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Sample records for beeswax

  1. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%.

  2. The thermal properties of beeswaxes: unexpected findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Standard melting point analyses only partially describe the thermal properties of eusocial beeswaxes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that thermal phase changes in wax are initiated at substantially lower temperatures than visually observed melting points. Instead of a sharp, single endothermic peak at the published melting point of 64 degrees C, DSC analysis of Apis mellifera Linnaeus wax yielded a broad melting curve that showed the initiation of melting at approximately 40 degrees C. Although Apis beeswax retained a solid appearance at these temperatures, heat absorption and initiation of melting could affect the structural characteristics of the wax. Additionally, a more complete characterization of the thermal properties indicated that the onset of melting, melting range and heat of fusion of beeswaxes varied significantly among tribes of social bees (Bombini, Meliponini, Apini). Compared with other waxes examined, the relatively malleable wax of bumblebees (Bombini) had the lowest onset of melting and lowest heat of fusion but an intermediate melting temperature range. Stingless bee (Meliponini) wax was intermediate between bumblebee and honeybee wax (Apini) in heat of fusion, but had the highest onset of melting and the narrowest melting temperature range. The broad melting temperature range and high heat of fusion in the Apini may be associated with the use of wax comb as a free-hanging structural material, while the Bombini and Meliponini support their wax structures with exogenous materials. PMID:18083740

  3. An Approach for Routine Analytical Detection of Beeswax Adulteration Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Svečnjak Lidija; Baranović Goran; Vinceković Marko; Prđun Saša; Bubalo Dragan; Tlak Gajger Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Although beeswax adulteration represents one of the main beeswax quality issues, there are still no internationally standardised analytical methods for routine quality control. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure suitable for routine detection of beeswax adulteration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For the purpose of this study, reference IR spectra of virgin beeswax, paraffin, and their mixtures containing different proportions of paraffin (5 - 95%), were obtain...

  4. Fluorescent beeswax for surface flow velocity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, S.; Tauro, F.; Petroselli, A.; Mocio, G.; Capocci, I.; Rapiti, E.; Rapiti, R.; Cipollari, G.; Porfiri, M.

    2012-12-01

    Watershed surface processes control downstream runoff phenomena, waste and pollutant diffusion, erosion mechanics, and sediment transport. A quantitative understanding of the flow physics is currently limited by the lack of effective tracing techniques suitable for basin-scale observations. More specifically, field experiments require environmentally resilient, non-invasive, and low cost measurement systems that can potentially operate in remotely-controlled or unmanned conditions. Traditional tracing methodologies are largely not capable to cope with extreme in-situ conditions, including practical logistic challenges as well as inherent flow complexity. Specifically, most of available technologies need physical sampling to estimate the tracer concentration and do not allow for continuous-time measurements. In addition, commonly used tracers, such as isotopes, dyes, and chemicals, are not directly applicable to monitor surface hillslope processes and large-scale microchannel networks due to elaborate detection processes and dispersion issues. In this context, the feasibility of using buoyant fluorescent microspheres as particle tracers in natural water flows is investigated. Specifically, a novel fabrication methodology is designed to manufacture particles from natural beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. The fabrication procedure allows for adjusting the size of the particles from tens of microns up to a few millimeters and their density from positively to negatively-buoyant with respect to water. An array of experimental techniques is employed to conduct a thorough characterization of the fluorescence and morphology of the tracers. In addition, ad-hoc experiments are designed to assess the fluorescence response due to Ultra Violet (UV) exposure and thermal processes. Proof-of-concept laboratory analysis are conducted to illustrate the integration of the novel particle tracers in existing tracing methods for surface flow

  5. Antimicrobial beeswax coated polylactide films with silver control release capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abad, Antonio; Lagarón, Jose Maria; Ocio, María Jose

    2014-03-17

    Although the application of silver based antimicrobial systems is a widespread technology, its implementation in areas such as food packaging is still challenging. The present paper describes the fabrication of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coated with beeswax with controlled release properties for sustained antimicrobial performance. Release of silver ions from the polymers was monitored voltammetrically under various conditions (surface contact, immersion in various liquid media and at different pH values) throughout at least 7days. A higher release was noted with decreasing pH while surface release was much slower than the release when immersed in liquid medium. While uncoated films demonstrated a high burst release which in some instances implied surpassing some current migration restrictions (food), the addition of a beeswax layer allowed a sustained release of the antimicrobial compound. Increasing the thickness of the beeswax layer resulted in an increase in the water barrier properties of the films while reducing the relatively constant values of sustained release. Antimicrobial performance was correlated with the release of silver ions, indicating threshold concentrations for biocide action of materials for food packaging or other migration sensitive applications. PMID:24448276

  6. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50% were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of paraffin available on the market, differ qualitatively and quantitatively as far as their hydrocarbon compositions are concerned. In all kinds of paraffin, we found homologous series of n-alkanes that were much longer than those in beeswax. In beeswax, the amount of added paraffin that is possible to detect, differs and depends on the kind of paraffin used for adulteration. In this study, the minimum estimated percent that was detected using the GC-MS technique, was 3%. The adulteration is indicated by the presence of hydrocarbons containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, and by the higher contents of n-alkanes (C20H42 - C35H72, in comparison to the concentration of these compounds determined in pure beeswax. We also presented the results of the quality control of commercial beeswax. Based on our results, it can be stated that beeswax adulteration is currently a problem.

  7. Beeswax: A minireview of its antimicrobial activity and its application in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Cilia, Giovanni; Turchi, Barbara; Felicioli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Beeswax is the substance that forms the structure of a honeycomb; the bees secrete wax to build the honeycombs where to store honey. Thanks to its rich hydrophobic protective properties, the beeswax is in fact present within cosmetics and body products. Also, beeswax is used in the food industry: as a film to wrap cheese for maturing or as a food additive (E901) to give shine to the products. Exactly as the honey which it contains, beeswax is also characterized by several therapeutic properties of great interest to us; it is thought to be particularly effective in healing bruises, inflammation and burns. Recently, the interest of researchers has moved even on antimicrobial properties of beeswax although there are still few studies in the literature focused only on the action of beeswax. The few studies showed an antimicrobic effectiveness of beeswax against overall Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger; these inhibitory effects are enhanced synergistically with other natural products such as honey or olive oil. This minireview aims to be a collection of major scientific works that have considered the antimicrobial activity of beeswax alone or in combination with other natural products in recent years. PMID:27633295

  8. An Approach for Routine Analytical Detection of Beeswax Adulteration Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svečnjak Lidija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beeswax adulteration represents one of the main beeswax quality issues, there are still no internationally standardised analytical methods for routine quality control. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure suitable for routine detection of beeswax adulteration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For the purpose of this study, reference IR spectra of virgin beeswax, paraffin, and their mixtures containing different proportions of paraffin (5 - 95%, were obtained. Mixtures were used for the establishment of calibration curves. To determine the prediction strength of IR spectral data for the share of paraffin in mixtures, the Partial Least Squares Regression method was used. The same procedure was conducted on beeswax-beef tallow mixtures. The model was validated using comb foundation samples of an unknown chemical background which had been collected from the international market (n = 56. Selected physico-chemical parameters were determined for comparison purposes. Results revealed a strong predictive power (R2 = 0.999 of IR spectra for the paraffin and beef tallow share in beeswax. The results also revealed that the majority of the analysed samples (89% were adulterated with paraffin; only 6 out of 56 (11% samples were identified as virgin beeswax, 28% of the samples exhibited a higher level of paraffin adulteration (>46% of paraffin, while the majority of the analysed samples (50% were found to be adulterated with 5 - 20% of paraffin. These results indicate an urgent need for routine beeswax authenticity control. In this study, we demonstrated that the analytical approach defining the standard curves for particular adulteration levels in beeswax, based on chemometric modelling of specific IR spectral region indicative for adulteration, enables reliable determination of the adulterant proportions in beeswax.

  9. 'Wax bloom' on beeswax cultural heritage objects: Exploring the causes of the phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, B; Kobera, L; Drábková, K; Ďurovič, M; Brus, J

    2015-07-01

    The term 'wax bloom' is used to describe a thin whitish crystalline layer that develops on the surface of beeswax objects under specific conditions. This phenomenon is undesirable, especially in the cases of objects with aesthetic or informational value, such as wax sculptures or historical seals. A combination of solid-state NMR and FTIR measurements allowed to obtain fairly detailed insight into the problem and to suggest a probable mechanism of its development. Secondary crystallization of unsaturated hydrocarbons from beeswax was determined as a primary cause. After the macroscopic solidification of beeswax from the melt, these molecules remain for months in a highly mobile, liquid-like state. This facilitates their diffusion to the surface, where they eventually crystallize, forming the 'wax bloom' effect. Although these results are of particular interest with respect to the conservation of beeswax artifacts, they are relevant to this material in general and help with understanding its unique properties.

  10. Application of Gas Chromatography with the Mass Detector (GC-MS) Technique for Detection of Beeswax Adulteration with Paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2015-01-01

    To detect beeswax adulteration with hydrocarbons of alien origin (e.g. paraffin), gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS) technique was used. The method has been verified here on beeswax samples with different addition (3, 5, 10, 30, and 50%) of paraffin and validated under the conditions of repeatability and within - laboratory reproducibility. The addition of paraffin to beeswax can already be detected on the basis of an analysis of the chromatograms. The intensity of individual alkan...

  11. Energetic feedings influence beeswax production by Apis mellifera L. honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo; Samir Moura Kadri; Nabor Veiga; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane) on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice), T2 (sugar syrup) and T3 (inverted sugar). Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up int...

  12. Beeswax organogels: Influence of gelator concentration and oil type in the gelation process

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Artur J.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Fasolin, L.; Cunha, Rosiane L.; Vicente, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work focused on how different types of oil phase, MCT (medium chain triglycerides) and LCT (long chain triglycerides), exert influence on the gelation process of beeswax and thus properties of the organogel produced thereof. Organogels were produced at different temperatures and qualitative phase diagrams were constructed to identify and classify the type of structure formed at various compositions. The microstructure of gelator crystals was studied by polarized light microscopy. Melting...

