 15 natural artists' materials that were obtained from local market in Mexico. Some of these products are not endemic to the region, but are often used in local conservation practice. Other materials are of local origin and have been used for centuries by local craftsmen. The Raman spectra that are reported here are: Chia oil, linseed oil, Campeche wax, beeswax, white copal, dammar, colophony, mastic, pixoy, chapopote, chucum, aje gum, gutta gum, peach gum and gum Arabic. The sample of pixoy was mixed with TiO 2, although it was not clear whether this was done intentionally or not. The Raman spectrum of chapopote, the local name for bitumen, contained features of carbonaceous and terpenoid matter. The Raman spectra of chapopote and chucum suffered severely from fluorescence, resulting in noisy Raman spectra. Aje gum and gutta gum are not gums, since they are resinous (terpenoid) in nature. Aje is a rare animal resin originating from Coccus axin.

  15. Tropilaelaps of bees - epizootiological picture with special emphasis on the first description of the parasite in bumblebees and bees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are the most significant pollinators of plants worlwide. Importance of plant pollination widely exceeds all other economic benefits of modern beekeeping such as production of honey, Royal jelly, propolis, beeswax, honeybee venom etc. The issues concerning bees diseases are of extreme importance in modern commercial beekeeping. That especially regards to the fact that the number of disease agents in bees has considerably increased in recent decades. Using international transport, export or import of bees and their products, the possibility of entering various agents (parasites, bacterias, viruses and fungi into bee colonies. In recent years one of the biggest problems in beekeeping in Asia has become tropilaelaps - ectoparasitic bee disease caused by mites of the genus Tropilaelaps. But because of prevalent interest in parasites Varroa destructor and Acarapis woodi, the threat of mites from Tropileaps family has not been familiar for a long period of time. Today, Tropilaelaps is on the list of diseases endangering the whole world, made by OIE. There is a real risk of its spreading, mostly through trade, that is import of bees, swarms, queen bees, bee products and equipment. In the Republic of Serbia, this disease was described for the first time in April-May 1981 in bumblebees and bees in which a mass infestation with until then unknown parasites was detected. By additional analysis there was found out that the parasite in question was from Laelapidae (Mesostigmata family, Tropilaelaps.

  16. Conhecimento dos moradores do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, sobre a utilidade de produtos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4518 Knowledge of the inhabitants of the Mid-Araguaia region, Mato Grosso State, about the usefulness of bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae products - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as indicações de uso dos produtos das abelhas. As entrevistas foram realizadas com representantes de 14 municípios do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, entre os meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2007. No médio Araguaia, houve indicações de uso para mel, cera, veneno e própolis, principalmente para fins medicinais. O mel foi o produto mais utilizado (75,49%, o consumo é principalmente por ingestão (79,59% e in natura (71,43%. Os produtos das abelhas são utilizados, pela maioria, para fins medicinais (77,55% e recomendados para tratar afecções na garganta (63,27%.The objective of this study was to find out the use indications for bee products. The interviews were carried out with representatives of 14 municipalities of the Mid-Araguaia River region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the months of January and February 2007. In the Mid-Araguaia there were indications of use honey, beeswax, poison and propolis, mainly for medicinal purposes. Honey was the most used product (75.49%. The consumption is mainly by ingestion (79.59% and in natura (71.43%. The bee products are used, by the majority of the users, for medicinal purposes (77.55%, and they are recommended to heal throat infections (63.27%

  17. Preparation of the microemulsion for automobile polishing wax%一种微乳液型汽车上光蜡的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬美; 张建中; 肇薇; 张颖; 安磊

    2011-01-01

    The microemulsion of automobile polishing wax was prepared with Brazil camauba wax,beeswax, paraffin and surfactant as materials.The effect of selection and the amount of the emulsifier, the emulsifying time, the emulsifying temperature, the water of the emulsification and the stirring speed were studied.The results showed the optimal conditions were as follows: the emulsifier was complex 1, the emulsifying time was 30 min, the emulsifying temperature was 90 ℃, the water of the emulsification was 70% , the stirring speed was 1000 r/min.%以巴西棕榈蜡、蜂蜡、石蜡和表面活性剂为原料,制备微乳液型汽车上光蜡,考察了乳化剂选择及用量、乳化时间、乳化温度、乳化用水量、搅拌转速等因素对乳化反应的影响.结果表明,最佳乳化条件为:乳化剂为复配1型,乳化剂的用量为6%,搅拌转速1 000 r/min,乳化时间30 min,乳化温度90℃,乳化用水量为70%.

  18. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO, chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS or duodenum secretions (DS at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm as compared to the larger (2.5 mm ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides used in the development of functional foods.

  19. Phospholipon 90H (P90H)-based PEGylated microscopic lipospheres delivery system for gentamicin:an antibiotic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mumuni Audu Momoh; Charles Okechukwu Esimone

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To formulate gentamicin liposphere by solvent-melting method using lipids and polyethylene glycol 4 000 (PEG-4 000) for oral administration. Methods: Gentamicin lipospheres were prepared by melt-emulsification using 30% w/w Phospholipon® 90H in Beeswax as the lipid matrix containing PEG-4 000. These lipospheres were characterized by evaluating on encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, change in pH and the release profile. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphii and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar diffusion method. Results:Photomicrographs revealed spherical particles within a micrometer range with minimal growth after 1 month. The release of gentamicin in vitro varied widely with the PEG-4 000 contents. Moreover, significant (P>0.05) amount of gentamicin was released in vivo from the formulation. The encapsulation and loading capacity were all high, indicating the ability of the lipids to take up the drug. The antimicrobial activities were very high especially against Pseudomonas compare to other test organisms. This strongly suggested that the formulation retain its bioactive characteristics. Conclusions: This study strongly suggest that the issue of gentamicin stability and poor absorption in oral formulation could be adequately addressed by tactical engineering of lipid drug delivery systems such as lipospheres.

  20. Fresh-keeping effect of different coating materials on clean egg%不同涂膜材料对清洁鸡蛋的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾凤兰; 章建浩; 马磊; 龙门; 黄明明; 杨龙平

    2015-01-01

    为对比几种涂膜材料对清洁鸡蛋的涂膜保鲜效果,该文采用聚偏二氯乙烯(polyvinylidene chloride, PVDC)、纳米α-Fe2O3功能改性聚乙烯醇基蜂蜡复合材料和纳米Fe3+/TiO2功能改性聚乙烯醇基紫胶复合材料3种涂膜材料对清洁鸡蛋进行2次浸涂风干涂膜处理,以未涂膜处理为对照组,在室温条件下(温度17~30℃,相对湿度45~88%)贮藏,检测分析鸡蛋失重率和理化指标。结果表明:在室温条件下,各组鸡蛋的储藏期分别为:对照组21 d, PVDC处理组28 d,纳米Fe3+/TiO2功能改性聚乙烯醇基紫胶复合膜组35 d,而纳米α-Fe2O3功能改性聚乙烯醇基蜂蜡复合膜组42 d,表明涂膜对鸡蛋储藏期的延长效果显著(P Uncoated clean eggs were chosen as control group. Secondary soaking coating method were adopted to coat eggs and the coating process was putting clean eggs into coating liquid for one minute, and being taken out and then being blowing dried, and did the above-mentioned process again. All eggs were preserved in same preserved condition whose temperature and the relative humidity changed as time went on for 42 days. During storage the physical and chemical indicators include the yolk index, Haugh unit, albumen pH, and the egg weight loss were detected every week to determine the egg freshness. The other materials, polyvinylidene chloride and nano-Fe3+/TiO2 and lac modified polyvinyl alcohol based material, were used as two control groups compared with nano α-Fe2O3 and beeswax modified polyvinyl alcohol based composite material. Their characteristics ,e.g. antibacterial properties and water-resisting performance had been studied before. After storage for 42 days eggs were coated by nano-Fe3+/TiO2 and lac modified polyvinyl alcohol based material (C group) whose egg grade was B, yolk index was 0.29, Haugh unit was 56.95, and albumen pH value was 9.32, and fresh eggs rate was 100%and the weight loss rate was

  1. 蜂胶中有效成分提取工艺研究%Study on extracting activity of propolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾青; 张燕萍; 钟立人

    2001-01-01

    Through sets of methods adopted to extract activity ingredients in raw propolis, the best extracting technique was determined.Mix the alcohol with propolis in the ratio 4∶1 ,and then go on cycling flow extraction. After filter, evaporate and recover the alcohol. Then, the iced alcohol dissolution method was applied,making beeswax content decrease from 2.13% to 0.50%. Finished high quality propolis was got.%采用多种方法提取粗蜂胶中的有效成分,结果表明最佳工艺条件为:将95%乙醇与粗蜂胶按体积比4∶1的配比进行回流抽提,提取温度85℃,过滤后回收乙醇得蜂胶浸膏;用低温乙醇溶解法精制蜂胶,使浸膏中蜂蜡含量从2.13%降至0.50%,得到高品质蜂胶。

  2. Study on the Rhodiola Ginseng Ginkgo Soft Capsule%红景天人参银杏叶软胶囊的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正军; 赵文吉; 尼科; 贾国夫

