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Sample records for beeswax

  1. Energetic feedings influence beeswax production by Apis mellifera L. honeybees

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    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice, T2 (sugar syrup and T3 (inverted sugar. Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up into the honeybee nest and beeswax built area was measured weekly. Total reducing sugar, calorimetry, dry matter and ashes of all feedings were analyzed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tukey’s test to determine differences among averages. The average consumption of inverted sugar was significantly lower than that of other treatments. The highest beeswax production average occurred in the sugar syrup treatment. The highest average of ashes, dry matter and reducing sugar occurred, respectively, in sugar-cane juice, inverted sugar and sugar syrup. Sugar syrup may be an alternative energy source for beeswax production, although sugar-cane juice may be more profitable.

  2. Policosanol extraction from beeswax and improvement of the purity

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    Srisaipet Anakhaorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policosanol is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic long chain alcohols (20-36 carbon atoms. It has been use in pharmaceutical composition and food supplements. This research aimed to isolate and improve the purity of policosanol extracted from beeswax. Triglycerides and other impurities were eliminated from beeswax by refluxing with hexane followed by isopropanol. The purified beeswax was hydrolyzed by refluxing with 1 M ethanolic NaOH for 2 hours. Purification of policosanol was performed by extracting the hydrolyzed product with acetone at 50-60 °C for 3 hours and it was stored at 4 °C for precipitation. The precipitate was refluxed with heptanes followed by washing with hot water. The heptanes layer was kept for policosanol precipitation at 4 °C. The purity of policosanol was confirmed by TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The yield of purified policosanol was 13.23-13.89 %.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184.1973 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  4. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: sbirrazz@unice.fr [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  5. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

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    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  6. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  7. Efficiency of GC-MS method in detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin

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    Waś Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the gas chromatography - mass detector (GC-MS technique for the detection of beeswax adulterated with paraffin, was evaluated. For this purpose, beeswax samples with paraffin additions (3, 5, 10, 30, 50% were analysed. Since not enough is known about paraffin compositions, and since it is difficult to detect paraffin in beeswax, the aim of our research was also to compare the hydrocarbon composition of different types of paraffin. The analysis showed that the types of paraffin available on the market, differ qualitatively and quantitatively as far as their hydrocarbon compositions are concerned. In all kinds of paraffin, we found homologous series of n-alkanes that were much longer than those in beeswax. In beeswax, the amount of added paraffin that is possible to detect, differs and depends on the kind of paraffin used for adulteration. In this study, the minimum estimated percent that was detected using the GC-MS technique, was 3%. The adulteration is indicated by the presence of hydrocarbons containing over 35 carbon atoms in the molecule, and by the higher contents of n-alkanes (C20H42 - C35H72, in comparison to the concentration of these compounds determined in pure beeswax. We also presented the results of the quality control of commercial beeswax. Based on our results, it can be stated that beeswax adulteration is currently a problem.

  8. An Approach for Routine Analytical Detection of Beeswax Adulteration Using FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

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    Svečnjak Lidija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beeswax adulteration represents one of the main beeswax quality issues, there are still no internationally standardised analytical methods for routine quality control. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure suitable for routine detection of beeswax adulteration using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. For the purpose of this study, reference IR spectra of virgin beeswax, paraffin, and their mixtures containing different proportions of paraffin (5 - 95%, were obtained. Mixtures were used for the establishment of calibration curves. To determine the prediction strength of IR spectral data for the share of paraffin in mixtures, the Partial Least Squares Regression method was used. The same procedure was conducted on beeswax-beef tallow mixtures. The model was validated using comb foundation samples of an unknown chemical background which had been collected from the international market (n = 56. Selected physico-chemical parameters were determined for comparison purposes. Results revealed a strong predictive power (R2 = 0.999 of IR spectra for the paraffin and beef tallow share in beeswax. The results also revealed that the majority of the analysed samples (89% were adulterated with paraffin; only 6 out of 56 (11% samples were identified as virgin beeswax, 28% of the samples exhibited a higher level of paraffin adulteration (>46% of paraffin, while the majority of the analysed samples (50% were found to be adulterated with 5 - 20% of paraffin. These results indicate an urgent need for routine beeswax authenticity control. In this study, we demonstrated that the analytical approach defining the standard curves for particular adulteration levels in beeswax, based on chemometric modelling of specific IR spectral region indicative for adulteration, enables reliable determination of the adulterant proportions in beeswax.

  9. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

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    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g -1 . At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT EDIBLE FILM BUAH KOLANG-KALING (Arenge Pinnata DAN LILIN LEBAH (Beeswax [Characterization of Composite Edible Film Derived from Palm Fruit (Arenge pinnata and Beeswax

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    Budi Santoso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study of the characteristics of edible film after addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The research used of Factorial Block Randomized Design with two treatments and each treatment was replicated three times. The first treatment was concentrations of the kolang-kaling (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, and the second treatment was concentrations of the beeswax (0%, 0,5%, 1%, and 1,5%. The parameters were water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The result showed that the addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax significantly afected the water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The thickness increased with the increasing concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The water vapor transmission rate, tensile strength, and elongation percentage were decreased. The tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate of edible film were 0,342 Kgf cm-2, 52,5%, 0,025 mm and 53,439 gm-2hari-1 respectively. The best treatment was achived by using concentration of kolang-kaling at 5% and concentration of beeswax at 1,5%.

  11. Transfer of nitroimidazoles from contaminated beeswax to honey.

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    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2017-04-01

    Nitroimidazoles are not authorised for the treatment of honey bees in the European Union. However, they can be found in honey largely because they are illegally used in apiculture for the treatment of Nosema. The aim of the study was to examine the possible transfer of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole) from contaminated beeswax to honey. The wax foundations fortified with a mixture of four nitroimidazoles at three concentration levels (1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg - 1 ) were placed in beehives to let the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) draw out the contaminated wax foundations to honeycombs. At 1 month from the start, the frames filled with capped honey were removed from the hives for a first sampling of honey. Next, the honeycombs were further incubated for 5 months in the laboratory at 35°C and sampled monthly. In the sampled honey, the concentrations of nitroimidazoles and their main metabolites (hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, hydroxyipronidazole) were determined by LC-MS/MS and compared with those determined in the nitroimidazole-containing wax foundations. Each of the tested nitroimidazoles could migrate from beeswax to honey kept in the contaminated combs at each tested concentration level. Higher maximum concentrations of residues in honey sampled from contaminated combs at 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg - 1 were observed for metronidazole (28.9, 368.5 and 2589.4 μg kg - 1 respectively) and ronidazole (27.4, 232.9 and 2351.2 μg kg - 1 respectively), while lower maximum concentrations were measured for dimetridazole (0.98, 8.4 and 67.7 μg kg - 1 ) and ipronidazole (0.9, 7.9 and 35.7 μg kg - 1 respectively). When we took into account that a frame completely filled with honey on both sides of the comb contained 110 g of beeswax and 2488 g of honey, and that this ratio was constant, then maximum amounts of initial metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and

  12. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Savickas, Arunas; Kalveniene, Zenona; Velziene, Saule; Kubiliene, Loreta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavengin...

  13. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods

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    Giedre Kasparaviciene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically. Physical properties of lipsticks melting point were determined in a glass tube; the hardness was investigated with texture analyzer. Sensory analysis was performed with untrained volunteers. The optimized mixture of sea buckthorn oil and grapeseed oil mixture ratio 13.96 : 6.18 showed the highest antioxidative activity (70±0.84% and was chosen for lipstick formulation. According to the sensory and instrumental analysis results, optimal ingredients amounts for the lipstick were calculated: 57.67% mixture of oils, 19.58% beeswax, and 22.75% cocoa butter. Experimentally designed and optimized lipstick formulation had good physical properties and high scored sensory evaluation. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between sensory and instrumental evaluations.

  14. Beeswax as phase change material to improve solar panel’s performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaib, R.; Rizal, S.; Riza, M.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Rizal, T. A.

    2018-02-01

    One of the main obstacles faced during the operation of photovoltaic (PV) panels was overheating due to excessive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures. In this research, investigates the use of beeswax phase change materials (PCM) to maintain the temperature of the panels close to ambient. Solar panels used in this study has 839 mm length, 537 mm wide, and 50 mm thick, with maximum output power at 50 W. During the study, there were two solar panels was evaluated, one without phase change material while the other one was using beeswax phase change material. Solar panels were mounted at 15° slope. Variables observed was the temperature of solar panel’s surface, output voltage and current that produced by PV panels, wind speed around solar panels, and solar radiation. The observation was started at 07:00 am and ended at 06:00 pm. The research shows that maximum temperature of solar panels surface without phase change material is ranging between 46-49 °C, and electrical efficiency is about 7.2-8.8%. Meanwhile, for solar panels with beeswax phase change material, the maximum temperature solar panels surface is relatively low ranging between 33-34 °C, and its electrical efficiency seems to increase about 9.1-9.3%.

  15. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparaviciene, Giedre; Savickas, Arunas; Kalveniene, Zenona; Velziene, Saule; Kubiliene, Loreta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically. Physical properties of lipsticks melting point were determined in a glass tube; the hardness was investigated with texture analyzer. Sensory analysis was performed with untrained volunteers. The optimized mixture of sea buckthorn oil and grapeseed oil mixture ratio 13.96 : 6.18 showed the highest antioxidative activity (70 ± 0.84%) and was chosen for lipstick formulation. According to the sensory and instrumental analysis results, optimal ingredients amounts for the lipstick were calculated: 57.67% mixture of oils, 19.58% beeswax, and 22.75% cocoa butter. Experimentally designed and optimized lipstick formulation had good physical properties and high scored sensory evaluation. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between sensory and instrumental evaluations.

  16. Preparation of the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites for enhancing antibacterial and water resistance properties of paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liang, Hunan; Nasrallah, Joseph; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-05-20

    An effective method of preparing composites containing inorganic (Ag) and organic (beeswax) particles was established in this study. Ag nanoparticles were first immobilized on the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) during the reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of CNC, then mixed with beeswax by high speed stirring. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images indicated that Ag and beeswax particles were uniformly dispersed and stable in the network structure formed by CNC. Upon coating on a paper surface, a layer of beeswax film was evident based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The dynamic contact angle and antibacterial activity tests indicated that the contact angle of coated paper reached 113.06° and the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli increased to 99.96%, respectively, at a coating amount of 21.53 g/m(2). When applied onto paper surface by coating, the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites can impact paper with antibacterial property and improved water resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of the Nd:YAG laser removal of beeswax on Galician granite at 355 nm

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    Pan, Aldara; Rebollar, Esther; Conde, J. Carlos; Lusquiños, Fernando; Chiussi, Stefano; León, Betty

    2010-09-01

    Beeswax coatings applied to seal off the granitic surfaces of many monuments have resulted in detrimental effects with time passing. Conservation procedures must be carried out in a selective way, removing the beeswax without any degradation of the stone. In this study we present an experimental analysis of the removal of beeswax using a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm which is absorbed weakly by the beeswax. For this reason, an important percentage of the laser radiation reaches the granite substrate and the influence of the layer thickness must be studied. At each laser fluence, for single-pulse irradiation we find a maximum thickness for complete removal of the film. For thicker layers, the beeswax is not removed and additional effects such as color changes and thickness increase are observed. The experimental results suggest that a photomechanical mechanism is dominant and that granite absorption plays a fundamental role. Multiple-pulse irradiation is also performed to determine the optimal parameters for laser cleaning. Finally, infrared thermography measurements allow for the determination of the granite surface temperature after laser irradiation and theoretical calculations allow one to estimate the absorption behavior of granite at 355 and to explain the results obtained.

  18. Characterization of multilayered and composite edible films from chitosan and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Alves, Vitor D

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan-based edible films were prepared and subjected to cross-linking reactions using sodium tripolyphosphate and/or to beeswax coating on both films interfaces. In addition, chitosan-beeswax emulsion-based films were produced. The goal of these modifications of the chitosan films was the improvement of their barrier to water vapor and to decrease their affinity to liquid water maintaining or improving the mechanical and optical properties of the original chitosan films. The cross-linking with tripolyphosphate decreased both the water vapor permeability and the water absorption capacity to about 55% and 50% of that of the original chitosan films, respectively. However, there was an increase in the films stiffness, revealed by the increased Young modulus from 42 kPa up to 336 kPa. The multilayered wax-chitosan-wax films exhibited a similar improvement of the barrier properties to water vapor, with the advantage of maintaining the mechanical properties of the original chitosan films. However, these wax-coated films showed a higher water absorption capacity, which is believed to be a consequence of water entry into small pores between the film and the wax layers. Regarding the film samples subjected to cross-linking and further coating with beeswax, a similar behavior as the uncoated cross-linked films was observed. The emulsion-based composite films were characterized by a substantial decrease of the water vapor permeability (40%), along with a decrease in their stiffness. Regarding the optical properties, all films presented a yellowish color with similar values of lightness, chroma, and hue. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Radiocarbon dates for beeswax figures in the prehistoric rock art of northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.E. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Archaeology; Chaloupka, G. [Northern Territory Museum, Darwin, NT (Australia); Chippindale, C. [Cambridge Univ. Museum (United Kingdom); Alderson, M.S. [Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Jabiru, NT (Australia). Kakadu National Park; Southon, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages have been taken for a test suite of small samples of material removed from some of the ``beeswax`` art figures found in rock shelters in northern Australia. The results indicate that we can reliably date this unique form of rock art with no noticeable damage. We had not expected to find figures of any great antiquity, and so were surprised to find that the ages obtained spanned the time period from the recent past to about 4000 BP. (Author).

  20. Hydrophobicity, thermal and micro-structural properties of whey protein concentrate-pullulan-beeswax films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Khanzadi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Dehnad, Danial; Chegini, Faramarz Khodaian; Maghsoudlou, Yayha

    2015-09-01

    In this research, effects of beeswax (BW) on functional properties of whey protein concentrates (WPC):pullulan (PUL) films were investigated. For this purpose, 0, 10, 20 and 30w/w(glycerol)% BW rates and 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30w/w% WPC:PUL ratios were applied. Films containing 70% WPC:30% PUL (WPC70) and 30% BW (BW30) justified the highest contact angle (92.4°) among all films; SEM micrographs indicated that BW could come toward the surface of films during drying stage and resulted in a higher hydrophobic behavior of bilayer films compared with blend films. WPC70 supplied the lowest T(g) values (36-48 °C) among different proportions of WPC-PUL; the highest melting points were just assured in the absence of BW regardless of combination ratio for WPI:PUL. BW30 films deserved lower roughness rates than BW20 (and even BW10) films, indicating more advantageous microstructure and higher hydrogen connections in BW30 films and justifying similar melting points attained for BW30 films to BW20 or 10 ones. Overall, application of WPC70 and BW30 was recommended to obtain optimum combination of final properties for WPC-PUL-BW bilayer films as SEM exhibited flexible and elastic structures of such films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony) and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives. PMID:26983080

  2. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives.

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    P R B Kozowyk

    Full Text Available The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using Acacia gum. However, it is currently unclear how efficient different adhesive recipes are, how much specific ingredients influence their performance, and how difficult it may have been for those ingredients to be combined to maximum effect. We conducted a series of laboratory-based lap shear and impact tests, following modern adhesion testing standards, to determine the efficacy of compound adhesives, with particular regard to the ingredient ratios. We tested rosin (colophony and gum adhesives, containing additives of beeswax and ochre in varying ratios. During both lap shear and impact tests compound rosin adhesives performed better than single component rosin adhesives, and pure acacia gum was the strongest. The large difference in performance between each base adhesive and the significant changes in performance that occur due to relatively small changes in ingredient ratios lend further support to the notion that high levels of skill and knowledge were required to consistently produce the most effective adhesives.

  3. Beeswax-Colophony Blend: A Novel Green Organic Coating for Protection of Steel Drinking Water Storage Tanks

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    Sara Abdikheibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax-colophony blend is mainly used as a sealant mixture for preservation applications. The beeswax itself, however, has had a long way in history taking part in conservation processes including mummification. In this research, this blend was used as a protective coating for drinking water distribution tanks. Initially, a layer with 400 μm thickness was applied on a sand blasted mild steel plate. The long-term electrochemical behavior of the coating was investigated by open circuit potential (OCP and electrochemical microbiological characteristics of the coating, microbial and chemical examinations were performed on drinking water samples that had been in contact with the coating. Furthermore, its behavior in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR in a wastewater treatment plant was investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Regarding the consistency of experimental results, it was concluded that this proposed recyclable blend could be considered as a novel green organic coating and also a good corrosion barrier even in aggressive environments.

  4. Development of edible films obtained from submicron emulsions based on whey protein concentrate, oil/beeswax and brea gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Juan Pablo; Spotti, María J; Piagentini, Andrea M; Milt, Viviana G; Carrara, Carlos R

    2017-06-01

    Edible films with whey protein concentrate (WPC) with a lipid component, sunflower oil (O) or beeswax (W), to enhance barrier to water vapor were obtained. Brea gum was used as emulsifier and also as matrix component. In order to achieve emulsion with small and homogeneous droplet size, an ultrasonicator equipment was used after obtaining a pre-emulsion using a blender. The films were made by casting. Effects of lipid fraction on droplet size, zeta potential, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility, and optical properties were determined. The droplet size of emulsions with BG decreased when decreasing the lipid content in the formulation. The zeta potential was negative for all the formulations, since the pH was close to 6 for all of them and pI of BG is close to 2.5, and pI of ß-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin (main proteins in WPC) are 5.2 and 4.1, respectively. Increasing W or SO content in blended films reduced the tensile strength and puncture resistance significantly. BG and WPC films without lipid presented better mechanical properties. The presence of lipids decreased the WVP, as expected, and those films having BG improved this property. BG films were slightly amber as a result of the natural color of the gum. BG has shown to be a good polysaccharide for emulsifying the lipid fraction and improving the homogeneity and mechanical properties of the films with WPC and beeswax or oil.