  13. Effect of starch-beeswax coatings on quality parameters of blackberries (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gallardo, Alfonso; García-Almendárez, Blanca; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo; Pimentel-González, Diana; Reyes-González, L R; Regalado, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    There is increased interest in berry fruits due to health benefits, and maintenance of fruit quality for longer periods of time has been a priority. We previously found that starch based coatings applied on raspberries was associated to volatile compounds production due to anoxic conditions. The objective of this work was to design more hydrophobic coatings with reduced thickness. A starch-beeswax dispersion containing 2 % (w/v) modified tapioca starch added with either 0.5 or 1.0 % (w/v) beeswax microparticles was produced, and used for spray coating freshly harvested blackberries (Rubus spp.). Coatings were air dried, packed in plastic trays and stored up to 16 days at 4 °C and 88 % relative humidity. Storage quality parameters such as hardness, respiration rate, anthocyanins content, total phenols, color changes and weight loss were evaluated. We did not find Interactions among coating ingredients, and incorporation of beeswax reduced moisture transfer rate. Coatings did not occlude the stomata and apparently did not over-hydrate the cuticle. This characteristic allowed appropriate gas exchange (O2 and CO2), and reduced accumulation of volatile compounds associated to fermentative metabolism. Respiration rates were 4.207 ± 0.157, 4.557 ± 0.220 and 4.780 ± 0.050 mmol CO2 kg(-1) h(-1) for control, 0.5 and 1 % of wax content in coatings, respectively. However, ethylene production increased throughout storage time along with beeswax concentration, indicating stressful conditions for the fruit. This trend appears to be related with changes in total phenols and anthocyanins during storage. Edible coatings based on starch and hydrophobic particles should be reformulated to maintain quality of stored berry fruits. PMID:26344973

  14. Determination of Beeswax Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Detector (GC -MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS . Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL, then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm. Qquantitative analysis of n-alkanes was conducted by the method of internal standard with squalane used as the internal standard. The basic parameters of validation (linearity and working range, limit of determination, repeatability and reproducibility, recovery were determined. For all of the identified compounds, satisfactory (≥0.997 coefficients of correlation in the working ranges of the method (from 0.005 to 5.0 g/100 g were obtained. The elaborated method was characterized by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The average coefficients of variation for the total n-alkanes did not exceed 2% under conditions of repeatability or 4% under conditions of reproducibility. The recovery for individual n-alkanes was above 94%; for their total content, it was 100.5%. In beeswax originating from Apis mellifera, n-alkanes containing from 20 to 35 carbon atoms in their molecules were determined. The total content of these alkanes was between 9.08 g and 10.86 g/100 g (on average, 9.81 g/100 g. Additionally, apart from the saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and dienes were identified.

  15. The antimicrobial activity of honey, bee pollen loads and beeswax from Slovakia

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    Kacániová Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the antimicrobial activity of propolis, bee pollen loads and beeswax samples collected in the year 2009 from two locations in Slovakia to pathogenic bacteria, microscopic fungi and yeasts. The antimicrobial effect of the bee product samples were tested using the agar well diffusion method. For extraction, 99.9% and 70% methanol (aqueous, v/v and 96% and 70% ethanol (aqueous, v/v were used. Five different strains of bacteria, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes ccM 4699, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ccM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus ccM 3953; Salmonella enterica ccM 4420, Escherichia coli ccM 3988, three different strains of microscopic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and seven different strains of yeasts Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, were tested. After 48 hours S. aureus was the bacterium most sensitive to the 70% ethanol extract of pollen, A. fumigatus was the most sensitive microscopic fungus (70% ethanol and C. glabrata the most sensitive yeast (70% methanol. Microorganisms most sensitive to propolis extracts were L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus (70% ethanol and G. candidum (70% methanol. Most sensitive to beeswax extracts were E. coli, A. niger and C. tropicalis.

  16. A novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Miguel; Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-03-30

    In this work, a novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by paraffin, microcrystalline wax, tallow and stearic acid using single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy was developed. The use of the absorbance ratios of [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] allows a minimum of 5% paraffin/microcrystalline wax and tallow adulteration and 0.5% stearic acid adulteration of beeswax to be detected. The upper and lower critical limits for beeswax authenticity were established from the analysis of virgin beeswax and were validated by independent analysis of real sheet and comb beeswax samples using high-temperature gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. In addition to its simplicity with respect to sample handling, the amount of sample and the time needed are far less than those required in previously described methods, which are based on chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques. These advantages result in time and cost savings, an increase in the number of samples that can be analyzed, and, most importantly, the detection of the main beeswax adulterants using a single method.

  17. Comparative analysis of olive oil organogels containing beeswax and sunflower wax with breakfast margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop olive oil organogels with sunflower wax (SW) and beeswax (BW) at 3%, 7%, and 10% addition levels and to compare these organogels with breakfast margarine (BM). The organogels and BM sample were stored at 2 different temperatures (4 and 20 °C), and the peroxide values (PVs) and textural properties were monitored for 3 mo. The PVs of all organogels were within legal limits and the gels were structurally stable throughout the storage period. The textural properties of 3% SW and 7% BW organogels were closely similar to BM. The solid fat contents of the organogels were lower than that of the BM. Moreover, the thermal properties of 3% BW gel were more similar to that of the BM. The results of X-ray diffraction peaks, approximately 3.70 and 4.10 Å, were similar to β' polymorphic form. In conclusion, both of the organogel types may have value in replacing BMs.

  18. Hydrophobicity, thermal and micro-structural properties of whey protein concentrate-pullulan-beeswax films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Khanzadi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Dehnad, Danial; Chegini, Faramarz Khodaian; Maghsoudlou, Yayha

    2015-09-01

    In this research, effects of beeswax (BW) on functional properties of whey protein concentrates (WPC):pullulan (PUL) films were investigated. For this purpose, 0, 10, 20 and 30w/w(glycerol)% BW rates and 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30w/w% WPC:PUL ratios were applied. Films containing 70% WPC:30% PUL (WPC70) and 30% BW (BW30) justified the highest contact angle (92.4°) among all films; SEM micrographs indicated that BW could come toward the surface of films during drying stage and resulted in a higher hydrophobic behavior of bilayer films compared with blend films. WPC70 supplied the lowest T(g) values (36-48 °C) among different proportions of WPC-PUL; the highest melting points were just assured in the absence of BW regardless of combination ratio for WPI:PUL. BW30 films deserved lower roughness rates than BW20 (and even BW10) films, indicating more advantageous microstructure and higher hydrogen connections in BW30 films and justifying similar melting points attained for BW30 films to BW20 or 10 ones. Overall, application of WPC70 and BW30 was recommended to obtain optimum combination of final properties for WPC-PUL-BW bilayer films as SEM exhibited flexible and elastic structures of such films.

  19. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozowyk, P R B; Langejans, G H J; Poulis, J A

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives.

  20. Lipid particle size effect on water vapor permeability and mechanical properties of whey protein/beeswax emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gago, M B; Krochta, J M

    2001-02-01

    Lipid particle size effects on water vapor permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/beeswax (BW) emulsion films were investigated. Emulsion films containing 20 and 60% BW (dry basis) and mean lipid particle sizes ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 microm were prepared. BW particle size effects on WVP and mechanical properties were observed only in films containing 60% BW. WVP of these films decreased as lipid particle size decreased. As drying temperature increased, film WVPs decreased significantly. Meanwhile, tensile strength and elongation increased as BW particle size decreased. However, for 20% BW emulsion films, properties were not affected by lipid particle size. Results suggest that increased protein-lipid interactions at the BW particle interfaces, as particle size decreased and resulting interfacial area increased, result in stronger films with lower WVPs. Observing this effect depends on a large lipid content within the protein matrix. At low lipid content, the effect of interactions at the protein-lipid interfaces is not observed, due to the presence of large protein-matrix regions of the film without lipid, which are not influenced by protein-lipid interactions.

  1. Study on New Extraction Technique of Higher Aliphatic Alkanols from Beeswax%蜂蜡中提取高级脂肪醇的新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡力创; 罗晓燕; 欧阳克氙; 肖正强; 刘建平

    2011-01-01

    The extraction conditions of higher aliphatie alkanols from beeswax by improved saponification hydrolysis were studied and discussed in this paper. By screening materials and opimizing the influencing factor of saponification hydrolysis, the optimal extraction conditions were researched and obtained. Chinese beeswax from Ganzhou was used as material, aviation kerosene was used as solvent and reaction time was 4.5 hour. As a result, the yield rate of higher aliphatic alkanols could be reached up from 33% to 35%. From the analytic identification and quantification of the higher aliphatic alkanols by C,C,the content of octacosanol and triacontanol was found to be up to 12% and 70% respectively.%研究探讨皂化水解法从蜂蜡中提取高级脂肪醇的工艺条件,通过筛选原料和优化皂化水解反应的影响因素,得出最佳工艺条件:选择赣州的中蜂蜡为原料,航空煤油为溶剂,反应时间为4.5 h,此时的高级脂肪醇的得率为33%~35%。通过GC对高级脂肪醇分析,二十八烷醇的含量达到12%,且三十烷醇含量达到70%。

  2. Analysis of volatile constituents in beeswax using HS-GC/MS%顶空-气质联用测定黑龙江地产蜂蜡中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 张宁; 雷勇; 孙慧峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究蜂蜡挥发性成分.方法:采用顶空-气质联用手段进行测定,利用ChemStation、AMDIS、NIST05库相结合的方法对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定,应用相对峰面积法计算相对百分含量.结果:分离得到色谱峰34种,确定了其中29种化合物,其中大部分成分在蜂蜡中首次报道.结论:应用顶空气一质联用技术能够全面、便捷测定蜂蜡中挥发性成分.%Objective: To study the volatile constituents from beeswax sample. Methods: The volatile constituents of beeswax which were analyzed by Head Space-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectra. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra using ChemStation, AMDIS and NIST05. The relative percentage of volatile constituents was calculated from the GC peak areas. Results: Thirty-four kinds of chemical constituents in beeswax were separated, of which twenty-nine compounds were characterized. Conclusion: HS-GC/MS was simple and less sample-demanding and can be used for the fast analysis of the volatile constituents of beeswax.

  3. KAJIAN PENURUNAN TITIK LELEH LILIN LEBAH (Apis cerana DALAM PEMBUATAN MARGARIN OLES RENDAH KALORI 1 [Study on Decreasing the Melting Point of Beeswax (Apis cerana in the Production of Low -Calorie Margarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita L. Sarungallo 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax has been used to replace fat in order to produce low calorie margarine; however, the quality of the product was still low. To produce a good quality of beeswax-containing margarine, the melting point of beeswax must be lowered close to human body temperature. The o objectives of the research were : (1 to study the effect of addition of palm olein oil, fat solvent, emulsifier and stabilizer on the decrease of the melting point of beeswax, (2 to study the effect of enzymatic transesterification process, and (3 to produce margarine with low melting point and organoleptically acceptable. The results of the study revealed that addition of margarine ingredient lowered the melting point and solid fat content of the mixture, eventhough the melting point only reduced by 10°C, i.e. 64°C to 54°C. The process of transesterification was carried out on beeswax and palm olein with ratio of 50:50 and 40:60 using lipozyme IM 20 transesterification from Mucor miehei as a catalyst at 78,5°C for 24 hours with agitation at 200 rpm. Using this transesterification condition, the ratio of beeswax and palm oil of 50,50 produced fat with iodine value of 36,3 acid value of 18,5, free fatty acid of 8.45%, and melting point of 53°C, while ratio of 40: 60 produced fat with iodine value of 42,5, acid value of 15.44, free fatty acid of 7.24% and the melting point of 52°C produce fat with iodine value of 36,31 and 42,51, acid value of 18,5 and 15,44, free fatty acid of 8,45% and 7,24% at the melting point of 53°C and 52°C. It also produced solid fat content (40oC of 26,06% and 18,13%, with the consistency of 9,75 mm sec/gr and 13,96 mm sec/gr, respectively. The transesterification and non-transesterification beeswax with palm olein oil also can produce a low calorie margarine with the value of 12,3% - 50,5% lower than the comercial margarine, with the same physical and sensory characteristics