    2015-01-01

    With Rhodiolae crenulatae, Ginseng, Ginkgo folium extract as the main raw material, Soybean oil, beeswax for the accessories materials,The pre-treatment of raw materials, ingredients, sol, pressure pills, stereotypes, such as technology made Soft Capsule. Acute oral toxicity test, Three genotoxicity tests and thirty days feeding test show that it has no significant side effects. Sodium nitrite poisoning test and trials of acute cerebral ischemLa shows that it has improved the health functions of hypoxia tolerance role.%以红景天、人参、银杏叶的提取物为主要原料,大豆油、蜂蜡等为辅料,经原料前处理、配料、溶胶、压丸、定型等工艺制成红景天人参银杏叶软胶囊,进行急性经口毒性、三项遗传毒性、三十天喂养试验,结果表明其无明显毒副作用;亚硝酸钠中毒试验和急性脑缺血试验,表明其具有提高缺氧耐受力的保健功能作用。

  3. 高润滑保湿长链烷基有机硅蜡的研究及应用进展%Research Progress and Application of High Lubrication and Moisturizing Alkyl-modified Silicone Wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋旻子陌; 郑成; 叶嘉荣; 罗方然

    2016-01-01

    相较于传统蜂蜡、巴西棕榈蜡、小烛树蜡等高级化妆品用蜡,长链烷烃有机硅蜡,在保持其优良亲肤力的同时赋予了其更佳的防水润滑保湿性能,并大大降低产品成本,从而越来越广泛的被应用于高级化妆品等日化领域。本文系统地介绍了近年来国内外高润滑保湿长碳链烷基有机硅蜡的合成并对其发展趋势进行了分析与展望。%Compared to the traditional beeswax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax and other advanced wax, the silicone wax with long-chain alkyl has high affinity with skin, better water resistance, moisture and lubricity. Simultaneously, silicone wax reduces product costs significantly. So long-chain alkyl silicone wax is used more and more widely in cosmetics and other cosmetic areas. The synthesis and application of silicone wax polymers with long-chain alkyl were introduced systematically. Apart from that, the development of silicone wax in the future was prospected.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of waxes/fat microspheres loaded with lithium carbonate for controlled release

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    Gowda D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the unwanted toxic effects of anti maniac drug lithium carbonate by kinetic control of drug release, it was entrapped into gastro resistant, biodegradable, waxes and fat such as beeswax, cetostearyl alcohol, spermaceti and cetylalcohol microspheres using meltable emulsified dispersion cooling induced solidification technique utilizing a wetting agent. Solid, discrete, reproducible free flowing microspheres were obtained. The yield of the microspheres was up to 90.0%. More than 98.0% of the isolated microspheres were of particle size range 115 to 855 mm. The microspheres had smooth surfaces, with free flowing and good packing properties. Scanning electron microscope confirmed their spherical structures within a size range of 339-355 mm. The drug loaded in waxes and fat microspheres was stable and compatible, as confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. The release of drug was controlled for more than 8 hours. Intestinal drug release from waxes/ fat microspheres was studied and compared with the releases behavior of commercially available formulation Intalith CR ®-450. The release kinetics followed different transport mechanisms. The drug release performance was greatly affected by the materials used in microsphere preparations, which allows absorption in the intestinal tract.

  5. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

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    Marcucci Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.

  6. Conhecimento dos moradores do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, sobre a utilidade de produtos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae = Knowledge of the inhabitants of the Mid-Araguaia region, Mato Grosso State, about the usefulness of bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as indicações de uso dos produtos das abelhas. As entrevistas foram realizadas com representantes de 14 municípios do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, entre os meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2007. No médio Araguaia, houve indicações de uso para mel, cera, veneno e própolis, principalmente para fins medicinais. O mel foi o produto mais utilizado (75,49%, o consumo é principalmente por ingestão (79,59%e in natura (71,43%. Os produtos das abelhas são utilizados, pela maioria, para fins medicinais (77,55% e recomendados para tratar afecções na garganta (63,27%.The objective of this study was to find out the use indications for bee products. The interviews were carried out with representatives of 14 municipalities of the Mid-Araguaia River region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the months of January and February 2007. In the Mid- Araguaia there were indications of use honey, beeswax, poison and propolis, mainly for medicinal purposes. Honey was the most used product (75.49%. The consumption is mainly by ingestion (79.59% and in natura (71.43%. The bee products are used, by the majority of the users, for medicinal purposes (77.55%, and they are recommended to heal throat infections (63.27%.

  7. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

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    Pi-Ju Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.

  8. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis

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    Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes da Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control, EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance. The results obtained in the open field and in the elevated plus maze assay showed spontaneous locomotion preserved and anxiolytic-like activity. In the forced swimming test, EEYP demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. In the inhibitory avoidance test, EEYP showed mnemonic activity at 30 mg/kg. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the extract reduced the production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde without changing level of total antioxidant, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, induced by behavioral stress. Our results highlight that EEYP emerges as a promising anxiolytic, antidepressant, mnemonic, and antioxidant natural product.

  9. Notch Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V

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    Sergio Baragetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map the corrosion fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue initiation and failure mechanisms. The study included the effect of the stress concentration factor at very high Kt values and the role of different inert or corrosive environments. This alloy is widely used in naval-structures and aero-engine communities and the outcomes of the work will have direct relevance to industrial service operations. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1; 2 × 105 cycles; f = 10 Hz were carried out on smooth and high notched (Ktmax = 18.65 flat specimens in laboratory air, paraffin oil, laboratory air + beeswax coating, recirculated 3.5% NaCl solution. The step loading procedure was used to perform the fatigue tests and the surface replica method and crack propagation gages were used to check crack nucleation and propagation until failure. Log-Log plots of σmax vs. Kt showed a bilinear behavior and enabled the demonstration of the presence of a threshold stress intensity factor (Kt = 8–9, after which the environment has no effect on the fatigue damage for all the tested environments.

  10. X-ray transmission through nanostructured and microstructured CuO materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, M.Z. [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano, Rua dos Andradas, 1614, CEP 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kuenzel, R., E-mail: roselikunzel@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Okuno, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Levenhagen, R.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Rua Arthur Ridel, 275, Jardim Eldorado, CEP 09941-510 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Basegio, T.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Materiais, Avenida Osvaldo Aranha, 99, CEP 90035-190 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents a comparison of the X-ray transmission through microsized and nanosized materials. For this purpose CuO nanoparticles, with 13.4 nm average grain size, and CuO microparticles, with a mean particle size of 56{mu}m, were incorporated separately to beeswax in a concentration of 5%. Results show that the transmission through the above material plates with microsized and nanosized CuO was almost the same for X-ray beams generated at 60 and 102 kV tube voltages. However, for the radiation beams generated at 26 and 30 kV tube voltages the X-rays are more attenuated by the nanostructured CuO plates by a factor of at least 14%. Results suggest that the difference in the low energy range may be due to the higher number of particles/gram in the plates designed with CuO nanoparticles and due to the grain size effect on the X-ray transmission.

  11. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  12. Le cas des beurres végétaux et des cires d’origine naturelle

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    Rossow Véronique

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural waxes such as Beeswax, Carnauba wax and Candelilla wax are widely used in the Cosmetic and Food industries. Thanks to their composition, and besides a compulsory high safety, they provide desirable properties such as strength, gloss, emolliency, barrier effect, making them essential in numerous applications. For example, lots of candies are coated with either one or a mix of these 3 waxes, while for Cosmetics, the waxy part of lipsticks contains various combinations of such waxes. Within the cosmetic industry, the “green wave” – natural products – which is developing to the detriment of synthetic or mineral raw materials, has generated know-hows to enlighten new values to natural resources. Several types of developments have occurred: managing to substitute materials facing bad press (ex: petrolatum, lanolin, mimicking trendy “butter-like” textures either by adequate mixture or by chemical reaction to offer alternatives to overused Shea or Cupuaçu Butter, or as a result of more recent research programs, identifying natural waxes acting more like active ingredients than “just” like excipients (Mimosa Flower wax, Lemon Peel or Orange Peel waxes, etc..

  13. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. A.; Ikram, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550–1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using 14C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644983

  14. Thin film deposition of diamond using normal paraffins as source of diamond nucleation centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershova, A., E-mail: ershovaangelina@mail.ru [Nano-Technology Laboratory, Triangle Inc., 01079 (Ukraine); Eizenbraun, A. [Nano-Technology Laboratory, Triangle Inc., 01079 (Ukraine)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Paraffin compounds are diamond nucleation sources. ► Thermoconductivity of Cu–DTF device is higher than such conductivity of Cu. ► DTF growth in HFCVD reactor is not linear function of time. -- Abstract: We propose a process for diamond thin film (DTF) deposition using normal paraffins (nP) as source of diamond nucleation centers. We deposited micro-crystalline diamond thin films (MCDTF) on a Cu substrate using Hot Filament CVD (HFCVD) and Passive Pt/Pd Surface Catalysis (PPt/PdSC) methods. Beeswax and a 1:1 mixture of normal paraffins of the general formula CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n}CH{sub 3} with n = 22 and 26 were tested as nP starting material. The films obtained were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Raman scattering temperature dependent spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, all of which confirmed that the deposited material is MCDTF.