  5. Comparative evaluation of UV-vis-IR Nd:YAG laser cleaning of beeswax layers on granite substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, A., E-mail: aldarapan@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n. Campus Universitario Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Chiussi, S.; Gonzalez, P.; Serra, J.; Leon, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n. Campus Universitario Lagoas-Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The beeswax treatment applied in the sixties to prevent rain water from penetrating the outer stone surface of valuable granitic Galician monuments is contributing to the acceleration of the superficial degradation process of these monuments. At present, the northern sector of the renaissance frieze in the Cloister of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is one of the most representative examples. Conventional wax removal methods (water, chemical and mechanical cleaning) can possibly destruct important details of the relief. Therefore laser removal is considered as a good alternative. In this work, we report systematic investigations of the effect of laser cleaning at different Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) on representative samples of the real historical surfaces. Laser removal of beeswax on granite at neither of the four wavelengths of the Nd:YAG laser is not a layer by layer removal process. For each irradiance and wavelength there is a maximum thickness that can be completely removed by a single pulse. Above this thickness the waxy material is not removed, although it undergoes thermal modifications; since the fraction of radiation that reaches the granite substrate is not enough to trigger the ejection of material. Our results show that the wax-granite interface plays a fundamental role in granite cleaning, and when the wax is weakened by absorption of radiation at 266 nm, the removal process becomes more efficient.

  6. Towards more physiological manipulations of hormones in field studies: comparing the release dynamics of three kinds of testosterone implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Rene; Trappschuh, Monika; Gahr, Manfred; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Hormone manipulations are of increasing interest in the areas of physiological ecology and evolution, because hormones are mediators of complex phenotypic changes. Often, however, hormone manipulations in field settings follow the approaches that have been used in classical endocrinology, potentially using supra-physiological doses. To answer ecological and evolutionary questions, it may be important to manipulate hormones within their physiological range. We compare the release dynamics of three kinds of implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets, and beeswax pellets, each containing 3mg of testosterone. These implants were placed into female Japanese quail, and plasma levels of testosterone measured over a period of 30 days. Testosterone in silastic tubing led to supraphysiological levels. Also, testosterone concentrations were highly variable between individuals. Time-release pellets led to levels of testosterone that were slightly supraphysiological during the first days. Over the period of 30 days, however, testosterone concentrations were more consistent. Beeswax implants led to a physiological increase in testosterone and a relatively constant release. The study demonstrated that hormone implants in 10mm silastic tubing led to a supraphysiological peak in female quail. Thus, the use of similar-sized or even larger silastic implants in males or in other smaller vertebrates needs careful assessment. Time-release pellets and beeswax implants provide a more controlled release and degrade within the body. Thus, it is not necessary to recapture the animal to remove the implant. We propose beeswax implants as an appropriate procedure to manipulate testosterone levels within the physiological range. Hence, such implants may be an effective alternative for field studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distillate yield improvement using a parabolic dish reflector coupled single slope basin solar still with thermal energy storage using beeswax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aondoyila KUHE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single slope solar still, integrated with latent heat thermal energy storage system coupled to a parabolic concentrator was designed with the aim of improving productivity. 14 kg of beeswax was used as phase change material (PCM between the absorber plate and the bottom of the still to keep the operating temperature of the still high enough to produce distilled water even during the sunset hours. The bottom of the still is covered by 0.2 m aluminum sheet painted black on the side facing the parabolic concentrator to help in absorbing solar radiation reflected from the parabolic concentrator and conducting same to the PCM. To determine the effect of PCM, a solar still without PCM was used to compare with the solar still with PCM. The temperature of water, air temperature, inner surface glass temperature and outer surface glass temperature were measured. Experimental results show that the effect of thermal storage in the parabolic concentrator-coupled single slope solar still increased the productivity by 62%.

  8. Effect of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose-Beeswax Composite Edible Coatings Formulated with or without Antifungal Agents on Physicochemical Properties of Plums during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Gunaydin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose- (HPMC- beeswax (BW composite edible coatings formulated with or without food additives with antifungal properties on physicochemical and sensory properties of plums (Prunus salicina cv. “Friar” stored for 11 and 22 d at 1°C followed by a shelf life period of 5 d at 20°C was evaluated. Food preservatives selected from previous research included potassium sorbate (PS, sodium methyl paraben (SMP, and sodium ethyl paraben (SEP. Emulsions had 7% of total solid content and were prepared with glycerol and stearic acid as plasticizer and emulsifier, respectively. All the coatings reduced plum weight and firmness loss and coated fruit showed higher titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and hue angle values at the end of the storage period. In addition, physiological disorders such as flesh browning and bleeding were reduced in coated samples compared to uncoated controls. Paraben-based coatings were the most effective in controlling weight loss and the SMP-based coating was the most effective in maintaining plum firmness. Respiration rate, sensory flavor, off-flavors, and fruit appearance were not adversely affected by the application of antifungal coatings. Overall, these results demonstrated the potential of selected edible coatings containing antifungal food additives to extend the postharvest life of plums, although further studies should focus on improving some properties of the coatings to enhance gas barrier properties and further increase storability.

  9. Short communications: Honeyguides and beeswax: preferences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 38, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Honeyguides and beeswax: preferences and support for olfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeycomb with honey in cells both capped and uncapped. Presentation was on a cut branch ... cell, and none tried to take honey by itself when available fortuitously in the bottom of a perch bay. The few bee ... On 10 August 1993, an I. variegatus was seemingly feeding on a concrete slab. The site was examined closely ...

  11. Honeyguides and beeswax: preferences and support for olfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-07

    Jan 7, 2018 ... 2002). Scaly-throated and Lesser Honeyguides ate some old comb, and might have in- gested some old pupal casing. A few bee larvae were taken by both Scaly-throated and Pallid, while an equally small amount of pollen was eaten by Scaly-throateds. All three species seemed to avoid honey and when, ...

  12. Effects of Abexol (beeswax alcohols) on gastrointestinal symptoms in middle-aged and older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Rodríguez; José Illnait; Héctor Terry; Rosa Mas; Lillia Fernández; Julio César Fernández; Rafael Gámez; Meilis Mesa; Sarahí Mendoza; Dalmer Ruiz; Yadira Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Los alcoholes de la cera de abejas (ACA) (Abexol®) (anteriormente D-002, mezcla de seisalcoholes alifáticos purificada de la cera de abejas), han demostrado efectos gastroprotectores en estudios experimentales y clínicos. Estudios experimentales demostraron que los ACA reducen el daño gástrico mediante un mecanismo citoprotector multifactorial que involucra, entre otros, efectos antioxidantes sobre la mucosa gástrica y el aumento de la cantidad de mucus gástrico y de su contenido de proteínas...

  13. Properties of High Amylose Starch-Beeswax Inclusion Complexes Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose is known to form inclusion complexes with a large number of polar and non-polar organic compounds including fatty acids. Amylose inclusion complexes are proposed to be employed as carrier for delivering ligands with desired functional properties in food and nutritional supplement products. ...

  14. "Wax bloom" on beeswax cultural heritage objects: exploring the causes of the phenomenon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartl, B.; Kobera, Libor; Drábková, K.; Ďurovič, M.; Brus, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2015), s. 509-513 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : 13-C NMR * wax bloom * efflorescence Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  15. Physical properties of beeswax, sunflower wax, and candelilla wax mixtures and organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increased interest in natural waxes as alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils and saturated fats as oil structuring agents. Using relatively low concentrations (0.5-5%), natural waxes are able to form crystalline networks, or organogels, which bind liquid oil. Each natural wax is uniqu...

  16. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozowyk, P.R.B.; Langejans, G.; Poulis, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using

  17. Drug: D08835 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08835 Mixture ... Drug Zinc oxide - lard - hardened oil - white beeswax mixt; Wilso...n's (TN) Zinc oxide [DR:D01170], Lard [DR:D05301], Hardened oil, White beeswax [DR:D04969] ... Therapeutic category: 2649 ... PubChem: 96025518 ...

  18. Release kinetics of salbutamol sulphate from wax coated microcapsules and tableted microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, R S; Tripathi, K P; Jayaswal, S B; Singh, J

    1992-01-01

    Microcapsules of salbutamol sulphate were prepared using beeswax and carnauba wax as coating materials. In vitro release kinetics were studied following the zero order, first order and Higuchi equations. Beeswax alone was not effective but beeswax and carnauba wax combinations were suitable in controlling the in vitro release of the drug. Microcapsules were compressed into tablets to get a controlled release oral dosage form. Release from tableted microcapsules was significantly more prolonged than the respective batches of the microcapsules. Best data fit with the highest correlation coefficient for the tableted microcapsules was obtained for first order.

  19. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...); dried apricots; avocados; blackberries; boysenberries; gooseberries; loganberries; black raspberries..., spinach, tomatoes, and watermelons. vegetables for processing Asparagus, lima beans, snap beans, beets, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, green peas, spinach, and tomatoes. Other Commodities Beeswax; cottonseed...

  20. Investigation of Non-Conventional Bio-Derived Fuels for Hybrid Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Putnam, Scott G

    2007-01-01

    .... Beeswax was tested with oxygen as the oxidizer and showed a regression rate at least three times as high as traditional hybrid propellant combinations such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and liquid oxygen (LOX...

  1. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  2. APRENDIZAGEM DA EXTENSÃO DA PROBÓSCIDE EM ZANGÕES AFRICANIZADOS (APIS MELLIFERA L. CONFINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Souza Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the olfactive learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are predominantly performed with worker bees. In this study, we used the classical conditioning of proboscis extension (PER to evaluate the effectiveness of 5 scents as conditioned stimuli (CS. Ten groups of 20 drones (A. mellifera L. each were used. The conditioned stimuli were the odors of Citral, Hexanal, Geraniol, beeswax (comb, and beeswax (foundation sheet. In addition to the acquisition of learning, we measured the persistence of conditioning when the unconditioned stimulus was no longer presented (i.e., extinction. The intertrial interval, the CS duration and US duration were 10 min, 2 sec, and 3 sec, respectively. The drones were able to demonstrate conditioning and storage of information. Citral, Hexanal, and beeswax (comb were the most efficient stimuli in classical conditioning with drones.

  3. Alimentação energética influencia produção de cera por abelhas Apis mellifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Marcela Pedraza; Kadri, Samir Moura; Veiga, Nabor; Orsi, Ricardo de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane) on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice), T2 (sugar syrup) and T3 (inverted sugar). Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up int...

  4. Physical, Chemical and Microbial Characteristic of Gouda Cheese Using Propolis (Apis milifera Liguistica as Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Eka Radiati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gouda cheeses were coated with different coating materials consist of pliol, beeswax, and beeswax containing different concentration of propolis  by 0,2, 0,4 and 0,8%  and stored  during  ripening at 10oC period. The result showed that no different of moisture, fat and protein content, hardness, pH value of cheese products. The hydrolysis process at maturity caused decreasing of  pH value. Added propolis in the coating material could inhibited  mould and yeast growth significantly. Key words:  Gouda Cheese, propolis, edible coating

  5. Radioactive contamination of honey and other bee-keeping products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Komissar, A.D.; Levchenko, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    Great amount of dust is collected in propolis under emergency atmospheric fallouts. Specific coefficient of the product migration amounts to several m 2 per 1 kg. Propolis is a good biological indicator of radioactive fallouts. The propolis collection is inadmissible after radioactive fallouts. Cocoon residuals obtained during bees-wax separation contain many radionuclides and should be disposed in special places. Nuclides are absent in bees-wax. Nuclides accumulated absent in a bee organism migrate into honey and queen milk, the honey is contaminated mainly via biogenic path

  6. Characterization of wax manufactures of historical and artistic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Luigi; Chicco, Federica; Colapietro, Marcello; Gatta, Tania; Gregori, Emanuela; Panfili, Manuela; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of this scientific research is the physic and chemical characterization of two historical wax manufactures, made at the end of XIX century by Francesco Bianchi, a papal engraver. The chemical and analytical investigation was necessary to complete and to confirm the restorer's work. The IR Spectroscopy, X-Ray and GC-MS, the best technique to characterise wax, allowed us to obtain the following results. The two manufactures were made with commercial beeswax: in fact, the relative chromatograms showed unchanged peaks about esters of palmitic acid with C24 to C32 alcohol molecules; using standard beeswax we determined the same amount of hydrocarbons present in the wax manufactures. We found several hydrocarbons in these beeswax materials so that it is reasonable to think about successive modifications. ZnO (white zinc), a pigment, was added, probably due to its colour and covering capacity. Sb2S3, Anthimoniun vermilion, a red-orange pigment, was added to these manufactures to give them a soft pink-orange colour. By all used techniques we determined some modifications in the original beeswax; surely they were made to get a more malleable, mouldable, and then more able to be modelled wax.

  7. 7 CFR 322.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 322.1... superfamily Apoidea in any life stage, including germ plasm. Beekeeping byproduct. Material for use in hives, including, but not limited to, beeswax for beekeeping, pollen for bee feed, or honey for bee feed...

  8. The status and future prospects of honeybee production in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for honey and other hive products in the world market is high compared to the current production. Honey and beeswax production in Africa is estimated to be less than 10 and25 per cent of the potential respectively. The beekeeping sector in Africa is extremely fragmented therefore the actual production and ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of trona as a permeation enhancer for ointments prepared with beeswax extracted from native honeycombs. Abstract · Vol 9, No 1 (2012) - Articles Topical Delivery of Miconazole-Loaded Microemulsion: Formulation Design and Evaluation Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8499. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The release mechanism of insulin from soft gelatin capsule preparation. Abstract · Vol 4, No 2 (2007) - Articles Use of trona as a permeation enhancer for ointments prepared with beeswax extracted from native honeycombs. Abstract · Vol 7, No 3 (2010) - Articles Effect of colloidal silver concentrate on the antibacterial activity ...

  11. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  12. The impact on environmental stressors on apiculture in Africa | Maus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybees are important as pollinators of agricultural crops as well as of producers of bee products like honey and beeswax. Honeybees are exposed to various environmental stressors that can significantly affect apiculture. These stressors can vary in their prevalence and impact between different regions. In Africa ...

  13. Bees trace the effects of the air traffic; Bienen spueren Folgen des Luftverkehrs nach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waeber, Monica [UMW Umweltmonitoring, Muenchen (Germany); Hergt, Volker [Flughafen Muenchen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The honey-monitoring at the Munich Airport addresses the question of whether the operation of a major airport affects the contamination of food produced in the neighborhood. Since 2008, honey, pollen and beeswax are tested for residues of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  14. Effect of local hemostatics on bone induction in rats: a comparative study of bone wax, fibrin-collagen paste, and bioerodible polyorthoester with and without gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    evaluated by light microscopy and 85Sr uptake analyses. Non-absorbable bone wax of 88% beeswax and absorbable bovine fibrin-collagen paste both significantly inhibited osteoinduction, whereas a bioerodible polyorthoester drug delivery system with or without 4% gentamicin did not. Bone wax was not absorbed...

  15. Physico- chemical qualities of honey harvested from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beekeeping is one of the income generating activities in many parts of the rural areas of Zambia and is being promoted by both the government and nongovernmental organizations. The main benefit of beekeeping is the production of honey and beeswax which are valuable sources of income for the small-holder farmers.

  16. Monitoring of the antiviral potential of bee venom and wax extracts against Adeno-7 (DNA) and Rift Valley fever virus (RNA) viruses models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Mohamed, Aly F; Amer, Moner A; Hammad, Kotb M; Riad, Saber A

    2015-04-01

    This study monitored the antiviral potential of bee venom and four wax extracts, ethanol white and black beeswax (EWW/EBW) and acetone white and black beeswax (AWW/ABW) extracts. Two different virus models namely Adeno-7 as DNA model and RVFV as RNA virus models. End point calculation assay was used to calculate virus depletion titer. The depletion of viral infectivity titer of ABW to Adeno-7 virus showed strong antiviral activity recorded a depletion of viral infectivity titer (1.66 log (10)/ ml) that gave equal action with bee venom and more than interferon IFN (1 log (10)/ ml). On the other hand, antiviral activity of EBW showed a moderate potential, while AWW showed no antiviral activity. Finally EWW showed synergetic activity against Adeno-7 virus activity. Thus, activity of wax extracts to RVFV was arranged in order of IFN bee venom > AWW & EBW > EWW and ABW recorded 3.34, 0.65, 0.5, 0.34 respectively. It is the first time to study the beeswax effect against DNA and RNA virus' models; acetone black beeswax recorded a depletion titer 1.66 log (10)/ml.

  17. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 25 (2010), s. 4184-4194 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Beeswax * Branched esters * Human hair * Jojoba * Mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  18. evaluation of native fungal isolates of metrahizium anisopliae var

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    damage to honey bees (Desalegn Begna, 2001;. Desalegn Begna and Amsalu Bezabeh, 2001). Damage to honey bees is the result of the direct impacts of GWM larvae and the indirect effects inflicted by adult wax moths. The damage by larvae is manifested in such a way that they eat and destroy beeswax combs, form ...

  19. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin,

  20. Evaluation of the productive development of Melipona scutellaris beehives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Lima Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stingless beekeeping has drawn the general attention of beekeepers because of the easy management and the quality of products. Nevertheless, little is known about their production and biology. The present study evaluated the development of Melipona scutellaris hives, considering the production parameters in a beekeeping environment. The growth parameter of hives is food storage. In the case of M. scutellaris, storage is made inside beeswax pots. Therefore, beeswax pots in the hives were classified and counted as nectar pots, pollen pots, open pots, closed pots and empty pots. Hive dimensions were also taken and evaluated. The results indicated that hives show different amounts of pots that vary as a function of the number of individuals in the hive. It was confirmed that the availability of food resources determines the utilization of food storage, i.e., if there is resource limitation and foraging is compromised, bees utilize the food that is stored inside the pots.

  1. Experimental investigation on phase change materials as heating element for non-electric neonatal incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matahari, Rho Natta; Putra, Nandy; Ariantara, Bambang; Amin, Muhammad; Prawiro, Erwin

    2017-02-01

    High number of preterm births is one of the issues in improving health standard. The effort to help premature babies is hampered by high cost of NICU care in hospital. In addition, uneven distribution of electricity to remote area made it hard to operate the incubator. Utilization of phase change material beeswax to non-electricity incubator as heating element becomes alternative option to save premature babies. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the most efficient mass of beeswax according to Indonesian National Standard to earn over time and ideal temperature of incubator. Experiment was performed using prototype incubator, which utilizes natural convection phenomenon in the heating process of incubator. Utilization of fin is to accelerate heat distribution in the incubator. Result of experiment showed that the most efficient mass of PCM is 3 kg, which has 2.45 hours of running time for maintaining temperature of incubator in range of 32-36 °C.