  4. Effects of a Combined Therapy With D-002 (Beeswax Alcohols) Plus D-003 (Sugarcane Wax Acids) on Osteoarthritis Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Roberto Antonio; Illnait, José; Mas, Rosa María; Carbajal, Daisy María; Mendoza, Sarahí; Ceballos, Alfredo; Fernández, Julio César; Mesa, Meilis; Reyes, Pablo; Ruiz, Dalmer

    2016-06-01

    Context • Nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs effectively relieve osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms but also induce adverse effects (AEs) that limit their long-term use, which drives a search for safer treatments. D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, and D-003, a mixture of sugarcane wax acids, have been effective in experimental and clinical studies for patients with OA. Objective • The study intended to investigate the effects on OA symptoms of a combined therapy using D-002 and D-003 (D-002/D-003), which were administered for 6 wk. Design • The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting • The study was conducted at the Surgical Medical Research Center in Havana, Cuba. Participants • Participants were patients with mild-to-moderate OA. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups-(1) a control group, which received a placebo; (2) the D-002 group (intervention group), which received 50 mg/d of D-002; (3) the D-003 group (intervention group), which received 10 mg/d of D-003; or (4) the D-002/D-003 group (intervention group), which received a combined therapy of 50 mg/d of D-002 plus 10 mg/d of D-003. The control group received tablets that were indistinguishable in appearance from the D-002 and D-003 tablets and had a similar composition, except that the active ingredients were replaced by lactose. The groups took the medications once per day for 6 wk. Outcome Measures • Symptoms were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Individual Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary outcome was the reduction in the total WOMAC score. The subscale scores on the WOMAC for pain, stiffness, and physical function, the VAS scores, and the use of rescue medications were secondary outcomes. Results • Of the 120 enrolled participants, 116 completed the study. The treatments with D-002, D-003, and D-002/D-003 reduced the mean total WOMAC scores significantly from baseline to

  5. Chitin sesame oil beeswax cream in promoting diabetes foot healing coagulant research progress%甲壳素麻油蜂蜡膏促进糖尿病足创面愈合的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳辉; 冯自波; 高瑞超

    2011-01-01

    It is an important clinical work to use appropriate dressings and good create wound healing environment were created for the chronic wounds. Years of clinical application showed that chitin sesame oil beeswax creams had the effect promoting chronic wounds healing ( including diabetes foot ulcer ). Chitin, sesame oil and beeswax could promote the surface wound healing effectively. Chitin sesame oil beeswax cream promote wound healing more effectively and its application would provide more choice for the clinical dressing.%慢性创面(包括糖尿病足溃疡)合适敷料的应用,创造良好的伤口愈合环境,是临床工作面临的课题.甲壳素、麻油、蜂蜡能有效促进体表创面的愈合,甲壳素麻油蜂蜡膏更能有效促进创面的愈合,为临床敷料的应用提供更多的选择.

  6. 超声幅照蜂蜡皂化反应研究%Study of Beeswax Saponification with Supersonic Wave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕平; 高红核; 汪毓海; 吴毅为; 曹居东

    1999-01-01

      简要阐述了声化学原理并介绍运用超声辐照下的蜂蜡皂化法,制取新型植物促生长剂——三十烷醇的实验研究工作。以皂化值、皂化率为判据,研究了不同条件下的皂化反应。并获得一套较为理想的实验数据。为超声辐照这一新型实验手段的运用和推广作出了有价值的探讨工作。%  This paper introduced the fundamentals of sonar-chemistry and presented our experiment, which developed a new type plant growth promoter triacontanolby using beeswax saponification with supersonic wave irradiation. Based on the saponification value and rate, the saponification in different reactionconditions was studied and a set of data by using routine experimental method was collected in this paper. It was believed that as a new way, supersonic waveirradiation would be a valuable practice for the future study.

  7. The Extraction Process of Octacosanol from Beeswax%蜂蜡中二十八烷醇的制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 李利龙; 吴信; 向洋

    2012-01-01

    Octacosanol was prepared by beeswax. Temperature and time for saponification, NaOH concentration , the effect of the solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of saponification were studied. The result of orthogonal test and variance analysis showed that the optimal saponification conditions were: 95 ℃, 3.5 h, 8 % of the mixture of NaOH and CH3CH2OH, 1:8 of solid - liquid ratio. By purification and molecular distillation technology 89.78% of alcohol had obtained.%以蜂蜡为原料制备二十八烷醇,研究了皂化温度、皂化时间、NaOH体积分数、固液比等单因素对皂化提取过程的影响,通过正交试验及其方差分析结果确定最优皂化条件为:皂化温度95 ℃C、皂化时间3.5h、NaOH体积分数为8%、固液比为1∶8.然后经过分子蒸馏技术纯化可以制得最高纯度为89.78%的二十八烷醇.

  8. Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil delivery to swine gastrointestinal tract using gelatin microcapsules coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitprasert, Pakamon; Sutaphanit, Polin

    2014-12-31

    Holy basil essential oil (HBEO) can be applied as a feed additive; however, its benefits depend on the available amount in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the physicochemical properties, including the release properties of three different microcapsules, HBEO-loaded gelatin microcapsules (UC), UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose (CC), and UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-beeswax composite (CB), were compared. The encapsulation efficiency, HBEO content, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity for the microcapsules were 95.4 ± 0.17%, 66.7-67.7%, and 94.3-96.5%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed nonuniform HBEO distributions in honeycomb-like networks in the microcapsules. An X-ray diffraction analysis determined that UC and CC microcapsules were amorphous, but CB microcapsules were semicrystalline. UV-vis spectrophotometer and CLSM analyses results determined that HBEO was released from CC and CB microcapsules in greater amounts than from UC microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid. Therefore, the HBEO amount reaching the intestine can be controlled using the optimal encapsulation system. PMID:25382222

  9. 纳米α-Fe2O3改性聚乙烯醇基蜂蜡复合涂膜材料工艺优化%Technology optimization of nanosizedα-Fe2O3 and beeswax modified polyvinyl alcohol based composite packaging material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璨; 王佳媚; 龙门; 刘瑶; 刘桂超; 顾凤兰; 章建浩

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol has been widely used as a packaging substrate, but its water resistance is poor. Improving the water resistance of polyvinyl alcohol is critical. In this study the major modification methods were to add nano-materials, fats or oil substances and crosslinking agents. Functional nanomaterials have small size, large surface area that combine the hydroxyl group with polyvinyl alcohol to reduce the hydrophilic. Beeswax is a composition material by fats and oils. It has higher melting point, acid corrosion, water-blocking performance characteristics. Furthermore it can form a stable emulsion, resulting in long shelf life, high solid content, good dispersion and other fine features. Beeswax is widely used in fruit and vegetable preservation, fruits and vegetables can reduce the water loss rate and respiration. In this experiment a stable emulsion with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was formed from hydrophobic of beeswax and the small surface area, high activity of nanosizedα-Fe2O3 to reduce film water vapor transmission rate of packing material of polyvinyl alcohol efficiently. By adding beeswax and nanosizedα-Fe2O3 to polyvinyl alcohol based composite coating material, the impacts of film-forming water vapor transmission rate and its interaction was studied through analyzing the response surface between the two experimental factors. The result showed that the increasing amount of beeswax and then nosizedα-Fe2O3 could reduce the water vapor transmission rate of polyvinyl alcohol composite material effectively. Therefore two materials have mutual impacts (P<0.05). The beeswax dosage was 0.739 g/100mL, and nanosizedα-Fe2O3 was 0.04 g/100mL based on the regression optimization. The water vapor transmission rate reached the lowest point, which was lower than the former Liquid paraffin-polyvinyl alcohol film 73.76% (P<0.05). Meanwhile, nanosizedα-Fe2O3 could be used as a new nano-material. Its narrow band gap generally was 2.2 eV, the maximum absorption

  10. Beeswax foundations with impregnated thymol for Varroa control

    OpenAIRE

    Garção, H.; Álvares, R.; Vilas-Boas, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The use of essential oils and organic acids is generally accepted as an alternative tool for the control of the Varroa Destructor levels in bee's colonies, avoiding mite resistance and reducing the residues contaminations resulting from the systematic application of synthetic chemicals.

  11. Effects of Abexol (beeswax alcohols on gastrointestinal symptoms in middle-aged and older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los alcoholes de la cera de abejas (ACA (Abexol® (anteriormente D-002, mezcla de seisalcoholes alifáticos purificada de la cera de abejas, han demostrado efectos gastroprotectores en estudios experimentales y clínicos. Estudios experimentales demostraron que los ACA reducen el daño gástrico mediante un mecanismo citoprotector multifactorial que involucra, entre otros, efectos antioxidantes sobre la mucosa gástrica y el aumento de la cantidad de mucus gástrico y de su contenido de proteínas totales, glicoproteínas neutrales y macromoleculas sulfatadas, relevantes factores defensivos de la mucosa gástrica. Estudios clínicos previos han demostrado que el Abexol® (ACA es efectivo en reducir síntomas gastrointestinales comúnmente presente en la población general, en individuos tratados con antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINEs y en pacientes con úlceras duodenales, pero ninguno de ellos había utilizado una escala de síntomas validada internacionalmente. Este estudio aleatorizado, a doble ciegas y controlado con placebo investigó los efectos del Abexol® sobre los síntomas gastrointestinales de sujetos de edad media y avanzada de ambos sexos, sanos por demás, utilizando la Escala Graduada de Síntomas Gastrointestinales (EGSG. Sesenta individuos fueron aleatoriamente distribuidos para recibir tabletas de Abexol® (ACA - 50 mg o placebo dos veces al día durante 8 semanas. Al culminar la semana 4 de tratamiento, la dosis se aumentó a tres tabletas/d en aquellos sujetos que no percibieron mejoría de los síntomas. Las características basales estuvieron bien balanceadas en ambos grupos. Tras 8 semanas de tratamiento, el Abexol® redujo significativamente (p < 0,000 1 el puntaje total de la escala EGSG respecto a los valores basales y al placebo (40,8 % versus placebo, reducción que resultó significativa desde la segunda semana de tratamiento. La frecuencia de casos que consumieron tres tabletas por día fue menor en el grupo Abexol® (4/30, 13,3 % (p < 0,01 que en el placebo (16/30, 53,3 %. Comparado con el placebo, el Abexol® redujo significativamente los síntomas siguientes: acidez/pirosis, regurgitación, distensión abdominal, sensación de vaciado estomacal y flatulencia. El Abexol® no afectó ningún indicador físico o sanguíneo. Hubo siete bajas (cinco placebo, dos Abexol®, pero solo una (placebo se debió a una experiencia adversa (aumento transitorio de presión arterial. En conclusión, el Abexol® (100 a 150 mg/d administrado durante 8 semanas mejoró el puntaje total de la escala EGSC (la cual refleja el total de síntomas gastrointestinales y específicamente, algunos síntomas característicos de trastornos ácido pépticos en sujetos de edad media y avanzada. El Abexol® resultó seguro y bien tolerado. Estos resultados son consistentes con los preliminares de otros estudios clínicos y sustentan la utilidad del Abexol® en sujetos de edad media y avanzada que experimentan síntomas gastrointestinales.