  15. 立血康软胶囊的制备工艺研究%Study on Preparation Technology of Lixuekang Soft Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾莹; 于永军; 王海龙; 李强; 陈大忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:确定立血康软胶囊的制备工艺.方法:按照正交试验表L9(34),对立血康软胶囊的处方进行了优选研究.结果:内容物以植物油为基质,添加氢化大豆磷脂为乳化剂和润湿剂,蜂蜡为助悬剂,确定为立血康软胶囊内容物的稳定工艺.结论:所制得的软胶囊工艺稳定,质量可控,适于工业生产.%Objective: To establish the preparation technology of Lixuekang Soft Capsule. Methods: Make an optimizd study of the prescription of Lixuekang Soft Capsule. Results: Content with the soybean oil for substrate,adding hydrogenated soya phosphatide for emulsifier and wetting agents, and beeswax for suspending agent, was determined as the stable process of the content of Lixuekang Soft Capsule. Conclusion:The process of the Soft Capsule is stable and the quality is controllable. It is suitable for industrial production.

  16. A dual strategy to improve psychotic patients’ compliance using sustained release quetiapine oral disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.

  17. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G' values (2 to 6 × 10(6) Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5) Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively.

  18. Reactive coating of soybean oil-based polymer on nanofibrillated cellulose film for water vapor barrier packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Weiwei; Gong, Glen

    2014-10-13

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) easily forms a high strength film but is unable to withstand the influence of water vapor when used in high moisture situations. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a NFC film was as high as 5088 g/m(2)24h (38 °C, 90% RH). The addition of beeswax latex in a NFC casting film (NFX) lowered the WVTR to 3918 g/m(2)24h. To further reduce the WVTR, a coating agent comprised of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was applied onto the NFX film using a rod coater. A combination of the suitable AESO/APTS ratio, initiator dosing, curing time and temperature could reduce the WVTR to 188 g/m(2) 24h when the coat weight was 5 g/m(2). Moreover, the coated NFX film was highly hydrophobic along with the improved transparency and thermal stability. This biodegradable polymer-coated NFC film can be used as potential packaging barrier in certain areas.

  19. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  20. Evaluating skin-protective materials against contact irritants and allergens. An in vivo screening human model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1998-03-01

    2 acute irritants and 1 allergen were selected: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) representative of irritant household and occupational contact dermatitis, the combination of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and urea to simulate diaper dermatitis, and Rhus to evaluate the effect of model protective materials. The putative protective materials and vehicle were applied to both ventral forearms of 10 subjects in each group, according to a randomized code. Test materials were spread over a marked 2.0 cm2 area, massaged in, allowed to dry for 30 min, and reapplied with another 30 min drying period. The model irritants and allergen were then applied (0.025 ml) to an Al-test occlusive patch, which in turn was placed for 24 h over each of the 8 designated sites. Inflammation was scored according to a clinical scale 72 h post-application. Paraffin wax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, and beeswax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, markedly (p clinical significance requires comparison with an open rather than an occluded challenge.

  1. Effects of Starch on Properties of Alumina-based Ceramic Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fengguang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the poor leachability of alumina-based ceramic cores, different amount of starch was added to the specimens as pore former. Alumina-based ceramic cores were prepared by hot injection technology using corundum powder as base material, paraffin wax and beeswax as plasticizer, silica powder and magnesium oxide powder as mineralizing agent, wherein the parameters of the hot injection process were as follows:temperature of the slurry was 90℃, hot injection pressure was 0.5 MPa and holding time was 25 s. The effects of starch content on the properties of alumina-based ceramic cores were studied and discussed. The results indicate that during sintering period, the loss of starch in the specimens makes porosity of the alumina-based ceramic cores increase. When starch content increases, the room-temperature flexural strength of the ceramic cores reduces and the apparent porosity increases; the volatile solvent increases and the bulk density decreases. After being sintered at 1560℃ for 2.5 h, room-temperature flexural strength of the alumina-based ceramic cores with starch content of 8%(mass fraction is 24.8 MPa, apparent porosity is 47.98% when the volatile solvent is 1.92 g/h and bulk density is 1.88 g/cm3, the complex properties are optimal.

  2. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki. Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelatine, kappa-carrageenan, beeswax, lard, glycerol and water. Coated and uncoated sausages were stored for 7, 14 or 21 days at the temperature of 4-6°C. After each storage period weight losses and hardness of peeled sausages, as well as colour values (L*, a*, b* and water activity of removed coatings were determined. Results. Coated sausages incurred smaller weight loss and after similar storage periods they were characterized by lower hardness in comparison with uncoated sausages. Reducing the carrageenan content decreased the consumption of emulsion for coating. However, it did not have any impact on the barrier properties of coating. Water activity of coatings decreased during storage. Their colour values also changed. Conclusions. Irrespective of water content in the sausages, emulsion coatings effectively inhibited their weight loss during storage. The coating with lower content of carrageenan could be recommended. Instability of coatings colour during storage implies the need of adding a colorant to the composition of emulsion.  

  3. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  4. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  5. Development of novel sustained release matrix pellets of betahistine dihydrochloride: effect of lipophilic surfactants and co-surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Basalious, Emad B; Shoukri, Raguia

    2012-01-01

    Sustained release matrix pellets of the freely water soluble drug, betahistine dihydrochloride (BH), were prepared using freeze pelletization technique. Different waxes and lipids (cetyl alcohol, beeswax, glyceryl tripalmitate (GTP) and glyceryl tristearate) were evaluated for the preparation of matrix pellets. A D-optimal design was employed for the optimization and to explore the effect of drug loading (X(1)), concentration of lipophilic surfactant (X(2)), concentration of co-surfactant (X(3)) and wax type (X(4)) on the release extent of the drug from matrix pellets. The entrapment efficiency (Y(1)), pellet diameter (Y(2)), and the percentage drug released at given times were selected as dependent variables. Results revealed a significant impact of all independent variables on drug release from the formulated pellets. The lipophilic surfactant significantly increased both the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro drug release and significantly decreased the pellet size. The optimized BH-loaded pellets were composed of 19.95% drug loading, 9.95% Span(®) 80 (surfactant), 0.25% Capmul(®) (co-surfactant) using glyceryl tripalmitate as a matrix former. The release profiles of the drug from hard gelatin capsule containing optimized pellets equivalent to 32 mg BH was similar to that of target release model for once-daily administration based on similarity factor. It could be concluded that a promising once-daily capsule containing sustained release pellets of BH was successfully designed.

  6. 电位滴定法测定蜂胶软胶囊酸价%Determination of acid value of propolis soft capsule by potentiometric titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎汝琴; 杨祖伟; 植爱萍; 黄淑玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the determination method of acid value of propolis soft capsule. Methods Through analyzing prescription of propolis soft capsule, propolis powder, white beeswax, vegetable oils, antioxidants, mixed oil without propolis powder (including white beeswax, vegetable oils and antioxidants) were determined by method one and method two respectively, and the end-point was indicated by 10 g/L phenothalin or potentiometric titrator. Results The acid value of propolis soft capsule couldn’t be determined by method one, because it was interfered by propolis powder. When indicated the end-point by 10 g/L phenothalin, the end-point couldn’t be determined by method two because the solution appeared yellow during titration. When indicated the end-point by potentiometric titrator, good precision could be obtained. Determined by method two, and indicated the end-point by potentiometric titrator, the precision of different batches of samples was 0.9%~2.6%, and 2.4%~3.7%at different time points, with the recovery rate of 95.6%~105.0%, the average recovery rate of 100.0%, and RSD of 3.5%. Conclusions Acid value of propolis was determined by method two, and indicated the end-point by potentiometric titrator, interferd by propolis powders of propolis soft capsule content could be eliminated. The precision was good, the accuracy was high, and the quality of acid value of propolis soft capsule could be controlled.%目的:探索蜂胶软胶囊的酸价测定方法。方法根据蜂胶软胶囊的处方,取蜂胶粉、白蜂蜡、植物油脂、抗氧化剂、不含蜂胶粉的混合油脂(内含白蜂蜡、植物油脂、抗氧化剂)、蜂胶软胶囊,分别用方法1和方法2测定酸价,以10 g/L酚酞溶液或电位滴定仪指示终点。结果方法1,因蜂胶粉的干扰而无法测定蜂胶软胶囊的酸价;方法2,以10 g/L酚酞溶液指示终点时,在滴定过程中会出现黄色,影响终点的判断,采用电位滴定仪指示终点,指示效果