  2. Protective behaviour monitoring on wood photo-degradation by spectroscopic techniques coupled with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Giuseppe; Calienno, Luca; Pelosi, Claudia; Scacchi, Martina; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Agresti, Giorgia; Picchio, Rodolfo; Santamaria, Ulderico; Serranti, Silvia; Monaco, Angela Lo

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the investigation on the effect of protective materials on poplar (Populus sp.) wood modifications as consequence of artificial photo-degradation in controlled environment. The novelty of this work is to try to understand what happens to wood surface under the protective layer. Shellac, beeswax and Linfoil® were tested to compare traditional and novel products generally used for wood. The samples, uncovered and covered by these protective layers, were artificially aged. Colour and chemical modifications due to ageing were investigated at different time intervals by reflectance spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. The obtained data were elaborated by statistical and chemometric tools in order to verify their significance and to assess the relationship between groups of measurements. The results highlighted that shellac, beeswax and Linfoil® materials have a very low protective effect on wood photo-degradation for long times of exposure, by little reducing the changes of wood components.

  3. Optical Properties and Crystallization of Natural Waxes at Several Annealing Temperatures: a Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Xinlong

    2018-03-01

    The thermal analysis and optical properties of paraffin wax, beeswax, and liquid paraffin annealed at variable temperatures have been conducted using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) coupled with SEM methods. The characteristic optical properties of natural waxes can be used to analyze natural wax adulteration. The lamellar structure of paraffin wax and beeswax grew by a sheet of chain expansion. Furthermore, the crystallization process of paraffin wax can be assigned: rotator-solid transition and liquid-solid ones. According to the temperature-dependent refractive index curves, the refractive index of paraffin wax varies from large to small followed by rotator-liquid transition, untreated one, and liquid-solid one, respectively. The results indicated that THz-TDS has been proved to be of great potential in identification the crystallization of waxes.

  4. Painting the Palace of Apries I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Cecilie; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Di Crescenzo, Marta Melchiorre

    2018-01-01

    of compounds belonging to the chemical families identified by FTIR. The detection of polysaccharides in the paint layers on the capital and on two of the fragments indicates the use of plant gums as binding media. The interpretation of the sugar profiles was not straightforward so botanical classification......, the second protein indicates that either the paint layer was bound in a mixture of different binding materials or that the paint layer, bound in a plant gum, was then coated with a proteinaceous material. The surface of two of the investigated samples was partially covered by translucent waxy materials...... that were identified as a synthetic wax (applied during old conservation treatments) and as beeswax, respectively. It is possible that the beeswax is of ancient origin, selectively applied on yellow areas in order to create a certain glossiness or highlight specific elements....

  5. Plasticiser Effect on Water Vapour Permeability Properties of Locust bean gum--Based Edible Films

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Özgür Altan; TUTAŞ, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The barrier properties of edible films prepared from polysaccharide polymer (locust bean gum) and various plasticisers (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 200) together with hydrophobic modifiers (stearopten and beeswax) were examined. It was determined that the films containing polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and sorbitol have the lowest water vapour permeability values and the films containing glycerol have the highest WVP values. It was found that the ...

  6. Use of Propolis chemical and Asian tiger mosquito bites : case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a substance of variable composition which incorporates resins derived from plants and beeswax. It varies depending on the geographic location and local flora such as plant and bee species. Propolis possesses several attributes such as immune enhancement, antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic as well as reported anti-tumour effects.1,2 Several research efforts have focused on studying the chemical composition of propolis.3-7 The diverse biological activity probably relates in part ...

  7. Proceedings of the International Congress (12th), Corrosion Control for Low-Cost Reliability, Held in Houston, Texas on September 19 -24, 1993. Volume 1. Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-24

    techniques for investigating the coating/metal interface. Auger, X-ray photoelectron, M6ssbauer, NMR, FTIR , dielectric, vibrational and positron...0.5 M NaCl. Blanking Off Procedure. The backs and sides of the specimens were coated with a Colophony Rosin /Beeswax mixture (3/1). This is applied...NaOH, Heat FTIR was utilized to determine if there are differences in solid fluorescein and fluorescin. Fluorescin is prepared by making a

  8. [History and uses of honey, mead and hive products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Claude; Doré, Jean-Christophe

    2003-01-01

    From Antiquity to marketing of cane sugar, and beet sugar in particular, honey was greatly consumed for its sweetening power; it was also employed for its therapeutic properties. Actually, it is always used in feeding and dietetic, and only as popular remedy. The hive products: pollen, propolis, royal jelly, introduced for few decades in dietetic meet show a great commercial passion; the beeswax was excipient in beauty care. These different aspects are developed in this study.

  9. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Nano-pulverization of poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points by a rotation/revolution pulverizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuminoki, K; Takeda, M; Kitamura, K; Numata, S; Kimura, K; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N

    2012-08-01

    We report a method for pulverizing poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points to nanoparticles without producing an amorphous phase using a rotation/revolution pulverizer. Fenofibrate, flurbiprofen, and probucol were used as crystalline model compounds. They were suspended in a methylcellulose aqueous solution and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. Beeswax, an amorphous compound, was also examined to investigate whether nano-pulverization of a compound with a low melting point was possible. Beeswax was suspended in ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. By optimizing the pulverization parameters, nanoparticles (D50 revolution speed of 1000 rpm and a rotation/revolution ratio of 1.0 when the vessel was 0 degrees C. Amorphous fenofibrate and flurbiprofen were not detected by differential scanning calorimetry or powder X-ray diffraction, whereas small amounts of amorphous probucol were detected. Beeswax was pulverized to nanoparticles (D50 = 0.14 microm) with ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen. Fine nanoparticles of these poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points were obtained by controlling the rotation/revolution speed and reducing the vessel temperature.

  11. The effect of microwax composition on the staining quality of Klowong Batik Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batik is one of the most highly developed Indonesian art forms that had been designated by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Batik wax is considered as the main material to make Batik, especially for handmade Batik in which the pattern and carve applied directly by the artisans. Melted wax (Malam is made from a mixture of melted damar mata kucing, gondorukem, beeswax, and paraffin. This study aimed to substitute the beeswax which was difficult to find into microwax made from paraffin which is available in huge amount as well as easily searchable. Microwax varied as many as four samples with the equal variable. The samples were then tested used Spectrophotometer to test the colour difference, colour ageing test, rub test (wet, dry, and endurance soap. The results showed that microwax can be used to substitute the function of beeswax with appropriate composition. It is highly expected that the increasing of melted wax quality can increase the quality of Batik itself as well as the preservation of Indonesian Batik as a cultural heritage.

  12. First results on headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of volatile organic compounds emitted by wax objects in museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuati-Derieux, A; Thao, S; Langlois, J; Regert, M

    2008-04-11

    Sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a large variety of materials is nowadays a very useful technique for analytical purpose. In the field of cultural heritage, it can be applied to identify some constituents of museum artefacts off-gassing VOCs without sampling on the object itself. In this study, we focused on objects made of wax. First volatiles emitted by a reference beeswax were trapped and identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This allowed to identify numerous volatile biomarkers, namely saturated n-alkanes from C(10) to C(21), saturated n-carboxylic acids containing 6-12 carbon atoms, benzene and cinnamic derivatives that may be considered as volatile biomarkers of beeswax. The SPME strategy was then performed at the Orsay museum (Paris) in a showcase containing a wax sculpture "Le Mineur de la Loire" by J.-J. Carriès. The use of beeswax in this sculpture was unequivocally confirmed by the VOCs concentrated in the showcase, together with a set of characteristic molecular compounds identified by HT-GC/MS. HS-SPME-GC/MS thus appears to be a powerful in situ and non-invasive analytical technique that allows to identify natural substances in the field of cultural heritage without any sampling of solid matter from the object. The results obtained are promising for orientating the strategy of preventive conservation related to works of art characterised by important emission of VOCs.

  13. SIMULATION OF VINPOCETINE RELEASE PROCESS FROM MICROCAPSULES WITH HYDROPHOBIC SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Polkovnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays microcapsules are widely spread in different industries. Microcapsules with vitamins, etheric and fatty oils are included into different cosmetics (creams, gels, serums. Microencapsulated probiotics are used in foods and fodder additives in veterinary. An important field of application of microencapsulation in pharmacy is the combination in the total dosage of drugs that are incompatible when mixed in free form.The aim of work is a comparative analysis of thermodynamic characteristics of vinpocetine release from the melt of beeswax and cacao butter 3:2 into water, solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M and ethanol.Materials and methods. For simulation of the process of vinpocetine release from the melt into different environments models component models of the studied systems were built and their atom charges were calculated by quantum-chemical method. Spatial models of the components were built in Hyper Chem 8.01. As an initial state for the thermodynamic characteristics of the calculation of vinpocetine release from the melt, a conformation of «melt-vinpocetine» system was used after thermodynamic equilibration by molecular dynamics simulation in Bioeurica program for 5 ns. For isolated systems a vibrational analysis was performed with the use of unrestricted Hartree-Fock method in STO-3G basis set in Orca 4.0 program.Results and discussion. Vinpocetine release from the melt of beeswax and cacao butter 3:2 into water with different pH values and to ethanol depends on its solubility in these environments, and also on solubility of the melt.Conclusion. The performed study of vinpocetine release from the melt of beeswax and cacao butter 3:2 by molecular dynamics simulation demonstrates the opportunity of vinpocetine release into water with pH=2 and into ethanol. The obtained results make it possible to assume a lower degree of vinpocetine release from the melt into ethanol compared with the solution of hydrochloric acid 0,01 M.

  14. Management of the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella with Neem Azal- T/S, in the Laboratory and under Semi-Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbehery Huda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S were used in an artificial diet, to study the mortality of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. A Neem formulation and different ages of natural beeswax combs were used for the effective management of the wax moth. While the diet was being prepared, Neem Azal-T/S was directly added ensure that the Neem formulation was distributed evenly in the diet at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. The obtained results showed that the different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S mixed in the prepared artificial diet had a significant efficacy against the tested 2nd instar larvae. An outstanding elongation of the 2nd larval instar was clear in comparison with the control, even at the least tested concentration (0.25%. Neem Azal-T/S at 4, 2,1, and 0.5% caused 100% mortality for all tested larvae. When using a 4% concentration, all the tested larvae died in the 2nd instar. However, when using a 2% concentration, the larvae died in the fifth instar. When using a decreased concentration of 1.0 and 0.5%, some of the larvae were tolerant and lived till the 6th instar. Feeding the larvae on beeswax combs treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, caused 100% mortality when fed on very old wax. When the diet was old wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 91% mortality was recorded. When the diet was new wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 90% mortality was recorded. A 4% Neem formulation caused mortality for all larvae during the first week of treatment on the different tested ages of beeswax combs.

  15. APPLICATION OF DRY HAWTHORN (CRATAEGUS OXYACANTHA L.) EXTRACT IN NATURAL TOPICAL FORMULATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmakiene, Ada; Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Petrikaite, Vilma; Jakstas, Valdas; Briedis, Vitalis

    2016-07-01

    There is a great potential for a semi-solid preparation for topical application to the skin that would use materials of natural origin not only as an active substance but also as its base. The aim of this research was to model semisolid preparations containing hawthorn extract and to determine the effect of their bases (carriers) on the release of active components from experimental dosage forms, based on the results of the in vitro studies of the bioactivity of hawthorn active components and ex vivo skin penetration studies. The active compounds of hawthorn were indentified and quantified by validated HPLC method. The antimicrobial and anti-radical activity of dry hawthorn extract were evaluated by methods in vitro. The penetration of active substances into the full undamaged human skin was evaluated by method ex vivo. Natural topical composition was chosen according to the results of release of active compounds. Release experiments were performed with modified Franz type diffusion cells. B.ceieus was the most sensitive bacteria for the hawthorn extract. Extract showed antiradical activity, however the penetration was limited. Only traces of hyperoside and isoquercitrin were founded in epidermis. Protective topical preparation with shea butter released 41.4-42.4% of active substances. Four major compounds of dry hawthorn extract were identified. The research showed that extract had antimicrobial and antiradical activity, however compounds of hawthorn stay on the surface of the undamaged human skin. Topical preparation containing beeswax did not release active compounds. Beeswax was identified as suspending agent. Topical preparations released active compounds when shea butter was used instead of beeswax.

  16. Beeswax–chitosan emulsion coated paper with enhanced water vapor barrier efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xiao, Huining; Qian, Liying

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The water vapor barrier efficiency of paper was enhanced via green-based emulsion coating. • Extremely high lipid content in the emulsion coating layer was firstly utilized to reduce WVTR in emulsion-based film. • A controlled WVTR of beeswax–chitosan emulsion coating could be obtained by dying at specific temperature. - Abstract: For lipid–hydrocolloid emulsion based film, the increase of lipid amount would improve its water vapor barrier property, but also reduce the mechanical strength of the film in the meantime thus leading to a compromised lipid content in the film. However, when the emulsion is coated on paper surface, more lipid could be used for emulsion preparation to enhance the moisture resistance without considering the weakened strength of the film induced by lipid, because the mechanical properties of emulsion coated paper is mainly governed by the strength of base paper instead of the coating layer. In this study, beeswax–chitosan emulsion was first prepared and then coated on paper surface to improve paper's water vapor barrier and water resistance properties. The range and variance analysis of orthogonal test design showed that the order of priorities of the factors accordingly was beeswax solid content, drying temperature and chitosan concentration. The effect of drying temperature on water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and water contact angle of coated paper was further investigated using 1.2 wt% chitosan and 96% beeswax solid content in the coating layer. The results indicated that water vapor barrier property was in accordance with the density of the coating layer. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was also used to characterize the surface morphology and explain the hydrophobicity of beeswax–chitosan coated paper. It was found that surface beeswax particles melted to wrinkle at high drying temperatures, while roughness values maintained at micro-scale over the temperature range investigated

  17. Preparation, properties and applications of wheat gluten edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TANADA-PALMU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible films from wheat gluten were prepared with various amounts of glycerol as a plasticizer. Water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percentage elongation at break at different water activities ( aw were measured. Films with low amounts of glycerol had lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break. Wheat gluten coatings reduced weight loss during two weeks of storage for cherry tomatoes and sharon fruits compared to uncoated controls. A bilayer film of wheat gluten and beeswax significantly lowered weight loss from coated cheese cubes compared to single layer coating of wheat gluten.;

  18. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti; Masoumi, Hamid; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-01-01

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w)—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to opti...

  19. Hair color, molt, and testis size in male, short-tailed weasels treated with melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, C C; Meyer, R K

    1969-08-29

    Melatonin in beeswax was implanted in male weasels (Mustela erminea). Brown weasels and white animals undergoing the spring change to the brown pelage and reproductive activity molted, grew a new white coat, and became reproductively quiescent after treatment. Controls retained or acquired the brown coat and developed or maintained enlarged testes. Treated weasels with pituitary autografts under the kidney capsule grew brown hair after hair growth was initiated by plucking. It is suggested that the pineal gland product, melatonin, initiates changes in the central nervous system and endocrines which result in molting, growth of the white winter pelage, and reproductive quiescence in the weasel.

  20. BEE AS ENVIRONMENTAL BIOINDICATOR: FIRST RESULTS IN PIEDMONT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guaraldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many investigators have employed honeybees or honeybee products (honey, wax, pollen as tools for assessing environmental pollution in industrial areas. Several reports refer of their utility in monitoring environmental radionuclides or heavy metal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact of pollution on Biella area, located in the east of Piedmont region. A survey of 6 apiaries was carried out, samples of: honey, beeswax, bees and pollen were collected and analyzed for: pesticides and PCB, neonicotinoides and heavy metal; by GC/MS, LC/MS/MS or AAS. We found 23% of samples of bees contained neonicotinoides, suggesting the correlation with bees mortality.

  1. Characterisation of embalming materials of a mummy of the Ptolemaic era. Comparison with balms from mummies of different eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchapla, Alain; Méjanelle, Philippe; Bleton, Jean; Goursaud, Serge

    2004-02-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been used to determine the nature of organic materials used in mummification balms. A comparative analysis of samples taken from Egyptian mummies is developed. The results are given in two parts. First, it is shown that the chemical composition of the balm is practically independent of the part of the mummy from which it is taken. This study was done on a Ptolemaic mummy (circa 100 BC from the Guimet Museum in Lyon). Fats, beeswax, and diterpenic resins were the main components: they were found everywhere. Castor oil was also very often detected (in half of the samples). This particular fat is present in the balm inside the thorax but not in the skull. Moreover it is shown that a vegetable tannin was employed. Components indicative of vegetable tannin input (gallic acid and inositols) were found in seven samples out of eighteen, particularly close to the body and on the canopic pack of the heart. Secondly, some conclusions from a comparative study of the composition of balms from mummies of various social levels as well as of different Egyptian periods are reported. It is shown that beeswax was used as from very early times (XVIIIth dynasty). The mixture of beeswax, fats, and diterpenoid resins would appear to be more recent. The balms of three mummies dating from more recent Egyptian periods (XIXth to XXVth dynasty) were analysed. No evidence of a resin, gum-resin, or plant gum could be found. Some mummies would appear to have been embalmed with fats or beeswax. Finally, the entrails canopic pack said to belong to Ramses II undoubtedly shows an embalming process with a triterpenic resin of the mastic type. The adopted analytical methodology enabled us to achieve simultaneous detection of four components of the balm of the Ptolemaic mummy. Analysis of the other five mummies revealed far less complex chemical compositions for the balms. This may be an indication of different embalming processes, although we should bear in

  2. Organic Residues Analysis: The Case of a Beaker Found in Theban Necropolis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perla COLOMBINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous organic residues collected from a ceramic vessel from a tomb excavated in the Theban Necropolis (Egypt were chemically investigated by an analytical procedure based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Little is known about Egyptian ceramic vessels, thus retrieving valuable information on the use of ceramics from the chemical analyses of organic residues was a key aspect of this work. The results showed that the vessel was used in connection with a number of substances such as beeswax, fat/oil and Pinaceae resin. This enabled us to draw hypotheses on the possible function of artefact in connection with mummification practices.