  12. Comparison of the transfer of coumaphos from beeswax into syrup and honey

    OpenAIRE

    Kochansky, Jan; Wilzer, Kenneth; Feldlaufer, Mark

    2001-01-01

    International audience The organophosphate insecticide coumaphos has recently received emergency approval in the United States for control of fluvalinate-resistant Varroa destructor and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray. We investigated the transfer of coumaphos from wax into syrup and honey, using adsorption of coumaphos from diluted syrup or honey onto a solid-phase extraction cartridge, elution, and subsequent analysis. Coumaphos in syrup was quantitated using HPLC with UV de...

  13. SUN, BOTTLES AND BEESWAX: LOCAL SOLUTIONS FOR CLEAN WATER USING SOLAR DISINFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of clean drinking water poses a serious health threat in the developing world, especially to children under the age of five. Point-of-Use (POU) water treatment has been shown to decrease the incidence of diarrhea by 30-40% in some studies. The focus of this proposal is so...

  14. Effects of Abexol® (beeswax alcohols in patients with gastric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Fernández-Travieso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios experimentales y clínicos han demostrado que el tratamiento oral con Abexol® (previamente D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos superiores purificada de la cera de abejas, produce efectos gastroprotectores y antioxidantes. Bajos niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C han sido reportados en sujetos que sufren de gastritis crónica con respecto a voluntarios sanos. El presente estudio aleatorizado, a doble ciegas, controlado con placebo tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos del Abexol® en sujetos con síntomas habituales de gastritis, así como investigar también sus efectos sobre los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C. En la consulta 2 (inclusión 45 hombres y mujeres (edad media: 67 años elegibles recibieron aleatoriamente Abexol® (50 mg o placebo, dos tabletas/d durante seis semanas. Después de tres semanas de tratamiento la dosis fue titulada a tres tabletas diarias en los casos que no mejoraron los síntomas. Los síntomas fueron evaluados a través de la Escala de Gradación de Síntomas Gastrointestinales [Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS] y la percepción de salud a través de un sistema de tres puntajes. La variable primaria de eficacia fue obtener una reducción significativa del puntaje GSRS total comparado con el placebo, mientras que la reducción de los distintos dominios de la encuesta y la mejoría de la percepción de salud fueron variables secundarias y el aumento de los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C fue una variable colateral. En el grupo placebo no se produjeron cambios significativos. Tras seis semanas de tratamiento, el Abexol® redujo significativamente el puntaje total GSRS con respecto al nivel basal y al grupo placebo (80,2 % diferencia vs. placebo, reducción que fue significativa desde el control intermedio (tres semanas de tratamiento. Al final del estudio, la frecuencia de sujetos tratados con Abexol® que reportaron una mejoría en su percepción de salud (21/21, 100 % fue significativamente mayor que en el grupo placebo (0/24, 0 %. Ningún sujeto tratado con Abexol® (0/21, 0 %, en comparación con 24/24 (100 % y 23/24 (95,8 % del grupo placebo, requirió titulación de la dosis ni consumo de antiácidos, respectivamente (p < 0.0001 para ambas comparaciones. El Abexol® no afectó los indicadores físicos o de laboratorio, con excepción de un aumento significativo de los niveles de vitamina C, con relación al grupo placebo. El Abexol® fue bien tolerado, ningún sujeto abandonó el ensayo y solo tres del grupo placebo reportaron EA durante el estudio. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que el Abexol® (100 mg/d administrado durante seis semanas mejoró los síntomas en sujetos con padecimientos gastrointestinales habituales, ya que redujo el puntaje total de la escala GSRS, mejoró la percepción de salud y redujo el consumo de antiácidos con respecto al placebo. Además, el Abexol® también produjo un aumento significativo de los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina C.

  15. Effects of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, on the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice: a comparison with naproxen, aspirin, and paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Carbajal-Quintana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available D-002 es una mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos superiores purificados de la cera de abejas con efectos antiinflamatorios demostrados en modelos experimentales sin efectos gastrotóxicos o hepatotóxicos. Algunos estudios han demostrado el efecto analgésico del D-002 relacionado con su acción antiinflamatoria. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en comparar el efecto del D-002, naproxeno, aspirina y paracetamol sobre el modelo de contorsiones inducidas por ácido acético en ratones . Los ratones fueron distribuidos en 13 grupos (10 animales/grupo:un control con vehículo, cuatro con D-002 (25, 50, 200 y 400 mg/kg, tres con naproxeno (10, 20 y 50 mg/kg tres con aspirina (50, 100 y 300 mg/kg y dos con paracetamol (100 y 400 mg/kg por vía oral. Una hora después del tratamiento, los ratones fueron inyectados con ácido acético (1,0 % y el número de contorsiones durante 15 min registrado. El tratamiento oral con D-002 (50, 200 y 400 mg/kg inhibió significativamente las contorsiones abdominales (36, 43 y 40 %. El número de contorsiones disminuyó significativamente con 100 y 300 mg/kg de aspirina (47 y 83 %; naproxeno 20 y 50 mg/kg (37 % con ambas dosis y paracetamol 400 mg/kg (24 %. La menor dosis de cada tratamiento no mostró efecto analgésico. El efecto del D-002 (400 mg/kg fue comparable al naproxeno (20 and 50 mg/kg. La máxima dosis efectiva de D-002 (200 mg/kg y naproxeno (20 mg/kg fueron menos efectivas que la aspirina (300 mg/kg en inhibir las contracciones por ácido acético, mientras que el paracetamol (400 mg/kg resultó el tratamiento menos efectivo.

  16. Drug: D08835 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08835 Mixture, Drug Zinc oxide - lard - hardened oil - white beeswax mixt; Wilson'...s (TN) Zinc oxide [DR:D01170], Lard [DR:D05301], Hardened oil, White beeswax [DR:D04969] Therapeutic categor...ers D08835 Zinc oxide - lard - hardened oil - white beeswax mixt PubChem: 96025518 ...

  17. 河南市场部分蜂胶产品中蜂蜡含量监测分析%Monitoring and analysis of beeswax content in some propolis products in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光升

    2014-01-01

    目的 检测目前河南部分市售蜂胶产品的质量.方法 采用称重法测定蜂胶中蜂蜡含量水平,紫外可见分析法测定蜂胶总黄酮含量,高锰酸钾滴加法测定氧化时间指标.结果 样品S1、S2和S3蜂蜡含量大于样品S4、S5和S6;样品S4、S5和S6氧化值指标均明显好于S1、S2和S3样品,具有较强的抗氧化能力;总黄酮含量均在16%以上,其中样品S2和S3含量较少,S5和S6含量较高.蜂胶质量和蜂胶中的醇提取物含量成正比,和含蜡量、氧化时间成反比.结论 在所有蜂胶产品中,S1、S2、S3为合格品,S4、S5为良品.S6为优等品.

  18. 蜂胶蜂蜡防治果树真菌病害的试验研究%Propolis Beeswax Experimental Study on the Prevention and Control of Fruit Tree Fungus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩云; 黄斌; 张世文; 王顺; 逯彦果; 程瑛; 贠建民

    2014-01-01

    为了提高果品质量、果实产量以及果树寿命,克服化学药剂给果实、果树、人体以及环境带来的副作用,将蜂蜡、蜂胶液与中草药液复合,形成的深咖啡色膏体状制剂对于果树真菌病害具有较好的防治效果.在实验室分别用蜂胶和中草药提取液进行抑菌试验,结果表明稀释浓度为50%的蜂胶液对圆弧青霉(Penicillium cyclopium)和黑曲霉Aspergillus niger)有显著的抑制效果;稀释浓度为20%的中药液对这2种真菌有极显著的抑制效果.采用2因素3水平,进行正交试验(无交互作用)与抑制真菌试验,发现组合A1B3为最优水平组合,其对2种真菌的抑制率达到90%以上.在果园中对修剪枝及患腐烂病害的果树涂抹蜂胶蜂蜡复合制剂,能起到良好的保护和防治功效.

  19. Drug: D04969 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04969 Crude, Drug White beeswax (JP16); Wax, white (NF); White wax (TN) Apis indic...n [BR:br08301] 7 Agents not mainly for therapeutic purpose 71 Dispensing medicines 712 Ointment bases 7121 Oil bases D04969 White bee...swax (JP16); Wax, white (NF) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D04969 White beeswax CAS: 8012-89-3 PubChem: 17398240 NIKKAJI: J269.255D ...

  20. APRENDIZAGEM DA EXTENSÃO DA PROBÓSCIDE EM ZANGÕES AFRICANIZADOS (APIS MELLIFERA L. CONFINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Souza Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the olfactive learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are predominantly performed with worker bees. In this study, we used the classical conditioning of proboscis extension (PER to evaluate the effectiveness of 5 scents as conditioned stimuli (CS. Ten groups of 20 drones (A. mellifera L. each were used. The conditioned stimuli were the odors of Citral, Hexanal, Geraniol, beeswax (comb, and beeswax (foundation sheet. In addition to the acquisition of learning, we measured the persistence of conditioning when the unconditioned stimulus was no longer presented (i.e., extinction. The intertrial interval, the CS duration and US duration were 10 min, 2 sec, and 3 sec, respectively. The drones were able to demonstrate conditioning and storage of information. Citral, Hexanal, and beeswax (comb were the most efficient stimuli in classical conditioning with drones.

  1. Effect of local hemostatics on bone induction in rats: a comparative study of bone wax, fibrin-collagen paste, and bioerodible polyorthoester with and without gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G;

    1992-01-01

    evaluated by light microscopy and 85Sr uptake analyses. Non-absorbable bone wax of 88% beeswax and absorbable bovine fibrin-collagen paste both significantly inhibited osteoinduction, whereas a bioerodible polyorthoester drug delivery system with or without 4% gentamicin did not. Bone wax was not absorbed...

  2. Bees trace the effects of the air traffic; Bienen spueren Folgen des Luftverkehrs nach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waeber, Monica [UMW Umweltmonitoring, Muenchen (Germany); Hergt, Volker [Flughafen Muenchen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The honey-monitoring at the Munich Airport addresses the question of whether the operation of a major airport affects the contamination of food produced in the neighborhood. Since 2008, honey, pollen and beeswax are tested for residues of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. 7 CFR 322.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. ..., including, but not limited to, beeswax for beekeeping, pollen for bee feed, or honey for bee feed... shipping containers. Beekeeping establishment. All of the facilities, including apiaries, honey houses,...

  4. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  5. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin, pinocembr

  6. Permeability of edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B; Khatkar, B S; Garg, M K; Wilson, L A

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m(2).day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m(2).day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm(3)cm cm(-2)s(-1)Pa(-1), with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrophilic (whey protein concentrate and carboxymethyl cellulose).

  7. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    Rokhani Hasbullah; Elpodesy Marlisa; Edy Hartulistiyoso; Dadang

    2008-01-01

    Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT) method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentrat...