  7. Produção e desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera l. a partir de diferentes áreas e idades de cria Production and development of africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera l. colonies departing from different comb brood areas and brood ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Henrique Dias da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A apicultura brasileira usa da captura de enxames silvestres de abelhas melíferas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. para repor e/ou aumentar o número de colônias dos apiários, possuindo inconvenientes como a dependência da natureza para captura dos enxames, a heterogeneidade genética das colônias capturadas e a possibilidade desses enxames serem portadores de doenças e parasitas prejudiciais à sanidade das abelhas. O presente trabalho testa e apresenta uma técnica de divisão de colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas para a produção de novas colônias fortes em curto espaço de tempo, a partir de recursos mínimos de cera, cria e alimento. Os resultados mostraram que núcleos de A. mellifera formados inicialmente com uma rainha jovem e fecundada, 1 kg de operárias, um quadro de cria fechada, um quadro de favo puxado e vazio e dois quadros com cera alveolada permitem a produção de novas colônias em 42 dias. Portanto, pode-se concluir que a técnica de divisão de colônias por formação de núcleos como descrito acima, oferece aos apicultores uma alternativa viável para a produção e comercialização em larga escala de novas colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas.The Brazilian apiculture relies upon collecting wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. to replace and/or increase the number of colonies in the apiaries. This practice brings problems such as dependence on nature to capture any swarm, diverse genetic make-up of the colonies captured and the possibility of these swarms be carrying diseases and parasites harmful to the bees. The present work tests and presents a technique to split colonies of Africanized honey bees to produce new strong colonies in short time, departing from little resources of wax, brood and food stores. Results showed that A. mellifera nuclei formed by a young and mated queen, 1kg of workers, a frame of sealed brood, an empty frame of drawn beeswax and two frames

  8. Design of chronomodulated drug delivery system of valsartan: in vitro characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sokar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate a chronomodulated time-clock pulsatile tablets of valsartan to release it after a certain lag time, independent of the gastrointestinal pH, in its absorption window to cope with the circadian rhythm of human body for blood pressure elevation. Core tablets were prepared by direct compression of a homogenous mixture of valsartan, Avicel PH101, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The core tablets were then sprayed coated with a sealing layer formed of ethyl cellulose that was subsequently coated with a release-controlling layer. Three different aqueous dispersions namely; carnauba wax or beeswax or a mixture in a ratio of 2.5:1, respectively, were used to form five time-clock tablet formulations having the release controlling layer with different thickness {B5, B10, B20, BW5 and CW5}. Quality control testing were carried out to the core tablets. Differential scanning calorimetry was also performed to detect the possible drug excipient interaction in the core tablet formulation. The release was carried out, for the prepared time-clock tablet formulations, in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for the first 2 h, followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 for 4.5 h. The effect of pH on valsartan release was studied through a release study in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for 6.5 h. Two phase dissolution study was performed to the selected time-clock tablet formulation to predict the drug permeation through the gastrointestinal tract. Stability study of the selected formula was performed at 25°/60% RH and at 40°/75% RH for 3 months. Results showed that a release-controlling layer composed of a mixture of carnauba wax and beeswax in a ratio of 2.5:1 showed a reasonable release lag time. The release lag time of the tablets increased with the increase of the coat thickness, thus B20>B10>B5 with corresponding lag time values of 4.5, 3 and 2.5 h, respectively. Selected B5 tablet formula exhibited a

  9. Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, T; Chiantore, O; Nervo, M; Piccirillo, A

    2011-05-01

    Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) is a totally noninvasive infrared analytical technique allowing the investigation of artworks without the need for any sampling. The development and optimization of this analytical methodology can provide a tool that is capable of supporting conservators during the first steps of their interventions, yielding fast results and dramatically reducing the number of samples needed to identify the materials involved. Furthermore, since reflection IR spectra suffer from important spectral anomalies that complicate accurate spectral interpretation, it is important to characterize known reference materials and substrates in advance. This work aims to verify the possibility of investigating and identifying the most widely used wood finishes by means of fiber-optic (chalcogenide and metal halides) mid-infrared spectroscopy. Two historically widely employed wood finishes (beeswax, shellac) and two modern ones (a hydrogenated hydrocarbon resin and a microcrystalline wax) were investigated in an extended IR range (from 1000 to 6000 cm(-1)) with reflectance spectroscopy and with FORS. The broad spectral response of the MCT detector was exploited in order to include overtones and combination bands from the NIR spectral range in the investigation. The reflectance spectra were compared with those collected in transmission mode in order to highlight modifications to shapes and intensities, to assign absorptions, and finally to select "marker" bands indicating the presence of certain finishing materials, even when applied onto a substrate such as wood, which shows many absorptions in the mid-infrared region. After the characterization, the different products were applied to samples of aged pear wood and investigated with the same techniques in order to check the ability of mid-IR FORS to reveal the presence and composition of the product on the wooden substrate.

  10. Arsenite Regulates Prolongation of Glycan Residues of Membrane Glycoprotein: A Pivotal Study via Wax Physisorption Kinetics and FTIR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Ching-Iue; Lee, Yao-Chang; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-03-22

    Arsenic exposure results in several human cancers, including those of the skin, lung, and bladder. As skin cancers are the most common form, epidermal keratinocytes (KC) are the main target of arsenic exposure. The mechanisms by which arsenic induces carcinogenesis remains unclear, but aberrant cell proliferation and dysregulated energy homeostasis play a significant role. Protein glycosylation is involved in many key physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. To evaluate whether arsenite exposure affected protein glycosylation, the alteration of chain length of glycan residues in arsenite treated skin cells was estimated. Herein we demonstrated that the protein glycosylation was adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent and regulated by arsenite exposure by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy, synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy, and wax physisorption kinetics coupled with focal-plane-array-based FTIR (WPK-FPA-FTIR) imaging. We were able to estimate the relative length of surface protein-linked glycan residues on arsenite-treated skin cells, including primary KC and two skin cancer cell lines, HSC-1 and HaCaT cells. Differential physisorption of wax adsorbents adhered to long-chain (elongated type) and short-chain (regular type) glycan residues of glycoprotein of skin cell samples treated with various concentration of arsenite was measured. The physisorption ratio of beeswax remain/n-pentacosane remain for KC cells was increased during arsenite exposure. Interestingly, this increase was reversed after oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor) pretreatment, suggesting the chain length of protein-linked glycan residues is likely ATP-dependent. This is the first study to demonstrate the elongation and termination of surface protein-linked glycan residues using WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging in eukaryotes. Herein the result may provide a scientific basis to target surface protein-linked glycan

  11. Studies on Bee Venom and Its Medical Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahmoud Abdu Al-Samie Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Use of honey and other bee products in human treatments traced back thousands of years and healing properties are included in many religious texts including the Veda, Bible and Quran. Apitherapy is the use of honey bee products for medical purposes, this include bee venom, raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and beeswax. Whereas bee venom therapy is the use of live bee stings (or injectable venom) to treat various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, sciatica, low back pain, and tennis elbow to name a few. It refers to any use of venom to assist the body in healing itself. Bee venom contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides and amines. Sulfur is believed to be the main element in inducing the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands and in protecting the body from infections. Contact with bee venom produces a complex cascade of reactions in the human body. The bee venom is safe for human treatments, the median lethal dose (LD50) for an adult human is 2.8 mg of venom per kg of body weight, i.e. a person weighing 60 kg has a 50% chance of surviving injections totaling 168 mg of bee venom. Assuming each bee injects all its venom and no stings are quickly removed at a maximum of 0.3 mg venom per sting, 560 stings could well be lethal for such a person. For a child weighing 10 kg, as little as 93.33 stings could be fatal. However, most human deaths result from one or few bee stings due to allergic reactions, heart failure or suffocation from swelling around the neck or the mouth. As compare with other human diseases, accidents and other unusual cases, the bee venom is very safe for human treatments.

  12. 山茱萸多糖软胶囊的制备工艺%Preparation Technology of Comus Polysaccharides Soft Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳艳; 詹政军; 郭利军

    2014-01-01

    To develop preparation technology of comus polysaccharides soft capsule, with comus production as raw material, polysaccharides was extracted with water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Preparation technique is systematically done by screening,including the shell composition of the soft capsule,the diluent of contents,and to content uniformity, liquidity and sedimentation volume as examining index. The prescription containing polyethylene glycol (PEG - 400) as dispersant, oil as adsorbent, polyethylene glyceride as emulsifier, beeswax as suspended aid, Vitamin E for strengthening agent,and the prescription showed the best stability. The preparation technology is stable and the quality is controllable. It is suitable for industrial production.%押为了研制山茱萸多糖软胶囊,以山茱萸为原材料,采用水提醇沉法制备山茱萸多糖,并筛选内容物中的主药与分散剂、吸附剂的比例,以内容物均匀度、流动性和沉降体积比为考察指标,确定山茱萸多糖软胶囊处方及制备工艺。结果表明,以聚乙二醇(PEG-400)为分散剂,食用植物油为吸附剂,聚甘油酯为乳化剂,蜂蜡为助悬剂,维生素E为增强剂制得的内容物处方最稳定。该工艺质量可控,适合于工业生产。

  13. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valdovinos-Flores

    Full Text Available In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg.