  3. Environmental contaminants of honeybee products in Uganda detected using LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ruth Amulen

    Full Text Available Pollinator services and the development of beekeeping as a poverty alleviating tool have gained considerable focus in recent years in sub-Saharan Africa. An improved understanding of the pervasive environmental extent of agro-chemical contaminants is critical to the success of beekeeping development and the production of clean hive products. This study developed and validated a multi-residue method for screening 36 pesticides in honeybees, honey and beeswax using LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD. Of the 36 screened pesticides, 20 were detected. The highest frequencies occurred in beeswax and in samples from apiaries located in the proximity of citrus and tobacco farms. Fungicides were the most prevalent chemical class. Detected insecticides included neonicotinoids, organophosphates, carbamates, organophosphorus, tetrazines and diacylhydrazines. All detected pesticide levels were below maximum residue limits (according to EU regulations and the lethal doses known for honeybees. However, future risk assessment is needed to determine the health effects on the African genotype of honeybees by these pesticide classes and combinations of these. In conclusion, our data present a significant challenge to the burgeoning organic honey sector in Uganda, but to achieve this, there is an urgent need to regulate the contact routes of pesticides into the beehive products. Interestingly, the "zero" detection rate of pesticides in the Mid-Northern zone is a significant indicator of the large potential to promote Ugandan organic honey for the export market.

  4. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-10-16

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  5. Optimization Of Rheological Properties In The Formulation Of An Ointment Base From Natural Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Tsatsop

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize the formulation of ointment base by using statistical mixture design. Screening of hard thickeners Palm Stearin Beef Tallow and Beeswax was done to choose the best hard thickener or combination of hard thickeners whose nature and proportions would give the best semi-solid and consistent ointment with desired rheological properties Spreadability viscosity hardness. Contour plots of each response were depicted based on the equation given by the statistical-fitted models. The optimum area for the ointment base properties were located and the combination BeeswaxPalm stearinBeef Tallow was chosen. Other optimization was done to check the contribution of different factors Hard Thickener Soft Thickener and Lubricant on the rheological properties and their correlation. A strong inverse correlation was found to exist between the spreadability and the viscosity of the ointment base 91. A multi-response optimization was done to obtain a combined optimum proportion of ingredients that gave us 5 HT 84ST and 11 L. It can be concluded that the ointment base obtained with optimal rheological and drug release properties can be used for cosmetic and pharmacological applications. The plant extracts can be incorporated in this matrix for herbal ointments.

  6. Evaluating skin-protective materials against contact irritants and allergens. An in vivo screening human model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1998-03-01

    2 acute irritants and 1 allergen were selected: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) representative of irritant household and occupational contact dermatitis, the combination of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and urea to simulate diaper dermatitis, and Rhus to evaluate the effect of model protective materials. The putative protective materials and vehicle were applied to both ventral forearms of 10 subjects in each group, according to a randomized code. Test materials were spread over a marked 2.0 cm2 area, massaged in, allowed to dry for 30 min, and reapplied with another 30 min drying period. The model irritants and allergen were then applied (0.025 ml) to an Al-test occlusive patch, which in turn was placed for 24 h over each of the 8 designated sites. Inflammation was scored according to a clinical scale 72 h post-application. Paraffin wax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, and beeswax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, markedly (p < 0.001) suppressed SLS irritation. Paraffin wax plus beeswax in cetyl alcohol, and Acetulan in cetyl alcohol reduced NH4OH and urea irritation (p < 0.05), paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol significantly (p < 0.01) decreasing Rhus allergic contact dermatitis. This model, provides an easy approach to screening protectants. Its clinical significance requires comparison with an open rather than an occluded challenge.

  7. Therapeutic Properties of Bioactive Compounds from Different Honeybee Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cornara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized. Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs, and oligosaccharides. In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities. Propolis contains caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C, specific of Brazilian propolis, with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Bee venom consists of toxic peptides like pain-inducing melittin, SK channel blocking apamin, and allergenic phospholipase A2. Bee pollen is vitaminic, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics, as well as antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols. Beeswax is widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.

  8. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermodynamic Studies of Nanoemulsion-Based Transdermal Delivery System for Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Loong Ngan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated in palm kernel oil esters stabilized by low amount of mixed nonionic surfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were established in the colloidal system of PKOEs/Tween 80 : Span 80/water incorporated with fullerene as antioxidant. Preformulation was subjected to combination of high and low energy emulsification methods and the physicochemical characteristics of fullerene nanoemulsions were analyzed using electroacoustic spectrometer. Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsions with particle sizes in the range of 70–160 nm were formed. The rheological characteristics of colloidal systems exhibited shear thinning behavior which fitted well into the power law model. The effect of xanthan gum (0.2–1.0%, w/w and beeswax (1–3%, w/w in the estimation of thermodynamics was further studied. From the energetic parameters calculated for the viscous flow, a moderate energy barrier for transport process was observed. Thermodynamic study showed that the enthalpy was positive in all xanthan gum and beeswax concentrations indicating that the formation of nanoemulsions could be endothermic in nature. Fullerene nanoemulsions with 0.6% or higher xanthan gum content were found to be stable against creaming and flocculation when exposed to extreme environmental conditions.

  9. Therapeutic Properties of Bioactive Compounds from Different Honeybee Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Biagi, Marco; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized. Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides. In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities. Propolis contains caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C, specific of Brazilian propolis, with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Bee venom consists of toxic peptides like pain-inducing melittin, SK channel blocking apamin, and allergenic phospholipase A2. Bee pollen is vitaminic, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics, as well as antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols. Beeswax is widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.

  10. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermodynamic Studies of Nanoemulsion-Based Transdermal Delivery System for Fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Mahiran; Tripathy, Minaketan; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated in palm kernel oil esters stabilized by low amount of mixed nonionic surfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were established in the colloidal system of PKOEs/Tween 80 : Span 80/water incorporated with fullerene as antioxidant. Preformulation was subjected to combination of high and low energy emulsification methods and the physicochemical characteristics of fullerene nanoemulsions were analyzed using electroacoustic spectrometer. Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions with particle sizes in the range of 70–160 nm were formed. The rheological characteristics of colloidal systems exhibited shear thinning behavior which fitted well into the power law model. The effect of xanthan gum (0.2–1.0%, w/w) and beeswax (1–3%, w/w) in the estimation of thermodynamics was further studied. From the energetic parameters calculated for the viscous flow, a moderate energy barrier for transport process was observed. Thermodynamic study showed that the enthalpy was positive in all xanthan gum and beeswax concentrations indicating that the formation of nanoemulsions could be endothermic in nature. Fullerene nanoemulsions with 0.6% or higher xanthan gum content were found to be stable against creaming and flocculation when exposed to extreme environmental conditions. PMID:25165736

  11. Golden Perception: Simulating Perceptual Habits of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medieval times were neither dark nor grey; natural light illuminated colourful scenes depicted in paintings through coloured windows and via artificial beeswax candlelight. When we enter, for example, a church to inspect its historic treasures ranging from mosaics to depictions of saints, we do this under quite unfavourable conditions; particularly as we mainly depend on artificial halogen, LED or fluorescent light for illuminating the desired object. As these light spectrums are different from the natural light conditions under which the old masterpieces were previously developed and perceived, the perceptual effects may dramatically differ, leading to significantly altered affective and cognitive processing. Different qualities of processing might particularly be triggered when perceiving artworks which deal with specific material prone to strong interaction with idiosyncratic light conditions, for instance gold-leafed surfaces that literally start to glow when lit by candles. We tested the perceptual experiences of a figurative piece of art which we created in 3 (foreground by 3 (background versions, illuminated under three different light conditions (daylight, coloured light and beeswax candlelight. Results demonstrated very different perceptual experiences with stunning effects for the interaction of the specific painting depicted on a gold-leafed background lit by candlelight.

  12. The resistance of surfaces treated with oils and waxes to the action of dry heat

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    Jaić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment of wood can be done with different coatings, and the choice of the appropriate system of processing depends on several factors, such as technological, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Raising awareness of the need to preserve the living and working environment has had a crucial impact on the increase in the use of natural materials for surface treatment of wood - oil and wax. The application of oils and waxes allows surface treated wood to keep the natural look, while protecting it from different influences, which can cause degradation and deterioration of the final product. The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of beech surface (Fagus silvatica L. processed with linseed oil and beeswax to the action of dry heat. In order to compare the quality of surface treated with oil and/or wax, beech wood treated with 2K-polyurethane coating is taken as a reference of surface treatment of wood. Surfaces treated with beeswax are less resistant to dry heat than those treated with linseed oil, and both showed significantly less resistance than surface treated with 2K-polyurethane coating.

  13. Environmental contaminants of honeybee products in Uganda detected using LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amulen, Deborah Ruth; Spanoghe, Pieter; Houbraken, Michael; Tamale, Andrew; de Graaf, Dirk C; Cross, Paul; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Pollinator services and the development of beekeeping as a poverty alleviating tool have gained considerable focus in recent years in sub-Saharan Africa. An improved understanding of the pervasive environmental extent of agro-chemical contaminants is critical to the success of beekeeping development and the production of clean hive products. This study developed and validated a multi-residue method for screening 36 pesticides in honeybees, honey and beeswax using LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD. Of the 36 screened pesticides, 20 were detected. The highest frequencies occurred in beeswax and in samples from apiaries located in the proximity of citrus and tobacco farms. Fungicides were the most prevalent chemical class. Detected insecticides included neonicotinoids, organophosphates, carbamates, organophosphorus, tetrazines and diacylhydrazines. All detected pesticide levels were below maximum residue limits (according to EU regulations) and the lethal doses known for honeybees. However, future risk assessment is needed to determine the health effects on the African genotype of honeybees by these pesticide classes and combinations of these. In conclusion, our data present a significant challenge to the burgeoning organic honey sector in Uganda, but to achieve this, there is an urgent need to regulate the contact routes of pesticides into the beehive products. Interestingly, the "zero" detection rate of pesticides in the Mid-Northern zone is a significant indicator of the large potential to promote Ugandan organic honey for the export market.

  14. The Exposure of Honey Bees to Pesticide Residues in the Hive Environment with Regard to Winter Colony Losses

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    Pohorecka Krystyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present studies are the second part of the research project dedicated to finding the causes for increased winter mortality of honey bee colonies. The aim of this task was to investigate incidents of overwintered colonies′ death with regard to the potential interrelation to the exposure to pesticides. The samples of winter stores of bee bread and sugar food (honey or syrup processed by bees, beeswax and bees collected from apiaries with low and high rates of winter colony mortality were searched for acaricides used to control V. destructor and plant protection pesticides. The presence of acaricides used in apiculture has been detected in the 51% beeswax samples. The most abundant acaricide was tau-fluvalinate. The stores of bee bread and sugar food had a similar frequency of plant protection pesticide occurrence, ranging between 50-60%, but the number of active substances and their concentrations were substantially lower in sugar food samples. The most prevalent pesticides in pollen were fungicides (carbendazim and boscalid and insecticides (acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Only a few pesticides were found in the several dead honey bees. The level of pesticide contamination (frequency, concentration, toxicity of hive products and bees originating from apiaries with both a high and low winter colony survival rates, was similar, which created a similar extent of risk. Although the multiple varroacides and pesticides were present in the hive environment we not found unequivocal links between their residues and high winter colony mortality.

  15. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

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    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentration and then stored at temperature of 10 0C. The results show that the fruitfly of oriental fruitfly (Bactrocera dorsalis was completely killed by treating in deep water testing at temperature of 46 0C for 10 minutes or at 43 0C for 30 minutes. The VHT of papaya at fruit core temperature of 45.5-46.0 0C for 15-30 minutes following waxing using beeswax of 6% in concentration was found to be effective to control pest and diseases until 21 days of storage without any visible signs of heat injury and without adversely affecting the quality of the fruit.

  16. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F.; Ubertini, Lucio; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads’ matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers’ surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles’ use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz)

  17. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F. [Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States); Ubertini, Lucio [Sapienza University of Rome, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale (Italy); Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio, E-mail: mporfiri@poly.edu [Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads' matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers' surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles' use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz)

  18. In vitro effects of policosanol (Saccharum officinarum L wax alcohols on the 5-lipooxygenase enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    Full Text Available Introduction: policosanol, a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic alcohols purified from sugarcane with octacosanol as the main component, shows cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects in addition to an inhibitory effect on type I cicloxygenase. Objective: to determine whether policosanol may inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in vitro. Methods: effects on 5-LOX enzyme activities were assessed in rat blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Vehicle or Policosanol suspensions (0.6 to 6 000 µg/mL were added to tubes containing the reaction mix and then absorbance changes at 234 nm were measured. Results: added Policosanol inhibited in vitro 5-LOX activity by 30 %, which was not a significant figure but depended on the concentration(r= 0.992; p< 0.05; it was 1 250 µg/mL. Conclusions: policosanol did not significantly inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in rat PMNL preparations, so that it does not seem to be a dual inhibitor of COX and-LOX enzymes. This result differs from that found for beeswax alcohols and underlines the different effects of the mixtures of long-chain fatty alcohols purified from the sugarcane and the beeswax.

  19. SU-E-I-61: Phantom Design for Phase Contrast Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, S; Karellas, A

    2012-06-01

    Phase contrast breast imaging has the potential to improve visualization of anatomic structures. While the physics is well-understood, there are several choices for implementation. In order to evaluate these choices, it is essential to design a phantom for phase contrast imaging with appropriate breast-equivalent materials. Phantoms for mammography use materials that mimic the x-ray attenuation properties of breast tissue. Hence, the refractive index decrement (delta) was determined for breast tissues of varying glandular fraction [Hammerstein, Radiology 130(2):485-91, 1979] for the energy range (5-100 KeV) relevant to mammography and breast CT using XOP software (Version 2.3, ESRF, France) and compared to that of commonly used phantom materials. Delta for 50% and 70% glandular breast-equivalent material (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA), solid water, BR-12, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), beeswax (C46H92O2, density: 0.97 g/cm 3 ) and paraffin wax (C25H52, density: 0.95 g/cm 3 ) were determined. Microcalcifications in vivo are either of oxalate or phosphate composition. Delta of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium hydroxyapatite (CH) were determined and compared with that of calcium carbonate, gold and aluminum. In terms of delta, paraffin wax (4% higher) and beeswax (4% higher) best simulated 50% and 100% glandular breast, respectively. Delta of other commonly used phantom materials such as 50% and 70% glandular breast-equivalent material, solid water, and BR-12 were two orders of magnitude higher, and that of PMMA was 28% higher, than 50% glandular breast tissue. For microcalcifications, delta of gold was 4.6 to 6.5 times higher than that of COM and CH, respectively. Delta of aluminum and calcium carbonate were found to straddle that of COM and CH. For phase contrast imaging, a phantom comprising paraffin wax to simulate 50% glandular background tissue, beeswax to simulate a mass equivalent to 100% glandular tissue, and calcium carbonate or aluminum to simulate

  20. Sensory and volatile profiles of monofloral honeys produced by native stingless bees of the brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira da; Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2018-03-01

    Monofloral honeys produced by stingless bees M. subnitida Ducke and M. scutellaris Latrelle in typical flowering of the Brazilian semi-arid Ziziphus juazeiro Mart (juazeiro), Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (velame branco) and Mimosa arenosa willd Poir (jurema branca) were characterized in relation to volatile and sensorial profile. It identified 11 sensory descriptors and 96 volatile compounds. It was noticed a strong effect of flowering in sensorial profile and volatile of honeys. Juazeiro honey stood out with a higher characteristic aroma, taste sweet, caramel flavor and levels of aromatic aldehydes; jurema honey has been described with herb and beeswax aroma and the presence of sulfur compounds and ketones; volatile acids associated with acid taste, medicinal taste and clove aroma characterized the velame branco honey. These results demonstrate that the knowledge of the sensory and aroma profile of these honeys can contribute to characterization of its floral and geographical identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Żaneta Bargańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of chemical compounds to the environment, especially of pesticides, is one of factors that may explain present honeybee colony losses. In this work, an analytical method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was optimized for the simultaneous screening of 19 pesticides which have not been yet determined in honeybee samples from northern Poland (Pomerania. The sample preparation, based on the QuEChERS method combining salting-out liquid-liquid extraction to acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean-up, was adjusted to honeybee samples by adding a small amount of hexane to eliminate beeswax. The recovery of analytes ranged from 70% to 120% with relative standard deviation ≤20%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.91–25 ng/g. A total of 19 samples of honeybees from suspected pesticide poisoning incidents were analyzed, in which 19 different pesticides were determined.

  2. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  3. Furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Fernandes, Julio I; Correia, Thais R; de Souza, Clarissa P; Melo, Raquel M P S; Scott, Fabio B

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports a case of furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil. A crossbred shorthaired female cat of approximately 3 years old, presented with three boil-like cutaneous lesions at the left cranioventral region of the neck. These were diagnosed as furuncular myiasis. The animal was sedated, and after shaving the fur, bot-fly larvae were removed from the lesion by digital compression. Afterwards, the wounds were treated with 10% iodine solution and also with wound-healing cream containing sulfanilamide, urea and beeswax. Maggots were identified as third-stage larvae of D hominis. Clinical case reports of human bot-fly myiasis in cats are relevant due to its scarce occurrence in feline veterinary practice in some countries. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Origin and Chemical Variation of Brazilian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Salatino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a hive product containing chiefly beeswax and plant-derived substances such as resin and volatile compounds. Propolis has been used as an antiseptic and wound healer since ancient times and interest for the product has increased recently. Probably few plant species contribute as major resin sources. Green propolis derives mainly from vegetative apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plants. However, wide variation detected in the chemical composition suggests contributions from alternative resin plant sources. Predominant components of the resin of green propolis are cinnamic acids, chiefly compounds bearing prenyl groups. Terpenoid compounds, such as sesqui, di and pentacyclic triterpenoids, have been detected in many, but not all, samples investigated. Propolis research has uncovered potentialities of substances previously isolated from plants and has detected constituents of plant origin that would hardly be known otherwise.