  8. Plasticiser Effect on Water Vapour Permeability Properties of Locust bean gum--Based Edible Films

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Özgür Altan; TUTAŞ, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The barrier properties of edible films prepared from polysaccharide polymer (locust bean gum) and various plasticisers (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 200) together with hydrophobic modifiers (stearopten and beeswax) were examined. It was determined that the films containing polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and sorbitol have the lowest water vapour permeability values and the films containing glycerol have the highest WVP values. It was found that the ...

  9. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera, and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L, rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L, rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tales efectos.

  10. Response of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) to honey bee (Apis mellifera) and beehive-produced volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo, Alonso; Torto, Baldwyn; Teal, Peter; Tumlinson, James

    2003-01-01

    International audience The response of male and female Small Hive Beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, to air-borne volatiles from adult worker bees, (Apis mellifera), pollen, unripe honey, beeswax, wax by-products ("slumgum"), and bee brood, was investigated in olfactometric and flight-tunnel choice bioassays. In both bioassay systems, males and females responded strongly to the volatiles from worker bees, freshly collected pollen and slumgum but not to those from commercially available pollen, ...

  11. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  12. Use of Propolis chemical and Asian tiger mosquito bites : case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a substance of variable composition which incorporates resins derived from plants and beeswax. It varies depending on the geographic location and local flora such as plant and bee species. Propolis possesses several attributes such as immune enhancement, antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic as well as reported anti-tumour effects.1,2 Several research efforts have focused on studying the chemical composition of propolis.3-7 The diverse biological activity probably relates in part ...

  13. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Sood V; Dewan S

    1994-01-01

    Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35%) being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5...

  14. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  15. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. PMID:26259923

  16. First results on headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of volatile organic compounds emitted by wax objects in museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuati-Derieux, A; Thao, S; Langlois, J; Regert, M

    2008-04-11

    Sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a large variety of materials is nowadays a very useful technique for analytical purpose. In the field of cultural heritage, it can be applied to identify some constituents of museum artefacts off-gassing VOCs without sampling on the object itself. In this study, we focused on objects made of wax. First volatiles emitted by a reference beeswax were trapped and identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This allowed to identify numerous volatile biomarkers, namely saturated n-alkanes from C(10) to C(21), saturated n-carboxylic acids containing 6-12 carbon atoms, benzene and cinnamic derivatives that may be considered as volatile biomarkers of beeswax. The SPME strategy was then performed at the Orsay museum (Paris) in a showcase containing a wax sculpture "Le Mineur de la Loire" by J.-J. Carriès. The use of beeswax in this sculpture was unequivocally confirmed by the VOCs concentrated in the showcase, together with a set of characteristic molecular compounds identified by HT-GC/MS. HS-SPME-GC/MS thus appears to be a powerful in situ and non-invasive analytical technique that allows to identify natural substances in the field of cultural heritage without any sampling of solid matter from the object. The results obtained are promising for orientating the strategy of preventive conservation related to works of art characterised by important emission of VOCs.

  17. BEE AS ENVIRONMENTAL BIOINDICATOR: FIRST RESULTS IN PIEDMONT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guaraldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many investigators have employed honeybees or honeybee products (honey, wax, pollen as tools for assessing environmental pollution in industrial areas. Several reports refer of their utility in monitoring environmental radionuclides or heavy metal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact of pollution on Biella area, located in the east of Piedmont region. A survey of 6 apiaries was carried out, samples of: honey, beeswax, bees and pollen were collected and analyzed for: pesticides and PCB, neonicotinoides and heavy metal; by GC/MS, LC/MS/MS or AAS. We found 23% of samples of bees contained neonicotinoides, suggesting the correlation with bees mortality.

  18. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin; Siti Salwa Abd Gani; Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi; Puziah Hashim

    2014-01-01

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w)—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to opti...

  20. The resistance of surfaces treated with oils and waxes to the action of dry heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment of wood can be done with different coatings, and the choice of the appropriate system of processing depends on several factors, such as technological, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Raising awareness of the need to preserve the living and working environment has had a crucial impact on the increase in the use of natural materials for surface treatment of wood - oil and wax. The application of oils and waxes allows surface treated wood to keep the natural look, while protecting it from different influences, which can cause degradation and deterioration of the final product. The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of beech surface (Fagus silvatica L. processed with linseed oil and beeswax to the action of dry heat. In order to compare the quality of surface treated with oil and/or wax, beech wood treated with 2K-polyurethane coating is taken as a reference of surface treatment of wood. Surfaces treated with beeswax are less resistant to dry heat than those treated with linseed oil, and both showed significantly less resistance than surface treated with 2K-polyurethane coating.

  1. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentration and then stored at temperature of 10 0C. The results show that the fruitfly of oriental fruitfly (Bactrocera dorsalis was completely killed by treating in deep water testing at temperature of 46 0C for 10 minutes or at 43 0C for 30 minutes. The VHT of papaya at fruit core temperature of 45.5-46.0 0C for 15-30 minutes following waxing using beeswax of 6% in concentration was found to be effective to control pest and diseases until 21 days of storage without any visible signs of heat injury and without adversely affecting the quality of the fruit.

  2. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-10-16

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  3. 正交试验优选五倍子软膏处方%Optimization of gallnut extract ointment formula by orthogonal test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 程岚; 杨跃辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the best prescription of gallnut extract ointment. Methods With appearance and stability of ointment as index, orthogonal design experiment was carried out, with beeswax amount, the amount of emulsifier and the major adding method as the variables, the Theological parameters were determined. Results Optimized prescription was A2B3C2 ,which including 2% beeswax,4% span-80,and the way was to put the drug into oil phase. Conclusion The ointment formulation is reasonable, and the preparation has good stability.%目的 优选五倍子软膏剂的最佳处方.方法 以软膏的外观性状、稳定性为考察指标,采用正交设计法进行实验,以蜂蜡用量、乳化剂用量、主要的加入方式为可变因素,并测定流变学参数.结果 优化处方A2B3C2,即蜂蜡2%,span-80 4%,加药方式为药物加入油相.结论 该软膏处方设计合理,制剂稳定性较好.

  4. The Release of Egg White Lysozyme Containing EDTA from Composite Edible Film Based on Whey Protein, Konjac Flour and Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulia W. Apriliyani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out the effect of EDTA addition on antibacterial spectrum broadening of lysozyme on Gram negative bacteria and the release of lysozyme from composite edible film made of whey protein, konjac glucomannan and several lipids type and content. The research were conducted with 2 steps. Step I: The addition of EDTA on lysozyme aquaeous (Lysozyme (mg/mL: EDTA (mg/mL = 11.14:8.14; 11.14:11.14 and 11.14:14.14 using Randomyzed Block Design, the variables were, antibacterial of lysozyme on Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Escherichia coli. Step II: Lipid content (5 and 10% and kind of lipid (butter, margarine, palm oil and beeswax using nested Randomyzed Block Design, the variables were lysozyme release, Water Vapor Permeability (WVP, protein solublity and microstructure of composite edible film. The results were, step I: the treatment didn’t gave significantly effect (p>0.05 on lysozyme activity. EDTA decrease cell membrane stabilization and lysozyme made lysis of cell membrane. EDTA chelate Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts as bridge between Lypopolysachcharide (LPS in outer membrane so LPS released from cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. Step II: The treatment didn’t gave significantly effect (p>0.05 on release of lysozyme and water vapour permeability, but gave significantly effect (p<0.05 on protein solubility. The release of lysozyme from composite edible film gave the best lysozyme release from beeswax 10% addition.

  5. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  6. A diagnosis of the yellowing of the marble high reliefs and the black decorations in the chapel of the tomb of Saint Anthony (Padua, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Alessia; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the chemical characterization of samples of black decorations and inscriptions, and of yellow-brown patinas collected from various panels of the ark from the chapel of Saint Anthony (Padua, Italy), using three analytical procedures based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Analytical pyrolysis in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis (Py-GC/MS) and two procedures based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after wet-chemical treatment of the samples (GC/MS) were chosen for the recognition of the organic substances (used originally or in the course of restoration) and of their degradation products. In terms of the two GC/MS procedures, one was used to characterize proteins, lipids, resins, waxes, bituminous materials and their degradation products, and the other to characterize saccharide materials. The three analytical procedures used enabled us to obtain information on the presence of egg proteins, lipid materials (beeswax, siccative oil and animal fatty material), saccharide materials and Pinaceae resin. Beeswax, animal fat, egg and saccharide materials have been used in the past as restoration materials, and pine resin and siccative oil were the main ingredients in the black decorations and inscriptions.

  7. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  8. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  9. Development and in-vitro characterization of fish oil oleogels containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid as keratolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, K; Tan, C M; Zulfakar, M H

    2014-03-01

    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (pskin and stability.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of environmentally friendly fluorescent particle tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Rapiti, Emiliano; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Tracers are widely used in experimental fluid mechanics and hydrology to investigate complex flows and water cycle processes. Commonly used tracers include dyes, artificial tracers, naturally occurring isotopes and chemicals, microorganisms, and DNA-based systems. Tracers should be characterized by low detection limits and high accuracy in following water paths and flow structures. For natural studies, tracers are also expected to be nontoxic and with low sorption affinity to natural substrates to minimize losses in the environment. In this context, while isotopes are completely natural, their use in field studies is limited by their ubiquity and, therefore, by the high uncertainty in data processing methodologies. Further, the use of dyes and artificial tracers can be hampered by extremely low detection limits due to dilution in natural streams and microorganisms, while DNA-based system may require physical sampling and time-consuming functionalization and detection procedures. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of fluorescent beads incorporating an eco-compatible fluorophore for environmental and laboratory applications. The particles are synthesized from natural beeswax through an inexpensive thermal procedure and can be engineered to present variable densities and diameters. A thorough characterization of their surface morphology at the nanoscale, crystal structure and size, chemical composition, and dye incorporation into the beeswax matrix is described by using a wide array of microscopy techniques. In addition, the particle fluorescence response is studied by performing excitation and emission scans on melted beeswax bead samples. The feasibility of using the synthesized particles in environmental settings is assessed through the design of ad-hoc weathering agent experiments where the beads are exposed to high energy radiation and hot water. Further, a proof of concept test is described to understand the particles' potential as a

  11. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  12. Drying temperature effect on water vapor permeability and mechanical properties of whey protein-lipid emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gago, M B; Krochta, J M

    2000-07-01

    The water vapor permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI-lipid emulsion films dried at different conditions were investigated. As drying temperature increased, WVPs decreased significantly. Significantly lower WVP was observed for emulsion films compared to WPI films. WPI-Beeswax (BW) and WPI-anhydrous milkfat fraction emulsion films dried at 80 degrees C and 40% RH gave the lowest WVP compared to 25 degrees C, 40% RH and 40 degrees C, 40% RH. A large drop in WVP of WPI-BW emulsion films was observed at 20% BW content. The decrease in WVP for emulsion films as drying temperature increased could be due to change in the lipid crystalline morphology and/or lipid distribution within the matrix. Mechanical properties of WPI and WPI-lipid emulsion films, on the other hand, were not modified by drying conditions.