  14. THE RESTORATION CAMP ”13 for ASTRA”–THE EXPERIENCE OF VOLUNTEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the second edition (2014 of the summer restoration camp organized by our faculty in cooperation with the ASTRA Museum from Sibiu, as a voluntary action for cultural heritage conservation. A group of 13 (thirteen volunteers, with different levels of experience and expertise in the field of conservation, from undergraduate students to master and PhD students, alongside researchers and teachers, formed an united and dedicated team involved in this action. During a period of two weeks, this team has assumed the challenge of conserving and restoring three very different objects from the collections of ASTRA Museum: a chair from Săpânţa - Maramureş, a long bench with drawers from Scoreiu Porumbacu and a cart from Brateiu - Sibiu County. Within this paper the three objects are briefly presented, alongside with some general aspects related to their conservation, while a more detailed description and illustration of the initial state and the conservation – restoration schedule is presented for the chair from Sǎpânţa. A sequence of operations, including dry ant wet cleaning, active conservation by biocide treatments and consolidation of wood material by impregnation with Paraloid B72, structural consolidation of the object, replacement of missing parts, chromatic integration and finishing with beeswax, were necessary for this purpose. An “exhibition” has been set in the working area where the reception of the restored objects was made by the museum’s curators. The action as a whole represented a valuable professional and human experience, an opportunity to get new skills and strengthen cooperation with recognised specialists, while bringing a contribution to the necessary effort for cultural heritage conservation.

  15. Reactive uptake of ozone at simulated leaf surfaces: Implications for 'non-stomatal' ozone flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J. Neil; Hamilton, Richard; Heal, Mathew R.

    The reaction of ozone (O 3) with α-pinene has been studied as a function of temperature and relative humidity and in the presence of wax surfaces that simulate a leaf surface. The objective was to determine whether the presence of a wax surface, in which α-pinene could dissolve and form a high surface concentration, would lead to enhanced reaction with O 3. The reaction of O 3 itself with the empty stainless steel reactor and with aluminium and wax surfaces demonstrated an apparent activation energy of around 30 kJ mol -1 for all the surfaces, similar to that observed in long-term field measurements of O 3 fluxes to vegetation. However, the absolute reaction rate was 14 times greater for aluminium foil and saturated hydrocarbon wax surfaces than for stainless steel, and a further 5 times greater for beeswax than hydrocarbon wax. There was no systematic dependence on either relative or absolute humidity for these surface reactions over the range studied (20-100% RH). Reaction of O 3 with α-pinene occurred at rates close to those predicted for the homogeneous gas-phase reaction, and was similar for both the empty reactor and in the presence of wax surfaces. The hypothesis of enhanced reaction at leaf surfaces caused by enhanced surface concentrations of α-pinene was therefore rejected. Comparison of surface decomposition reactions on different surfaces as reported in the literature with the results obtained here demonstrates that the loss of ozone at the earth's surface by decomposition to molecular oxygen (i.e. without oxidative reaction with a substrate) can account for measured 'non-stomatal' deposition velocities of a few mm s -1. In order to quantify such removal, the effective molecular surface area of the vegetation/soil canopy must be known. Such knowledge, combined with the observed temperature-dependence, provides necessary input to global-scale models of O 3 removal from the troposphere at the earth's surface.

  16. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Porrini

    Full Text Available In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  17. Preparation Technology Reaserch of Jinze Guanxin Soft Capsule%金泽冠心软胶囊制剂工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤英; 谢香菊; 李胜容

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究金泽冠心软胶囊的最佳成型工艺.方法 通过对软胶囊内容物和囊壳处方、软胶囊压制和干燥的关键生产工艺的优化研究,确定金泽冠心软胶囊的最佳成型工艺.结果 最佳工艺为,胶囊壳处方明胶-甘油-水(10∶4∶10);内容物处方,金泽提取物为53%,大豆油为44%,蜂蜡为3%;干燥工艺,温度为25℃,相对湿度为25%~30%,干燥16h.结论 该处方工艺稳定、可靠,适用于金泽冠心软胶囊的工业化生产.%Objective To reaserch the best forming technology of Jinze Guanxin Soft Capsule.Methods By optimizing the key production technology of the contents,capsule shell prescription,suppression and drying of soft capsule,the optimal forming technology of Jinze Guanxin Soft Capsule was determined.Results The best technology was obtained.The capsule shell prescription was gelatin-glycerine-water(10∶4 ∶ 10); the contents prescription was Jinze extract of 53%,soybean oil of 44% and beeswax of 3%;the drying process adopted the temperature of 25 ℃ with the relative humidity of 25%-30%,and drying for 16 h.Conclusion This prescription technology is stable,reliable and suitable for the industrialization production of Jinze Guanxin Soft Capsule.

  18. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Laura; Granato, Anna; Laurenson, Lynn; Roberts, Katherine; Gallina, Albino; Silvester, Nicholas; Medrzycki, Piotr; Renzi, Teresa; Sgolastra, Fabio; Lodesani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47–69% in 2009 and from 30–60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health. PMID:27182604

  19. An Investigation of Consolidants Penetration in Wood. Part 1: General Methodology and Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation of degraded and frail wood by impregnation with synthetic and natural polymeric compounds in solution is one of the most important operations of active conservation of wooden cultural heritage. The effectiveness of such a treatment depends essentially on the consolidant retention, penetration and uniformity of distribution, aspects that could be cumulated in the term of impregnation level and practically influenced by many and various factors. The purpose of this work was to look at some practical possibilities of characterising the impregnation level achieved in some consolidation treatments with different solutions of a frequently employed synthetic polymer (Paraloid B72 and waxes (beeswax and modified paraffins as melts or in combination with linseed oil using a simple optical microscopy technique in conjunction with an original method of samples preparation. For this purpose were used small samples of sound, not degraded spruce (Picea abies Mill, which were impregnated by short time immersion. The examination in transmitted light (TLM of the cross-cut micro sections and in reflected light (RLM of the wooden blocks allowed the visualisation of the consolidation products and their distribution in the wood structure, but this was easier for the consolidants with high solids content (waxes, which partly filled the lumens, and much more difficult and relative in the case of the diluted Paraloid solutions which did not fill the lumens but only impart a very shiny, highly reflective aspect of the treated areas. In order to objectively appreciate the retention and penetration of consolidants into wood the method using ImageJ, a useful image processing software, was used to process the micrographs so that some quantitative estimations of the variation of the impregnation level with the penetration depth were obtained.

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  1. Study on preparation technology of Qingxin Anshen capsules%清心安神软胶囊的制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何泽民; 何晔; 王姿媛

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究清心安神软胶囊的制备工艺.方法 采用单因素平行实验的方法,对影响软胶囊成型的各种影响因素(基质、粉末粒度、润湿剂、助悬剂等)进行考察.结果 最佳制备工艺为:取花生油328 g,加入20 g蜂蜡后加热熔融,放冷,加入过100目筛的黄连提取物及2.5 g吐温-80,搅匀,然后加入肉桂提取物,充分搅拌均匀后压制成1 000粒软胶囊(0.5 g/粒),即得.结论 所确定的成型工艺合理可行,产品符合规定,适合产业化生产.%Objective To optimize the preparation technology of Qingxin Anshen capsules. Methods Parallel experiments were designed to inspect various influential factors of shaping capsule( matrix, particle size, wetting agent, suspending agent,etc ). Results The optimal results were as follows:328 g peanut oil mixed with 20 g beeswax,heated and cooled. Extracts from Coptis chinensis and 2.5 g tween-80 were added and stirred, and then, extracts from cinnamon were added and stired fully to obtain an even mixture. Conclusion The moulding techniques are feasible, qualified, and suitable for industrialization.

  2. The efficacy of moisture retentive ointment in the mangement of cutaneous wounds and ulcers: A multicenter clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Local management of chronic wounds and ulcers remains one of the most costly unsolved problems in health care today. With proper clinical management, most chronic wound healing problems can be resolved and healing expected, though recurrence may be common. The recent logarithmic growth in our knowledge about wound healing and the appreciation of the importance of a moist environment in optimal wound healing has led to the introduction of new and exciting therapeutic modalities. In view of the many practical disadvantages as well as the serious complications of currently available moisture retentive dressings when applied to chronic contaminated wounds, a prospective multicenter clinical trial was conducted from December 1999 to November 2000 to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a newly introduced moisture retentive ointment (MEBO: Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (Julphar - Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries, UAE in the local wound care of problematic non-healing wounds. The active component of the ointment is β-sitosterol in a base of beeswax, sesame oil and other components. Though it was not a comparative study, the ointment was found to induce rapid reduction in ulcer size even after a prolonged stagnant state with other therapeutic modalities without complications such as skin maceration, unmanageable excessive exudation, and wound infection. As expected with such chronic wounds, the healing potential of local ointment application is limited by the mere size of the original defect and the underlying pathologies and associated diseases. however, the safety and practicality of simple ointment application was found to be a valid alternative treatment for local management of chronic wounds.