  5. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Charumanee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examined and compared to those of beeswax, carnauba wax and paraffin wax. The results showed that the genotype of Kluai Namwa was Musa acuminata X M. balbisiana (ABB group cv. Pisang Awak. The highest amount of wax extracted was 274 μg/cm2 surface area. The fatty acid composition and the physicochemical properties of the wax were similar to those of carnauba wax. It could be suggested that the banana wax could be used as a replacement for carnauba wax in various utilizing areas.

  6. Neolithic and Eneolithic activities inferred from organic residue analysis of pottery from Mala Triglavca, Moverna vas and Ajdovska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Šoberl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper focused on the analysis and identification of organic residues either preserved as visible or absorbed organic remains on Neolithic and Eneolithic pottery from various archaeological and geographical contexts. These are connected with various food preparation strategies and past human activities, i.e. cave burials in Ajdovska jama (food as a grave good/offering, the rock shelter at Mala Triglavca (meat and dairy animal husbandry practices and Moverna vas, which had a long occupation sequence (complex farming and animal management. The preservation of biomarkers mirrored past human activities and different pottery uses at various types of sites. The carbon stable isotope ratios of primary fatty acids in lipid pottery extracts confirmed the presence of adipose and dairy fats as well as biomarkers of plant fats, beeswax and birch bark tar.

  7. STUDIES OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING ECOLOGICALLY BASED CREAM CAPSAICIN IN THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATIC DISEASE

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    Olimpia PANDIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since herbal medicine makes strides to improve or cure of diseases or serious diseases to human, wherepreparations obtained by chemical are replaced successfully with herbal preparations obtained herbs, aromatic orthose of spontaneous. Thus, in this paper, several attempts are made to prepare a capsaicin based creams antrheumatic. This product is an environmentally friendly product, 100% vegetable produced in the laboratory as abase flossing a chilli extract obtained from private household, beeswax, distilled water, alcohol and peppermint oil.By obtaining this cream was intended to improve or cure people suffering from rheumatism, to relieve pain causedby arthritis, you know, is a readily available even at home, easy to manage, with immediate good results withoutside effects.

  8. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  9. Material analysis on the crucifix in San Michele: the filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Riganti

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanesque basilica S. Michele in Pavia there is a silver foil Crucifix that dates back to the XII century. During a precise restoration work carried out in 2003 the material was analyzed in order to obtain more precise information. In particular the analysis focused on the filling materials under the silver foil and on the characterization of their resins, which, according to the results, are colophony and beeswax. The filling material for the head is very probably the original one and its binder is wax, the filler of the body is different and very probably it was reintroduced during one of the previous restoration works on the crucifix, of which unfortunately we know nothing.

  10. Exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola has no long-term impact on honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2007-06-01

    We conducted a long-term investigation to ascertain effects on honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies during and after exposure to flowering canola, Brassica napus variety Hyola 420, grown from clothianidin-treated seed. Colonies were placed in the middle of 1-ha clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields for 3 wk during bloom, and thereafter they were moved to a fall apiary. There were four treated and four control fields, and four colonies per field, giving 32 colonies total. Bee mortality, worker longevity, and brood development were regularly assessed in each colony for 130 d from initial exposure to canola. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected for 130 d, and the samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues by using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Overall, no differences in bee mortality, worker longevity, or brood development occurred between control and treatment groups throughout the study. Weight gains of and honey yields from colonies in treated fields were not significantly different from those in control fields. Although clothianidin residues were detected in honey, nectar, and pollen from colonies in clothianidin-treated fields, maximum concentrations detected were 8- to 22-fold below the reported no observable adverse effects concentration. Clothianidin residues were not detected in any beeswax sample. Assessment of overwintered colonies in spring found no differences in those originally exposed to treated or control canola. The results show that honey bee colonies will, in the long-term, be unaffected by exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola.

  11. Oral cancer diagnostics based on infrared spectral markers and wax physisorption kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Li-Fang; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Lee, Yao-Chang; Shieh, Dar-Bin

    2013-02-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy is an emerging approach for disease analysis owing to its capability for in situ chemical characterization of pathological processes. Synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) provides ultra-high spatial resolution for profiling biochemical events associated with disease progression. Spectral alterations were observed in cultured oral cells derived from healthy, precancerous, primary, and metastatic cancers. An innovative wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging method for the detection of oral precancer and cancer was demonstrated successfully. The approach is based on determining the residual amount of paraffin wax (C(25)H(52)) or beeswax (C(46)H(92)O(2)) on a sample surface after xylene washing. This amount is used as a signpost of the degree of physisorption that altered during malignant transformation. The results of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of oral cell lines indicated that the methylene (CH(2)) and methyl group (CH(3)) stretching vibrations in the range of 3,000-2,800 cm(-1) have the highest accuracy rate (89.6 %) to discriminate the healthy keratinocytes (NHOK) from cancer cells. The results of wax-physisorption-based FTIR imaging showed a stronger physisorption with beeswax in oral precancerous and cancer cells as compared with that of NHOK, which showed a strong capability with paraffin wax. The infrared kinetic study of oral cavity tissue showed a consistency in the wax physisorption of the cell lines. On the basis of our findings, these results show the potential use of wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging for the early screening of oral cancer lesions and the chemical changes during oral carcinogenesis.

  12. Vibrational sensitivity of the subgenual organ complex in female Sipyloidea sipylus stick insects in different experimental paradigms of stimulus direction, leg attachment, and ablation of a connective tibial sense organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    We document the sensitivity to sinusoidal vibrations for chordotonal organs in the stick insect tibia (Sipyloidea sipylus). In the tibia, the scolopidial subgenual organ (~40 scolopidial sensilla), distal organ (~20 scolopidial sensilla), and distal tibial chordotonal organ (~7 scolopidial sensilla) are present. We study the sensitivity of tibial sensory organs in all leg pairs to vibration stimuli as sensory thresholds by recording summed action potentials from Nervus cruris in the femur. The tibia was stimulated with a minishaker delivering vibrational stimuli. Because different experimental procedures may affect the vibration sensitivity, we here analysed possible effects of different experimental conditions: (1) the stimulus direction delivered in either horizontal or vertical direction to the leg; (2) recording responses only from the subgenual organ complex after ablation of the distal tibial chordotonal organ, and (3) the attachment of the leg to the minishaker by plastilin, beeswax-colophony, or freely standing legs. The tibial scolopidial organs give summed responses to vibration stimuli with highest sensitivity between 500 and 1000Hz for all leg pairs. In the different experimental series, we find that (1) thresholds were influenced by stimulation direction with lower thresholds in response to vertical vibrations, (2) ablating the distal tibial chordotonal organ by cutting the distal-most tibia did not change the summed sensory thresholds significantly, and (3) the attachment material between legs and the minishaker (plastilin or beeswax-colophony mixture) did not significant influence the sensory thresholds against free-standing tarsi. The distal tibial chordotonal organ is a connective chordotonal organ attached to a tendon and is likely a proprioceptive organ. These results emphasise that vibrational thresholds are mainly direction-sensitive. Thus, the direction of stimulus delivery during electrophysiological recordings is relevant for comparisons of

  13. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

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    Norsuhaili Kamairudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  14. Effects of Starch on Properties of Alumina-based Ceramic Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fengguang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the poor leachability of alumina-based ceramic cores, different amount of starch was added to the specimens as pore former. Alumina-based ceramic cores were prepared by hot injection technology using corundum powder as base material, paraffin wax and beeswax as plasticizer, silica powder and magnesium oxide powder as mineralizing agent, wherein the parameters of the hot injection process were as follows:temperature of the slurry was 90℃, hot injection pressure was 0.5 MPa and holding time was 25 s. The effects of starch content on the properties of alumina-based ceramic cores were studied and discussed. The results indicate that during sintering period, the loss of starch in the specimens makes porosity of the alumina-based ceramic cores increase. When starch content increases, the room-temperature flexural strength of the ceramic cores reduces and the apparent porosity increases; the volatile solvent increases and the bulk density decreases. After being sintered at 1560℃ for 2.5 h, room-temperature flexural strength of the alumina-based ceramic cores with starch content of 8%(mass fraction is 24.8 MPa, apparent porosity is 47.98% when the volatile solvent is 1.92 g/h and bulk density is 1.88 g/cm3, the complex properties are optimal.

  15. The Historical Evolution of Dental Impression Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochos, Ioannis; Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis

    The concept of impression making process in dentistry began in the mid 1800s. Dentists realized that the construction of a prosthetic restoration required both a detailed capture of the oral tissues along with stone cast fabrications. To accomplish these goals, impression materials were essential. Beeswax represents the first impression material, while important bechmarks during the historical evolution of dental impression materials are considered to be the introduction of dental trays in the early 1800s and the invention of the gutta-percha, thermoplastic resins and plaster of Paris. The double (corrective) impression technique, along with the functional impression concept that was established after mid 1800s, are also identified as pivotal innovations. During the 20th century, the advances in material development slowed significantly since the majority of the current impression materials had already been invented. However, the introduction of elastomeric impression materials in the field of prosthodontics that offered the advantages of accuracy and dimensional stability substantially upgraded both the impression accuracy and the quality of the final restoration. Presently, the dental practitioner has access to a variety of impression materials and should be aware of their properties, indications and limitations as well. Futhermore, while continuous attempts are being made to enhance these materials, the ideal impression material has yet to be developed. The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review about the historical development of impression dental materials. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  16. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  17. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes da Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control, EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance. The results obtained in the open field and in the elevated plus maze assay showed spontaneous locomotion preserved and anxiolytic-like activity. In the forced swimming test, EEYP demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. In the inhibitory avoidance test, EEYP showed mnemonic activity at 30 mg/kg. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the extract reduced the production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde without changing level of total antioxidant, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, induced by behavioral stress. Our results highlight that EEYP emerges as a promising anxiolytic, antidepressant, mnemonic, and antioxidant natural product.

  18. Contribution to the study of the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and precipitated sulphur employing emulsified solid greases like vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Navarro, Martha

    2001-01-01

    This research evaluated the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, precipitated sulphur and titanium dioxide. By using emulsified vehicles of three solid greases: stearilic alcohol, stearic acid and beeswax. That varies the concentration of solid grease (2%, 4%, 6 %) and the velocity of agitation for the emulsified vehicle's preparation (250, 500, 750 revolutions by minutes). That got 81 suspensions, 27 for every grease employed. The following effects there were evaluated like indicators of the physical stability of the suspensions: volume of sediment, apparent viscosity, facility of resuspension. There was effected an analysis of the varying of two controlled factors to establish the importance since the statistical viewpoint of the variants of the process over the volume of the sediment. This study indicates that the selection of solid grease is an parameter which influence is significant, what supports the got data through the research. By giving as a result that the stearilic alcohol is the most competent vehicle for the preparation of these suspensions. (Author) [es

  19. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Ju Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.

  20. An Investigation of Optimum NLC-Sunscreen Formulation Using Taguchi Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Chi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used three kinds of wax and three kinds of oil, with fixed mixture ratio including UV-blocking materials of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, and avobenzone, and applied hot high-pressure homogenization process to prepare nanolipid sunscreen formulations. The measured particle size of the sunscreen formulations was 100~300 nm around PDI of 0.2 having a moderate polydisperse system. The distribution of zeta potential was −50 mV to −35 mV, showing a stable system. The UV light-absorbing range of 9 groups of sunscreen formulations was 275 nm~380 nm ranging within UVA and UVB. The rheological analysis found that the viscosity change is shear, thinning exhibiting colloid behavior. Taguchi analysis found that the optimum combinations are the carnauba wax and the blackcurrant oil combination for crystallinity and the beeswax and CPG oil for UV absorption. In addition, UV-blocking ability shows that the SPF was 51.5 and PFA was three stars for SU9 formulation. Finally, the effect of temperature on the properties of sunscreen formulations was also explored.

  1. The texture, sensory properties and stability of cookies prepared with wax oleogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Shortening is the essential component of high quality baked foods. Its effects on dough structure formation and the desired final product attributes depend mostly on its solid fat content and β' crystalline polymorphs. Saturated and trans fatty acids present in shortening pose some important negative health considerations. Hence, alternative plastic fats with lower or zero quantity of saturated and trans fatty acids are in high demand. Oleogels are gel networks of liquid edible oils with no trans and very low saturated fatty acids. In this study, sunflower wax (SW) and beeswax (BW) oleogels of hazelnut oil were used in cookie preparation against commercial bakery shortening (CBS) as the control, to compare the textural, sensory and stability properties of the cookies. The basic chemical composition, textural properties, and some physical attributes of the cookies were compared. Sensory texture/flavor profile analysis (T/FPA) and consumer hedonic tests were also accomplished. Furthermore, the changes in cookie texture and stability were monitored during 30 day storage at room temperature. It was found out that in almost all properties, the oleogel cookies resembled CBS cookies. T/FPA results present detailed data for literature. Consumer hedonic scores indicated that oleogel cookies were better than CBS cookies and were also well accepted by consumers. Wax oleogels can be used as cookie shortening successfully.

  2. Localization of double bonds in wax esters by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the fragmentation of acetonitrile-related adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Háková, Martina; Pecková, Karolina; Urbanová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef

    2011-04-15

    Unsaturated wax esters (WEs) provided molecular adducts with C(3)H(5)N ([M + 55](+•)) in APCI sources in the presence of acetonitrile. CID MS/MS of [M + 55](+•) yielded fragments allowing the localization of double bond(s) in the hydrocarbon chains of the WEs. These fragments were formed by a cleavage on each side of the double bond. In methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated WEs, diagnostic fragments related to each double bond were detected; the most abundant were those corresponding to the cleavage of the C-C bond next to the first and the last double bond. To differentiate between those fragments differing in their structure or origin, a simple nomenclature based on α and ω ions has been introduced. Fragmentation of the α-type ions (fragments containing an ester bond) provided information on the occurrence of a double bond in the acid or alcohol part of the WEs. While no significant differences between the spectra of the WEs differing by cis/trans isomerism were found, the isomers were separated chromatographically. A data-dependent HPLC/APCI-MS(2) method for the comprehensive characterization of WEs in their complex mixtures has been developed and applied to natural mixtures of WEs isolated from jojoba oil and beeswax. More than 50 WE molecular species were completely identified, including the information on the acid and alcohol chain length and the position of the double bonds. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheb, Fatma; Benamara, Salem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design. First, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. The responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (YSp) and viscosity (YVis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (X1), the aqueous date seed extract (X2), and the beeswax (X3). Second, the cosmetic stability study was conducted by applying a full factorial design. Here, three responses were considered [spreadability (Sp), viscosity (Vis), and peroxide index (PI)], the independent variables being the concentration of the date seed oil (DSO) (x1), storage temperature (x2), and storage time (x3). Results showed that in the case of mixture design, the second-order polynomial equations correctly described experimental data. Globally, results show that there is a relatively wide composition range to ensure a suitable cosmetic cream from the point of view of Sp and Vis. Regarding the cosmetic stability, the storage time was found to be the most influential factor on both Vis and PI, which are considered here as indicators of physical and chemical stability of the emulsion, respectively. Finally, the elaborated and commercial cosmetics were compared in terms of pH, Sp, and centrifugation test (Ct).

  4. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Technological Challenges for Spray Chilling Encapsulation of Functional Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray chilling technology (also known as spray cooling and spray congealing technology has been widely studied and used in the pharmaceutical field. In the food industry, this technique is gaining interest and can become useful because functional food formulations can be developed. Spray chilling is a fat-based system, which involves the addition of the component of interest to a molten lipid carrier, and the resulting mixture is fed through an atomiser nozzle. When the nebulised material is put into contact with the environment, which is cooled below the melting point of the matrix material, the vehicle solidifies (due to heat exchange between the molten material and cold air, and solid lipid microparticles are formed at the same time. This technology is fat based, and lipid carriers, such as wax and oil (e.g. palm oil, beeswax, cocoa butter, and kernel oil can be used. This encapsulation technique can potentially change the functionality, reduce the hygroscopicity, mask taste or odour, change solubility, and provide physical protection in addition to allowing the controlled release of these ingredients. This low-cost technology is relatively simple to apply and scale up, and it does not require the use of organic solvents and the application of high temperatures in the process. Therefore, spray chilling encapsulation may facilitate the development and production of functional and enriched foods as it may solve some technological problems associated with the use of certain ingredients, such as those that have high reactivity and low stability.

  6. Le cas des beurres végétaux et des cires d’origine naturelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossow Véronique

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural waxes such as Beeswax, Carnauba wax and Candelilla wax are widely used in the Cosmetic and Food industries. Thanks to their composition, and besides a compulsory high safety, they provide desirable properties such as strength, gloss, emolliency, barrier effect, making them essential in numerous applications. For example, lots of candies are coated with either one or a mix of these 3 waxes, while for Cosmetics, the waxy part of lipsticks contains various combinations of such waxes. Within the cosmetic industry, the “green wave” – natural products – which is developing to the detriment of synthetic or mineral raw materials, has generated know-hows to enlighten new values to natural resources. Several types of developments have occurred: managing to substitute materials facing bad press (ex: petrolatum, lanolin, mimicking trendy “butter-like” textures either by adequate mixture or by chemical reaction to offer alternatives to overused Shea or Cupuaçu Butter, or as a result of more recent research programs, identifying natural waxes acting more like active ingredients than “just” like excipients (Mimosa Flower wax, Lemon Peel or Orange Peel waxes, etc..