  13. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Bargańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of chemical compounds to the environment, especially of pesticides, is one of factors that may explain present honeybee colony losses. In this work, an analytical method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was optimized for the simultaneous screening of 19 pesticides which have not been yet determined in honeybee samples from northern Poland (Pomerania. The sample preparation, based on the QuEChERS method combining salting-out liquid-liquid extraction to acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean-up, was adjusted to honeybee samples by adding a small amount of hexane to eliminate beeswax. The recovery of analytes ranged from 70% to 120% with relative standard deviation ≤20%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.91–25 ng/g. A total of 19 samples of honeybees from suspected pesticide poisoning incidents were analyzed, in which 19 different pesticides were determined.

  14. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1999-06-01

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of `bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene.

  15. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  16. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  17. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of 'bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene. (author)

  18. Origin and Chemical Variation of Brazilian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Salatino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a hive product containing chiefly beeswax and plant-derived substances such as resin and volatile compounds. Propolis has been used as an antiseptic and wound healer since ancient times and interest for the product has increased recently. Probably few plant species contribute as major resin sources. Green propolis derives mainly from vegetative apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plants. However, wide variation detected in the chemical composition suggests contributions from alternative resin plant sources. Predominant components of the resin of green propolis are cinnamic acids, chiefly compounds bearing prenyl groups. Terpenoid compounds, such as sesqui, di and pentacyclic triterpenoids, have been detected in many, but not all, samples investigated. Propolis research has uncovered potentialities of substances previously isolated from plants and has detected constituents of plant origin that would hardly be known otherwise.

  19. 复方烧伤膏收敛止痛的疗效观察%Analgesic effect and astringency of Compound burn ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Background:Burns are injuries caused by attaching factors such as high-temperature,strong acids,and bases etc.Areola and blister or vesticles appear at site in mild cases.Charring,serious toxic heat,consumption of yin fluid,fever,dizzy,thirst,constipation,and oliguria appear in severe cases.Compound burn ointment was developed according to modern traditional Chineses medicine principles and pathological changes of burned skin,which consisted of Sanguisorba root 120 g,Earth worm 120 g,Fibraurea stem 120 g,Dandelion herb 150 g,Dried rehmannia root 150 g,Huanglian 120 g,Yuanhu 150 g,Beeswax 120 g,Borneol 30 g,Oliva 2000 g. Objective:To investigate the analgesic and astringency of compound burn ointment. Unit: Affiliated Central Hospital of Shengyang Medical College.

  20. Bugs as drugs, Part 1: Insects: the "new" alternative medicine for the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul

    2010-07-01

    Insects and insect-derived products have been widely used in folk healing in many parts of the world since ancient times. Promising treatments have at least preliminarily been studied experimentally. Maggots and honey have been used to heal chronic and post-surgical wounds and have been shown to be comparable to conventional dressings in numerous settings. Honey has also been applied to treat burns. Honey has been combined with beeswax in the care of several dermatologic disorders, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, and diaper dermatitis. Royal jelly has been used to treat postmenopausal symptoms. Bee and ant venom have reduced the number of swollen joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Propolis, a hive sealant made by bees, has been utilized to cure aphthous stomatitis. Cantharidin, a derivative of the bodies of blister beetles, has been applied to treat warts and molluscum contagiosum. Combining insects with conventional treatments may provide further benefit.

  1. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  2. Mechanical properties of carving wax with various Ca-bentolite filter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carving wax is used as a medium in dental anatomy study. This wax composes of many waxes and sometimes a filler is added. Carving wax is not sold in Indonesian market. Whereas the gradients of carving wax such as beeswax, paraffin and bentonite are abundant in Indonesia. Based on that fact, to make high quality and standard,the exact composition if this carving wax should be known. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carving wax composition with Ca-bentonite filler on the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion. Methods: Five carving wax compositions were made with paraffin, Ca-bentonite, carnauba wax, and beeswax in ratio (% weight: 50:20:25:5 (KI, 55:15:25:5 (KII, 60:10:25:5 (KIII, 65:5:25:5 (KIV, 70:0:25:5(KV. All components were melted, then poured into the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion moulds (n = 5. Three carving wax properties were tested: melting point by melting point apparatus; hardness by penetrometer; thermal expansion by digital sliding caliper. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD0.05. Result: The Ca-bentonite addition influenced the melting point and thermal expansion of carving wax with significant differences between KI and other groups (p < 0.05. Ca-bentonite addition influenced the carving wax hardness and the mean differences among the groups were significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ca-bentonite filler addition on the composition of carving wax influenced the physical and mechanical properties. The carving wax with high Ca-bentonite concentration had high melting point and hardness, but low thermal expansion.

  3. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-01-01

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data. PMID:25325152

  4. Phospholipon 90H (P90H)-based PEGylated microscopic lipospheres delivery system for gentamicin:an antibiotic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mumuni Audu Momoh; Charles Okechukwu Esimone

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To formulate gentamicin liposphere by solvent-melting method using lipids and polyethylene glycol 4 000 (PEG-4 000) for oral administration. Methods: Gentamicin lipospheres were prepared by melt-emulsification using 30% w/w Phospholipon® 90H in Beeswax as the lipid matrix containing PEG-4 000. These lipospheres were characterized by evaluating on encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, change in pH and the release profile. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphii and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar diffusion method. Results:Photomicrographs revealed spherical particles within a micrometer range with minimal growth after 1 month. The release of gentamicin in vitro varied widely with the PEG-4 000 contents. Moreover, significant (P>0.05) amount of gentamicin was released in vivo from the formulation. The encapsulation and loading capacity were all high, indicating the ability of the lipids to take up the drug. The antimicrobial activities were very high especially against Pseudomonas compare to other test organisms. This strongly suggested that the formulation retain its bioactive characteristics. Conclusions: This study strongly suggest that the issue of gentamicin stability and poor absorption in oral formulation could be adequately addressed by tactical engineering of lipid drug delivery systems such as lipospheres.

  5. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface.

  6. Py-GC/MS, GC/MS and FTIR investigations on Late Roman-Egyptian adhesives from opus sectile: new insights into ancient recipes and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribechini, Erika; Orsini, Sibilla; Silvano, Flora; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2009-04-01

    An analytical protocol based on optical microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Py-GC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation (GC/MS) was used in the chemical characterisation of the original adhesives used to fix monochrome and mosaic glass and stone plaques coming from the Late Roman archaeological site of Antinoopolis (Egypt). FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of calcite fragments, and Py-GC/MS and GC/MS analyses provided detailed molecular compositions, highlighting the presence of a wide range of compound classes including diterpenoid acids, tricyclic abietanes with a high degree of aromatisation, mid- and long-chain monocarboxylic fatty acids, mono- and di-hydroxy acids, alpha,omega-dicaboxylic fatty acids, n-alkanols, and n-alkanes. Characteristic biomarkers and their distribution patterns indicated the presence of pine pitch in all the adhesives, which in some cases was admixed with beeswax and brassicaceae seed oil. The results provided new insights into the complex recipes used by artisans in ancient Egypt in the production of adhesives and in the sophisticated manufacture of opus sectile decorations. PMID:19298883

  7. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G' values (2 to 6 × 10(6) Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5) Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively.

  8. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  9. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  10. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO, chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS or duodenum secretions (DS at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm as compared to the larger (2.5 mm ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides used in the development of functional foods.

  11. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  12. Reactive coating of soybean oil-based polymer on nanofibrillated cellulose film for water vapor barrier packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Weiwei; Gong, Glen

    2014-10-13

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) easily forms a high strength film but is unable to withstand the influence of water vapor when used in high moisture situations. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a NFC film was as high as 5088 g/m(2)24h (38 °C, 90% RH). The addition of beeswax latex in a NFC casting film (NFX) lowered the WVTR to 3918 g/m(2)24h. To further reduce the WVTR, a coating agent comprised of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was applied onto the NFX film using a rod coater. A combination of the suitable AESO/APTS ratio, initiator dosing, curing time and temperature could reduce the WVTR to 188 g/m(2) 24h when the coat weight was 5 g/m(2). Moreover, the coated NFX film was highly hydrophobic along with the improved transparency and thermal stability. This biodegradable polymer-coated NFC film can be used as potential packaging barrier in certain areas.

  13. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvacka, Josef

    2010-06-18

    High chromatographic resolution of wax esters (WEs) was achieved by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Nova-Pak C18 column by optimising the acetonitrile/ethyl acetate mobile phase gradient. The retention behaviour of WEs was studied in this chromatographic system. The WEs eluted according to their equivalent carbon number (ECN) values; within the group of WEs with the identical ECN, the most unsaturated species tended to elute first. The isobaric WEs with different positions of the ester moiety were separated from each other whenever the lengths of the chains were sufficiently different. The methyl-branched esters eluted at shorter retention times than the straight-chained analogues, and the resolution among methyl-branched WEs depended on the position of the branching. The analytes were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using data-dependent scanning. WEs provided simple full-scan spectra with abundant protonated molecules and low-intensity fragments. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) promoted identification of the WE molecular species. The responses of WEs were found to be dependent on the number of double bonds and on the alkyl-chain length; the limits of the detection ranged from 20micromol/L to 200nmol/L. The HPLC/APCI-MS was applied for the analysis of the WEs isolated from honeycomb beeswax, jojoba oil and human hair. Good agreement between reported results and the literature data was achieved, with several novel polyunsaturated WEs also being found.

  14. Localization of double bonds in wax esters by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the fragmentation of acetonitrile-related adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Háková, Martina; Pecková, Karolina; Urbanová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef

    2011-04-15

    Unsaturated wax esters (WEs) provided molecular adducts with C(3)H(5)N ([M + 55](+•)) in APCI sources in the presence of acetonitrile. CID MS/MS of [M + 55](+•) yielded fragments allowing the localization of double bond(s) in the hydrocarbon chains of the WEs. These fragments were formed by a cleavage on each side of the double bond. In methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated WEs, diagnostic fragments related to each double bond were detected; the most abundant were those corresponding to the cleavage of the C-C bond next to the first and the last double bond. To differentiate between those fragments differing in their structure or origin, a simple nomenclature based on α and ω ions has been introduced. Fragmentation of the α-type ions (fragments containing an ester bond) provided information on the occurrence of a double bond in the acid or alcohol part of the WEs. While no significant differences between the spectra of the WEs differing by cis/trans isomerism were found, the isomers were separated chromatographically. A data-dependent HPLC/APCI-MS(2) method for the comprehensive characterization of WEs in their complex mixtures has been developed and applied to natural mixtures of WEs isolated from jojoba oil and beeswax. More than 50 WE molecular species were completely identified, including the information on the acid and alcohol chain length and the position of the double bonds.

  15. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki. Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelatine, kappa-carrageenan, beeswax, lard, glycerol and water. Coated and uncoated sausages were stored for 7, 14 or 21 days at the temperature of 4-6°C. After each storage period weight losses and hardness of peeled sausages, as well as colour values (L*, a*, b* and water activity of removed coatings were determined. Results. Coated sausages incurred smaller weight loss and after similar storage periods they were characterized by lower hardness in comparison with uncoated sausages. Reducing the carrageenan content decreased the consumption of emulsion for coating. However, it did not have any impact on the barrier properties of coating. Water activity of coatings decreased during storage. Their colour values also changed. Conclusions. Irrespective of water content in the sausages, emulsion coatings effectively inhibited their weight loss during storage. The coating with lower content of carrageenan could be recommended. Instability of coatings colour during storage implies the need of adding a colorant to the composition of emulsion.  