  3. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Christopher Cutler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5–2 ppb of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012–2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  4. Arsenite Regulates Prolongation of Glycan Residues of Membrane Glycoprotein: A Pivotal Study via Wax Physisorption Kinetics and FTIR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure results in several human cancers, including those of the skin, lung, and bladder. As skin cancers are the most common form, epidermal keratinocytes (KC are the main target of arsenic exposure. The mechanisms by which arsenic induces carcinogenesis remains unclear, but aberrant cell proliferation and dysregulated energy homeostasis play a significant role. Protein glycosylation is involved in many key physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. To evaluate whether arsenite exposure affected protein glycosylation, the alteration of chain length of glycan residues in arsenite treated skin cells was estimated. Herein we demonstrated that the protein glycosylation was adenosine triphosphate (ATP-dependent and regulated by arsenite exposure by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR reflectance spectroscopy, synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR (SR-FTIR microspectroscopy, and wax physisorption kinetics coupled with focal-plane-array-based FTIR (WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging. We were able to estimate the relative length of surface protein-linked glycan residues on arsenite-treated skin cells, including primary KC and two skin cancer cell lines, HSC-1 and HaCaT cells. Differential physisorption of wax adsorbents adhered to long-chain (elongated type and short-chain (regular type glycan residues of glycoprotein of skin cell samples treated with various concentration of arsenite was measured. The physisorption ratio of beeswax remain/n-pentacosane remain for KC cells was increased during arsenite exposure. Interestingly, this increase was reversed after oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor pretreatment, suggesting the chain length of protein-linked glycan residues is likely ATP-dependent. This is the first study to demonstrate the elongation and termination of surface protein-linked glycan residues using WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging in eukaryotes. Herein the result may provide a scientific basis to target surface protein

  5. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras–Ramírez, María Elena; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  6. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

  7. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats.

  8. Effect of Food Status on the Gastrointestinal Transit of Amphotericin B-Containing Solid Lipid Nanoparticles in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekyeh, Hilda; Billa, Nashiru; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Lim, Sheau Chin Sherlyn

    2016-10-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have suggested enhanced drug absorption from solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Little is known of the fate of AmB absorption within the gastrointestinal tract, and no gastrointestinal transit study has yet been performed on AmB-containing nano-formulations. We aimed to investigate the effect of food on the gastrointestinal transit properties of an AmB-containing SLN in rats. Three SLNs containing AmB, paracetamol, or sulfasalazine were formulated using cocoa butter and beeswax as lipid matrices and simultaneously administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats. Paracetamol and sulfapyridine were used as marker drugs for estimating gastric emptying and cecal arrival, respectively. The pharmacokinetic data generated for paracetamol and sulfapyridine were used in estimating the absorption of the AmB SLNs in the small and large intestines, respectively. A delayed rate of AmB absorption was observed in the fed state; however, the extent of absorption was not affected by food. Specifically, the percentages of AmB absorption during the fasted state in the stomach, small intestine, and colon were not significantly different from absorption within the respective regions in the fed state. In both states, however, absorption was highest in the colon and appeared to be a combination of absorption from the small intestine plus absorption proper within the colon. The study suggests that AmB SLN, irrespective of food status, is slowly but predominantly taken up by the lymph, making the small intestine the most favorable site for the delivery of the AmB SLNs.

  9. Effect of hexacosanol on the characteristics of novel sustained-release allopurinol solid lipospheres (SLS): factorial design application and product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gibaly, I; Abdel-Ghaffar, S K

    2005-04-27

    This investigation involved the evaluation of the effect of hexacosanol (HC, ceryl alcohol), a new hydrophobic wax modifier (WM) in comparison with conventional modifiers, on the development of sustained-release allopurinol (AP) solid lipospheres (SLS) intended for use in a suspension formulation and other oral dosage forms. Various beeswax (BW)/WM blends (composition ratio 1:1) were thus used to prepare SLS by a modified oil-in-water emulsion meltable disperse-phase (MDP) encapsulation method without using organic solvents and the influence of these blends on the drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), size distribution and the time for 50% of the drug to be released (t50%) was investigated. Results indicated that incorporation of HC in wall matrix of SLS provided the means to enhance the EE of AP and to modulate the rate of drug release into dissolution media (simulated gastric fluid (S.G.F.: pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (S.I.F.: pH 7.4). The effects of the process variables; HC concentration, dispersant (pluronic F-68: PF-68) concentration and drug:wax ratio were also studied on the properties of AP-loaded SLS by a 2(3) factorial design. The EE values were in the range of 80.8-92.67%. The only significant parameter affecting (P<0.01) the size and size distribution of the SLS formulations was the amount of the PF-68, whereas the factor with the biggest influence (P<0.05) on the drug EE was the initial loading of AP (in terms of the drug:wax ratio). The amount of HC blended with wax and the initial drug loading significantly (P<0.01) affected the t50% values of all of the formulations. The release of AP was more extended (t50% values (S.I.F.; pH 7.4)=9.91-25.36 h, depending on the drug:wax ratio) and surface morphology of SLS was improved with higher HC content (15%, w/w) formulations. The release patterns fitted the Baker-Lonsdale dissolution kinetics for spherical matrices. A significant decrease of plasma uric acid levels (P<0.05) and hepatic impairment

  10. Non-conventional applications of a noninvasive portable X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, Giacomo [Getty Conservation Institute, Science Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sarrazin, Philippe [Examinart LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Heginbotham, Arlen [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Sculpture and Decorative Arts Conservation, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Noninvasive techniques have become widespread in the cultural heritage analytical domain. The popular handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) devices give the elemental composition of all the layers that X-rays can penetrate, but no information on how atoms are bound together or at which depth they are located. A noninvasive portable X-ray powder diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) device may offer a solution to these limitations, since it can provide information on the composition of crystalline materials. This paper introduces applications of XRD beyond simple phase recognition. The two fundamental principles for XRD are: (1) the crystallites should be randomly oriented, to ensure proper intensity to all the diffraction peaks, and (2) the material should be positioned exactly in the focal plane of the instrument, respecting its geometry, as any displacement of the sample would results in 2θ shifts of the diffraction peaks. In conventional XRD, the sample is ground and set on the properly positioned sample holder. Using a noninvasive portable instrument, these two requirements are seldom fulfilled. The position, size and orientation of a given crystallite within a layered structure depend on the object itself. Equation correlating the displacement (distance from the focal plane) versus peak shift (angular difference in 2θ from the standard value) is derived and used to determine the depth at which a given substance is located. The quantitative composition of two binary Cu/Zn alloys, simultaneously present, was determined measuring the cell volume and using Vegard's law. The analysis of the whole object gives information on the texture and possible preferred orientations of the crystallites, which influences the peak intensity. This allows for the distinction between clad and electroplated daguerreotypes in the case of silver and between ancient and modern gilding for gold. Analyses of cross sections can be carried out successfully. Finally, beeswax, used in

  11. Discrimination of Brazilian propolis according to the seasoning using chemometrics and machine learning based on UV-Vis scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Pai Neto, Remi Dal; Moresco, Rodolfo; Westphal, Larissa; Zeggio, Amélia Regina Somensi; Specht, Leandro; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-10-21

    Propolis is a chemically complex biomass produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from plant resins added of salivary enzymes, beeswax, and pollen. The biological activities described for propolis were also identified for donor plant's resin, but a big challenge for the standardization of the chemical composition and biological effects of propolis remains on a better understanding of the influence of seasonality on the chemical constituents of that raw material. Since propolis quality depends, among other variables, on the local flora which is strongly influenced by (a)biotic factors over the seasons, to unravel the harvest season effect on the propolis' chemical profile is an issue of recognized importance. For that, fast, cheap, and robust analytical techniques seem to be the best choice for large scale quality control processes in the most demanding markets, e.g., human health applications. For that, UV-Visible (UV-Vis) scanning spectrophotometry of hydroalcoholic extracts (HE) of seventy-three propolis samples, collected over the seasons in 2014 (summer, spring, autumn, and winter) and 2015 (summer and autumn) in Southern Brazil was adopted. Further machine learning and chemometrics techniques were applied to the UV-Vis dataset aiming to gain insights as to the seasonality effect on the claimed chemical heterogeneity of propolis samples determined by changes in the flora of the geographic region under study. Descriptive and classification models were built following a chemometric approach, i.e. principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) supported by scripts written in the R language. The UV-Vis profiles associated with chemometric analysis allowed identifying a typical pattern in propolis samples collected in the summer. Importantly, the discrimination based on PCA could be improved by using the dataset of the fingerprint region of phenolic compounds (λ = 280-400ηm), suggesting that besides the biological activities of those

  12. Clinical Study on the Treatment of Epidemic Parotitis by Indigo Naturalis Paste%青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎的临床疗效.方法:100例患者随机分为治疗组50例和对照组50例,治疗组用贴敷青黛膏(方药组成:青黛、乳香、没药、琥珀、松香、樟脑、冰片、黄蜡),配合口服双黄连口服液治疗,对照组单纯口服双黄连口服液治疗.观察两组用药3d后有效率.结果:治疗组50例,有效率为94%,对照组50例,有效率为84%.经统计学处理,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组,组间比较有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎有显著疗效.%Objective:To observe the clinical effects of Indigo Naturalis Paste on the treatment of epidemic parotitis. Methods: 100 patients of epidemic parotitis were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group with 50 cases in each group. The treatment group was applied Indigo Naturalis Paste ( composed of Indigo Naturalis, Frankincense, Commiphora molmol, Succinum, Collopho-ny,Camphor,Malayan camphor,Beeswax) and given oral administration of Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid;the control group was only given Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid,then the effective rate of two groups was observed after three days. Results:The effective rate in the treatment group(50 cases) and the control group(50 cases) was 94% and 84% respectively. Curative effect of the treatment group was superior to the control group after statistical analysis,and both groups had significant difference(P <0.05). Conclusion:Indigo Naturalis Paste has remarkable effects on the treatment of epidemic parotitis.