  7. Natural lipids-based NLC containing lidocaine: from pre-formulation to in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Breitkreitz, Márcia C; Guilherme, Viviane A; da Silva, Gustavo H R; Couto, Verônica M; Castro, Simone R; de Paula, Bárbara O; Machado, Daisy; de Paula, Eneida

    2017-08-30

    In a nanotechnological approach we have investigated the use of natural lipids in the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Three different NLC composed of copaiba oil and beeswax, sweet almond oil and shea butter, and sesame oil and cocoa butter as structural matrices were optimized using factorial analysis; Pluronic® 68 and lidocaine (LDC) were used as the colloidal stabilizer and model encapsulated drug, respectively. The optimal formulations were characterized by different techniques (IR-ATR, DSC, and TEM), and their safety and efficacy were also tested. These nanocarriers were able to upload high amounts of the anesthetic with a sustained in vitro release profile for 24h. The physicochemical stability in terms of size (nm), PDI, zeta potential (mV), pH, nanoparticle concentration (particles/mL), and visual inspection was followed during 12months of storage at 25°C. The formulations exhibited excellent structural properties and stability. They proved to be nontoxic in vitro (cell viability tests with Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts) and significantly improved the in vivo effects of LDC, over the heart rate of zebra fish larvae and in the blockage of sciatic nerve in mice. The results from this study support that the proper combination of natural excipients is promising in DDS, taking advantage of the biocompatibility, low cost, and diversity of lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The cues of colony size: how honey bees sense that their colony is large enough to begin to invest in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L; Koenig, Phoebe A; Peters, Jacob M

    2017-05-01

    As organisms develop, they first invest resources in survival and growth, but after reaching a certain condition they start to also invest in reproduction. Likewise, superorganisms, such as honey bee colonies, first invest in survival and growth, and later commit resources to reproduction once the number of workers in the colony surpasses a reproductive threshold. The first form of reproductive investment for a honey bee colony is the building of beeswax comb made of special large cells used for rearing males (drones). How do the workers sense that their colony is large enough to start building this 'drone comb'? To address this question, we experimentally increased three possible cues of colony size - worker density, volatile pheromone concentration and nest temperature - and looked for effects on the bees' comb construction. Only the colonies that experienced increased worker density were stimulated to build a higher proportion of drone comb. We then monitored and quantified potential cues in small and large colonies, to determine which cues change with colony size. We found that workers in large colonies, relative to small ones, have increased contact rates, spend more time active and experience less variable worker density. Whereas unicellular and multicellular organisms use mainly chemical cues to sense their sizes, our results suggest that at least one superorganism, a honey bee colony, uses physical cues to sense its size and thus its developmental state. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Preparation, survey and comparison of the combined herbal cream in healing second-degree burns with silver sulfadiazine 1% in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shakiba Maram

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Severe heat damage is one of the most physical and psychological damages that can harm a person. The severe burns are the most dangerous diseases due to the need for multiple surgical procedures and extensive rehabilitation. Second degree burns occur when the layers under the skin are damaged. Required treatment heavily depends on burns degree. There are many local therapies for treating injuries caused by burns. Among these treatments, silver sulfadiazine 1% is widely used in patients. Dressing with this cream, affects the repair of keratinocytes and delays wound healing. The purpose of this work was to provide an appropriate plant cream that in addition to treating burns would not have the side effects of chemical. Methods: Prepared extracts of Quercus infectoria, Curcuma longa, Camellia sinensis, Sesamum indicum, Aloe vera and Althaea officinalis were mixed with beeswax, stearyl alcohol and cholesterol with indirect heat to form creams. Results: Herbal cream reduced the treatment period by 30% compared to the silver sulfadiazine cream. Conclusion: Medicinal plants can be used as suitable sources for obtaining a wide range of medications and active drug combinations. The mixing plant extracts into the cream, caused cooling, decreasing treatment duration, relief of chronic pain during the treatment and prevented burn infections.

  10. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO, chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS or duodenum secretions (DS at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm as compared to the larger (2.5 mm ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides used in the development of functional foods.

  11. Occurrence and biogeographic aspects of Melipona quinquefasciata in NE Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA-VERDE L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee Melipona quinquefasciata is not included among the nine bee species of Melipona described in literature of NE Brazil. However, reports of some farmers raised suspicion on the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in the state of Ceará, in NE Brazil. Investigations were carried out from July 1997 to September 2000, by means of trips to the areas of probable occurrence of this bee species. Results confirmed the presence of M. quinquefasciata in Ceará and determined its habitat along the chapada do Araripe (Araripe plateau and all extension of planalto da Ibiapaba (Ibiapaba plateau, in altitudes between 600 and 900 m. Melipona quinquefasciata lives in the phytocoenosis of cerrado (Brazilian savanna, cerradão (savanna forest and carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation on the top of Araripe plateau, and only carrasco in the Ibiapaba plateau. Due to pressures caused by reduction of the area covered with native vegetation, large use of agrochemicals in anthropic areas and generalised predatory hunting of honey and beeswax, M. quinquefasciata is in risk of disappearing from the ecosystems of Araripe and Ibiapaba plateaus within a few years.

  12. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  13. Composition of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolic and its phytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Lima, Carolina A; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Mayworm, Marco A S

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous material produced by honeybees, containing mainly beeswax and plant material. Despite the wide spectrum of biological activity of propolis, to our knowledge no studies have been carried out about phytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis and its constituents. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolis. Main constituents are the phenylpropanoid 3-prenylcinnamic acid allyl ester (26.3%) and the sesquiterpene spathulenol (23.4%). Several other sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, in addition to linalool and α-terpineol (monoterpenes), were also detected. The activity of solutions of the volatile fraction at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1% was tested on lettuce seeds and seedlings. The solution at 1% inhibited completely the seed germination and solutions at 0.1 and 0.5% reduced the germination rate index. The solution at 0.5% reduced the growth of the hypocotyl-radicle axis and the development of the cotyledon leaf. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of this Brazilian green propolis is different from those previously described, and these results may contribute to a better understanding about the chemical variations in propolis. The volatile fraction of Brazilian green propolis influences both germination of seed lettuce and the growth of its seedlings, showing an phytotoxic potential. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Feasibility study of palm-based fuels for hybrid rocket motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi Ahmad, M.; Abidin, Razali; Taha, A. Latif; Anudip, Amzaryi

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the combined analysis done in pure palm-based wax that can be used as solid fuel in a hybrid rocket engine. The measurement of pure palm wax calorific value was performed using a bomb calorimeter. An experimental rocket engine and static test stand facility were established. After initial measurement and calibration, repeated procedures were performed. Instrumentation supplies carried out allow fuel regression rate measurements, oxidizer mass flow rates and stearic acid rocket motors measurements. Similar tests are also carried out with stearate acid (from palm oil by-products) dissolved with nitrocellulose and bee solution. Calculated data and experiments show that rates and regression thrust can be achieved even in pure-tested palm-based wax. Additionally, palm-based wax is mixed with beeswax characterized by higher nominal melting temperatures to increase moisturizing points to higher temperatures without affecting regression rate values. Calorie measurements and ballistic experiments were performed on this new fuel formulation. This new formulation promises driving applications in a wide range of temperatures.

  15. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  16. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.

  17. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. A.; Ikram, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550–1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using 14C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644983

  18. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Silva, Mallone Lopes; Luz, Diandra Araújo; Gomes, Antônio Rafael Quadros; Machado, Christiane Schineider; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP) rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control), EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg), or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls) 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance. The results obtained in the open field and in the elevated plus maze assay showed spontaneous locomotion preserved and anxiolytic-like activity. In the forced swimming test, EEYP demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. In the inhibitory avoidance test, EEYP showed mnemonic activity at 30 mg/kg. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the extract reduced the production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde without changing level of total antioxidant, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, induced by behavioral stress. Our results highlight that EEYP emerges as a promising anxiolytic, antidepressant, mnemonic, and antioxidant natural product. PMID:27822336

  19. Conhecimento dos moradores do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, sobre a utilidade de produtos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4518 Knowledge of the inhabitants of the Mid-Araguaia region, Mato Grosso State, about the usefulness of bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae products - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4518

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    Emanuel Maia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as indicações de uso dos produtos das abelhas. As entrevistas foram realizadas com representantes de 14 municípios do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, entre os meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2007. No médio Araguaia, houve indicações de uso para mel, cera, veneno e própolis, principalmente para fins medicinais. O mel foi o produto mais utilizado (75,49%, o consumo é principalmente por ingestão (79,59% e in natura (71,43%. Os produtos das abelhas são utilizados, pela maioria, para fins medicinais (77,55% e recomendados para tratar afecções na garganta (63,27%.The objective of this study was to find out the use indications for bee products. The interviews were carried out with representatives of 14 municipalities of the Mid-Araguaia River region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the months of January and February 2007. In the Mid-Araguaia there were indications of use honey, beeswax, poison and propolis, mainly for medicinal purposes. Honey was the most used product (75.49%. The consumption is mainly by ingestion (79.59% and in natura (71.43%. The bee products are used, by the majority of the users, for medicinal purposes (77.55%, and they are recommended to heal throat infections (63.27%

  20. Conhecimento dos moradores do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, sobre a utilidade de produtos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae = Knowledge of the inhabitants of the Mid-Araguaia region, Mato Grosso State, about the usefulness of bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as indicações de uso dos produtos das abelhas. As entrevistas foram realizadas com representantes de 14 municípios do médio Araguaia, Estado do Mato Grosso, entre os meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2007. No médio Araguaia, houve indicações de uso para mel, cera, veneno e própolis, principalmente para fins medicinais. O mel foi o produto mais utilizado (75,49%, o consumo é principalmente por ingestão (79,59%e in natura (71,43%. Os produtos das abelhas são utilizados, pela maioria, para fins medicinais (77,55% e recomendados para tratar afecções na garganta (63,27%.The objective of this study was to find out the use indications for bee products. The interviews were carried out with representatives of 14 municipalities of the Mid-Araguaia River region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the months of January and February 2007. In the Mid- Araguaia there were indications of use honey, beeswax, poison and propolis, mainly for medicinal purposes. Honey was the most used product (75.49%. The consumption is mainly by ingestion (79.59% and in natura (71.43%. The bee products are used, by the majority of the users, for medicinal purposes (77.55%, and they are recommended to heal throat infections (63.27%.

  1. A dual strategy to improve psychotic patients’ compliance using sustained release quetiapine oral disintegrating tablets

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    Refaat Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.

  2. Raman spectroscopic analysis of Mexican natural artists' materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Ortega-Avilès, Mayahuel; Castilleros, Dolores Tenorio; Moens, Luc

    2007-12-01

    This work represents the Raman spectra of 15 natural artists' materials that were obtained from local market in Mexico. Some of these products are not endemic to the region, but are often used in local conservation practice. Other materials are of local origin and have been used for centuries by local craftsmen. The Raman spectra that are reported here are: Chia oil, linseed oil, Campeche wax, beeswax, white copal, dammar, colophony, mastic, pixoy, chapopote, chucum, aje gum, gutta gum, peach gum and gum Arabic. The sample of pixoy was mixed with TiO 2, although it was not clear whether this was done intentionally or not. The Raman spectrum of chapopote, the local name for bitumen, contained features of carbonaceous and terpenoid matter. The Raman spectra of chapopote and chucum suffered severely from fluorescence, resulting in noisy Raman spectra. Aje gum and gutta gum are not gums, since they are resinous (terpenoid) in nature. Aje is a rare animal resin originating from Coccus axin.

  3. Produção e desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera l. a partir de diferentes áreas e idades de cria Production and development of africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera l. colonies departing from different comb brood areas and brood ages

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    Roberto Henrique Dias da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A apicultura brasileira usa da captura de enxames silvestres de abelhas melíferas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. para repor e/ou aumentar o número de colônias dos apiários, possuindo inconvenientes como a dependência da natureza para captura dos enxames, a heterogeneidade genética das colônias capturadas e a possibilidade desses enxames serem portadores de doenças e parasitas prejudiciais à sanidade das abelhas. O presente trabalho testa e apresenta uma técnica de divisão de colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas para a produção de novas colônias fortes em curto espaço de tempo, a partir de recursos mínimos de cera, cria e alimento. Os resultados mostraram que núcleos de A. mellifera formados inicialmente com uma rainha jovem e fecundada, 1 kg de operárias, um quadro de cria fechada, um quadro de favo puxado e vazio e dois quadros com cera alveolada permitem a produção de novas colônias em 42 dias. Portanto, pode-se concluir que a técnica de divisão de colônias por formação de núcleos como descrito acima, oferece aos apicultores uma alternativa viável para a produção e comercialização em larga escala de novas colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas.The Brazilian apiculture relies upon collecting wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. to replace and/or increase the number of colonies in the apiaries. This practice brings problems such as dependence on nature to capture any swarm, diverse genetic make-up of the colonies captured and the possibility of these swarms be carrying diseases and parasites harmful to the bees. The present work tests and presents a technique to split colonies of Africanized honey bees to produce new strong colonies in short time, departing from little resources of wax, brood and food stores. Results showed that A. mellifera nuclei formed by a young and mated queen, 1kg of workers, a frame of sealed brood, an empty frame of drawn beeswax and two frames

  4. Mieles del sistema serrano de Ventania: evaluación de la calidad microbiológica dentro del circuito de la planta de extracción Honeys from Ventania system: microbiological quality evaluation at different points of honey-processing

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    L. M. Gallez

    2009-09-01

    of beeswax-capped honey separation, showing that the "unheated" honey process would imply more risks. Ten to fifty CFU/g of honey of mould and yeast were observed in four out of 30 samples from the honey pump and drums. The present work shows the importance of preventing contamination at the beeswax-honey separation stage, and also highlights the need to perform microbiological studies in the honeyhouse, which would contribute to determine critical points in control quality systems.

  5. Design of Chronomodulated Drug Delivery System of Valsartan: In Vitro Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokar, M.; Hanafy, A.; Elkamel, A.; El-Gamal, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate a chronomodulated time-clock pulsatile tablets of valsartan to release it after a certain lag time, independent of the gastrointestinal pH, in its absorption window to cope with the circadian rhythm of human body for blood pressure elevation. Core tablets were prepared by direct compression of a homogenous mixture of valsartan, Avicel PH101, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The core tablets were then sprayed coated with a sealing layer formed of ethyl cellulose that was subsequently coated with a release-controlling layer. Three different aqueous dispersions namely; carnauba wax or beeswax or a mixture in a ratio of 2.5:1, respectively, were used to form five time-clock tablet formulations having the release controlling layer with different thickness {B5, B10, B20, BW5 and CW5}. Quality control testing were carried out to the core tablets. Differential scanning calorimetry was also performed to detect the possible drug excipient interaction in the core tablet formulation. The release was carried out, for the prepared time-clock tablet formulations, in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for the first 2 h, followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 4.5 h. The effect of pH on valsartan release was studied through a release study in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for 6.5 h. Two phase dissolution study was performed to the selected time-clock tablet formulation to predict the drug permeation through the gastrointestinal tract. Stability study of the selected formula was performed at 25°/60% RH and at 40°/75% RH for 3 months. Results showed that a release-controlling layer composed of a mixture of carnauba wax and beeswax in a ratio of 2.5:1 showed a reasonable release lag time. The release lag time of the tablets increased with the increase of the coat thickness, thus B20>B10>B5 with corresponding lag time values of 4.5, 3 and 2.5 h, respectively. Selected B5 tablet formula exhibited a reasonable lag time

  6. Ethanolic extract of sharah, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, enhances healing of skin wound in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Montaser, Metwally; El-Shazly, Samir A; Bazid, Saleh; Ahmed, Mohamed M

    2014-05-01

    Sharah, Plectranthus aegyptiacus (Forssk.) C. Chr. is a common native plant in the Taif region of Saudi Arabia. An ethanolic extract of freeze dried sharah leaves was added as 10% (w/w) to an ointment base of beeswax and sesame oil. The resultant ointment was examined as a potential enhancer of wound healing. Excision wounds in the nape region of the skin were induced in sixty albino Wistar rats. Animals were allocated in 4 groups (n=15) and kept individually in clean cages. The first group served as negative untreated controls without medication; the second group was treated with ointment base (vehicle); the third group represented the positive control and was treated with a reference ointment and the fourth one served as the experimental group and received the test plant extract (as ointment). Animal groups received the respective medications for 14 successive days. Wounds were measured and photographed every 3 days till the end of the experiment (day 21) in order to determine the wound closure rate (WCR). Specimens from wounds and surrounding skin were collected from sacrificed animals for histological and molecular studies. Both morphometric (based on WCR) and histological findings showed that the healing in animals treated with the sharah plant extract was better than those in control group or vehicle-treated group and was similar to that in the group that received the reference ointment. Moreover, the molecular findings concerning the expression levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) displayed a reasonable healing enhancing effect of the plant extract with the expression levels of both being higher in the extract-treated group than in the control group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Is honey a fallback food for wild chimpanzees or just a sweet treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    Honey is a highly nutritious resource for any primate able to exploit it. Wild chimpanzees exploit nests of honey-making bees (Apini and Meliponini) for honey and brood, typically using tools to overcome the bees' defences. The universality of honey-gathering among modern human foragers in tropical climates and chimpanzees suggests energy-rich honey, acquired with tools, was likely a regular food for ancestral hominins. However, few studies have assessed its role in seasonal foraging strategies of chimpanzees. This study asks whether honey serves as a high-quality fallback food for chimpanzees at Bulindi, Uganda. Honey consumption was investigated via fecal analysis over 22 months during two studies (Study 1: 2007-2008; Study 2: 2012-2014). Additionally, flower and fruit phenology was measured during Study 1; peak flowering intensity was expected to facilitate increased honey and/or brood production by bees. Chimpanzees consumed honey (and/or brood) at low frequencies year-round, but bees/beeswax appeared in feces at higher frequencies with decreasing fruit availability (Study 1). Honey consumption was unrelated to flowering and chimpanzees did not consume honey more frequently during the "honey season" when local people harvest beehives. Moreover, consumption was inversely related to fruit intake (both study periods). Although honey fits the functional definition of a filler fallback food at Bulindi, the chimpanzees unlikely depend on honey to replace nutrients provided by fruit. Overall, honey best qualifies as an energy-dense "treat" during low fruiting months. The data lend support to the hypothesis that tools can facilitate chimpanzees' access to high-quality fallbacks including insect foods when fruit availability is low. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda; Villa, Paola; Degano, Ilaria; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Bamford, Marion K; Higham, Thomas F G; Colombini, Maria Perla; Beaumont, Peter B

    2012-08-14

    Recent archaeological discoveries have revealed that pigment use, beads, engravings, and sophisticated stone and bone tools were already present in southern Africa 75,000 y ago. Many of these artifacts disappeared by 60,000 y ago, suggesting that modern behavior appeared in the past and was subsequently lost before becoming firmly established. Most archaeologists think that San hunter-gatherer cultural adaptation emerged 20,000 y ago. However, reanalysis of organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa, shows that the Early Later Stone Age inhabitants of this cave used notched bones for notational purposes, wooden digging sticks, bone awls, and bone points similar to those used by San as arrowheads. A point is decorated with a spiral groove filled with red ochre, which closely parallels similar marks that San make to identify their arrowheads when hunting. A mixture of beeswax, Euphorbia resin, and possibly egg, wrapped in vegetal fibers, dated to ∼40,000 BP, may have been used for hafting. Ornaments include marine shell beads and ostrich eggshell beads, directly dated to ∼42,000 BP. A digging stick, dated to ∼39,000 BP, is made of Flueggea virosa. A wooden poison applicator, dated to ∼24,000 BP, retains residues with ricinoleic acid, derived from poisonous castor beans. Reappraisal of radiocarbon age estimates through bayesian modeling, and the identification of key elements of San material culture at Border Cave, places the emergence of modern hunter-gatherer adaptation, as we know it, to ∼44,000 y ago.