  16. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. PMID:27644983

  17. Tropilaelaps of bees - epizootiological picture with special emphasis on the first description of the parasite in bumblebees and bees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are the most significant pollinators of plants worlwide. Importance of plant pollination widely exceeds all other economic benefits of modern beekeeping such as production of honey, Royal jelly, propolis, beeswax, honeybee venom etc. The issues concerning bees diseases are of extreme importance in modern commercial beekeeping. That especially regards to the fact that the number of disease agents in bees has considerably increased in recent decades. Using international transport, export or import of bees and their products, the possibility of entering various agents (parasites, bacterias, viruses and fungi into bee colonies. In recent years one of the biggest problems in beekeeping in Asia has become tropilaelaps - ectoparasitic bee disease caused by mites of the genus Tropilaelaps. But because of prevalent interest in parasites Varroa destructor and Acarapis woodi, the threat of mites from Tropileaps family has not been familiar for a long period of time. Today, Tropilaelaps is on the list of diseases endangering the whole world, made by OIE. There is a real risk of its spreading, mostly through trade, that is import of bees, swarms, queen bees, bee products and equipment. In the Republic of Serbia, this disease was described for the first time in April-May 1981 in bumblebees and bees in which a mass infestation with until then unknown parasites was detected. By additional analysis there was found out that the parasite in question was from Laelapidae (Mesostigmata family, Tropilaelaps.

  18. Le cas des beurres végétaux et des cires d’origine naturelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossow Véronique

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural waxes such as Beeswax, Carnauba wax and Candelilla wax are widely used in the Cosmetic and Food industries. Thanks to their composition, and besides a compulsory high safety, they provide desirable properties such as strength, gloss, emolliency, barrier effect, making them essential in numerous applications. For example, lots of candies are coated with either one or a mix of these 3 waxes, while for Cosmetics, the waxy part of lipsticks contains various combinations of such waxes. Within the cosmetic industry, the “green wave” – natural products – which is developing to the detriment of synthetic or mineral raw materials, has generated know-hows to enlighten new values to natural resources. Several types of developments have occurred: managing to substitute materials facing bad press (ex: petrolatum, lanolin, mimicking trendy “butter-like” textures either by adequate mixture or by chemical reaction to offer alternatives to overused Shea or Cupuaçu Butter, or as a result of more recent research programs, identifying natural waxes acting more like active ingredients than “just” like excipients (Mimosa Flower wax, Lemon Peel or Orange Peel waxes, etc..

  19. Preparation and evaluation of waxes/fat microspheres loaded with lithium carbonate for controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the unwanted toxic effects of anti maniac drug lithium carbonate by kinetic control of drug release, it was entrapped into gastro resistant, biodegradable, waxes and fat such as beeswax, cetostearyl alcohol, spermaceti and cetylalcohol microspheres using meltable emulsified dispersion cooling induced solidification technique utilizing a wetting agent. Solid, discrete, reproducible free flowing microspheres were obtained. The yield of the microspheres was up to 90.0%. More than 98.0% of the isolated microspheres were of particle size range 115 to 855 mm. The microspheres had smooth surfaces, with free flowing and good packing properties. Scanning electron microscope confirmed their spherical structures within a size range of 339-355 mm. The drug loaded in waxes and fat microspheres was stable and compatible, as confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. The release of drug was controlled for more than 8 hours. Intestinal drug release from waxes/ fat microspheres was studied and compared with the releases behavior of commercially available formulation Intalith CR ®-450. The release kinetics followed different transport mechanisms. The drug release performance was greatly affected by the materials used in microsphere preparations, which allows absorption in the intestinal tract.

  20. X-ray transmission through nanostructured and microstructured CuO materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a comparison of the X-ray transmission through microsized and nanosized materials. For this purpose CuO nanoparticles, with 13.4 nm average grain size, and CuO microparticles, with a mean particle size of 56μm, were incorporated separately to beeswax in a concentration of 5%. Results show that the transmission through the above material plates with microsized and nanosized CuO was almost the same for X-ray beams generated at 60 and 102 kV tube voltages. However, for the radiation beams generated at 26 and 30 kV tube voltages the X-rays are more attenuated by the nanostructured CuO plates by a factor of at least 14%. Results suggest that the difference in the low energy range may be due to the higher number of particles/gram in the plates designed with CuO nanoparticles and due to the grain size effect on the X-ray transmission.

  1. An Investigation of Optimum NLC-Sunscreen Formulation Using Taguchi Analysis

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    Pao Chi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used three kinds of wax and three kinds of oil, with fixed mixture ratio including UV-blocking materials of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, and avobenzone, and applied hot high-pressure homogenization process to prepare nanolipid sunscreen formulations. The measured particle size of the sunscreen formulations was 100~300 nm around PDI of 0.2 having a moderate polydisperse system. The distribution of zeta potential was −50 mV to −35 mV, showing a stable system. The UV light-absorbing range of 9 groups of sunscreen formulations was 275 nm~380 nm ranging within UVA and UVB. The rheological analysis found that the viscosity change is shear, thinning exhibiting colloid behavior. Taguchi analysis found that the optimum combinations are the carnauba wax and the blackcurrant oil combination for crystallinity and the beeswax and CPG oil for UV absorption. In addition, UV-blocking ability shows that the SPF was 51.5 and PFA was three stars for SU9 formulation. Finally, the effect of temperature on the properties of sunscreen formulations was also explored.

  2. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  3. Produção e desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera l. a partir de diferentes áreas e idades de cria Production and development of africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera l. colonies departing from different comb brood areas and brood ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Henrique Dias da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A apicultura brasileira usa da captura de enxames silvestres de abelhas melíferas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. para repor e/ou aumentar o número de colônias dos apiários, possuindo inconvenientes como a dependência da natureza para captura dos enxames, a heterogeneidade genética das colônias capturadas e a possibilidade desses enxames serem portadores de doenças e parasitas prejudiciais à sanidade das abelhas. O presente trabalho testa e apresenta uma técnica de divisão de colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas para a produção de novas colônias fortes em curto espaço de tempo, a partir de recursos mínimos de cera, cria e alimento. Os resultados mostraram que núcleos de A. mellifera formados inicialmente com uma rainha jovem e fecundada, 1 kg de operárias, um quadro de cria fechada, um quadro de favo puxado e vazio e dois quadros com cera alveolada permitem a produção de novas colônias em 42 dias. Portanto, pode-se concluir que a técnica de divisão de colônias por formação de núcleos como descrito acima, oferece aos apicultores uma alternativa viável para a produção e comercialização em larga escala de novas colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas.The Brazilian apiculture relies upon collecting wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. to replace and/or increase the number of colonies in the apiaries. This practice brings problems such as dependence on nature to capture any swarm, diverse genetic make-up of the colonies captured and the possibility of these swarms be carrying diseases and parasites harmful to the bees. The present work tests and presents a technique to split colonies of Africanized honey bees to produce new strong colonies in short time, departing from little resources of wax, brood and food stores. Results showed that A. mellifera nuclei formed by a young and mated queen, 1kg of workers, a frame of sealed brood, an empty frame of drawn beeswax and two frames

  4. Design of chronomodulated drug delivery system of valsartan: in vitro characterization

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    M Sokar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate a chronomodulated time-clock pulsatile tablets of valsartan to release it after a certain lag time, independent of the gastrointestinal pH, in its absorption window to cope with the circadian rhythm of human body for blood pressure elevation. Core tablets were prepared by direct compression of a homogenous mixture of valsartan, Avicel PH101, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The core tablets were then sprayed coated with a sealing layer formed of ethyl cellulose that was subsequently coated with a release-controlling layer. Three different aqueous dispersions namely; carnauba wax or beeswax or a mixture in a ratio of 2.5:1, respectively, were used to form five time-clock tablet formulations having the release controlling layer with different thickness {B5, B10, B20, BW5 and CW5}. Quality control testing were carried out to the core tablets. Differential scanning calorimetry was also performed to detect the possible drug excipient interaction in the core tablet formulation. The release was carried out, for the prepared time-clock tablet formulations, in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for the first 2 h, followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 for 4.5 h. The effect of pH on valsartan release was studied through a release study in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for 6.5 h. Two phase dissolution study was performed to the selected time-clock tablet formulation to predict the drug permeation through the gastrointestinal tract. Stability study of the selected formula was performed at 25°/60% RH and at 40°/75% RH for 3 months. Results showed that a release-controlling layer composed of a mixture of carnauba wax and beeswax in a ratio of 2.5:1 showed a reasonable release lag time. The release lag time of the tablets increased with the increase of the coat thickness, thus B20>B10>B5 with corresponding lag time values of 4.5, 3 and 2.5 h, respectively. Selected B5 tablet formula exhibited a

  5. Arsenite Regulates Prolongation of Glycan Residues of Membrane Glycoprotein: A Pivotal Study via Wax Physisorption Kinetics and FTIR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Ching-Iue; Lee, Yao-Chang; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-03-22

    Arsenic exposure results in several human cancers, including those of the skin, lung, and bladder. As skin cancers are the most common form, epidermal keratinocytes (KC) are the main target of arsenic exposure. The mechanisms by which arsenic induces carcinogenesis remains unclear, but aberrant cell proliferation and dysregulated energy homeostasis play a significant role. Protein glycosylation is involved in many key physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. To evaluate whether arsenite exposure affected protein glycosylation, the alteration of chain length of glycan residues in arsenite treated skin cells was estimated. Herein we demonstrated that the protein glycosylation was adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent and regulated by arsenite exposure by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy, synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy, and wax physisorption kinetics coupled with focal-plane-array-based FTIR (WPK-FPA-FTIR) imaging. We were able to estimate the relative length of surface protein-linked glycan residues on arsenite-treated skin cells, including primary KC and two skin cancer cell lines, HSC-1 and HaCaT cells. Differential physisorption of wax adsorbents adhered to long-chain (elongated type) and short-chain (regular type) glycan residues of glycoprotein of skin cell samples treated with various concentration of arsenite was measured. The physisorption ratio of beeswax remain/n-pentacosane remain for KC cells was increased during arsenite exposure. Interestingly, this increase was reversed after oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor) pretreatment, suggesting the chain length of protein-linked glycan residues is likely ATP-dependent. This is the first study to demonstrate the elongation and termination of surface protein-linked glycan residues using WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging in eukaryotes. Herein the result may provide a scientific basis to target surface protein-linked glycan

  6. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valdovinos-Flores

    Full Text Available In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg.

  7. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats.