  13. Study of the formula and technology of the Brazil green propolis soft capsule%巴西绿蜂胶软胶囊的配方工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄仪友

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过研究巴西绿蜂胶软胶囊胶皮、内容物配方制备工艺,确定最佳生产配方及工艺。方法使用不同型号明胶、调整甘油、内容物助悬剂比例,筛选配方,从而确定制备工艺。结果当温度升到80℃时投入明胶180(骨胶),经过溶胶、抽真空除气泡、过滤等操作后出料,胶液粘度需控制在2.4~2.9万CP范围内。内容物配方含6.0%蜂蜡,经搅拌研磨除气泡后,保温38~40℃,后进行压制,所得胶囊外观合格,内容物无分层,胶囊上下夹缝良好、无漏油等现象。生产工艺可行。结论生产工艺稳定可行,胶囊在室温情况下保存24个月,胶囊无分层、漏油现象。%ABSTRACT:Objective To research the recipe preparation process of the Brazil green propolis soft capsules' rubber and the content, then to confirm the optimal production recipe and process.Methods Different types of gelatin, adjusting the ratio of glycerin and the contents suspending agents were used, and recipe had been screened to determine the preparation process.ResultsFeeding the bone glue (jelly strength of 180) into the heating tank at the temperature of 80℃ and then melting the gelatin, vacuumiz-ing to defoam bubbles and filtered, viscosity of materials were discharged between 24000 to 29000 CP. With 6.0% beeswax in the contents, then stirred, grinded, exsufflated and insulated at 38℃~40℃ , the capsule was encapsulated. In this way, the appearance of capsule was qualified and no delamination of the content, or leakage, etc. The production process was feasible.ConclusionThe production process is stable, and there are no problems as delamination or oil leakage on the finished products after being stored at room temperature for 24 months.

  14. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazaire Azoun; Rock Akpon; Roseric Azondekon; Alex Asidi; Martin Akogbto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate what kind of mosquito sample is necessary for the determination of insecticide susceptibility in malaria vectors. Methods:Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (An. gambiae) mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Littoral and Oueme departments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) susceptibility tests were conducted on unfed male and female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. CDC susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed, blood fed and gravid female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. These susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed and blood fed female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old and 20 days old. CDC biochemical assay using synergist was also carried out to detect any increase in the activity of enzyme typically involved in insecticide metabolism. Results:Female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations were more susceptible than the males when they were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The mortality rates of blood fed female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when females were unfed. In addition, the mortality rates of gravid female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when they were unfed. The mortality rate obtained when female An. gambiae Sekandji populations were unfed and aged 20 days old was higher than the one obtained when these populations were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The results obtained after effects of synergist penicillin in beeswax on F1 progeny of An. gambiae Ladji populations resistant to permethrin showed that mono-oxygenases were involved in permethrin resistant F1 progeny from Ladji. Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its

  15. Non-conventional applications of a noninvasive portable X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Giacomo; Sarrazin, Philippe; Heginbotham, Arlen

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive techniques have become widespread in the cultural heritage analytical domain. The popular handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) devices give the elemental composition of all the layers that X-rays can penetrate, but no information on how atoms are bound together or at which depth they are located. A noninvasive portable X-ray powder diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) device may offer a solution to these limitations, since it can provide information on the composition of crystalline materials. This paper introduces applications of XRD beyond simple phase recognition. The two fundamental principles for XRD are: (1) the crystallites should be randomly oriented, to ensure proper intensity to all the diffraction peaks, and (2) the material should be positioned exactly in the focal plane of the instrument, respecting its geometry, as any displacement of the sample would results in 2 θ shifts of the diffraction peaks. In conventional XRD, the sample is ground and set on the properly positioned sample holder. Using a noninvasive portable instrument, these two requirements are seldom fulfilled. The position, size and orientation of a given crystallite within a layered structure depend on the object itself. Equation correlating the displacement (distance from the focal plane) versus peak shift (angular difference in 2 θ from the standard value) is derived and used to determine the depth at which a given substance is located. The quantitative composition of two binary Cu/Zn alloys, simultaneously present, was determined measuring the cell volume and using Vegard's law. The analysis of the whole object gives information on the texture and possible preferred orientations of the crystallites, which influences the peak intensity. This allows for the distinction between clad and electroplated daguerreotypes in the case of silver and between ancient and modern gilding for gold. Analyses of cross sections can be carried out successfully. Finally, beeswax, used in

  16. Study on Moisture Barrier Performance of Lipid-CMC Edible Film%脂质-CMC可食性复合膜阻湿性能的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐亚丽; 赵伟; 卢立新; 倪蕾

    2012-01-01

    Influencing factors on moisture barrier performance of lipids-CMC edible film were studied, which contained carboxymethyl cellulose as the main film material, and lipids and plasticizers as additives. The sequence of factors on water vapor transmission rate is beeswax〉 CMC content〉 stearic acid〉 PEG400〉 water/ethanol. The result indicated that with the increase in stearic acid and beeswax content, the film's water vapor transmission rate, mechanical properties, and oil resistance decreases, but its oxygen barrier increases; with the increment of CMC, ethanol and PEG400 content, film's water vapor transmission rate first decreased and then increased. The optimum composition ratio for water vapor barrier performance is water/ethanol (95/ 5), stearic acid (0.02 g/mL), PEG400 (1.5%), the wax (0. 004 g/mL) and CMC (0.03 g/mL).%利用羧甲基纤维素(CMC)为主要成膜材料,添加脂类物质及增塑剂,研究了脂质-CMC可食性复合膜阻湿性能的影响因素。影响膜的阻湿性能的因素依次为:蜂蜡〉CMC〉硬脂酸〉PE0400〉水/乙醇体积比。随着蜂蜡、硬脂酸含量的增加,可食性膜的水蒸气透过率下降,且2种添加剂均会降低膜的机械性能和阻油性,提高其阻氧性;随着CMC、乙醇、PE0400的含量的增加,膜的水蒸气透过率先下降后上升。结果表明具有较好阻湿性能包装膜的最佳配比为:水/乙醇体积比为95:5,硬脂酸质量浓度为0.02g/mL,PEG400质量分数为1.5%,蜂蜡质量浓度为0.004g/mL,CMC质量质量浓度为0.03g/mL。

  17. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  18. Analysis of Bait for Killing Katydids by HPLC%害蚕螽斯防治饵剂中毒死蜱的高效液相色谱分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠淳; 黄均伟; 牛雄雷; 倪振田

    2015-01-01

    Katydids caused serious damage to rear of antherae perny. The control of Katydids via tablet bait is the innovation of control method. An HPLC method was developed for the determination of chlorpyrifos in bait for killing Katydids. The method use NH2 based SPE column filtration to remove Vaseline and beeswax impu-rities,which is not easy to separate conventionally. The HPLC conditions were via C18 column using acetoni-trile-water-glacial acetic acid = 82: 17. 5: 0. 5( by vol)as mobile phase with UV detection at 290 nm. The results showed that the variation coefficients,standard deviations and average recoveries of chlorpyrifos were 0. 0075,1. 45% ,97. 87% ,respectively,with a linear correlations of 0. 9995.%柞蚕受螽斯危害严重,利用商品化颗粒饵剂防治害蚕螽斯是防治方法的革新。建立了在同一液相色谱条件下测定防治害蚕螽斯饵剂中毒死蜱含量的方法。本方法采用 NH2基 SPE 固相萃取柱滤过不易分离的凡士林、蜂蜡杂质,用 C18色谱柱,以乙腈—水—冰乙酸(体积比82:17.5:0.5)为流动相,在检测波长290 nm下,外标法对饵剂中毒死蜱进行定量分析。分析结果表明,标准偏差为0.0075,变异系数为1.45%;平均回收率为97.87%;线性相关系数相关系数 r =0.9995,是对在线产品检测的理想方法。

  19. Métodos de proteção de enxerto na produção de mudas de mangueira, abacateiro e nogueira-macadâmia Methods of graft protection in the production of mango, avocado and macadamia nut nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELO PEDRO JACOMINO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes materiais de proteção do enxerto foram avaliados na produção de mudas de mangueira (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, abacateiro (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna e nogueira-macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. Os materiais utilizados foram: saco de polietileno, parafina, parafina + vaselina, cera de abelha, parafilme e filme de PVC. Verificou-se que o parafilme promoveu melhor resultado de pegamento do enxerto em abacateiro (80,3% e nogueira-macadâmia (74,1%, seguido pelo filme de PVC (53,4% e 41,7%, respectivamente. Na enxertia de mangueira, o parafilme, filme de PVC e saco de polietileno não diferiram entre si estatisticamente (59,6%, 50,2% e 50,2%, respectivamente. Os porcentuais de pegamento observados nos tratamentos com parafina, parafina + vaselina e cera de abelha foram baixos, em comparação com o melhor tratamento (parafilme. Nas mudas de nogueira-macadâmia o parafilme promoveu melhor desenvolvimento das brotações, além de desprender-se naturalmente dos enxertos. Conclui-se que na enxertia de mangueira os garfos podem ser protegidos com parafilme, filme de PVC ou saco de polietileno; na enxertia de abacateiro, pode-se utilizar parafilme ou filme de PVC, e na enxertia de nogueira-macadâmia deve-se optar pelo parafilme.Different methods of graft protection were used in the production of nursery trees of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, avocado (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna and macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. The materials used were polyethylene bag, paraffin, paraffin + vaseline, beeswax, parafilm and PVC film. It was verified that the parafilm promoted more successful grafts in avocados (80.3% and macadamia nut (74.1%, followed by PVC film (53.4% and 41.7%, respectively. On the grafting of mango plants the parafilm, PVC film or polyethylene bags did not promote statistic difference to each other (59.6%, 50.2% and 50.2%, respectively

  20. Thermo-mechanical evolution of the magmatic plumbing system of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, and resultant ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsmann, Joachim; Odbert, Henry

    2014-05-01

    We exploit cyclic ground deformation timeseries from Soufrière Hills volcano expressed by ground uplift during reservoir priming and subsidence during extrusion. This study focuses on the period of eruptive repose between July 2003 and August 2005 marked by ground uplift prior to renewed dome growth thereafter. Using finite - element analysis we simulate the stress and pressure evolution in the magmatic plumbing system using a time-dependent, non-linear pressure-time history and inelastic thermo-mechanical properties of the upper crust. We compare two models of the plumbing system assembly: 1) two stacked spheroidal reservoirs and 2) a single prolate reservoir. In addition, two different crustal rheology models are tested for each of the plumbing models, with one order of magnitude difference in near-surface (beeswax - to fit both near and far-field deformation data. Although one might invoke such low rigidities in the immediate (heated) vicinity of an active magmatic plumbing system, they are unreasonable to assume over a large subsurface volume. Our results show that the thermal perturbation of the geotherm by the presence of a hot plumbing system is significant and fundamentally alters the portioning of subsurface stresses and strains. We further find that the thermal perturbation caused by best-fitting dual source and single source models are very similar, yielding practically identical relaxation times of encasing rocks if generalised Maxwell visco-elastic properties are invoked for the crust. The reservoir excess pressures upon simulated periodic recharge over the 15 months of uplift reach 4 MPa for a single large pressurised volume of 100 km3 extending from 6 to 17 km depth before reservoir failure and the onset of depressurisation. The pressure increase in the stacked reservoir assembly is predicted at 6 MPa almost exclusively incurred by pressurisation of a deep reservoir at 12 km depth. On the basis of the simulations and their fit to observations, we

  1. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron

  2. gasdermin3在小鼠同步化毛囊周期中的表达%Expression pattern of gasdermin3 in synchronized mouse hair cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石家仲; 杨恬; 雷明星; 李进; 邱伟明; 连小华

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究新基因gasdermin3在小鼠同步化毛囊周期中表达的规律及意义.方法 通过松蜡合剂脱去小鼠背部毛囊静止期毛发,诱导脱毛区域毛囊周期同步化,取脱毛诱导后5、9、18、25 d等4个时相点的材料作RT-PCR、Western blot以及免疫组织化学(IHC)检测.结果 在所选择的4个时相点都检测到了gasdermin3的表达,RT-PCR与WB检测结果一致,在生长期(5、9 d)呈现表达递增的规律,退化期(18 d)表达降低,静止期(25 d)表达维持在很低的水平.IHC检测结果显示:gasdermin3蛋白表达定位在细胞核中;在表皮中持续表达,与毛囊周期无关;生长期gasdermin3表达在外根鞘、毛母质、内根鞘和毛干的细胞中;退化期gasdermin3表达在残留的内根鞘和外根鞘细胞中;静止期gasdermin3几乎没有表达.结论 gasdermin3在毛囊各个时期都有表达,其中在生长期晚期表达最高.gasdermin3蛋白的表达定位在细胞核中.gasdermin3可能作为转录因子,调控毛囊及表皮角质形成细胞的增殖、分化和凋亡.%Objective To study the expression pattern of gasdermin3 gene in synchronized mouse hair cycle. Methods A beeswax/rosin mixture was employed to remove all hair on the dorsal skin of twelve eight week-old C57BL/6 female mice and to induce hair cycle synchronization. The mice were randomly divided into four groups, each with three mice. The skin samples of time points at 5, 9, 18 and 25 d after depilation were collected and subjected to RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing. Results gasdermin3 expression was detected in the selected four time points. The results of RT-PCR and WB were consistent, indicating that the gene expression increased gradually in anagen (5 and 9 d), decreased in catagen (18 d), and stayed at a low level in telogen (25 d). The IHC results demonstrated that gasdermin3 expression was localized in cell nuclei, and exhibited sustained expression in epidermis

  3. 淀粉对氧化铝基陶瓷型芯性能的影响%Effects of Starch on Properties of Alumina-based Ceramic Cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李风光; 唐世艳; 刘富初; 樊自田

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the poor leachability of alumina-based ceramic cores, different amount of starch was added to the speci-mens as pore former. Alumina-based ceramic cores were prepared by hot injection technology using corundum powder as base material, paraffin wax and beeswax as plasticizer, silica powder and magnesium oxide powder as mineralizing agent, wherein the parameters of the hot injection process were as follows:temperature of the slurry was 90℃, hot injection pressure was 0. 5 MPa and holding time was 25 s. The effects of starch content on the properties of alumina-based ceramic cores were studied and discussed. The results indicate that during sintering period, the loss of starch in the specimens makes porosity of the alumina-based ceramic cores increase. When starch content increases, the room-temperature flexural strength of the ceramic cores reduces and the apparent porosity increases; the volatile solvent increases and the bulk density decreases. After being sintered at 1560 ℃ for 2. 5 h, room-temperature flexural strength of the alumina-based ceramic cores with starch content of 8%(mass fraction) is 24. 8 MPa, apparent porosity is 47. 98% when the vol-atile solvent is 1. 92 g/h and bulk density is 1. 88 g /cm3 , the complex properties are optimal.%为了解决氧化铝基陶瓷型芯不易脱芯的难题,加入一定量的淀粉作为成孔剂。以白刚玉粉为基体材料、石蜡和蜂蜡为增塑剂、二氧化硅粉和氧化镁粉为矿化剂,采用热压注法制备氧化铝基陶瓷型芯;制备工艺参数如下:浆料温度为90℃、热压注压力为0.5 MPa、保压时间为25 s;研究不同淀粉加入量对氧化铝基陶瓷型芯性能的影响。结果表明:在烧结过程中,样品中淀粉的烧失,增大了氧化铝基陶瓷型芯内部的孔隙率;随着淀粉加入量的增加,氧化铝基陶瓷型芯的室温抗弯强度降低、显气孔率增大、溶失性增大、体积密度减小;经1560

  4. Papel da esofagogastroplastia (Thal-Hatafuku e da gastrectomia parcial com anastomose gastrojejunal em Y (Holt -Large na prevenção do refluxo gastroesofágico. estudo experimental em cães Role of the esofagogastroplasty (Thal-Hatafuku and of the partial gastrectomy and gastrojejunoanastomosis with excluded loop on Y (Holt & Large in the gastroesophageal reflux prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Mendes Castilho Netto

    2000-03-01

    refluxo gastroesofágico; a esofagocardioplastia mostrou ter importante eficácia anti-refluxo e menor morbidade; a cirurgia realizada no grupo III teve morbidade elevada e mortalidade precoce com o estímulo histamínico. Acredita-se que a esofagogastroplastia tenha lugar reservado entre os procedimentos destinados ao tratamento de casos selecionados de acalásia e de estenose péptica do esôfago.The aim of this study was to evaluate in dogs the effects of two kinds of procedures in the gastroesophageal reflux prevention. Thirty animals divided in three randomized groups of ten were analysed as follow: group I (control - esophagastrostomy side-to-side ; group II - esophagogastroplasty; group III -esophagogastrostomy side-to-side, partial gastrectomy and gastrojejunoanastomosis with excluded loop on y, The following parameters were used: body weight, endoscopy, radiological study and macro and microscopy data of the inner surface of the esophagus. The animals received daily histamine-in-beeswax parenterally for the posoperative stimulation of the gastric acid output until death or sacrifice. The research was carried out in three phases: préoperative phase, between the 35° and the 40° postoperative day and after histamine application. Group I showed sgnificant weight loss between the 1st and 2nd phase, which was intense on the 3rd phase. Group II showed no significative weight changes in any phase. Group III revealed significant weight changes even without histaminic stimulus. Endoscopy brought out significant more intensive esophagitis in group I than in II, after histaminic stimulus. In III, it was not possible to obtain these results, because of the precocious death of the animals. Fluoroscopic examination showed that 70% of the animals from group I, exhibited significative reflux, while in 30% this complication was not present. In group II, the reflux ocurred in few dogs and was not seen in 70% of the dogs.. Group III, revealed reflux in all animals and of