  9. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Claudio; Mutinelli, Franco; Bortolotti, Laura; Granato, Anna; Laurenson, Lynn; Roberts, Katherine; Gallina, Albino; Silvester, Nicholas; Medrzycki, Piotr; Renzi, Teresa; Sgolastra, Fabio; Lodesani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  10. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

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    G. Christopher Cutler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5–2 ppb of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012–2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  11. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Sultan, Maryam; McFarlane, Andrew D; Brewer, Larry

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5-2 ppb) of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012-2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  12. Arsenite Regulates Prolongation of Glycan Residues of Membrane Glycoprotein: A Pivotal Study via Wax Physisorption Kinetics and FTIR Imaging

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    Chih-Hung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure results in several human cancers, including those of the skin, lung, and bladder. As skin cancers are the most common form, epidermal keratinocytes (KC are the main target of arsenic exposure. The mechanisms by which arsenic induces carcinogenesis remains unclear, but aberrant cell proliferation and dysregulated energy homeostasis play a significant role. Protein glycosylation is involved in many key physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. To evaluate whether arsenite exposure affected protein glycosylation, the alteration of chain length of glycan residues in arsenite treated skin cells was estimated. Herein we demonstrated that the protein glycosylation was adenosine triphosphate (ATP-dependent and regulated by arsenite exposure by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR reflectance spectroscopy, synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR (SR-FTIR microspectroscopy, and wax physisorption kinetics coupled with focal-plane-array-based FTIR (WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging. We were able to estimate the relative length of surface protein-linked glycan residues on arsenite-treated skin cells, including primary KC and two skin cancer cell lines, HSC-1 and HaCaT cells. Differential physisorption of wax adsorbents adhered to long-chain (elongated type and short-chain (regular type glycan residues of glycoprotein of skin cell samples treated with various concentration of arsenite was measured. The physisorption ratio of beeswax remain/n-pentacosane remain for KC cells was increased during arsenite exposure. Interestingly, this increase was reversed after oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor pretreatment, suggesting the chain length of protein-linked glycan residues is likely ATP-dependent. This is the first study to demonstrate the elongation and termination of surface protein-linked glycan residues using WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging in eukaryotes. Herein the result may provide a scientific basis to target surface protein

  13. Effects of policosanol on gastroprotective action of D-002

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    Daisy Carbajal Quintana

    Full Text Available Introduction: policosanol, a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, is used to treat hypercholesterolemia. D-002 (Abexol, a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols from beeswax, is an antioxidant supplement with gastroprotective effects. Then, concomitant intake of D-002 and policosanol may occur in routine practice, so potential pharmacological interactions between them should be researched on. Objective: to find out the influence of policosanol on the gastroprotective effect of D-002 on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Methods: rats were randomized into eight groups: one treated with the vehicle (control, two with D-002 (25 and 200 mg/kg, two with policosanol (25 and 200 mg/kg, two with the same doses of D-002 + policosanol and other with sucralfate (100 mg/kg. Treatments were given as single oral doses. One hour after treatment, rats received 60% ethanol orally and one hour later they were killed and their stomachs exposed. Effects on ulcer indexes (UI were assessed. Results: acute oral administration of D-002 (25 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the ulcer indexes by 40 % and 68 %, respectively, as compared to the control group, and policosanol by 26 % and 47 %, respectively. The concomitant administration of the same doses of D-002 and policosanol significantly decreased ulcer indexes by 64 % (both given at 25 mg/kg and by 92 % (both given at 200 mg/kg as compared to the respective monotherapies. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg significantly reduced (@ 99 % ulcer indexes compared to the control group. Conclusions: the concomitant oral administration of policosanol with D-00 2 gives greater gastroprotection than D-002 monotherapy, so both products can be taken together.

  14. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Characterization of Beeswax–Starch Food-Grade Nanoemulsions Incorporating Natural Antimicrobials

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    Teresita Arredondo-Ochoa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsions are feasible delivery systems of lipophilic compounds, showing potential as edible coatings with enhanced functional properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of emulsifier type (stearic acid (SA, Tween 80 (T80 or Tween 80/Span 60 (T80/S60 and emulsification process (homogenization, ultrasound or microfluidization on nanoemulsion formation based on oxidized corn starch, beeswax (BW and natural antimicrobials (lauric arginate and natamycin. The response variables were physicochemical properties, rheological behavior, wettability and antimicrobial activity of BW–starch nanoemulsions (BW–SN. The BW–SN emulsified using T80 and microfluidized showed the lowest droplet size (77.6 ± 6.2 nm, a polydispersion index of 0.4 ± 0.0 and whiteness index (WI of 31.8 ± 0.8. This BW–SN exhibited a more negative ζ-potential: −36 ± 4 mV, and Newtonian flow behavior, indicating great stability. BW–SN antimicrobial activity was not affected by microfluidization nor the presence of T80, showing inhibition of the deteriorative fungi R. stolonifer, C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea, and the pathogenic bacterium S. Saintpaul. In addition, regardless of emulsifier type and emulsification process, BW–SN applied on the tomato surface exhibited low contact angles (38.5° to 48.6°, resulting in efficient wettability (−7.0 mN/m to −8.9 mN/m. These nanoemulsions may be useful to produce edible coatings to preserve fresh-produce quality and safety.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  16. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvacka, Josef

    2010-06-18

    High chromatographic resolution of wax esters (WEs) was achieved by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Nova-Pak C18 column by optimising the acetonitrile/ethyl acetate mobile phase gradient. The retention behaviour of WEs was studied in this chromatographic system. The WEs eluted according to their equivalent carbon number (ECN) values; within the group of WEs with the identical ECN, the most unsaturated species tended to elute first. The isobaric WEs with different positions of the ester moiety were separated from each other whenever the lengths of the chains were sufficiently different. The methyl-branched esters eluted at shorter retention times than the straight-chained analogues, and the resolution among methyl-branched WEs depended on the position of the branching. The analytes were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using data-dependent scanning. WEs provided simple full-scan spectra with abundant protonated molecules and low-intensity fragments. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) promoted identification of the WE molecular species. The responses of WEs were found to be dependent on the number of double bonds and on the alkyl-chain length; the limits of the detection ranged from 20micromol/L to 200nmol/L. The HPLC/APCI-MS was applied for the analysis of the WEs isolated from honeycomb beeswax, jojoba oil and human hair. Good agreement between reported results and the literature data was achieved, with several novel polyunsaturated WEs also being found. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of antifungal hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite coatings on Penicillium decay development and postharvest quality of cold-stored "Ortanique" mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Pérez-Gago, María B; Del Río, Miguel A; Palou, Lluís

    2010-10-01

    Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydrophobic components (beeswax and shellac), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were evaluated on "Ortanique" mandarins during long-term cold storage. Selected food preservatives included potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB), sodium propionate (SP), and their mixtures. Intact mandarins or mandarins artificially inoculated with the pathogens Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, the causal agents of citrus postharvest green (GM) and blue (BM) molds, respectively, were coated and stored up to 8 wk at 5 °C + 1 wk of shelf-life at 20 °C. HPMC-lipid coatings containing food preservatives controlled better GM than BM on Ortanique mandarins. SB- and SB + SP-based coatings reduced the incidence of GM by about 35% after 4 wk at 5 °C. Among all coatings, only the SB-based coating reduced the incidence of GM (about 16%) after 6 wk at 5 °C. All coatings significantly reduced disease severity of both GM and BM after 6 wk at 5 °C. Analytical and sensory fruit quality was evaluated on intact mandarins. All coatings, especially the SB + SP-based coatings, were effective to control weight loss and maintain the firmness of coated mandarins. Internal gas concentration, juice ethanol and acetaldehyde content, sensory flavor, off-flavor, and fruit appearance were not adversely affected by the application of the antifungal coatings. Further studies should focus on the modification of some physical characteristics of the coatings to improve the gloss and visual aspect of treated mandarins.

  19. An Investigation of Consolidants Penetration in Wood. Part 1: General Methodology and Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation of degraded and frail wood by impregnation with synthetic and natural polymeric compounds in solution is one of the most important operations of active conservation of wooden cultural heritage. The effectiveness of such a treatment depends essentially on the consolidant retention, penetration and uniformity of distribution, aspects that could be cumulated in the term of impregnation level and practically influenced by many and various factors. The purpose of this work was to look at some practical possibilities of characterising the impregnation level achieved in some consolidation treatments with different solutions of a frequently employed synthetic polymer (Paraloid B72 and waxes (beeswax and modified paraffins as melts or in combination with linseed oil using a simple optical microscopy technique in conjunction with an original method of samples preparation. For this purpose were used small samples of sound, not degraded spruce (Picea abies Mill, which were impregnated by short time immersion. The examination in transmitted light (TLM of the cross-cut micro sections and in reflected light (RLM of the wooden blocks allowed the visualisation of the consolidation products and their distribution in the wood structure, but this was easier for the consolidants with high solids content (waxes, which partly filled the lumens, and much more difficult and relative in the case of the diluted Paraloid solutions which did not fill the lumens but only impart a very shiny, highly reflective aspect of the treated areas. In order to objectively appreciate the retention and penetration of consolidants into wood the method using ImageJ, a useful image processing software, was used to process the micrographs so that some quantitative estimations of the variation of the impregnation level with the penetration depth were obtained.

  20. THE RESTORATION CAMP ”13 for ASTRA”–THE EXPERIENCE OF VOLUNTEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the second edition (2014 of the summer restoration camp organized by our faculty in cooperation with the ASTRA Museum from Sibiu, as a voluntary action for cultural heritage conservation. A group of 13 (thirteen volunteers, with different levels of experience and expertise in the field of conservation, from undergraduate students to master and PhD students, alongside researchers and teachers, formed an united and dedicated team involved in this action. During a period of two weeks, this team has assumed the challenge of conserving and restoring three very different objects from the collections of ASTRA Museum: a chair from Săpânţa - Maramureş, a long bench with drawers from Scoreiu Porumbacu and a cart from Brateiu - Sibiu County. Within this paper the three objects are briefly presented, alongside with some general aspects related to their conservation, while a more detailed description and illustration of the initial state and the conservation – restoration schedule is presented for the chair from Sǎpânţa. A sequence of operations, including dry ant wet cleaning, active conservation by biocide treatments and consolidation of wood material by impregnation with Paraloid B72, structural consolidation of the object, replacement of missing parts, chromatic integration and finishing with beeswax, were necessary for this purpose. An “exhibition” has been set in the working area where the reception of the restored objects was made by the museum’s curators. The action as a whole represented a valuable professional and human experience, an opportunity to get new skills and strengthen cooperation with recognised specialists, while bringing a contribution to the necessary effort for cultural heritage conservation.

  1. Studies on Bee Venom and Its Medical Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahmoud Abdu Al-Samie Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Use of honey and other bee products in human treatments traced back thousands of years and healing properties are included in many religious texts including the Veda, Bible and Quran. Apitherapy is the use of honey bee products for medical purposes, this include bee venom, raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and beeswax. Whereas bee venom therapy is the use of live bee stings (or injectable venom) to treat various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, sciatica, low back pain, and tennis elbow to name a few. It refers to any use of venom to assist the body in healing itself. Bee venom contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides and amines. Sulfur is believed to be the main element in inducing the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands and in protecting the body from infections. Contact with bee venom produces a complex cascade of reactions in the human body. The bee venom is safe for human treatments, the median lethal dose (LD50) for an adult human is 2.8 mg of venom per kg of body weight, i.e. a person weighing 60 kg has a 50% chance of surviving injections totaling 168 mg of bee venom. Assuming each bee injects all its venom and no stings are quickly removed at a maximum of 0.3 mg venom per sting, 560 stings could well be lethal for such a person. For a child weighing 10 kg, as little as 93.33 stings could be fatal. However, most human deaths result from one or few bee stings due to allergic reactions, heart failure or suffocation from swelling around the neck or the mouth. As compare with other human diseases, accidents and other unusual cases, the bee venom is very safe for human treatments.

  2. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Characterization of Beeswax–Starch Food-Grade Nanoemulsions Incorporating Natural Antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo-Ochoa, Teresita; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Escamilla-García, Monserrat; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Rossi-Márquez, Giovanna; Medina-Torres, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Nanoemulsions are feasible delivery systems of lipophilic compounds, showing potential as edible coatings with enhanced functional properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of emulsifier type (stearic acid (SA), Tween 80 (T80) or Tween 80/Span 60 (T80/S60)) and emulsification process (homogenization, ultrasound or microfluidization) on nanoemulsion formation based on oxidized corn starch, beeswax (BW) and natural antimicrobials (lauric arginate and natamycin). The response variables were physicochemical properties, rheological behavior, wettability and antimicrobial activity of BW–starch nanoemulsions (BW–SN). The BW–SN emulsified using T80 and microfluidized showed the lowest droplet size (77.6 ± 6.2 nm), a polydispersion index of 0.4 ± 0.0 and whiteness index (WI) of 31.8 ± 0.8. This BW–SN exhibited a more negative ζ-potential: −36 ± 4 mV, and Newtonian flow behavior, indicating great stability. BW–SN antimicrobial activity was not affected by microfluidization nor the presence of T80, showing inhibition of the deteriorative fungi R. stolonifer, C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea, and the pathogenic bacterium S. Saintpaul. In addition, regardless of emulsifier type and emulsification process, BW–SN applied on the tomato surface exhibited low contact angles (38.5° to 48.6°), resulting in efficient wettability (−7.0 mN/m to −8.9 mN/m). These nanoemulsions may be useful to produce edible coatings to preserve fresh-produce quality and safety. PMID:29244710

  3. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valdovinos-Flores

    Full Text Available In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg.

  4. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Antimicrobial Activity of Some Types of Egyptian Bees’ Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul Magd, D.A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Api therapy (the medicinal use of honey bee products) has recently become the focus of attention as a form of folk and preventive medicine for treating certain conditions and diseases, as well as promoting overall health and well-being (Pyrzynska and Biesaga, 2009). Honeybees are master chemists and chemical engineers. Their success in the animal kingdom is greatly because of their unique chemistry and the application of their different products: honey, pollen, beeswax, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom. The first three products are chemically synthesized by the bees themselves while, the other three are derived from plants and are modified and engineered by the bees for their own use (Taha, 2004). Honey is the most important primary product of bee keeping from both a quantitative and an economic point of view (Adenekan et al., 2010). Honey is defined as the natural sweet substance, produced by the honeybees from the nectar, secretions of living parts or excretions of plant-sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in honey combs to ripen and mature (Codex Alimentarius, 2001). Hippocrates, the great Greek scientist, prescribed a simple diet, favoring honey given as oxymel (vinegar and honey) for pain, hydromel (water and honey) for thirst, and a mixture of honey, water and various medical substances for acute fevers. Also, he utilized honey for baldness, contraception, wound healing, cough and sore throat, eye diseases, topical antisepsis, prevention and treatment of scars (Al-Jabri, 2005). During the biblical era, honey received a religious endorsement by both Islam and Christianity. Thus, the Holy Koran, the heritage of Islamic sciences, has time and again emphasized the medicinal virtue of honey (Sheikh et al., 1995). The last scripture enlisted it as a miraculous food in a separate Surah; ''Al-Nahl (The BEE).

  5. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

  6. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras–Ramírez, María Elena; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  7. Discrimination of Brazilian propolis according to the seasoning using chemometrics and machine learning based on UV-Vis scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Pai Neto, Remi Dal; Moresco, Rodolfo; Westphal, Larissa; Zeggio, Amélia Regina Somensi; Specht, Leandro; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-10-21

    Propolis is a chemically complex biomass produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from plant resins added of salivary enzymes, beeswax, and pollen. The biological activities described for propolis were also identified for donor plant's resin, but a big challenge for the standardization of the chemical composition and biological effects of propolis remains on a better understanding of the influence of seasonality on the chemical constituents of that raw material. Since propolis quality depends, among other variables, on the local flora which is strongly influenced by (a)biotic factors over the seasons, to unravel the harvest season effect on the propolis' chemical profile is an issue of recognized importance. For that, fast, cheap, and robust analytical techniques seem to be the best choice for large scale quality control processes in the most demanding markets, e.g., human health applications. For that, UV-Visible (UV-Vis) scanning spectrophotometry of hydroalcoholic extracts (HE) of seventy-three propolis samples, collected over the seasons in 2014 (summer, spring, autumn, and winter) and 2015 (summer and autumn) in Southern Brazil was adopted. Further machine learning and chemometrics techniques were applied to the UV-Vis dataset aiming to gain insights as to the seasonality effect on the claimed chemical heterogeneity of propolis samples determined by changes in the flora of the geographic region under study. Descriptive and classification models were built following a chemometric approach, i.e. principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) supported by scripts written in the R language. The UV-Vis profiles associated with chemometric analysis allowed identifying a typical pattern in propolis samples collected in the summer. Importantly, the discrimination based on PCA could be improved by using the dataset of the fingerprint region of phenolic compounds (λ = 280-400ηm), suggesting that besides the biological activities of those

  8. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  9. Discrimination of Brazilian propolis according to the seasoning using chemometrics and machine learning based on UV-Vis scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazzoli, Maíra M; Pai Neto, Remi D; Moresco, Rodolfo; Westphal, Larissa; Zeggio, Amelia R S; Specht, Leandro; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a chemically complex biomass produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from plant resins added of salivary enzymes, beeswax, and pollen. The biological activities described for propolis were also identified for donor plant's resin, but a big challenge for the standardization of the chemical composition and biological effects of propolis remains on a better understanding of the influence of seasonality on the chemical constituents of that raw material. Since propolis quality depends, among other variables, on the local flora which is strongly influenced by (a)biotic factors over the seasons, to unravel the harvest season effect on the propolis chemical profile is an issue of recognized importance. For that, fast, cheap, and robust analytical techniques seem to be the best choice for large scale quality control processes in the most demanding markets, e.g., human health applications. For that, UV-Visible (UV-Vis) scanning spectrophotometry of hydroalcoholic extracts (HE) of seventy-three propolis samples, collected over the seasons in 2014 (summer, spring, autumn, and winter) and 2015 (summer and autumn) in Southern Brazil was adopted. Further machine learning and chemometrics techniques were applied to the UV-Vis dataset aiming to gain insights as to the seasonality effect on the claimed chemical heterogeneity of propolis samples determined by changes in the flora of the geographic region under study. Descriptive and classification models were built following a chemometric approach, i.e. principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) supported by scripts written in the R language. The UV-Vis profiles associated with chemometric analysis allowed identifying a typical pattern in propolis samples collected in the summer. Importantly, the discrimination based on PCA could be improved by using the dataset of the fingerprint region of phenolic compounds ( λ= 280-400 ηm), suggesting that besides the biological activities of those

  10. Antagonism of Aeromonas hydrophila by propolis and its effect on the performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Rhman, Azza M M

    2009-09-01

    Propolis, a resinous substance collected by Apis mellifera bees from various plant sources and mixed with secreted beeswax, is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction, maintenance, and protection of their hives. The collected propolis sample, from High Egypt, was dark-green with olive-odor. The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of propolis-ethanolic-extract, against Aeromonas hydrophila, was 80 microg Propolis-ethanolic-extract and crude propolis (1%) were added to artificial basal diet with (30% crude protein) to evaluate their efficacy on the fish growth-performance, immunostimulation and resistance to A. hydrophila. Two hundred and twenty-five Oreochromis niloticus (8 +/- 0.45 g/fish) were divided into three equal treatments (T) of triplet replicates. The fish of T(1) were fed on basal diet (control). The fish of T(2) were given the basal diet, containing propolis-ethanolic-extract. The fish of T(3) were given the basal diet containing crude propolis for 28 day. The fish were intraperitoneally challenged by A. hydrophila (0.2 x 10(7) cells ml(-1)) at the end of the feeding period and kept for 15 more days. The best growth rate and feed conversion ratio were obtained with T(2.) The increase in the average daily gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio were highly significances in T(2) followed by T(3) when compared with the control group. The HCT-level and monocyte-counts were increased (T(2)). No significant change, in the large lymphocytic-count was found among the three treatments (28-27-28%), while the neutrophil-count was significantly decreased (7%) with T(2) and increased (13.11%) with the control. A significant increase in serum lysozyme and serum bactericidal activities was found with T(2). The RLP against A. hydrophila was high with T(2) and T(3). The propolis-ethanolic-extract enhanced the growth, immunity and resistance of O. niloticus against A. hydrophila more than the crude propolis. 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Métodos de proteção de enxerto na produção de mudas de mangueira, abacateiro e nogueira-macadâmia Methods of graft protection in the production of mango, avocado and macadamia nut nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELO PEDRO JACOMINO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes materiais de proteção do enxerto foram avaliados na produção de mudas de mangueira (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, abacateiro (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna e nogueira-macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. Os materiais utilizados foram: saco de polietileno, parafina, parafina + vaselina, cera de abelha, parafilme e filme de PVC. Verificou-se que o parafilme promoveu melhor resultado de pegamento do enxerto em abacateiro (80,3% e nogueira-macadâmia (74,1%, seguido pelo filme de PVC (53,4% e 41,7%, respectivamente. Na enxertia de mangueira, o parafilme, filme de PVC e saco de polietileno não diferiram entre si estatisticamente (59,6%, 50,2% e 50,2%, respectivamente. Os porcentuais de pegamento observados nos tratamentos com parafina, parafina + vaselina e cera de abelha foram baixos, em comparação com o melhor tratamento (parafilme. Nas mudas de nogueira-macadâmia o parafilme promoveu melhor desenvolvimento das brotações, além de desprender-se naturalmente dos enxertos. Conclui-se que na enxertia de mangueira os garfos podem ser protegidos com parafilme, filme de PVC ou saco de polietileno; na enxertia de abacateiro, pode-se utilizar parafilme ou filme de PVC, e na enxertia de nogueira-macadâmia deve-se optar pelo parafilme.Different methods of graft protection were used in the production of nursery trees of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins, avocado (Persea americana L. cv. Fortuna and macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche cv. Kau 344. The materials used were polyethylene bag, paraffin, paraffin + vaseline, beeswax, parafilm and PVC film. It was verified that the parafilm promoted more successful grafts in avocados (80.3% and macadamia nut (74.1%, followed by PVC film (53.4% and 41.7%, respectively. On the grafting of mango plants the parafilm, PVC film or polyethylene bags did not promote statistic difference to each other (59.6%, 50.2% and 50.2%, respectively

  12. Discrimination of Brazilian propolis according to the seasoning using chemometrics and machine learning based on UV-Vis scanning data

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    Tomazzoli Maíra M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a chemically complex biomass produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera from plant resins added of salivary enzymes, beeswax, and pollen. The biological activities described for propolis were also identified for donor plant’s resin, but a big challenge for the standardization of the chemical composition and biological effects of propolis remains on a better understanding of the influence of seasonality on the chemical constituents of that raw material. Since propolis quality depends, among other variables, on the local flora which is strongly influenced by (abiotic factors over the seasons, to unravel the harvest season effect on the propolis chemical profile is an issue of recognized importance. For that, fast, cheap, and robust analytical techniques seem to be the best choice for large scale quality control processes in the most demanding markets, e.g., human health applications. For that, UV-Visible (UV-Vis scanning spectrophotometry of hydroalcoholic extracts (HE of seventy-three propolis samples, collected over the seasons in 2014 (summer, spring, autumn, and winter and 2015 (summer and autumn in Southern Brazil was adopted. Further machine learning and chemometrics techniques were applied to the UV-Vis dataset aiming to gain insights as to the seasonality effect on the claimed chemical heterogeneity of propolis samples determined by changes in the flora of the geographic region under study. Descriptive and classification models were built following a chemometric approach, i.e. principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA supported by scripts written in the R language. The UV-Vis profiles associated with chemometric analysis allowed identifying a typical pattern in propolis samples collected in the summer. Importantly, the discrimination based on PCA could be improved by using the dataset of the fingerprint region of phenolic compounds ( λ= 280-400 ηm, suggesting that besides the biological

  13. Non-conventional applications of a noninvasive portable X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, Giacomo [Getty Conservation Institute, Science Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sarrazin, Philippe [Examinart LLC, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Heginbotham, Arlen [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Sculpture and Decorative Arts Conservation, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Noninvasive techniques have become widespread in the cultural heritage analytical domain. The popular handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) devices give the elemental composition of all the layers that X-rays can penetrate, but no information on how atoms are bound together or at which depth they are located. A noninvasive portable X-ray powder diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) device may offer a solution to these limitations, since it can provide information on the composition of crystalline materials. This paper introduces applications of XRD beyond simple phase recognition. The two fundamental principles for XRD are: (1) the crystallites should be randomly oriented, to ensure proper intensity to all the diffraction peaks, and (2) the material should be positioned exactly in the focal plane of the instrument, respecting its geometry, as any displacement of the sample would results in 2θ shifts of the diffraction peaks. In conventional XRD, the sample is ground and set on the properly positioned sample holder. Using a noninvasive portable instrument, these two requirements are seldom fulfilled. The position, size and orientation of a given crystallite within a layered structure depend on the object itself. Equation correlating the displacement (distance from the focal plane) versus peak shift (angular difference in 2θ from the standard value) is derived and used to determine the depth at which a given substance is located. The quantitative composition of two binary Cu/Zn alloys, simultaneously present, was determined measuring the cell volume and using Vegard's law. The analysis of the whole object gives information on the texture and possible preferred orientations of the crystallites, which influences the peak intensity. This allows for the distinction between clad and electroplated daguerreotypes in the case of silver and between ancient and modern gilding for gold. Analyses of cross sections can be carried out successfully. Finally, beeswax, used in

  14. Nasal and ocular symptoms, tear film stability and biomarkers in nasal lavage, in relation to building-dampness and building design in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, G; Norbäck, D; Nordström, K; Wålinder, R; Venge, P

    1999-10-01

    To study the relationships between dampness in concrete floors and building design on the one hand, and symptoms and medical signs of the eyes and nose in hospital workers, on the other. Four hospitals for geriatrics were selected to represent buildings with different ages and design, irrespective of symptom prevalence. The first building was built in 1925. The second, built in 1985, was known to have dampness in the floor. Conventional building techniques were used in the third building, built in 1993, and the last building was built in 1994, and was specially designed to include high ceilings, and minimal use of fluorescent lighting and interior plastic materials. The interior surfaces were painted with water-based beeswax glazing. All staff (n=95) working day shifts were invited to take part in a medical examination of the eyes and nose including acoustic rhinometry and nasal lavage, and a medical questionnaire, and 93% participated. Measurements of temperature, relative air humidity, air flow, illumination, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), molds, and bacteria were carried out in all buildings, together with measurements of formaldehyde, respirable dust, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone. Statistical analyses were performed by bivariate analysis, and linear, ordinal, and logistic multiple regressions, adjusting for age, gender, tobacco smoking, atopy, and the perceived psychosocial work environment. Dampness in the upper concrete floor surface (75-84%), ammonia under the floor [3 parts per million (ppm)], and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the air were detected in the two buildings built in 1985 and 1993. Increased occurrences of ocular and nasal symptoms, an increased concentration of lysozyme in nasal lavage, and decreased tear film stability were found in the subjects working in the damp buildings. Those in the specially designed building had fewer ocular and nasal symptoms, and increased tear film stability. All

  15. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C.; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Segars, William P.; Nolte, Loren W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  16. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron

  17. Protective effects of D-002 on experimentally induced gastroesophageal reflux in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Zullyt; Molina, Vivian; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Perez, Yohany; Oyarzabal, Ambar

    2014-02-28

    To investigate the effects of beeswax alcohols (D-002) on the esophageal damage induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in rats. Sixty male rats were randomized into six groups (10 rats/group): a negative control and five groups with experimentally induced GER: a positive vehicle control, three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively), and one with omeprazole 10 mg/kg. All treatments were given by gastric gavage. One hour after dosing, GER was produced by simultaneous ligation of the pyloric end and the forestomach. Esophageal lesions index (ELI), gastric secretion volume and acidity, and esophageal malondialdehyde (MDA) and sulfhydryl (SH) group concentrations were measured. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. As compared to the negative control, the positive control group exhibited increased ELI (5.2 ± 0.33 vs 0 ± 0, P = 0.0003), gastric secretion volume (2.69 ± 0.09 vs 0.1 ± 0.0, P = 0.0003) and acidity (238 ± 19.37 vs 120.0 ± 5.77, P = 0.001), and esophageal concentrations of MDA (2.56 ± 0.1 vs 1.76 ± 0.28, P = 0.001) and SH groups (1.02 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.08, P = 0.0003). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced ELI (3.36 ± 0.31, 2.90 ± 0.46 and 2.8 ± 0.23, respectively) vs the positive control (5.2 ± 0.33) (P = 0.004; P = 0.002; P = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant changes in acidity with D-002 treatment, and only the highest dose reduced the volume of the gastric secretion (1.92 ± 0.25) vs the positive control (2.69 ± 0.09, P = 0.013). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) lowered the esophageal MDA (2.05 ± 0.16, 1.98 ± 0.22 and 1.93 ± 0.22, respectively) (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.03, respectively) and SH group concentration (0.87 ± 0.06, 0.79 ± 0.08 and 0.77 ± 0.06, respectively) (P = 0.04; P = 0.04; P = 0.02) vs the positive control (2.56 ± 0.10 and 1.02 ± 0.05, respectively). Omeprazole decreased ELI (2.54 ± 0.47), gastric secretion volume (1.97 ± 0.14) and acidity (158.5 ± 22

  18. Efecto in vitro del D-002 sobre la actividad enzimática de la 5-lipoxigenasa (5-LOX Effect of D-002 on 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX enzyme activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos primarios de alto peso molecular purificada de la cera de abejas, ha mostrado efectos antiinflamatorios, sin gastrotoxicidad secundaria, enmodelos experimentales. El tratamiento oral con D-002 reduce las concentraciones de leucotrieno B4 (LTB4 en exudados pleurales de ratas con pleuresía por carragenina, sugiriendo que podría inhibir la actividad enzimática de la 5-lipooxigenasa (5-LOX, si bien los mecanismos de la acción antiinflamatoria del D-002 no habían sido aún explorados. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto in vitro del D-002 sobre la actividad de la 5-LOX, utilizando la fracción citosólica de homogenatos de hígado de ratas. Métodos: las condiciones de ensayo utilizadas fueron las siguientes: fracción citosólica (50 µg de proteína disuelta en solución reguladora borato 0,2 mol/L (pH 9 y ácido linoleico (7,8-250 mmol/L como sustrato, ensayándose muestras paralelas incubadas con Tween-20/H2O (2 % (vehículo, muestras controles, D-002 (0,9-1 000 µg/mL o Lyprinol (500 µg/mL (sustancia de referencia. La actividad enzimática se evaluó mediante el cambio de absorbancia a 234 nm producido por la formación de dienos conjugados y medido en espectrofotómetro UV-visible. Resultados: la adición in vitro del D-002 produjo una inhibición significativa, dependiente de la dosis (r= 0,980; pIntroduction: D-002, a mixture of six high molecular weight primary aliphatic alcohols purified from beeswax, has been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effects with no secondary gastrotoxicity in experimental models. Oral treatment with D-002 was effective for lowering the concentrations of B4 leukotriene (LTB4 in pleural exudates of rats with carragenin-induced pleurisy, suggesting that it could inhibit 5-lipooxigenase (5-LOX enzyme activity. The mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory action of D-002, however, had not been explored yet. Objective: to evaluate the effects of D-002 on 5-LOX

  19. Efecto secuestrador del D-002 sobre radicales hidroxilo en mucosa gástrica Scavenger effect of D-002 on hydroxyl radicals in the gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2012-03-01

    purified from the beeswax, cause some multiple mechanism-mediated gastroprotective effects and decrease of lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa. Objective: to determine whether D-002 can scavenge the in vivo added or in vivo generated hydroxyl radical in rats with indometacin-induced gastric ulcer or not. Methods: For the in vitro experiment, D-002 was added at concentrations 0.9 and 1 000 mg/mL For the in vivo experiment, the rats were randomized into 6 groups: one negative control, and five indometacin-treated groups as follows a positive excipient-treated control, three under D-002 treatment (5, 25 or 100 mg/kg, respectively, p.o., and another group treated with Omeprazole (20 mg/kg i.p.. These lines of treatment were given 1 hour (excipient and D-002 or 30 min (Omeprazole prior to inducing the ulcers. In both experiments, aliquots from the gastric mucosa were taken and the damage infringed to 2-deoxiribose by the hydroxyl radical was determined. Results: oral administration of D-002, rather than in vitro addition, significantly protected 2-desoxiribose from the oxidative damage depending on the dosage as compared to the positive control. Conclusions: these results indicate that the ability of the orally administered D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg to scavenge the hydroxyl radical endogenously generated on the gastric mucosa by indometacin could contribute to its antioxidant and gastroprotective effects against the damage that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs carry to the gastric mucosa.

  20. Papel da esofagogastroplastia (Thal-Hatafuku e da gastrectomia parcial com anastomose gastrojejunal em Y (Holt -Large na prevenção do refluxo gastroesofágico. estudo experimental em cães Role of the esofagogastroplasty (Thal-Hatafuku and of the partial gastrectomy and gastrojejunoanastomosis with excluded loop on Y (Holt & Large in the gastroesophageal reflux prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Mendes Castilho Netto

    2000-03-01

    refluxo gastroesofágico; a esofagocardioplastia mostrou ter importante eficácia anti-refluxo e menor morbidade; a cirurgia realizada no grupo III teve morbidade elevada e mortalidade precoce com o estímulo histamínico. Acredita-se que a esofagogastroplastia tenha lugar reservado entre os procedimentos destinados ao tratamento de casos selecionados de acalásia e de estenose péptica do esôfago.The aim of this study was to evaluate in dogs the effects of two kinds of procedures in the gastroesophageal reflux prevention. Thirty animals divided in three randomized groups of ten were analysed as follow: group I (control - esophagastrostomy side-to-side ; group II - esophagogastroplasty; group III -esophagogastrostomy side-to-side, partial gastrectomy and gastrojejunoanastomosis with excluded loop on y, The following parameters were used: body weight, endoscopy, radiological study and macro and microscopy data of the inner surface of the esophagus. The animals received daily histamine-in-beeswax parenterally for the posoperative stimulation of the gastric acid output until death or sacrifice. The research was carried out in three phases: préoperative phase, between the 35° and the 40° postoperative day and after histamine application. Group I showed sgnificant weight loss between the 1st and 2nd phase, which was intense on the 3rd phase. Group II showed no significative weight changes in any phase. Group III revealed significant weight changes even without histaminic stimulus. Endoscopy brought out significant more intensive esophagitis in group I than in II, after histaminic stimulus. In III, it was not possible to obtain these results, because of the precocious death of the animals. Fluoroscopic examination showed that 70% of the animals from group I, exhibited significative reflux, while in 30% this complication was not present. In group II, the reflux ocurred in few dogs and was not seen in 70% of the dogs.. Group III, revealed reflux in all animals and of