  8. Improvement of water barrier property of paperboard by coating application with biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaejoon; Salmieri, Stéphane; Le Tien, Canh; Lacroix, Monique

    2010-03-10

    Biopolymeric coatings were prepared and applied onto paperboard to improve its water barrier property. To prepare whey protein isolate (WPI)/cellulose-based films, WPI and glycerol were dissolved in water with glutaraldehyde (cross-linking agent) and cellulose xanthate. The solution was cast, dried, and insolubilized by entrapment of WPI in regenerated cellulose. Films were combined with beeswax (BW) into a bilayer coating system and then applied onto paperboard by heating compression. Another coating solution consisting of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)/zein was prepared by dissolving poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and zein in 70% ethanol with glutaraldehyde and butyraldehyde (functionalization agent). The PVB/zein solution was applied onto paperboard after BW was sprayed. The structure of the PVB/zein-based coatings was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The water vapor barrier property of coated paperboards was evaluated by water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) measurements. From the FTIR spectra, PVA functionalization after cross-linking and efficient acetalization into PVB were confirmed. WPI/cellulose and PVB/zein coating treatments improved the water barrier properties of paperboard by decreasing the WVTR by 77-78%. Although the BW coating was more efficient (decrease of WVTR by 89%), bilayer coatings composed of BW and polymer coatings had a stronger barrier effect with a decrease of WVTR to 92-95%, hence approaching commercial attributes required to ensure water vapor barrier in paperboard-based food containers (10 g/m(2).day). These results suggest that surface coating by biodegradable polymers may be utilized for the manufacture of paperboard containers in industrial applications.

  9. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Claudio; Mutinelli, Franco; Bortolotti, Laura; Granato, Anna; Laurenson, Lynn; Roberts, Katherine; Gallina, Albino; Silvester, Nicholas; Medrzycki, Piotr; Renzi, Teresa; Sgolastra, Fabio; Lodesani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health. PMID:27182604

  10. The efficacy of moisture retentive ointment in the mangement of cutaneous wounds and ulcers: A multicenter clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Local management of chronic wounds and ulcers remains one of the most costly unsolved problems in health care today. With proper clinical management, most chronic wound healing problems can be resolved and healing expected, though recurrence may be common. The recent logarithmic growth in our knowledge about wound healing and the appreciation of the importance of a moist environment in optimal wound healing has led to the introduction of new and exciting therapeutic modalities. In view of the many practical disadvantages as well as the serious complications of currently available moisture retentive dressings when applied to chronic contaminated wounds, a prospective multicenter clinical trial was conducted from December 1999 to November 2000 to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a newly introduced moisture retentive ointment (MEBO: Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (Julphar - Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries, UAE in the local wound care of problematic non-healing wounds. The active component of the ointment is β-sitosterol in a base of beeswax, sesame oil and other components. Though it was not a comparative study, the ointment was found to induce rapid reduction in ulcer size even after a prolonged stagnant state with other therapeutic modalities without complications such as skin maceration, unmanageable excessive exudation, and wound infection. As expected with such chronic wounds, the healing potential of local ointment application is limited by the mere size of the original defect and the underlying pathologies and associated diseases. however, the safety and practicality of simple ointment application was found to be a valid alternative treatment for local management of chronic wounds.

  11. An Investigation of Consolidants Penetration in Wood. Part 1: General Methodology and Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation of degraded and frail wood by impregnation with synthetic and natural polymeric compounds in solution is one of the most important operations of active conservation of wooden cultural heritage. The effectiveness of such a treatment depends essentially on the consolidant retention, penetration and uniformity of distribution, aspects that could be cumulated in the term of impregnation level and practically influenced by many and various factors. The purpose of this work was to look at some practical possibilities of characterising the impregnation level achieved in some consolidation treatments with different solutions of a frequently employed synthetic polymer (Paraloid B72 and waxes (beeswax and modified paraffins as melts or in combination with linseed oil using a simple optical microscopy technique in conjunction with an original method of samples preparation. For this purpose were used small samples of sound, not degraded spruce (Picea abies Mill, which were impregnated by short time immersion. The examination in transmitted light (TLM of the cross-cut micro sections and in reflected light (RLM of the wooden blocks allowed the visualisation of the consolidation products and their distribution in the wood structure, but this was easier for the consolidants with high solids content (waxes, which partly filled the lumens, and much more difficult and relative in the case of the diluted Paraloid solutions which did not fill the lumens but only impart a very shiny, highly reflective aspect of the treated areas. In order to objectively appreciate the retention and penetration of consolidants into wood the method using ImageJ, a useful image processing software, was used to process the micrographs so that some quantitative estimations of the variation of the impregnation level with the penetration depth were obtained.

  12. Studies on Bee Venom and Its Medical Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahmoud Abdu Al-Samie Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Use of honey and other bee products in human treatments traced back thousands of years and healing properties are included in many religious texts including the Veda, Bible and Quran. Apitherapy is the use of honey bee products for medical purposes, this include bee venom, raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and beeswax. Whereas bee venom therapy is the use of live bee stings (or injectable venom) to treat various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, sciatica, low back pain, and tennis elbow to name a few. It refers to any use of venom to assist the body in healing itself. Bee venom contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides and amines. Sulfur is believed to be the main element in inducing the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands and in protecting the body from infections. Contact with bee venom produces a complex cascade of reactions in the human body. The bee venom is safe for human treatments, the median lethal dose (LD50) for an adult human is 2.8 mg of venom per kg of body weight, i.e. a person weighing 60 kg has a 50% chance of surviving injections totaling 168 mg of bee venom. Assuming each bee injects all its venom and no stings are quickly removed at a maximum of 0.3 mg venom per sting, 560 stings could well be lethal for such a person. For a child weighing 10 kg, as little as 93.33 stings could be fatal. However, most human deaths result from one or few bee stings due to allergic reactions, heart failure or suffocation from swelling around the neck or the mouth. As compare with other human diseases, accidents and other unusual cases, the bee venom is very safe for human treatments.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  14. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. PMID:27027545

  15. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Porrini

    Full Text Available In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  16. Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, T; Chiantore, O; Nervo, M; Piccirillo, A

    2011-05-01

    Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) is a totally noninvasive infrared analytical technique allowing the investigation of artworks without the need for any sampling. The development and optimization of this analytical methodology can provide a tool that is capable of supporting conservators during the first steps of their interventions, yielding fast results and dramatically reducing the number of samples needed to identify the materials involved. Furthermore, since reflection IR spectra suffer from important spectral anomalies that complicate accurate spectral interpretation, it is important to characterize known reference materials and substrates in advance. This work aims to verify the possibility of investigating and identifying the most widely used wood finishes by means of fiber-optic (chalcogenide and metal halides) mid-infrared spectroscopy. Two historically widely employed wood finishes (beeswax, shellac) and two modern ones (a hydrogenated hydrocarbon resin and a microcrystalline wax) were investigated in an extended IR range (from 1000 to 6000 cm(-1)) with reflectance spectroscopy and with FORS. The broad spectral response of the MCT detector was exploited in order to include overtones and combination bands from the NIR spectral range in the investigation. The reflectance spectra were compared with those collected in transmission mode in order to highlight modifications to shapes and intensities, to assign absorptions, and finally to select "marker" bands indicating the presence of certain finishing materials, even when applied onto a substrate such as wood, which shows many absorptions in the mid-infrared region. After the characterization, the different products were applied to samples of aged pear wood and investigated with the same techniques in order to check the ability of mid-IR FORS to reveal the presence and composition of the product on the wooden substrate.

  17. Clinical Study on the Treatment of Epidemic Parotitis by Indigo Naturalis Paste%青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎的临床疗效.方法:100例患者随机分为治疗组50例和对照组50例,治疗组用贴敷青黛膏(方药组成:青黛、乳香、没药、琥珀、松香、樟脑、冰片、黄蜡),配合口服双黄连口服液治疗,对照组单纯口服双黄连口服液治疗.观察两组用药3d后有效率.结果:治疗组50例,有效率为94%,对照组50例,有效率为84%.经统计学处理,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组,组间比较有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:青黛膏治疗流行性腮腺炎有显著疗效.%Objective:To observe the clinical effects of Indigo Naturalis Paste on the treatment of epidemic parotitis. Methods: 100 patients of epidemic parotitis were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group with 50 cases in each group. The treatment group was applied Indigo Naturalis Paste ( composed of Indigo Naturalis, Frankincense, Commiphora molmol, Succinum, Collopho-ny,Camphor,Malayan camphor,Beeswax) and given oral administration of Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid;the control group was only given Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid,then the effective rate of two groups was observed after three days. Results:The effective rate in the treatment group(50 cases) and the control group(50 cases) was 94% and 84% respectively. Curative effect of the treatment group was superior to the control group after statistical analysis,and both groups had significant difference(P <0.05). Conclusion:Indigo Naturalis Paste has remarkable effects on the treatment of epidemic parotitis.

  18. Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment focusses on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and on anionic or nonionic PEG derivatives, which are currently used in cosmetics in Europe. These compounds are used in a great variety of cosmetic applications because of their solubility and viscosity properties, and because of their low toxicity. The PEGs, their ethers, and their fatty acid esters produce little or no ocular or dermal irritation and have extremely low acute and chronic toxicities. They do not readily penetrate intact skin, and in view of the wide use of preparations containing PEG and PEG derivatives, only few case reports on sensitisation reactions have been published, mainly involving patients with exposure to PEGs in medicines or following exposure to injured or chronically inflamed skin. On healthy skin, the sensitising potential of these compounds appears to be negligible. For some representative substances of this class, information was available on reproductive and developmental toxicity, on genotoxicty and carcinogenic properties. Taking into consideration all available information from related compounds, as well as the mode and mechanism of action, no safety concern with regard to these endpoints could be identified. Based on the available data it is therefore concluded that PEGs of a wide molecular weight range (200 to over 10,000), their ethers (laureths. ceteths, ceteareths, steareths, and oleths), and fatty acid esters (laurates, dilaurates, stearates, distearates) are safe for use in cosmetics. Limited data were available for PEG sorbitan/sorbitol fatty acid esters, PEG sorbitan beeswax and PEG soy sterols. Taking into account all the information available for closely related compounds, it can be assumed that these compounds as presently used in cosmetic preparations will not present a risk for human health. PEG castor oils and PEG hydrogenated castor oils have caused anaphylactic reactions when used in intravenous medicinal products. Their topical use in cosmetics is

  19. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  20. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  1. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazaire Azoun; Rock Akpon; Roseric Azondekon; Alex Asidi; Martin Akogbto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate what kind of mosquito sample is necessary for the determination of insecticide susceptibility in malaria vectors. Methods:Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (An. gambiae) mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Littoral and Oueme departments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) susceptibility tests were conducted on unfed male and female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. CDC susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed, blood fed and gravid female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. These susceptibility tests were also conducted on unfed and blood fed female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old and 20 days old. CDC biochemical assay using synergist was also carried out to detect any increase in the activity of enzyme typically involved in insecticide metabolism. Results:Female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations were more susceptible than the males when they were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The mortality rates of blood fed female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when females were unfed. In addition, the mortality rates of gravid female An. gambiae Ladji and Sekandji populations aged 2-5 days old were lower than those obtained when they were unfed. The mortality rate obtained when female An. gambiae Sekandji populations were unfed and aged 20 days old was higher than the one obtained when these populations were unfed and aged 2-5 days old. The results obtained after effects of synergist penicillin in beeswax on F1 progeny of An. gambiae Ladji populations resistant to permethrin showed that mono-oxygenases were involved in permethrin resistant F1 progeny from Ladji. Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its

  2. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron