WorldWideScience

Sample records for beers electronic resource

  1. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  2. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  3. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  4. Managing the human resources in beer industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human resources' management in business systems comprises a selection of goals, a policy determination, as well as planning, organizing, coordination and control of activities in the field of human resources, by taking over the management actions, in order to achieve the selected goals and to realize the purpose of the management function, as a sub-system of an organization's operation. The basic tasks of the human resources management are: planning, knowledge managing, improvement of work process and quality, control and evaluation of achievements. The paper's goal is to point out to a significance, which it has for its successful business, according to an analysis and description of the most important activities of the human resources' management, as theoretically, as well as practically, in a concrete business system.

  5. Monitoring of beer fermentation based on hybrid electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Zaborowski, Michał; Prokaryn, Piotr; Ciosek, Patrycja

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of biotechnological processes, including fermentation is extremely important because of the rapidly occurring changes in the composition of the samples during the production. In the case of beer, the analysis of physicochemical parameters allows for the determination of the stage of fermentation process and the control of its possible perturbations. As a tool to control the beer production process a sensor array can be used, composed of potentiometric and voltammetric sensors (so-called hybrid Electronic Tongue, h-ET). The aim of this study is to apply electronic tongue system to distinguish samples obtained during alcoholic fermentation. The samples originate from batch of homemade beer fermentation and from two stages of the process: fermentation reaction and maturation of beer. The applied sensor array consists of 10 miniaturized ion-selective electrodes (potentiometric ET) and silicon based 3-electrode voltammetric transducers (voltammetric ET). The obtained results were processed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). For potentiometric data, voltammetric data, and combined potentiometric and voltammetric data, comparison of the classification ability was conducted based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), sensitivity, specificity, and coefficient F calculation. It is shown, that in the contrast to the separately used techniques, the developed hybrid system allowed for a better characterization of the beer samples. Data fusion in hybrid ET enables to obtain better results both in qualitative analysis (RMSE, specificity, sensitivity) and in quantitative analysis (RMSE, R(2), a, b). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T.

    2016-01-01

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca"2"+/Mg"2"+, K"+/Na"+) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  7. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska, E-mail: ewitkowskanery@ichf.edu.pl [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil)

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}/Na{sup +}) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only

  8. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  9. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  10. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  11. The use of enzymes for beer brewing: Thermodynamic comparison on resource use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkelaar, Laura H.G. van; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, Atze-Jan van der

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process. The exergy efficiency of malting was 77%. The main exergy losses stem from the use of natural gas for kilning and from starch loss during germination. The exergy efficiency of the enzyme production process ranges between 20% and 42% depending on if the by-product was considered useful. The main exergy loss was due to high power requirement for fermentation. The total exergy input in the enzyme production process was 30 times the standard chemical exergy of the enzyme, which makes it exergetically expensive. Nevertheless, the total exergy input for the production of 100 kg beer was larger for the conventional process (441 MJ) than for the enzyme-assisted process (354 MJ). Moreover, beer produced using enzymes reduced the use of water, raw materials and natural gas by 7%, 14% and 78% respectively. Consequently, the exergy loss in the enzyme production process is compensated by the prevention of exergy loss in the total beer brewing process. - Highlights: • The exergetic production costs of enzymes are ±30 times their standard chemical exergy. • These costs of enzymes should be taken into account in exergy analysis. • Enzyme-assisted brewing is more exergy efficient than brewing with malted barley. • Enzyme-assisted brewing saves raw material, water and energy.

  12. A fast cross-validation method for alignment of electron tomography images based on Beer-Lambert law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J.; Pankratz, Logan M.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Lanman, Jason K.; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In electron tomography, accurate alignment of tilt series is an essential step in attaining high-resolution 3D reconstructions. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of alignment quality has remained a challenging issue, even though many alignment methods have been reported. Here, we report a fast and accurate method, tomoAlignEval, based on the Beer-Lambert law, for the evaluation of alignment quality. Our method is able to globally estimate the alignment accuracy by measuring the goodness of log-linear relationship of the beam intensity attenuations at different tilt angles. Extensive tests with experimental data demonstrated its robust performance with stained and cryo samples. Our method is not only significantly faster but also more sensitive than measurements of tomogram resolution using Fourier shell correlation method (FSCe/o). From these tests, we also conclude that while current alignment methods are sufficiently accurate for stained samples, inaccurate alignments remain a major limitation for high resolution cryo-electron tomography. PMID:26455556

  13. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  14. A fast cross-validation method for alignment of electron tomography images based on Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J; Pankratz, Logan M; Kuhn, Richard J; Lanman, Jason K; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    In electron tomography, accurate alignment of tilt series is an essential step in attaining high-resolution 3D reconstructions. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of alignment quality has remained a challenging issue, even though many alignment methods have been reported. Here, we report a fast and accurate method, tomoAlignEval, based on the Beer-Lambert law, for the evaluation of alignment quality. Our method is able to globally estimate the alignment accuracy by measuring the goodness of log-linear relationship of the beam intensity attenuations at different tilt angles. Extensive tests with experimental data demonstrated its robust performance with stained and cryo samples. Our method is not only significantly faster but also more sensitive than measurements of tomogram resolution using Fourier shell correlation method (FSCe/o). From these tests, we also conclude that while current alignment methods are sufficiently accurate for stained samples, inaccurate alignments remain a major limitation for high resolution cryo-electron tomography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Beer identity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Martens, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study a sensory profiling and a consumer test including 10 commercially Danish beers were conducted. The 10 beer samples covered four types of beer namely; lager, strong lager, ale and wheat beer, representing both new and more established beers on the Danish market. A trained panel consi...

  16. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  17. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  18. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  19. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  20. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  1. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  2. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  3. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  5. Beer Snobs Do Exist: Estimation of Beer Demand by Type

    OpenAIRE

    Toro-Gonzalez, Daniel; McCluskey, Jill J.; Mittelhammer, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Although mass-produced beers still represent the vast majority of U.S. beer sales, there has been a significant growth trend in the craft beer segment. This study analyzes the demand for beer as a differentiated product and estimates own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities for beer by type: craft beer, mass-produced beer, and imported beer. We verify that beer is a normal good with a considerably inelastic demand and also find that the cross-price elasticity across types of beer is cl...

  6. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  7. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  8. Simultaneous determination of sample thickness, tilt, and electron mean free path using tomographic tilt images based on Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J; Pankratz, Logan M; Kuhn, Richard J; Lanman, Jason K; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging technique that can elucidate the architecture of macromolecular complexes and cellular ultrastructure in a near-native state. Some important sample parameters, such as thickness and tilt, are needed for 3-D reconstruction. However, these parameters can currently only be determined using trial 3-D reconstructions. Accurate electron mean free path plays a significant role in modeling image formation process essential for simulation of electron microscopy images and model-based iterative 3-D reconstruction methods; however, their values are voltage and sample dependent and have only been experimentally measured for a limited number of sample conditions. Here, we report a computational method, tomoThickness, based on the Beer-Lambert law, to simultaneously determine the sample thickness, tilt and electron inelastic mean free path by solving an overdetermined nonlinear least square optimization problem utilizing the strong constraints of tilt relationships. The method has been extensively tested with both stained and cryo datasets. The fitted electron mean free paths are consistent with reported experimental measurements. The accurate thickness estimation eliminates the need for a generous assignment of Z-dimension size of the tomogram. Interestingly, we have also found that nearly all samples are a few degrees tilted relative to the electron beam. Compensation of the intrinsic sample tilt can result in horizontal structure and reduced Z-dimension of tomograms. Our fast, pre-reconstruction method can thus provide important sample parameters that can help improve performance of tomographic reconstruction of a wide range of samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  10. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  11. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  12. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  13. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  14. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  15. Physics of Beer Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez , Javier; Casado-Chacón , Almudena; Fuster , Daniel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liq...

  16. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without payment...

  17. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced......AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... in the model beers. CONCLUSIONS: A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  18. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  19. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  20. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status. (orig.) [de

  1. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  2. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  3. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  4. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  5. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  6. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  7. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  8. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  9. Free Beer and Engaging Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper presents an analysis of art collective Superflex' FREE BEER project; a beer brand and an art work that seeks to promote a critical understanding of free creativity and intellectual property rights by inviting beer enthusiasts to brew their own beer. The paper seeks to demonstrate how...... the project contributes to Superflex' profile as contemporary avant-garde artists and how their work has contributed to the field of design. More specifically the paper seeks to demonstrate how the FREE BEER project succeeds in establishing a context of meaning that involves a political as well as a business...... dimension, and which makes possible the exchange of values to and from these dimensions as well as that of art. In the paper, this context of meaning is constructed in terms of a complex chain of analogies by means of which amateur beer production and beer consumption becomes an expression of the belief...

  10. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  11. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  12. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section 27.60... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.60 Beer. All imported beer is required to be released from customs custody...

  13. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The purchasing...

  14. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection. When...

  15. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  16. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  17. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  18. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    highlighted that consumers’ preferences for beers are highly heterogeneous, and segments based on preferences for specific sensory characteristics and beer styles were identified. It was further hypothesized that consumers’ preferences may be jointly determined by the presence of novel sensory elements......, and the way these fit with consumer’s previous experiences with beer. Empirical evidence gathered during the work generally supported this hypothesis, indicating that consumers prefer beers with novel flavors that are not perceived as too novel or discontinuous with their sensory expectations. The last part...

  19. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  20. Tune That Beer! Listening for the Pitch of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reinoso Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments designed to assess the key sensory drivers underlying people’s association of a specific auditory pitch with Belgian beer. In particular, we assessed if people would rely mostly on the differences between beers in terms of their relative alcohol strength, or on the contrast between the most salient taste attributes of the different beers. In Experiment 1, the participants rated three bitter beers (differing in alcohol content, using a narrow range of pitch choices (50–500 Hz. The results revealed that the beers were all rated around the same pitch (Mean = 232 Hz, SD = 136 Hz. In Experiment 2, a wider range of pitch choices (50–1500 Hz, along with the addition of a much sweeter beer, revealed that people mostly tend to match beers with bitter-range profiles at significantly lower pitch ranges when compared to the average pitch of a much sweeter beer. These results therefore demonstrate that clear differences in taste attributes lead to distinctly different matches in terms of pitch. Having demonstrated the robustness of the basic crossmodal matching, future research should aim to uncover the basis for such matches and better understand the perceptual effects of matching/non-matching tones on the multisensory drinking experience.

  1. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  2. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  3. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  4. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  5. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  6. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  7. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  8. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  9. Physics of Beer Tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  10. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  11. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  12. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  13. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  14. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  15. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  16. Possibilities for the Creation of Beer Routes in Hungary: A Methodological and Practical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó János

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the possibilities and the potential for the establishment of beer tourism, one of the most recently valorised tourism products of global gastro tourism, and more importantly the creation and professional criteria of beer routes in Hungary. With a thorough investigation of the theoretical background of beer tourism and beer trails the authors try to collect those spatial perspectives which confirm our idea that Hungary is possessing adequate resources for the initiation of this new tourism product. We experienced that this area of tourism geography has not yet been researched thoroughly in the country, for which we make an attempt in this paper, using geographical and GIS methods, basically relying on the beer routes of Bavaria, Germany as good practices.

  17. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  18. The physics of Beer Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being nown for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacked scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bub...

  19. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  20. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer shall...

  1. Biotechnological production of non-traditional beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Adadi; Kovaleva, Elena G.; Glukhareva, Tatiana V.; Shatunova, Svetlana A.

    2017-09-01

    In the present study we brewed sorghum (pito) and low-alcoholic beer (LAB) utilizing Sacharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomycodes ludwigii as starters, respectively, and characterized their quality parameters. Single infusion method of mashing was practiced. Physiochemical, sensory and antiradical properties of samples were determined. Pito was produced by pitching wort with S. cerevisae (single starter culture (SSC)) and S. cerevisae in combination with L. plantarum (mixed starter culture (MSC)). oBrix did not change over the next 24 hours for both cultures and began to decline, yet still it remain steady when the fermentation was over. After the end of fermentation, wort pitched with SSC showed lower oBrix (6.63±0.11), than the wort with MSC (6.73±0.20) and differ significantly (P < 0.05) with duration of the fermentation process. LAB also exhibited a decrease in oBrix from 12.2±0.12 to 8.04±0.01 at the end of the fermentation. Titratable acidity (TA) and pH remained constant after 24 hours of fermentation. TA began to increase from 0.73±0.02 to 1.04±0.02 and 0.73±0.02 to 1.07±0.02 for SSC and MSC, respectively. A decrease in pH from 4.33±0.20 to 3.86±0.15 and 4.33±0.20 to 4.2±0.1 was observed for SSC and MSC, respectively, during the rest of the fermentation period. A total of 22 volatile compounds including 11 esters, 3 alcohols and 8 acids, were identified in pito. Seven of these compounds were detected after the first fermentation (in green beer), whilst the rest (16 compounds) were distinguish after secondary fermentation. We also identified 8 volatiles in LAB, including 5 alcohols, 2 esters and 1 acid. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of free radicals was used to determine the antiradical activity (AOA) of LAB in comparison with industrial alcoholic beverages (Baltica 7 from St Petersburg, Russia and Nectar beer from Bosnia-Herzegonia). LAB showed DPPH radical scavenging activity of 1.16 ×10-4 mol × equ (R2

  2. Beer multinationals supporting Africa's development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); H. Kwakkenbos (Herma)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper addresses the question how partnerships include smallholders into sorghum-beer supply chains. Introduction Restrictions on the import of barley malt by the Nigerian government in the 1980s have facilitated an import substitution strategy that is now widely adopted

  3. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  5. BeerDeCoded: the open beer metagenome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jonathan; Henry, Luc; Rotman, Nicolas; Rando, Gianpaolo

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing has radically changed research in the life sciences, in both academic and corporate laboratories. The potential impact is tremendous, yet a majority of citizens have little or no understanding of the technological and ethical aspects of this widespread adoption. We designed BeerDeCoded as a pretext to discuss the societal issues related to genomic and metagenomic data with fellow citizens, while advancing scientific knowledge of the most popular beverage of all. In the spirit of citizen science, sample collection and DNA extraction were carried out with the participation of non-scientists in the community laboratory of Hackuarium, a not-for-profit organisation that supports unconventional research and promotes the public understanding of science. The dataset presented herein contains the targeted metagenomic profile of 39 bottled beers from 5 countries, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of fungal species. A preliminary analysis reveals the presence of a large diversity of wild yeast species in commercial brews. With this project, we demonstrate that coupling simple laboratory procedures that can be carried out in a non-professional environment with state-of-the-art sequencing technologies and targeted metagenomic analyses, can lead to the detection and identification of the microbial content in bottled beer.

  6. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  7. The use of chitooligosaccharide in beer brewing for protection against beer-spoilage bacteria and its influence on beer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Zhimin; Wang, Ting; Guo, Xuan; Luan, Jing; Sun, Yumei; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-04-01

    To identify a biological preservative that can protect beer from microbial contamination, which often results in the production of turbidity and off-flavor. The antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide against beer-spoilage bacteria and its effect on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast was studied. Chitooligosaccharide with an average 2 kDa molecular weight was the best at inhibiting all tested beer-spoilage bacteria. The application of chitooligosaccharide in the brewing process did not influence the fermentation of brewer's yeast. The change in beer performance induced by the contamination of Lactobacillus brevis could be effectively controlled by application of chitooligosaccharide in the beer brewing process. The experimental data suggested that chitooligosaccharide should be an excellent preservative to inhibit beer-spoilage bacteria in the brewing process and in the end product.

  8. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in the...

  9. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may be...

  10. Beer as a Teaching Aid in the Classroom and Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolija, Jasminka N.; Plavsic, Jovica V.; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mandic, Ljuba M.

    2012-01-01

    Beer was chosen as a teaching tool to maximize students' class participation and systemize and enhance their knowledge of chemistry. Viewing beer as a complex mixture allowed the students to learn how to directly apply their chemistry knowledge. Before the "Beer Unit" students were instructed to research beer and acquire data on beer composition…

  11. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial number...

  12. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer as...

  13. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal or...

  14. Radioimmunoassays of papain in beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, P.; Fukal, L.; Strejcek, F.; Kas, J.

    1984-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of papain is described which is capable of detecting 0.2 μg of papain/ml in beer, a level approximately 1% of that normally used for chillproofing. Changes in incubation conditions significantly accelerate the papain determination with only slight loss of accuracy. Apart from the high sensitivity it has been shown that the method is highly specific and distinguishes papain from the other chillproofing enzymes used. (author)

  15. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  16. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  17. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  18. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  19. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  20. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  1. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  2. Progress in Brewing Science and Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W

    2017-06-07

    The brewing of beer is an ancient biotechnology, the unit processes of which have not changed in hundreds of years. Equally, scientific study within the brewing industry not only has ensured that modern beer making is highly controlled, leading to highly consistent, high-quality, healthful beverages, but also has informed many other fermentation-based industries.

  3. Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2007-01-01

    The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...

  4. The use of enzymes for beer brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Mostert, Joost; Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    The exergetic performance of beer produced by the conventional malting and brewing process is compared with that of beer produced using an enzyme-assisted process. The aim is to estimate if the use of an exogenous enzyme formulation reduces the environmental impact of the overall brewing process.

  5. Drink beer to save the planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Barfield

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This student poster display example considers the ethics of the marketing of the “Cascade Green” beer inAustralia. Issues considered include the ethics of marketing beer, the environmental impacts of the beersmarketing and packaging and a reflection upon the societal impacts of the product.

  6. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  7. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  8. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  9. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  10. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  11. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  12. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  14. Innovations in the brewing industry: light beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Caballero, Isabel; Barrios, Rosa; Rojas, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The demand for light beers has led brewers to innovate by developing light beer. However, these products are not widely accepted in Europe compared to North America and Australasia because of their lack of fullness in the taste and low bitterness compared with conventional beer. The lower levels of some important compounds, present in light beer, can explain these features since they are responsible for the characteristics of the beer. These include alcohol soluble proteins, oligosaccharides, glycerol, polyphenols, iso-α-acids, fusel alcohols and trihydroxy fatty acids. Light beer is produced by several methods, the most commonly used is the addition of glucoamylase to the wort before or during fermentation. This enzyme metabolizes residual carbohydrates (mainly dextrins) transforming them into fermentable sugars and reducing the caloric and alcohol content in this type of beer. Recently pilot studies have been carried out with genetically engineered yeast strains in which amylolytic genes are introduced into the yeast genome in order to metabolize carbohydrate residues. When introducing amylolytic genes, a better fermentability occurs although the fullness of flavor still becomes reduced.

  15. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  16. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred between...

  17. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has not...

  18. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction, equipment...

  19. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records which...

  20. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from the...

  1. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels of...

  2. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  3. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  4. Sinking bubbles in stout beers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. T.; Kaar, S.; O'Brien, S. B. G.

    2018-04-01

    A surprising phenomenon witnessed by many is the sinking bubbles seen in a settling pint of stout beer. Bubbles are less dense than the surrounding fluid so how does this happen? Previous work has shown that the explanation lies in a circulation of fluid promoted by the tilted sides of the glass. However, this work has relied heavily on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Here, we show that the phenomenon of sinking bubbles can be predicted using a simple analytic model. To make the model analytically tractable, we work in the limit of small bubbles and consider a simplified geometry. The model confirms both the existence of sinking bubbles and the previously proposed mechanism.

  5. Application of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR) of hydrogen to the characterization of European beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.J.; Benbernou, M.; Lantier, F.

    1985-01-01

    More than one hundred samples of European beers have been investigated by the new SNIF-NMR method which is based on 2H NMR at the natural abundance level and enables site-specific natural isotope fractionation factors in ethanol to be determined. The relative (R) and absolute (D/H)sub(i) parameters are shown to be characteristic of the country where the beers are brewed and the observed variations are explained in terms of cereal composition, water resource, and manufacturing processing (fermentation, yeast, temperature cycle). These new parameters find analytical and mechanistic applications in the identification of a beer and in the investigation of a fermentation process. (author)

  6. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N

    2003-12-31

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  7. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  8. Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Bommel, Roelien van; Zyl, Hannelize van; Voss, Hans-Peter; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, M. E.; Graaf, Cees de

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and compared to beer and wine conceptualisations in the Netherlands and Portugal. A qualitative study was performed using a focus group approach with moderate consumers of both countries (n = ...

  9. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  11. Nutrient content of sorghum beer strainings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum beer strainings were analysed for starch, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, minerals and ... The importance of minerals in animal nutrition has been recognized for many ..... strainings is probably due to yeast activity during fermentation ...

  12. Management of Conflicts within Beer Drinking Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... Key words: conflict resolution, conflict management, public sphere, beer, conflict ... Alcohol is any beverage planned for consumption having least possible .... dropping out of school due to lack of good food and tuition fees ...

  13. The Phenomenon of Czech Beer: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšovská, J.; Čejka, P.; Sigler, Karel; Hönigová, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2014), s. 309-319 ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Czech beer * chemical profile * sensorial profile Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.675, year: 2014

  14. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    OpenAIRE

    Mantic-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P-T; Gallaire, F.

    2015-01-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong exp...

  15. Deep coverage of the beer proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochalová, Martina; Konečná, Hana; Stejskal, Karel; Potěšil, David; Fridrichová, Danuše; Srbová, Eva; Ornerová, Kateřina; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2017-06-06

    We adopted an approach based on peptide immobilized pH gradient-isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF) separation, coupled with LC-MS/MS, in order to maximize coverage of the beer proteome. A lager beer brewed using traditional Czech technology was degassed, desalted and digested. Tryptic peptides were separated by isoelectric focusing on an immobilized pH gradient strip and, after separation, the gel strip was divided into seven equally sized parts. Peptides extracted from gel fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This approach resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of proteins identified (over 1700) when compared to analysis of unfractionated beer processed by a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP). Over 1900 protein groups (PGs) in total were identified by both approaches. The study significantly extends knowledge about the beer proteome and demonstrates its complexity. Detailed knowledge of the protein content, especially gluten proteins, will enhance the evaluation of potential health risks related to beer consumption (coeliac disease) and will contribute to improving beer quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeroen; van Dam, Ruud; van Doorn, Ronald; Katerere, David; Berthiller, Franz; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2017-01-01

    Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FBs), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay. For confirmatory analysis, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and applied. The 6-plex screening showed discrepancies with the LC-MS/MS analysis, possibly due to matrix interference and/or the presence of unknown mycotoxin metabolites. The major mycotoxins detected were DON and its plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (D3G). The 6-plex immunoassay reported the sum of DON and D3G (DON+D3G) contaminations ranging from 10 to 475 μg/L in 406 beers, of which 73% were craft beers. The popular craft beer style imperial stout, had the highest percentage of samples suspected positive (83%) with 29% of all imperial stout beers having DON+D3G contaminations above 100 μg/L. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that industrial pale lagers from Italy and Spain, predominantly contained FBs (3-69 μg/L). Besides FBs, African traditional beers also contained aflatoxins (0.1-1.2 μg/L). The presence of OTA, T-2, HT-2, ZEN, β-zearalenol, 3/15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol and the conjugated mycotoxin zearalenone 14-sulfate were confirmed in some beers. This study shows that in 27 craft beers, DON+D3G concentrations occurred above (or at) the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). Exceeding the TDI, may have a health impact. A better control of brewing malts for craft beer, should be put in place to circumvent this potential problem.

  17. Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Peters

    Full Text Available Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA, zearalenone (ZEN, fumonisins (FBs, T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2 and deoxynivalenol (DON using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay. For confirmatory analysis, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was developed and applied. The 6-plex screening showed discrepancies with the LC-MS/MS analysis, possibly due to matrix interference and/or the presence of unknown mycotoxin metabolites. The major mycotoxins detected were DON and its plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucopyranoside (D3G. The 6-plex immunoassay reported the sum of DON and D3G (DON+D3G contaminations ranging from 10 to 475 μg/L in 406 beers, of which 73% were craft beers. The popular craft beer style imperial stout, had the highest percentage of samples suspected positive (83% with 29% of all imperial stout beers having DON+D3G contaminations above 100 μg/L. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that industrial pale lagers from Italy and Spain, predominantly contained FBs (3-69 μg/L. Besides FBs, African traditional beers also contained aflatoxins (0.1-1.2 μg/L. The presence of OTA, T-2, HT-2, ZEN, β-zearalenol, 3/15-acetyl-DON, nivalenol and the conjugated mycotoxin zearalenone 14-sulfate were confirmed in some beers. This study shows that in 27 craft beers, DON+D3G concentrations occurred above (or at the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI. Exceeding the TDI, may have a health impact. A better control of brewing malts for craft beer, should be put in place to circumvent this potential

  18. Saturated in beer: awareness of beer advertising in late childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Ellickson, Phyllis L; McCaffrey, Daniel F; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exposure, response to, and awareness of beer advertising in 2 age groups, including awareness of a Budweiser advertisement (ad) that portrayed lizards and an animated ferret. In the spring of 2000, 1,996 fourth graders and 1,525 ninth graders attending 1 of 60 South Dakota schools participated in an in-school survey. Several indicators of advertising awareness, exposure, and response were assessed: recognition, product naming, brand naming, and liking in response to stills drawn from 4 masked television beer ads, listing of beer brands, exposure, attention to, and skepticism toward television beer ads. Fourteen percent of 4th graders and 20% of 9th graders recognized at least 3 of 4 sample beer ads. Seventy-five percent of 4th graders and 87% of 9th graders recognized the Budweiser ferret ad; about one in three 4th graders could name the brand it advertised, whereas more than three in four 9th graders could do so. When asked to list as many beer brands as they could, almost 29% of 4th graders listed 3 or more beer brands and 82% of 9th graders did so. Ninth graders liked beer advertisements more and paid greater attention to them, but 4th graders were exposed to them more often. Television beer ads result in high levels of beer advertising awareness in children as young as age 9, and even higher awareness among 14-year-olds. Practices that expose or appeal to youth, including use of animated characters, should be avoided by beer advertisers.

  19. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  20. Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Bommel, van Roelien; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Kees

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and

  1. [Beer, wine, spirits and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M N; Sørensen, T I; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Gottschau, A; Schnohr, P; Hein, H O; Jensen, G

    2001-05-23

    A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.

  2. Application of chitooligosaccharides as antioxidants in beer to improve the flavour stability by protecting against beer staling during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Luan, Bo; Sun, Zhen; Yang, Chao; Yu, Zhimin; Li, Xianzhen

    2017-02-01

    To improve beer flavour stability by adding chitooligosaccharides that prevent formation of staling compounds and also scavenge radicals in stale beer. Chitooligosaccharides, at 0.001-0.01%, inhibited the formation of staling compounds in forced aged beer. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, trans-2-nonenal and phenylacetaldehyde were decreased by 105, 360 and 27%, respectively, when compared with those in stale beer without chitooligosaccharide addition. The capability of chitooligosaccharides to prevent staling compound formation depended on their molecular size (2 or 3 kDa). The DPPH/hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in fresh beer significantly lower than that in forced aged beer in the presence of chitooligosaccharides. When compared with stale beer without added chitooligosaccharides, the radical scavenging activity could be increased by adding chitooligosaccharides to forced aged beer. Chitooligosaccharides play an active part in the prevention of beer flavour deterioration by inhibiting the formation of staling compounds and increasing radical scavenging activity.

  3. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  4. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  5. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  6. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  7. Alcohol warnings in TV beer advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Domenech, M M

    1995-05-01

    Mandated warnings are among the few steps Congress has taken to influence the use of legal substances such as alcohol. The usefulness of such warnings in discouraging abuse of alcohol is, however, controversial. This study examines the impact of televised warnings on probable antecedents of belief change not examined in previous research: confidence in beliefs about beer risks or benefits, and cognitive responses to the advertisements. The present study (N = 75 male and female college students) tests four of the warnings recommended in Senate Bill 674 (1993--the "Thurmond bill") edited into randomly sampled television beer advertisements, using a between-subjects treatment-and-control experimental design. The four advertisements or advertisement/warning pairs were counterbalanced and analyzed as a repeated measures factor. The study indicated, as hypothesized, that subjects exposed to warnings tended to have less confidence in their generally skeptical assessments of beer risks--a likely precursor to belief change in resistant populations. Repeated exposure to the advertisements alone also appeared to lead to increased confidence in generally positive assessments of beer benefits, whereas repeated exposure to warnings led to decreased confidence in such assessments. Repeated exposure to warnings also may have primed negative reactions to subsequent beer advertisements. These results suggest mechanisms by which alcohol warnings may over time influence beliefs. Measures used here may serve as useful criterion variables in future studies on warnings. Further attention to optimizing warning content and presentation is recommended.

  8. The fungicide triadimefon affects beer flavor and composition by influencing Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhiqiang; Li, Minmin; An, Jingjing; Chen, Jieying; Bao, Yuming; Francis, Frédéric; Dai, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that beer is produced on a large scale, the effects of pesticide residues on beer have been rarely investigated. In this study, we used micro-brewing settings to determine the effect of triadimefon on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and beer flavor. The yeast growth in medium was significantly inhibited (45%) at concentrations higher than 5 mg L-1, reaching 80% and 100% inhibition at 10 mg L-1 and 50 mg L-1, respectively. There were significant differences in sensory quality between beer samples fermented with and without triadimefon based on data obtained with an electronic tongue and nose. Such an effect was most likely underlain by changes in yeast fermentation activity, including decreased utilization of maltotriose and most amino acids, reduced production of isobutyl and isoamyl alcohols, and increased ethyl acetate content in the fungicide treated samples. Furthermore, yeast metabolic profiling by phenotype microarray and UPLC/TOF-MS showed that triadimefon caused significant changes in the metabolism of glutathione, phenylalanine and sphingolipids, and in sterol biosynthesis. Thus, triadimefon negatively affects beer sensory qualities by influencing the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae during fermentation, emphasizing the necessity of stricter control over fungicide residues in brewing by the food industry.

  9. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  10. Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enr...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enrollees in the Part D Program Inappropriate prescribing of certain medications known as Beers drugs may be...

  11. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS ON THE BEER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research conducted in November among 220 students at the University of Life Sciences in Poznań. The aim was study the preferences and buying behaviour of students on the beer market. It shows the place of beer among other alcohols, frequency and place of consumption, as well the place of beer shopping and the criteria of beer purchase. The most popular brands and tastes of beer were researched. Otherwise was analysed preference for beer packaging and promotion effects on students. It was found that beer is the most often chosen alcohol among this group of consumers, and vast majority of them consume it at least once a week. Students often drink beer at home or at friends, and favourite brands are: Lech, Redd’s, Desperados and Żubr.

  12. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  13. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  14. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  15. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  16. Development, characterization and shelf life of craft wheat beer

    OpenAIRE

    Mascia, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the production of beers brewed using raw materials of local origin. Many micro-breweries have been established in Italy, particularly in Sardinia, where some have started to use Sardinian wheat to produce a beer that has a regional connection. In an attempt to make this product more original, new strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isolated from sourdoughs, were selected. Beer aging influences the characteristics of beers and is usually ...

  17. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  19. Beer Tourism – from Theory to Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Bujdosó; Csaba Szûcs

    2012-01-01

    Due to the interest in the development of gastronomy and the food and beverage culture of different countries and regions, culinary travel is gaining in popularity all over the world and gastronomic tourism has become an independent product on its own within tourism. Beer tourism has become an integrated part of gastronomic tourism. The purpose of this paper is to place beer tourism, which attracts a growing number of visitors, as a product into the system of tourism as well as to review its ...

  20. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  1. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage in...

  2. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than certification...

  3. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any person...

  4. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to...

  5. Consumer’s Evaluation and Choice of Beer in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Yang, Yingkui

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the consumer’s evaluation and choice for beer characteristics is critical for marketers, nutritionist and health educators. We used multi-profile best-worst scaling to understand how consumers evaluate beer attributes in Vietnam context. We found that beer brand, price and packaging...

  6. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  7. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  8. Beer and Organic Labels: Do Belgian Consumers Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Poelmans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether beer drinkers are willing to pay a price premium for organic beer compared to conventional beer. Moreover, we identify subgroups of consumers with different preference patterns by investigating whether specific personal characteristics of the purchasers have an influence on this willingness-to-pay. Specifically, results are reported from a survey including a stated choice experiment of consumer decisions concerning beer purchases in Flanders (Belgium, focusing on organic labels. A non-probabilistic sampling method was used over the Internet and 334 responses were useable for the empirical analysis. Each respondent was asked to choose their preferred beer from a series of nine choice cards describing three different beer varieties. In this respect, we created a two-block design, each consisting of nine choice cards. Each respondent was randomly presented with one of the two blocks, so that an equal distribution of the blocks could be obtained. Overall, we find that our sample is statistically indifferent between a beer with an organic label and a similar beer without an organic label. This is in line with previous research that stated that consumers are unwilling to pay high price premiums for organic vice products, such as beer. We find no statistically different preferences for male or female respondents, or for members or non-members of nature protection organizations. However, we find a significant difference (p-value = 0.029 between primary beer shoppers who have a zero willingness-to-pay (WTP for organic beer compared to similar non-organic beer and the reference group that has a negative WTP of 14 Euro per 1.5 L for organic beer. In addition, the WTP for beer drinkers older than 40 (negative WTP of 22 Euro per 1.5 L and the WTP for frequent beer drinkers (zero WTP are statistically different from the reference group (p-value = 0.019 and 0.000 respectively.

  9. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  10. Testing scales for beer brand loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    and Carlsberg beers, and to compare Cronbach's alphas for the two brands when evaluated by the same respondents. Both brands are produced by the Carlsberg Group, and both are lagers. The Carlsberg Group markets Tuborg as a more premium brand, and it also aims at women. Both validated loyalty scales - (repeat...

  11. The Beer Lambert Law Measurement Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Pasquale; Gratton, Luigi M.; Polesell, Marta; Salmoiraghi, Alessandro; Oss, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based apparatus as a valuable tool for investigating the optical absorption of a material and to verify the exponential decay predicted by Beer's law. The very simple experimental activities presented here, suitable for undergraduate students, allows one to measure the material transmittance including its…

  12. Radioimmunoassay of bromelin and ficia in beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donhauser, S.

    1979-01-01

    The RIA is a possible method for the detection of enzyme additions in beer. A special test system is required for every enzyme. Due to the high sensitivity of the system, it can be used also for immune sera with specific but low titers which are not sufficient for other cammon immunotechniques. (orig./AJ) [de

  13. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  14. Reduction and restoration of culturability of beer-stressed and low-temperature-stressed Lactobacillus acetotolerans strain 2011-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Fang, Huijing; Tu, Jingxia; Li, Bing; Liu, Jing; Li, Huiping; Xu, Zhenbo

    2015-08-03

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria, regardless of beer type, and therefore pose significant problems for the brewing industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable, but putatively non-culturable (VPNC) state of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage species, Lactobacillus acetotolerans. Upon prolonged contact with degassed beer, L. acetotolerans was found to show decreased culturability. After 17 subcultures in beer, 100-μL aliquots of the culture were no longer culturable on MRS agar until 14 days of incubation despite the presence of 10(5) viable cells, indicating that a large population of cells entered into a VPNC state. Furthermore, a significant reduction or even putative loss of culturability, but maintenance of viability, of L. acetotolerans could also be induced by storing the strain at 0 °C for 105 days. Adding catalase at a concentration of 1000 U/plate enabled the VPNC cells, both induced by beer subculture treatment and cold treatment, to regain culturability with a resuscitation time of 4 days and 3 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that cells decreased in size and gradually changed morphology from short rods to coccoids when they entered the VPNC state. It was concluded that the difficulty in culturing the spoilage bacterium from brewery environments could be partly attributed the hard-to-culture or the viable, but non-culturable characteristic of this organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  16. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  17. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  18. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  19. The Influence of Color on the Consumer's Experience of Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Felipe Reinoso; Moors, Pieter; Wagemans, Johan; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Visual appearance (e.g., color) cues set expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor properties of food and drink. These expectations may, in turn, anchor the subsequent tasting experience. In the present study, we examined the influence of the color of a beer on the consumer's experience. Dark and pale beers were evaluated both before and after tasting. Importantly, these beers were indistinguishable in terms of their taste/flavor when tasted without any visual cues. The results indicate that the differing visual appearance of the beers led to clear differences in expected taste/flavor. However, after tasting, no differences in flavor ratings were observed, indicating that the expectations based on visual cues did not influence the actual tasting experience. The participants also expected the dark beer to be more expensive than the pale one. These outcomes suggest that changes in the visual appearance of a beer lead to significant changes in the way in which consumers expect the beer to taste. At the same time, however, our findings also suggest the need for more evidence to be collected in order to determine the boundary conditions on when such crossmodal expectations may vs. may not affect the tasting experience. Highlights: The expected flavor of a beer is affected by its visual appearance. No differences in flavor ratings were observed on tasting. Consumers expect dark beers to be more expensive than pale/amber beers.

  20. Saccharomyces species in the Production of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G. Stewart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic flavour and aroma of any beer is, in large part, determined by the yeast strain employed and the wort composition. In addition, properties such as flocculation, wort fermentation ability (including the uptake of wort sugars, amino acids, and peptides, ethanol and osmotic pressure tolerance together with oxygen requirements have a critical impact on fermentation performance. Yeast management between fermentations is also a critical brewing parameter. Brewer’s yeasts are mostly part of the genus Saccharomyces. Ale yeasts belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lager yeasts to the species Saccharomyces pastorianus. The latter is an interspecies hybrid between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. Brewer’s yeast strains are facultative anaerobes—they are able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen and this ability supports their property as an important industrial microorganism. This article covers important aspects of Saccharomyces molecular biology, physiology, and metabolism that is involved in wort fermentation and beer production.

  1. Making a frothy shampoo or beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The terms ``foam'' and ``froth'' refer to a dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid. Why do certain liquids show a tendency to foam while others do not? For example, bubbles can be produced in pure water by vigorous agitation, but then they rapidly coalesce and disappear. While foams cannot be produced with pure water, foams associated with beer or shampoo can persist for several minutes or even hours. What ingredient(s) in shampoo and beer make their foams stable, and what physical concepts control their stability? In this talk I'll review three basic mechanisms underlying foam stability, and I'll make connection with current research on coarsening by the diffusion of gas from smaller to larger bubbles. With thanks to Srinivasa Raghavan, Adam Roth, and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Grant NNX07AP20G.

  2. MODERN PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress trends of processes of brewing and fermenters for their realization are considered. It is rotined that the today most widespread method of production are speed-up processes on the method of Nathan in one technological stage in one vehicle –cylinder-conical tank — CCT. The next stage of development must be passing to the continuous methods, however these, known enough methods, so far did not find realization. The second directions of development of brewing is distribution of minibrewerys, including restaurant complexes. The basic stimulus of development of this direction is possibility of receipt of the so-called «living» beer — the high-quality unfiltered product, however today large competition make mass productions which mastered the technique of production of «living» beer at industrial level.

  3. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Erny, G.L. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNAA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esteves, V.I. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Cabrita, E. [Department of Chemistry, New University of Lisbon, 2825-114 Caparica (Portugal); Gil, A.M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-08-03

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  4. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A.; Erny, G.L.; Barros, A.S.; Esteves, V.I.; Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A.; Cabrita, E.; Gil, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  5. Ethanol concentration in breastmilk after the consumption of non-alcoholic beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claudia; Thierauf, Annette; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-06-01

    During lactation, the consumption of ethanol is discussed controversially. After women drink alcoholic beverages, ethanol can be found in breastmilk with a time lag. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular, non-alcoholic beer has become popular in recent years. According to regulations in the United States and most European countries, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still contain ethanol up to 1.2% by volume. To determine how much of this ethanol may reach the breastfed child, a drinking experiment with non-alcoholic beer was performed. Fifteen healthy breastfeeding women participated in the study. After at least 5 days of abstinence from ethanol and the donation of a void breastmilk sample, they were asked to drink 1.5 L of non-alcoholic beer within 1 hour. Breastmilk samples were collected using electronic breast pumps immediately after the end of drinking as well as 1 and 3 hours later. The milk was analyzed for ethanol by headspace-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection using a fully validated method. In two women, trace amounts of ethanol (up to 0.0021 g/L) were found in the samples gained immediately after the drinking period. In the other samples ethanol could not be detected (limit of detection=0.0006 g/L). The mother's consumption of non-alcoholic beer is likely innocuous for the breastfed infant.

  6. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  7. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate beer...

  8. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned to...

  9. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as a...

  10. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  11. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only rice...

  12. Effect of rice beer on gut bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Bhaskar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria, called microbiota influences human health and is effected by several host factors. The studies in humans and model organisms have clearly demonstrated that out of several important factors, diet has the most dominant role in regulation of the gut microbiota. Additionally, with an increase in the knowledge on the microbiota, the connections between microbial actions on dietary consumption are being revealed. Consumption of fermented beverages holds a long tradition and accounts for approximately one-third of the human diet globally. In various societies, fermentation has not only been well established as a process for food preservation, human nutrition, traditional medicine and culture but also for the improving the sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavor and aroma and most importantly for the magnification of the nutritional values. Consumption of rice beer is an essential part of the socio-cultural life of several tribes of North-East India. It is believed to be effective against several ailments such as ameboisis, acidity, vomiting and has health modulating effects including cholesterol reduction and endocrine function. Effect of rice beer was tested on mice model. 17 healthy Swiss albino mice were taken for the study and divided into two groups: control and treated. Rice beer was fed to the treated group once daily and fecal samples were collected. Metagenomic DNA from stool samples was extracted and V6 - V8 region of the 16S rDNA gene was amplified, followed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE.The DGGE gel was scored using GelCompar II software. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS analysis of stool samples was also carried out. Multidimensional scaling (MDS plot of the DGGE profiles showed distinct clustering of control and treated groups, indicating the effect of rice beer consumption on gut microbes.

  13. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K; Andersen, A T; Becker, U; Gluud, C; Sørensen, T I

    1999-11-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health. Cross sectional health survey with assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits (at last non-weekend day), smoking habits, social networks, physical activity, body mass index, educational level, presence of chronic disease, and self reported health. WHO Copenhagen Healthy City Survey, Denmark. 4113 men and 7926 women aged 18 to 100 years. Of the 12,039 subjects, 8680 reported their health as optimal, and 3359 reported a suboptimal health. After controlling for the covariates, the relation between total alcohol intake and the proportion reporting suboptimal health was J shaped. Heavy drinkers of any of the three types of alcoholic beverages had a higher prevalence of suboptimal health than non-drinkers. However, only light (1-2 glasses of wine yesterday) and moderate (3-5) wine drinkers had significantly lower odds ratios for suboptimal health--0.72 (95% confidence limits; 0.56 to 0.92) and 0.65 (0.49 to 0.87), respectively--when compared with non-wine drinkers. Moderate beer or spirits drinkers did not differ significantly from non-drinkers of these beverages with regard to prevalence of suboptimal health. Consistently, beer preference drinkers had an odds ratio of 1.50 (1.25 to 1.80) for suboptimal health compared with wine preference drinkers. A light to moderate wine intake is related to good self perceived health, whereas this is not the case for beer and spirits. The causal relations creating this association are unknown and should be considered when interpreting the relation between different types of alcoholic beverages and subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  14. Valorization of beer brewing wastes by composting

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Elisabete; Brás, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the residual yeast and diatomaceous earth (RYDE) slurry generated by the beer brewing industry by composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: cow manure/RYDE slurry (Pile CM) and sheep manure/RYDE slurry (Pile SM). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored b...

  15. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  16. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  17. Branding and Performance in the Global Beer Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    The mass market for beers is served by a few global breweries in an oligopoly structure covering most of the world market. The homogeneity of their main lager beers are very high and produced at large scaled plants at low costs. However, the breweries spend large amounts of money to promote some...... of the lager beers as premium beers and at a high and increasing price premium. Based on a database with prices for standard and premium lager, the paper study the development in the consumption of different types of beers on the global market in recent years. We estimate the price premium on premium beers...... and relate it to the rapid change in the oligopoly structure of the market through the merger and acquisition activities....

  18. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested.

  19. Selenium in commercial beer and losses in the brewing process from wheat to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Young, S D; Cook, D; Wilkinson, S; Clegg, S; Bailey, E H; Mathers, A W; Broadley, M R

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼ 10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  1. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  2. Demonstration of the exponential decay law using beer froth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leike, A.

    2002-01-01

    The volume of beer froth decays exponentially with time. This property is used to demonstrate the exponential decay law in the classroom. The decay constant depends on the type of beer and can be used to differentiate between different beers. The analysis shows in a transparent way the techniques of data analysis commonly used in science - consistency checks of theoretical models with the data, parameter estimation and determination of confidence intervals. (author)

  3. Determination and fractionation of metals in beer – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl , Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Major, minor and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment for yeast growth and have the influence on yeast metabolism. A real concern is the content of Cu and Fe, which are involved in beer conditioning and ageing through reactions resulting in formation of reactive oxygen species. The reactive oxygen species readily oxidize organic compounds present in beer, changing the quality of foaming and the flavor stability of be...

  4. Preparation of malts for production of special beers

    OpenAIRE

    Kábelová-Ficová, Hana; Kráčmar, Stanislav; Gregor, Tomáš; Fišera, Miroslav; Golian, Jozef; Kubáň, Vlastimil; Šopík, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with production of various malts intended for manufacture of special types of beer. The malts were used to brew samples of beer with alcoholic strength ranging between 8 - 12% EPM. The above range of original wort content was chosen due to its suitability for sensory evaluation and properties; in stronger types of beer, (more than 12% EPM), nature of the beverage can be drown by mashy flavour. In the experimental samples, the actual residual extract oscillated between 4.0 - ...

  5. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  6. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  7. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  8. Acid and Volatiles of Commercially-Available Lambic Beers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Thompson Witrick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lambic beer is the oldest style of beer still being produced in the Western world using spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze is a style of lambic beer prepared by mixing young (one year and older (two to three years beers. Little is known about the volatiles and semi-volatiles found in commercial samples of gueuze lambic beers. SPME was used to extract the volatiles from nine different brands of lambic beer. GC-MS was used for the separation and identification of the compounds extracted with SPME. The pH and color were measured using standard procedures. A total of 50 compounds were identified in the nine brands. Seventeen of the 50 compounds identified have been previously identified. The compounds identified included a number of different chemical groups such as acids, alcohols, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, and esters. Ethyl acetate, 4-ethylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol are known by-products of the yeast, Brettanomyces, which is normally a spoilage microorganism in beer and wine, but important for the flavor characteristics of lambic beer. There were no differences in pH, but there were differences in color between the beer samples.

  9. Predictors of beer advertising awareness among eighth graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Schell, Terry; Ellickson, Phyllis L; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    To identify correlates of beer advertising awareness among adolescents at an age when most initiate use of alcohol. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of an in-school survey about alcohol advertising. Structural equation modeling was used to test for independent predictors of a latent beer advertising awareness construct, separately among boys and girls. Twenty middle schools in South Dakota, USA participated during their spring semester. A total of 1530 eighth graders. A latent advertisement awareness variable was derived based on recognition of six masked beer advertisements, knowledge of beer brands and knowledge of beer slogans. Tested predictors included measures of exposure to alcohol advertising in various venues, social norms regarding drinking, drinking beliefs and behavior and gender. Adolescents with greater exposure to advertisements in magazines, at sporting and music events and on television were more advertisement aware than those with less exposure, as were teens who watch more TV, pay attention to beer advertisements and know adults who drink. Beer advertisement awareness was dramatically higher among boys, and was associated with drinking only among boys. Each of a variety of advertising venues appears to influence independently the extent to which beer advertising is incorporated into an adolescent's cognitive world. Boys are more likely to be aware of and remember beer marketing, and may be more likely to drink as a result of this awareness than girls.

  10. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  11. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  12. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  14. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  16. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  17. Beer, wood, and welfare - The impact of improved stove use among dolo-beer breweries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); J. Peters (Jörg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLocal beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households

  18. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  20. Assessment of Beer Quality Based on a Robotic Pourer, Computer Vision, and Machine Learning Algorithms Using Commercial Beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Viejo, Claudia; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Torrico, Damir D; Howell, Kate; Dunshea, Frank R

    2018-05-01

    Sensory attributes of beer are directly linked to perceived foam-related parameters and beer color. The aim of this study was to develop an objective predictive model using machine learning modeling to assess the intensity levels of sensory descriptors in beer using the physical measurements of color and foam-related parameters. A robotic pourer (RoboBEER), was used to obtain 15 color and foam-related parameters from 22 different commercial beer samples. A sensory session using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA ® ) with trained panelists was conducted to assess the intensity of 10 beer descriptors. Results showed that the principal component analysis explained 64% of data variability with correlations found between foam-related descriptors from sensory and RoboBEER such as the positive and significant correlation between carbon dioxide and carbonation mouthfeel (R = 0.62), correlation of viscosity to sensory, and maximum volume of foam and total lifetime of foam (R = 0.75, R = 0.77, respectively). Using the RoboBEER parameters as inputs, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model showed high correlation (R = 0.91) to predict the intensity levels of 10 related sensory descriptors such as yeast, grains and hops aromas, hops flavor, bitter, sour and sweet tastes, viscosity, carbonation, and astringency. This paper is a novel approach for food science using machine modeling techniques that could contribute significantly to rapid screenings of food and brewage products for the food industry and the implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The use of RoboBEER to assess beer quality showed to be a reliable, objective, accurate, and less time-consuming method to predict sensory descriptors compared to trained sensory panels. Hence, this method could be useful as a rapid screening procedure to evaluate beer quality at the end of the production line for industry applications. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Loyalty to two brands of beer of the same producer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    The focus of the paper is loyalty to two brands of beer produced by the Carlsberg Group - Tuborg and Carlsberg. Both beers are lagers. The Carlsberg Group markets Tuborg as a more premium brand, and it also aims to promote it to women. Unlike in the Netherlands with one brand - Heineken and unlike...

  2. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  3. Music influences hedonic and taste ratings in beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231. The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song.In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting.These results provide support for the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food events. Here we also suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction towards a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience.

  4. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience.

  5. Characterization of beer flavour stability (EPR - spin trapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    The beer flavour stability is coupled with free radical degradation processes. Probably, aldehydes produced during the brewery but also generated by stalling are responsible for beer flavour as well as for its breaking down. The storing beer at the lower temperatures and in the dark place inhibits, and otherwise the rising temperature and illumination accelerate the rate of such radical processes. Beers contain naturally occurring radical scavengers - antioxidants which inhibit such unwanted reactions. Then depleting of scavengers results in the breaking down of the beer stability. EPR spin trapping technique was used as monitor such processes and for characterising so the flavour stability of beer. The probe was temperated at 60 grad C in the cavity of EPR spectrometer in the presence of spin trapping agent, N-tert.-butyl-α-phenyl nitrone (PBN) and EPR spectra were recorded for few hours. After beer antioxidants become depleted, free radicals formed by the beer degradation are scavenged by PBN spin trap and this point is characterised with a dramatically increased concentration of the free radicals trapped

  6. Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sandra N; Jennings, Joy; Ragsdale, Sue; Lofton, Tiffany; Huff, Debbie Cooley; Rooker, Janet Smith

    2012-01-01

    Nurses can decrease the risk of adverse drug problems with medication review and prompt interventions. The Beers Criteria lists medications to avoid using among elderly clients. The origin of the Beers Criteria, its 2002 modification, and application in acute care settings are explained.

  7. Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on determining the level of the antioxidant activity of beer, to which sensory acceptable amounts of selected extracts of medicinal plants were added, with the aim of obtaining a beer with increased functional and new sensory features. For purposes of this study a commercial lager beer type Pils and extracts of herbal drugs: Melissae folium, Thymi herba, Juniperi fructus, Urticae radix and Lupuli strobuli, were used. Total phenols were analyzed by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, and the antioxidant activity of samples using FRAP and DPPH test. Sensory evaluation of beer was conducted on 80 subjects, using a nine levels hedonic scale. The results showed that the content of total phenols was the highest in the beer which thyme, juniper and lemon balm were added to (384.22, 365.38 and 363.08 mg GAE/L, respectively, representing the increase of 37.09, 30.36 and 29.55% (respectively compared to the commercial lager beer. Values of antioxidant activity were correlated with the content of total phenols. The extract of lemon balm blended in the best manner with the baseline, commercial lager beer in terms of sensory acceptability. New beer, enriched with lemon balm, had a pleasant, appealing and harmonious flavor and aroma.

  8. Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, F.A.G. den; Delifotis, A.; Koning, Ruud H.

    1997-01-01

    Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer are empirically investigated for Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Italy. With the rise in disposable income we see a shift from the demand for beer to the demand for wine notably in the Netherlands and somewhat less clearly in Germany, and a

  9. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Nonthermal pasteurization of beer by high pressure processing: modelling the inactivation of saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospores in different alcohol beers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Elham A.; Silva, Filipa V. M.

    2016-10-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. In this research, the nonthermal pasteurization of beer by high pressure processing (HPP) was carried out. First, the effect of alcohol content on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospore inactivation at 400 MPa was studied. The number of ascospores in 0.0%, 4.8%, and 7.0% alc/vol beers for 10 min processing time decreased by 3.1, 4.9, and ≥ 6.0 log, respectively. The Weibull model fitted the ascospore inactivation by HPP in 0.0%, 4.8%, and 7.0% alc/vol beers. At 400 MPa, 7.2 s could ensure the minimum pasteurization of beers and for 600 MPa 5 s were enough for ≥ 7 log reductions. The overall flavour of HPP vs. untreated beers was evaluated for a lager and an ale, with no significant differences between the untreated and HPP beers. Thus, nonthermal HPP is a feasible technology to pasteurize beer with different alcohol contents without heat.

  11. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  12. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  13. Uncovering patterns of consumers' interest for beer: A case study with craft beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadini, Gianluca; Porretta, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    To uncover patterns of consumer interest in craft beers, the authors explored the quality perception of craft beers in a panel of industrial mass-marketed beer drinkers (n=150) and examined the differences in interest for this beer segment between men and women. The authors adopted a conjoint rating experiment in which the respondents were given forty-nine beer profiles to evaluate and were asked to score the degree of interest in each profile on a 9-point scale. Each profile was described on eight attributes (type of brewery, brewing technology, characterizing raw materials, brewhouse equipment, location of the brewery, type of container, retail price, where to buy) varied at different levels. Results showed that Italian consumers placed greatest importance on type of container (30.49%) and on brewing technology (17.64%). Characterizing raw materials (13.44%) and type of brewery (12.64) rank 3 and 4 and were placed in the same band some way below brewing technology. Retail price (9.87%) and where to buy (8.73%) were of far less importance. The least importance of all was attached to brewhouse equipment (4.44%) and to location of the brewery (2.75%). As far as utility values are concerned, the factor level glass bottle+crown cap and the factor level microfiltration are the utilities that most increased the interest of consumers. They were followed by the factor level local grains, stainless steel keg and monastery. In contrast, the factor level PET Keg, aluminum can and large scale corporate brewery showed the greatest negative impact on interest. Men and women shared similar patterns of interest. However, men placed more importance than women on retail price, location of the brewery and where to buy. Women attached more importance than men on type of container, brewing technology and type of brewer. These findings are relevant to understanding consumers'behavior in the beer market and to translating consumer needs, wants and expectations into manufacturing

  14. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  15. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  16. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  17. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-03

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inappropriate prescribing in an acutely ill population of elderly patients as determined by Beers' Criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul F

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with inappropriate prescribing (IP) and result in increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilisation. We used Beers\\' Criteria to determine the three-month prevalence of IP in a non-selected community-dwelling population of acutely ill older people requiring hospitalisation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 597 consecutive acute admissions was performed. Diagnoses and concurrent medications were recorded before hospital physician intervention, and Beers\\' Criteria applied. RESULTS: Mean patient age (SD) was 77 (7) years. Median number of medications was 5, range 0-13. IP occurred in 32% of patients (n = 191), with 24%, 6% and 2% taking 1, 2 and 3 inappropriate medications respectively. Patients taking >5 medications were 3.3 times more likely to receive an inappropriate medication than those taking < or =5 medications (OR 3.34: 95%, CI 2.37-4.79; P<0.001). Forty-nine per cent of patients with inappropriate prescriptions were admitted with adverse effects of the inappropriate medications. Sixteen per cent of all admissions were associated with such adverse effects. CONCLUSION: IP is highly prevalent in acutely ill older patients and is associated with polypharmacy and hospitalisation. However, Beers\\' Criteria cannot be used as a gold standard as they do not comprehensively address all aspects of IP in older people.

  19. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the dealer's...

  20. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of the...

  1. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour or...

  2. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  3. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of tax...

  4. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell distilled...

  5. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer without...

  6. Exploring Low Alcohol Beer Consumption Among College Students: Implications for Drunk Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Nason W.; Geller, E. Scott

    1988-01-01

    When given a "blind" taste test prior to a party, college students (N=137) showed no clear preference for Budweiser beer, Bud Light, or low-alcohol beer, but later drank significantly less low-alcohol beer. It was concluded that without improved marketing intervention, low-alcohol beer will not impact on drunk driving among college…

  7. Home Bias in U.S. Beer Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Matschke, Xenia

    2007-01-01

    We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) market equilibrium model (BLP) to data from 30 brands of beers sold in 12 U.S. cities over 20 quarters (1988-92) to estimate the consumers taste for beer characteristics (price, alcohol content, and calories) as well as for the cultural region of origin (USA, Anglo-European, Germanic, and countries bordering the U.S.). Consumer heterogeneity is allowed with respect to age, income and gender. Overall we end up with 7,200 beer brand observations (3...

  8. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  9. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  10. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-06-07

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise.

  11. Hops (Humulus lupulus) Content in Beer Modulates Effects of Beer on the Liver After Acute Ingestion in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Jung, Finn; Brombach, Christine; Bergheim, Ina

    2017-01-01

    Using a binge-drinking mouse model, we aimed to determine whether hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer is involved in the less damaging effects of acute beer consumption on the liver in comparison with ethanol. Female C57BL/6 J mice were either fed one iso-alcoholic and iso-caloric bolus dose of ethanol, beer, beer without hops (6 g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric bolus of maltodextrin control solution. Markers of steatosis, intestinal barrier function, activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling cascades, lipid peroxidation and lipogenesis were determined in liver, small intestine and plasma 2 h and 12 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Alcohol-induced hepatic fat accumulation was significantly attenuated in mice fed beer whereas in those fed beer without hops, hepatic fat accumulation was similar to that found in ethanol-fed mice. While markers of intestinal barrier function e.g. portal endotoxin levels and lipogenesis only differed slightly between groups, hepatic concentrations of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 protein as well as of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts were similarly elevated in livers of mice fed ethanol or beer without hops when compared with controls. Induction of these markers was markedly attenuated in mice fed hops-containing beer. Taken together, our data suggest that hops in beer markedly attenuated acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in female mice through mechanisms involving a suppression of iNOS induction in the liver. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  13. Purification of barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) from beer and their impact on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogushi, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Foam stability is a key factor of beer quality for consumers and brewers. Recent beer proteome analyses have suggested that barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) derived from barley are important for beer foam stability. In this study, BDAI-1 and ALP were purified from a Japanese commercial beer sample using salt precipitation and column chromatography. The purification level was verified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searches. Purified BDAI-1 and ALP were added to a beer sample to compare the foam stability to that of a control beer sample. As a result, beer foam stability was significantly improved by BDAI-1 but not by ALP, thereby suggesting that BDAI-1 affects beer foam stability whereas ALP does not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  15. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  16. Structural slow light can enhance Beer-Lambert absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Dicaire Isabelle; Chin Sanghoon; Thévenaz Luc

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that structural slow light can enhance Beer-Lambert absorption. A 4-fold reduction of the group velocity induced by mere cavity effects has caused an increase of molecular absorption by 130%.

  17. Beer elicits vasculoprotective effects through Akt/eNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon; Badimon, Lina

    2014-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the effect of alcohol beverage intake in vascular vasodilatory function in peripheral arteries. The effects of beer intake in coronary vasodilation remain unknown. We investigated whether regular beer intake (alcohol and alcohol-free) protects against hypercholesterolaemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction and the mechanisms behind this effect. Pigs were fed 10 days: (i) a Western-type hypercholesterolaemic diet (WD); (ii) WD+low-dose beer (12·5 g alcohol/day); (iii) WD+moderate-dose beer (25 g alcohol/day); or (iv) WD+moderate-dose alcohol-free-beer (0·0 g alcohol/day). Coronary responses to endothelium-dependent vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine: receptor mediated; calcium ionophore-A23189: nonreceptor mediated), endothelium-independent vasoactive drug (SNP) and L-NMMA (NOS-antagonist) were evaluated in the LAD coronary artery by flow Doppler. Coronary Akt/eNOS activation, MCP-1 expression, oxidative DNA damage and superoxide production were assessed. Lipid profile, lipoproteins resistance to oxidation and urinary isoxanthohumol concentration were evaluated. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic beer intake prevented WD-induced impairment of receptor- and non-receptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. All animals displayed a similar vasodilatory response to SNP and L-NMMA blunted all endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation responses. Haemodynamic parameters remained unchanged. Coronary arteries showed lower DNA damage and increased Akt/eNOS axis activation in beer-fed animals. Animals taking beer showed HDL with higher antioxidant capacity, higher LDL resistance to oxidation and increased isoxanthohumol levels. Weight, lipids levels, liver enzymes and MCP-1 expression were not affected by beer intake. Non-alcoholic-related beer components protect against hyperlipemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by counteracting vascular oxidative damage and preserving the Akt/eNOS pathway. Light-to-moderate beer

  18. DIAGNOSIS OF RISK FACTORS FOR BEER DEPENDENCE IN YOUNG PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Novikova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the approach to identification of factors influencing beer consumption by young people. Describes the author’s methodology, identifying biological, social, psychological, pedagogical and economic risk factors of development of beer dependence in young people. The data obtained using the proposed methodology can be used to identify risk groups according to the dependent behavior and planning of preventive measures.

  19. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measureme......We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption...

  20. Alcohol consumption and Tax Differentials Between Beer, Wine and Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    Several public health interest groups in the United States have recently called for equalization of the federal tax on a unit of alcohol in beer, in wine and in spirits. This paper provides some new empirical evidence of what effect alcohol tax differentials have on total alcohol consumption. The data indicate that the greatest decrease in alcohol consumption results from an increase in spirits taxes, followed by beer taxes and then wine taxes. This suggests that the existing generally accept...

  1. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer

    OpenAIRE

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D.; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations i...

  2. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conventional and Non-Conventional Yeasts in Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Capece

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of beer relies on the activity of fermenting yeasts, not only for their good fermentation yield-efficiency, but also for their influence on beer aroma, since most of the aromatic compounds are intermediate metabolites and by-products of yeast metabolism. Beer production is a traditional process, in which Saccharomyces is the sole microbial component, and any deviation is considered a flaw. However, nowadays the brewing sector is faced with an increasing demand for innovative products, and it is diffusing the use of uncharacterized autochthonous starter cultures, spontaneous fermentation, or non-Saccharomyces starters, which leads to the production of distinctive and unusual products. Attempts to obtain products with more complex sensory characteristics have led one to prospect for non-conventional yeasts, i.e., non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These generally are characterized by low fermentation yields and are more sensitive to ethanol stress, but they provide a distinctive aroma and flavor. Furthermore, non-conventional yeasts can be used for the production of low-alcohol/non-alcoholic and light beers. This review aims to present the main findings about the role of traditional and non-conventional yeasts in brewing, demonstrating the wide choice of available yeasts, which represents a new biotechnological approach with which to target the characteristics of beer and to produce different or even totally new beer styles.

  4. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  5. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  6. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L).

  7. Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyumugabe, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.

  8. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The modified Beer-Lambert law revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, L; Herman, P; Eke, A

    2006-03-07

    The modified Beer-Lambert law (MBLL) is the basis of continuous-wave near-infrared tissue spectroscopy (cwNIRS). The differential form of MBLL (dMBLL) states that the change in light attenuation is proportional to the changes in the concentrations of tissue chromophores, mainly oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin. If attenuation changes are measured at two or more wavelengths, concentration changes can be calculated. The dMBLL is based on two assumptions: (1) the absorption of the tissue changes homogeneously, and (2) the scattering loss is constant. It is known that absorption changes are usually inhomogeneous, and therefore dMBLL underestimates the changes in concentrations (partial volume effect) and every calculated value is influenced by the change in the concentration of other chromophores (cross-talk between chromophores). However, the error introduced by the second assumption (cross-talk of scattering changes) has not been assessed previously. An analytically treatable special case (semi-infinite, homogeneous medium, with optical properties of the cerebral cortex) is utilized here to estimate its order of magnitude. We show that the per cent change of the transport scattering coefficient and that of the absorption coefficient have an approximately equal effect on the changes of attenuation, and a 1% increase in scattering increases the estimated concentration changes by about 0.5 microM.

  10. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  11. Effects of a common worldwide drink (Beer) on L-Phenylalanine and L-Tyrosine fibrillar assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Debasis; Banerjee, Pavel; Sabeehuddin, Ghazi; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2017-11-01

    In this letter, small amount of beer [0.42-2.08% (v/v)] is employed to investigate the fibril inhibition kinetics of 1 mM L-Phenylalanine and L-Tyrosine (relevant to disease condition) using Fluorescence Lifetime imaging Microscopy (FLIM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic (HR-TEM) techniques. Our results indicate that 1.67 and 0.42% of beer is sufficient for effective breakdown of L-Phe and L-Tyr assemblies, respectively. Quantitative information about fibril inhibition is obtained from Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopic (FCS) measurements. We have shown that the morphology of L-Phe changes to L-Tyr in presence of 2,2‧-Bipyridine-3,3‧-diol (BP(OH)2).

  12. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  13. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  14. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  15. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W, beer (AB or non-alcoholic beer (NAB. Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05 in W (−1.1%, AB (−1.0% and NAB (−1.0%. In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05 in W (−3.9% and AB (−3.7%, plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05 in AB (8.5%, and USG was reduced in W (−0.9% and NAB (−1.0%. Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise.

  16. Manipulations to the Alcohol and Sodium Content of Beer for Postexercise Rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrow, Ben; Cecchin, Danielle; Jones, Ashleigh; Grant, Gary; Irwin, Chris; Leveritt, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The addition of 25 mmol·L(-1) sodium to low alcohol (2.3% ABV) beer has been shown to enhance post exercise fluid retention compared with full strength (4.8% ABV) beer with and without electrolyte modification. This investigation explored the effect of further manipulations to the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise. Twelve male volunteers lost 2.03 ± 0.19% body mass (mean ± SD) using cycling-based exercise. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included low alcohol beer with 25 mmol·L-1 of added sodium [LightBeer+25], low alcohol beer with 50 mmol·L(-1) of added sodium [LightBeer+50], midstrength beer (3.5% ABV) [Mid] or midstrength beer with 25 mmol·L(-1) of added sodium [Mid+25]. Total drink volumes in each trial were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise, consumed over a 1h period. Body mass, urine samples and regulatory hormones were obtained before and 4 hr after beverage consumption. Total urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+50 trial (1450 ± 183 ml) compared with the LightBeer+25 (1796 ± 284 ml), Mid+25 (1786 ± 373 ml) and Mid (1986 ± 304 ml) trials (all p beer appears to have more significant impact on post exercise fluid retention than small changes in alcohol content.

  17. Craftwashing in the U.S. Beer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Howard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Big brewers, which have experienced declining sales for their beer brands in the last decade, have been accused of “craftwashing” by some craft brewers and their aficionados—they define craftwashing as big brewers (>6 million barrels per year taking advantage of the increasing sales of craft beer by emulating these products or by acquiring craft breweries, while also obscuring their ownership from consumers; (2 Methods: To estimate the prevalence of these practices, the ownership of U.S. mainstream and craft beer brands was decoded and visualized. In addition, an exploratory case study analyzed how these ownership relations are represented in the craft sections of selected retailers (n = 16 in the Lansing, Michigan metropolitan area; (3 Results: By October 2017 in the U.S., all but one big brewer had either acquired a craft brewery, or formed a distribution alliance with one—without disclosing these relationships on the packaging. In the study area, 30% of 4- and 6-pack facings recorded in craft beer sections (n = 1145 had ownership ties to big brewers; (4 Conclusions: Craftwashing is common in the U.S. beer industry, and this suggests consumers must exert substantial effort to become aware of their own role in reinforcing these practices.

  18. Yeast Metabolites of Glycated Amino Acids in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Beer, Falco; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Glycation reactions (Maillard reactions) during the malting and brewing processes are important for the development of the characteristic color and flavor of beer. Recently, free and protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) such as pyrraline, formyline, and maltosine were found in beer. Furthermore, these amino acid derivatives are metabolized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae via the Ehrlich pathway. In this study, a method was developed for quantitation of individual Ehrlich intermediates derived from pyrraline, formyline, and maltosine. Following synthesis of the corresponding reference material, the MRP-derived new Ehrlich alcohols pyrralinol (up to 207 μg/L), formylinol (up to 50 μg/L), and maltosinol (up to 6.9 μg/L) were quantitated for the first time in commercial beer samples by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. This is equivalent to ca. 20-40% of the concentrations of the parent glycated amino acids. The metabolites were almost absent from alcohol-free beers and malt-based beverages. Two previously unknown valine-derived pyrrole derivatives were characterized and qualitatively identified in beer. The metabolites investigated represent new process-induced alkaloids that may influence brewing yeast performance due to structural similarities to quorum sensing and metal-binding molecules.

  19. Evaluation of Beer Fermentation with a Novel Yeast Williopsis saturnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althea Ying Hui Quek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of a novel yeast Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 500 to produce fruity beer. Fermentation performance of W. mrakii and beer volatile composition were compared against that fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Safale US-05. °Brix, sugar and pH differed significantly between the two types of beer. A total of 8 alcohols, 11 acids, 41 esters, 9 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 21 terpenes and terpenoids, 5 Maillard reaction products and 2 volatile phenolic compounds were detected. Yeast strain Safale US-05 was more capable of producing a wider range of ethyl and other esters, while yeast strain NCYC 500 produced significantly higher amounts of acetate esters. Strain NCYC 500 retained more terpenes and terpenoids, suggesting that the resultant beer could possess more of the aromatic hint of hops. This study showed that W. saturnus var. mrakii NCYC 500 could ferment wort to produce low-alcohol beer with higher levels of acetate esters, terpenes and terpenoids than yeast S. cerevisiae Safale US-05.

  20. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wort has been recorded, during the process of primary fermentation carried out in mini brewery of SPU. We have compared our results with theoretical values of primary fermentation process commonly achieved in conditions of industrial breweries. It was found out that our results differ in some ways, moreover they exceed theoretically given values which was caused due to different construction of mini brewery fermentation tank in comparison with industrial brewery technologies. Beer produced in mini brewery of SPU showed in sensorial tests very good quality without any strange odour and any strange taste.

  1. Bioprocess Intensification of Beer Fermentation Using Immobilised Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J.; Nedović, Viktor A.; Manojlović, Verica; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Laskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Bugarski, Branko; Willaert, Ronnie

    Beer production with immobilised yeast has been the subject of research for approximately 30 years but has so far found limited application in the brewing industry, due to engineering problems, unrealised cost advantages, microbial contaminations and an unbalanced beer flavor (Linko et al. 1998; Brányik et al. 2005; Willaert and Nedović 2006). The ultimate aim of this research is the production of beer of desired quality within 1-3 days. Traditional beer fermentation systems use freely suspended yeast cells to ferment wort in an unstirred batch reactor. The primary fermentation takes approximately 7 days with a subsequent secondary fermentation (maturation) of several weeks. A batch culture system employing immobilization could benefit from an increased rate of fermentation. However, it appears that in terms of increasing productivity, a continuous fermentation system with immobilization would be the best method (Verbelen et al. 2006). An important issue of the research area is whether beer can be produced by immobilised yeast in continuous culture with the same characteristic as the traditional method.

  2. Association between alcohol advertising and beer drinking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Roberta; Vendrame, Alan; Silva, Rebeca; Pinsky, Ilana

    2011-06-01

    To analyze the association between alcohol advertising and beer drinking among adolescents. A total of 1,115 students enrolled in the 7th and 8th grades of three public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, Southeastern Brazil, were interviewed in 2006. The independent variables were as follows: attention paid to alcohol advertisements, belief in the veracity of advertisements, affective response to advertisements and previous tobacco use, among others. The dependent variable was beer drinking in the last 30 days. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were made. Age, importance given to religion and the presence of a bathroom in the home were used as control. Beer drinking in the last 30 days was associated with tobacco use (OR = 4.551), having a favorite alcoholic beverage brand (OR = 5.150), poor parental supervision (OR = 2.139), considering parties one goes to as similar to those seen in commercials (OR = 1.712), paying more attention to advertisements (OR = 1.563) and believing that advertisements tell the truth (OR = 2.122). This association remained, even in the presence of other variables associated with beer drinking. Alcohol advertisements are positively associated with recent beer drinking, because they remind adolescents of their own reality or make them believe in their veracity. Alcohol advertisement restrictions can be one way to prevent alcohol use and abuse by adolescents.

  3. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  4. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  5. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  6. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  7. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  8. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits, and beer on serum homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Ubbink, J B; Sillanaukee, P; Nikkari, S; Hendriks, H F

    2000-04-29

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine.

  9. Comparative genomic and plasmid analysis of beer-spoiling and non-beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry

    2017-12-01

    Beer-spoilage-related lactic acid bacteria (BSR LAB) belong to multiple genera and species; however, beer-spoilage capacity is isolate-specific and partially acquired via horizontal gene transfer within the brewing environment. Thus, the extent to which genus-, species-, or environment- (i.e., brewery-) level genetic variability influences beer-spoilage phenotype is unknown. Publicly available Lactobacillus brevis genomes were analyzed via BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE) for BSR genes and assessed for pangenomic relationships. Also analyzed were functional coding capacities of plasmids of LAB inhabiting extreme niche environments. Considerable genetic variation was observed in L. brevis isolated from clinical samples, whereas 16 candidate genes distinguish BSR and non-BSR L. brevis genomes. These genes are related to nutrient scavenging of gluconate or pentoses, mannose, and metabolism of pectin. BSR L. brevis isolates also have higher average nucleotide identity and stronger pangenome association with one another, though isolation source (i.e., specific brewery) also appears to influence the plasmid coding capacity of BSR LAB. Finally, it is shown that niche-specific adaptation and phenotype are plasmid-encoded for both BSR and non-BSR LAB. The ultimate combination of plasmid-encoded genes dictates the ability of L. brevis to survive in the most extreme beer environment, namely, gassed (i.e., pressurized) beer.

  10. Impact of Wort Amino Acids on Beer Flavour: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês M. Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process by which beer is brewed has not changed significantly since its discovery thousands of years ago. Grain is malted, dried, crushed and mixed with hot water to produce wort. Yeast is added to the sweet, viscous wort, after which fermentation occurs. The biochemical events that occur during fermentation reflect the genotype of the yeast strain used, and its phenotypic expression is influenced by the composition of the wort and the conditions established in the fermenting vessel. Although wort is complex and not completely characterized, its content in amino acids indubitably affects the production of some minor metabolic products of fermentation which contribute to the flavour of beer. These metabolic products include higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulfur-containing compounds. The formation of these products is comprehensively reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the role of amino acids in the beer flavour, in particular their relationships with flavour active compounds, is discussed in light of recent data.

  11. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination.

  12. Craft vs. industrial: Habits, attitudes and motivations towards beer consumption in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; García, Mauricio; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Food choices tend to be stable over time; they do not change fast, since consumers tend to act like creatures of habits. However, food habits can evolve, like currently the craft beer category. A change of habits involves a change of perception towards a product. Therefore, what is changing in the perception of beer? Two studies were conducted to address this question. First study was preliminary and aimed at exploring beer consumption habits in Mexico and a better understanding of craft beer representation among beer users. A questionnaire was administrated to 207 consumers in Mexico City during a beer festival. Results showed that respondents could be classified in: industrial beer (41.1%), occasional industrial (24.1%), and craft beer (34.8%) consumers. Craft cluster included mostly 25-35 years old men with high-income level. Among the craft beers cited by respondents from this cluster some are industrial, suggesting that the concept of craft beer might not be well defined, or defined in ideological terms. The second and main study was conducted using consumer ethnographies to understand the motivations and benefits of craft beer consumption. Opposite to industrial, craft beer emerges as an experience-based and symbolic product rather than a utilitarian one. The main motivation for drinking craft beer seems to be the quest of authenticity. Respondents' motivations to drink craft beer are generated by three important factors: desire for more knowledge, new taste experiences, and move away from the mainstream beer consumption. Craft consumers do not drink the product for its functional attributes, they consume it for what it means and as a consequence they build an identity, perceived as more authentic and unique, in comparison to the mainstream industrial beer consumption in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forecasting optimal duration of a beer main fermentation process using the Kalman filter

    OpenAIRE

    Niyonsaba T.; Pavlov V.A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important processes of beer production is the main process of fermentation. In this process, the wort transforms into beer. The quality of beer depends on the dynamics of wort parameters. The main fermentation process continues for 10 days and requires high costs. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to forecast the optimal duration of the beer main fermentation process and provide its optimal control. The Kalman filter can provide optimal control of the main ferment...

  14. Regression analysis: An evaluation of the inuences behindthe pricing of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Sara; Häggmark, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis in applied mathematics is an analysis of which factors affect the pricing of beer at the Swedish market. A multiple linear regression model is created with the statistical programming language R through a study of the influences for several explanatory variables. For example these variables include country of origin, beer style, volume sold and a Bayesian weighted mean rating from RateBeer, a popular website for beer enthusiasts. The main goal of the project is to find si...

  15. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van, M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the yeasts involved in the fermentation process of this type of beer using the phenotypical approach. Of 12 beers from 4 different locations, the mean values of the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter c...

  16. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  17. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  18. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  19. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales of...

  20. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  1. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by...

  2. Using Preferred Attribute Elicitation to Determine How Males and Females Evaluate Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggah, Elizabeth M; McSweeney, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    The variety of beers available for consumption has increased due to the recent emergence of many craft brewing operations and it has been suggested that this is affecting how consumers evaluate beer. Currently, beer consumers are mostly male and only 20% of women are primarily beer drinkers. The main objective of this project is to compare and contrast descriptions of beer products created by males and females. The preferred attribute elicitation (PAE) method was used to create a description of 4 beers common to residents of Nova Scotia, Canada. Four PAE sessions were held: 2 sessions consisted of females (n = 16 and 15) and 2 sessions of males (n = 11 and 17). Four beer samples were chosen from locally available commercial beers, 2 of these samples were considered to be craft-brewed beer and the other samples were nationally available brands (macrobrewed). Both the males and females generated descriptions that included 5 identical terms; however, they differed in the importance they assigned to each attribute. Notably, bitterness was perceived to be of more importance to female panelists. Throughout all PAE sessions, the craft-brewed beers were associated with considerably more sensory attributes than the macrobrewed beers. It can be concluded that both the female and male groups found discernible differences between the craft and macrobrewed beers; however, they place importance on different sensory attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance by...

  4. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the provisions...

  5. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax is...

  6. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer...

  7. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48 Imported...

  8. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General. A...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  10. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  11. Field Trip 5: HYDROGEOLOGY OF BEER AND WINE IN THE YAKIMA VALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Bachmann, Matthew P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2011-05-05

    The climate and geology of eastern Washington are ideally suited to the production of hops and wine grapes. Nearly all of Washington’s hop and wine-grape production is located in the lower Yakima River Basin , which is one of the most intensively irrigated areas in the United States. Most of this irrigation water has been supplied by surface water reservoirs and canal systems drawing from the Yakima River. However, increasing demands for water has spurred the increased use of groundwater resources. This field trip guide explores many aspects of the geology and hydrogeology in the lower Yakima River Basin, particularly as they relate to water resources that support the local beer and wine industries.

  12. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cinti@uniroma2.it; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.arduini@uniroma2.it

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 %{sub vol}), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm{sup 2} (1574 μA/%{sub vol} cm{sup 2}) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003%{sub vol}). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  13. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Stefano; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 %_v_o_l), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm"2 (1574 μA/%_v_o_l cm"2) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003%_v_o_l). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  14. Free and Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Beer: Method Development and a Survey of Different Beer Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-09-28

    The Maillard reaction is important for beer color and flavor, but little is known about the occurrence of individual glycated amino acids in beer. Therefore, seven Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, fructosyllysine, maltulosyllysine, pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, MG-H1, and argpyrimidine, were synthesized and quantitated in different types of beer (Pilsner, dark, bock, wheat, and nonalcoholic beers) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode through application of the standard addition method. Free MRPs were analyzed directly. A high molecular weight fraction was isolated by dialysis and hydrolyzed enzymatically prior to analysis. Maltulosyllysine was quantitated for the first time in food. The most important free MRPs in beer are fructosyllysine (6.8-27.0 mg/L) and maltulosyllysine (3.7-21.8 mg/L). Beer contains comparatively high amounts of late-stage free MRPs such as pyrraline (0.2-1.6 mg/L) and MG-H1 (0.3-2.5 mg/L). Minor amounts of formyline (4-230 μg/L), maltosine (6-56 μg/L), and argpyrimidine (0.1-4.1 μg/L) were quantitated. Maltulosyllysine was the most significant protein-bound MRP, but both maltulosyllysine and fructosyllysine represent only 15-60% of the total protein-bound lysine-derived Amadori products. Differences in the patterns of protein-bound and free individual MRPs and the ratios between them were identified, which indicate differences in their chemical, biochemical, and microbiological stabilities during the brewing process.

  15. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  16. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  17. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  18. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Activity-Guided Identification of in Vitro Antioxidants in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, Stefan; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-01-24

    In order to locate the key antioxidants contributing to oxidative stability of beer, activity-guided fractionation in combination with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS) assay, and linoleic acid (LA) assay was applied to a pilsner-type beer. LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments led to the identification of a total of 31 antioxidants, among which 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (tachioside), 4-(2-formylpyrrol-1-yl)butyric acid, 4-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrol-1-yl]butyric acid, n-multifidol-3-O-β-d-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside, 4-feruloylquinic acid, syringaresinol, saponarin, and hordatines A-C have been isolated from beer for the first time. On a molar comparison, the hordatines A-C, saponarin, and quercetin-3-O-β-d-(6″-malonyl)glucoside were evaluated with the highest antioxidant activities of all identified beer constituents, reaching values of 10-17.5 (ORAC), 2.0-4.1 (HPS), and 1.1-6.1 μmol TE/μmol (LA) for hordatines A-C.

  20. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  1. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  2. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential Transform Method. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The method of differential transform was used to obtain the solution governing the fermentation process; the system of equation was transformed using the differential ...

  3. Performance practice and functions of local wine and beer parlor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the phenomenon of music is ubiquitous and indispensable among the Yoruba and Africans in general, beer and wine parlors/shops engages in one form of musical ... The songs also plays some psychological roles and plays functional roles in celebrating drinking and relaxation session after a stressful day work.

  4. Croatian fan scene: Football in television beer commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biti Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.

  5. Separation of complex oligosaccharides from wort and beer using HPLC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s608-s609 ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosacharides * beer * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  6. Socially Optimal Taxation of Alcohol: The Case of Czech Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Mikolasek, Jakub; Netuka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The proposed paper belongs to the literature on food demand and optimal taxation and to the literature dealing with economics of alcohol production and consumption. We investigate the question of optimal taxation for the commodity whose consumption has positive and negative features both for individual consumer and for the society. The commodity we analyze is the Czech beer.

  7. Using the profile method for evaluationthe beer quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bocharova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The expediency of using the profile method of analysis for assessing the influence of technological factors on the quality of beer has been established. The characteristics for the evaluation of beer quality by the profile method are chosen. The results obtained using the profile method give a more complete picture of the properties of beer than the results of the scoring method. Each of the samples was analyzed and studied. The results of analysis of such criteria as aroma, flavor, appearance and physicochemical parameters are demonstrated on profilograms. Estimation of flavor is the most difficult, since this concept includes a complex sensation of taste, aroma and consistency, determined in the oral cavity. To confirm the organoleptic properties of the «body» of the best sort of beer, rheological analysis data were presented. Such an integrated approach will allow fully studying the properties of a low-alcohol beverage and clearly demonstrating the advantages of a profile method of analysis.

  8. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arranz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  9. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  10. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems.

  11. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.

  12. Adolescent Perceptions of Underage Drinkers in TV Beer Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tests adolescents' perception of characters' ages in four television beer advertisements and examines correlational relationships between such age judgments and alcohol use. Some 39.4% of participants reported that the youngest character was under 21. Perceptions were positively related to amount of alcohol use among junior high school students,…

  13. Hypolipidemic effect of beer proteins in experiment on rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinstein, S.; Leontowicz, H.; Lojek, Antonín; Leontowicz, M.; Číž, Milan; Stager, M. A. G.; Montes, J. M. B.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 265-271 ISSN 0023-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : lyophilized polyphenol-free beer * proteins * lipids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2002

  14. The Impact of Simple Phenolic Compounds on Beer Aroma and Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lentz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a complex beverage containing a myriad of flavor- and aroma-active compounds. Brewers strive to achieve an appropriate balance of desired characters, while avoiding off-aromas and flavors. Phenolic compounds are always present in finished beer, as they are extracted from grains and hops during the mashing and brewing process. Some of these compounds have little impact on finished beer, while others may contribute either desirable or undesirable aromas, flavors, and mouthfeel characteristics. They may also contribute to beer stability. The role of simple phenolic compounds on the attributes of wort and beer are discussed.

  15. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  16. Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus isolated from 170-year-old beer recovered from a shipwreck lack the metabolic activities required to grow in modern lager beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Redekop, Anna; Juvonen, Riikka; Storgårds, Erna; Ziola, Barry

    2018-01-01

    In 2010, bottles of beer containing viable bacteria of the common beer-spoilage species Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus were recovered from a shipwreck near the Åland Islands, Finland. The 170-year quiescent state maintained by the shipwreck bacteria presented a unique opportunity to study lactic acid bacteria (LAB) evolution vis-a-vis growth and survival in the beer environment. Three shipwreck bacteria (one L. backii strain and two P. damnosus strains) and modern-day beer-spoilage isolates of the same two species were genome sequenced, characterized for hop iso-α-acid tolerance, and growth in degassed lager and wheat beer. In addition, plasmid variants of the modern-day P. damnosus strain were analyzed for the effect of plasmid-encoded genes on growth in lager beer. Coding content on two plasmids was identified as essential for LAB growth in modern lager beer. Three chromosomal regions containing genes related to sugar transport and cell wall polysaccharides were shared by pediococci able to grow in beer. Our results show that the three shipwreck bacteria lack the necessary plasmid-located genetic content to grow in modern lager beer, but carry additional genes related to acid tolerance and biofilm formation compared to their modern counterparts. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a person...

  18. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6) Any...

  19. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. Each...

  20. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or for...

  1. Comparison of analytical parameters of beer brewed in two different technological ways at two pub breweries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kryl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication deals with brewing beer by infusion and decoction technologies of mash production in microbreweries. Samples of two microbrewery beers are compared, namely Richard beer (Brno-Žebětín produced in a double mash manner appropriate for the Czech brewing type, and beer samples taken at the laboratory microbrewery of Mendel University in Brno (MENDELU, where beer is produced in a simpler and less energy – demanding infusion method. At all the beer samples the basic analytical parameters of real extract, ethanol content, degree of fermentation and the extract of original hopped wort were measured using an automatic beer analyzer. The results coming out of the automatic beer analyzer are compared with the results of the beer samples analysis performed by liquid chromatography, by which the contents of oligosaccharides, maltose, glycerol and ethanol were measured. Both methods provide a number of analytical results for the comparison of decoction and infusion techniques, and analytical characteristics of both the brewing procedures. Emphasis is placed on statistical data processing and comparison of different types of beer and particular brews between each other, both in terms of production technology as well as beer sampling throughout the year.

  2. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  3. Plasma circulating fibrinogen stability and moderate beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Caspi, Abraham; Zemser, Marina; Libman, Imanuel; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2003-12-01

    MODERATE BEER CONSUMPTION (MBC) IS CARDIOPROTECTIVE: it positively influences plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in beer-consuming individuals. The connection between MBC and blood coagulation is not clearly defined. Forty-two volunteers were equally divided into experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups following coronary bypass surgery. For 30 consecutive days, only patients of the EG consumed 330 mL of beer per day (about 20 g of alcohol). A comprehensive clinical investigation of 42 patients was done. Blood samples were collected before and after the investigation for a wide range of laboratory tests. The plasma fibrinogen was denatured with 8 M urea and intrinsic fluorescence (IF), hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to reveal possible qualitative changes. After 30 days of moderate beer consumption, positive changes in the plasma lipid levels, plasma anticoagulant and plasma antioxidant activities were registered in patients of the EG group. In 17 out of 21 patients of the same group, differences in plasma circulating fibrinogen's (PCF), secondary and tertiary structures were found. The stability of fibrinogen, expressed in thermodynamic parameters, has shown that the loosening of the structure takes place under ethanol and urea denaturation. Also fluorescence stability of PCF was decreased. No changes in the lipid levels, anticoagulant and antioxidant activity or changes in PCF were detected in patients of CG. In conclusion, for the first time after a short term of moderate beer consumption some qualitative changes in the plasma circulating fibrinogen were detected: differences in the emission peak response, fluorescence intensity and all thermodynamic data. Together, with the decrease in the PCF concentration it may lead to an elevation of the blood anticoagulant activity.

  4. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation......, by ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. RESULTS: Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same....... These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). CONCLUSION: Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2...

  5. Folic acid content and antioxidant activity of different types of beers available in Hungarian retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Dániel; Orbán, Csaba; Galló, Nóra; Kun, Szilárd; Vecseri-Hegyes, Beáta; Kun-Farkas, Gabriella

    2017-04-01

    In this study 40 Hungarian retail beers were evaluated for folic acid content, antioxidant profile and physicochemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters, folic acid content and antioxidant activity of alcohol-free beers were the lowest. Folic acid content of beers aged with sour cherries showed high values, more than 0.4 mg/l and an alcohol-free beer-based mixed drink made with lemon juice contained more than 0.2 mg/l of folic acid. Dark beers and beers aged with sour cherries had the highest antioxidant activity probably owing to their high extract content, components released from the fruits and special malts. These results highlight the possibility of achieving adequate folic acid and relevant antioxidant intake without excessive alcohol and energy consumption by selecting appropriate beer types.

  6. On the Relationship between the Indirectly Measured Attitude Towards Beer and Beer Consumption: The Role of Attitude Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, Mathilde; Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account. PMID:24777156

  7. On the relationship between the indirectly measured attitude towards beer and beer consumption: the role of attitude accessibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Descheemaeker

    Full Text Available Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account.

  8. An empirical evaluation of the US Beer Institute's self-regulation code governing the content of beer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming; Damon, Donna; Noel, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated advertising code violations using the US Beer Institute guidelines for responsible advertising. We applied the Delphi rating technique to all beer ads (n = 289) broadcast in national markets between 1999 and 2008 during the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball tournament games. Fifteen public health professionals completed ratings using quantitative scales measuring the content of alcohol advertisements (e.g., perceived actor age, portrayal of excessive drinking) according to 1997 and 2006 versions of the Beer Institute Code. Depending on the code version, exclusion criteria, and scoring method, expert raters found that between 35% and 74% of the ads had code violations. There were significant differences among producers in the frequency with which ads with violations were broadcast, but not in the proportions of unique ads with violations. Guidelines most likely to be violated included the association of beer drinking with social success and the use of content appealing to persons younger than 21 years. The alcohol industry's current self-regulatory framework is ineffective at preventing content violations but could be improved by the use of new rating procedures designed to better detect content code violations.

  9. An Empirical Evaluation of the US Beer Institute’s Self-Regulation Code Governing the Content of Beer Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Damon, Donna; Noel, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated advertising code violations using the US Beer Institute guidelines for responsible advertising. Methods. We applied the Delphi rating technique to all beer ads (n = 289) broadcast in national markets between 1999 and 2008 during the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball tournament games. Fifteen public health professionals completed ratings using quantitative scales measuring the content of alcohol advertisements (e.g., perceived actor age, portrayal of excessive drinking) according to 1997 and 2006 versions of the Beer Institute Code. Results. Depending on the code version, exclusion criteria, and scoring method, expert raters found that between 35% and 74% of the ads had code violations. There were significant differences among producers in the frequency with which ads with violations were broadcast, but not in the proportions of unique ads with violations. Guidelines most likely to be violated included the association of beer drinking with social success and the use of content appealing to persons younger than 21 years. Conclusions. The alcohol industry’s current self-regulatory framework is ineffective at preventing content violations but could be improved by the use of new rating procedures designed to better detect content code violations. PMID:23947318

  10. On the relationship between the indirectly measured attitude towards beer and beer consumption: the role of attitude accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, Mathilde; Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measured attitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitude measure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measured attitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitude measures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account.

  11. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Margarida; Pontes, Ana; Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Serra, Marta; Libkind, Diego; Hutzler, Mathias; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-10-24

    Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starches present in cereal grains. Contrary to lager beers, made by bottom-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a hybrid yeast, ale beers are closer to the ancient beer type and are fermented by S. cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast. Here, we use population genomics to investigate (1) the closest relatives of top-fermenting beer yeasts; (2) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent an independent domestication event separate from those already described; (3) whether single or multiple beer yeast domestication events can be inferred; and (4) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent non-recombinant or recombinant lineages. Our results revealed that top-fermenting beer yeasts are polyphyletic, with a main clade composed of at least three subgroups, dominantly represented by the German, British, and wheat beer strains. Other beer strains were phylogenetically close to sake, wine, or bread yeasts. We detected genetic signatures of beer yeast domestication by investigating genes previously linked to brewing and using genome-wide scans. We propose that the emergence of the main clade of beer yeasts is related with a domestication event distinct from the previously known cases of wine and sake yeast domestication. The nucleotide diversity of the main beer clade more than doubled that of wine yeasts, which might be a consequence of fundamental differences in the modes of beer and wine yeast domestication. The higher diversity of beer strains could be due to the more intense and different selection regimes associated to brewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  14. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  15. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  16. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  17. Beer, Wood, and Welfare--The Impact of Improved Stove Use Among Dolo-Beer Breweries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Grimm

    Full Text Available Local beer breweries in Burkina Faso absorb a considerable amount of urban woodfuel demand. We assess the woodfuel savings caused by the adoption of improved brewing stoves by these micro-breweries and estimate the implied welfare effects through the woodfuel market on private households as well as the environmental effect. We find substantial wood savings among the breweries, 36% to 38% if they fully switch to an improved stove. In absolute amounts, they save about 0.176 kg of fuelwood per litre of dolo brewed. These savings imply huge reductions in CO2-emissions and reduce the overall demand for woodfuel, which is predominantly used by the poorer strata for cooking purposes. We provide estimates for the price decrease that might result from this and show that the urban poor are likely to benefit. Thus, the intervention under study is an example for a green growth intervention with pro-poor welfare gains--something green growth strategies should look for.

  18. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  19. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  20. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  1. Drinking beer reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Manami

    2002-01-01

    We here investigated and reported the effects of beer drinking on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Human blood that was collected either before or after drinking a 700 ml beer was in vitro irradiated with 200 kVp X rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The relation between the radiation dose and the aberration frequencies (fragments and dicentrics) was significantly (P<0.05) lower for lymphocytes collected 3 h after beer drinking than those before drinking. Fitting the dose response to a linear quadratic model showed that the alpha term of carbon ions was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by beer drinking. A decrease of dicentric formation was detected as early as 0.5 h after beer drinking, and lasted not shorter than 4.5 h. The mitotic index of lymphocytes was higher after beer drinking than before, indicating that a division delay would not be responsible for the low aberrations induced by beer drinking. An in vitro treatment of normal lymphocytes with 0.1 M ethanol, which corresponded to a concentration of 6-times higher than the maximum ethanol concentration in the blood after beer drinking, reduced the dicentric formation caused by X-ray irradiation, but not by carbon-ion irradiation. The beer-induced reduction of dicentric formation was not affected by serum. It is concluded that beer could contain non-ethanol elements that reduce the chromosome damage of lymphocytes induced by high-LET radiation. (author)

  2. The Influence of Color on the Consumer’s Experience of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reinoso Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual appearance (e.g., color cues set expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor properties of food and drink. These expectations may, in turn, anchor the subsequent tasting experience. In the present study, we examined the influence of the color of a beer on the consumer’s experience. Dark and pale beers were evaluated both before and after tasting. Importantly, these beers were indistinguishable in terms of their taste/flavor when tasted without any visual cues. The results indicate that the differing visual appearance of the beers led to clear differences in expected taste/flavor. However, after tasting, no differences in flavor ratings were observed, indicating that the expectations based on visual cues did not influence the actual tasting experience. The participants also expected the dark beer to be more expensive than the pale one. These outcomes suggest that changes in the visual appearance of a beer lead to significant changes in the way in which consumers expect the beer to taste. At the same time, however, our findings also suggest the need for more evidence to be collected in order to determine the boundary conditions on when such crossmodal expectations may vs. may not affect the tasting experience.Highlights: The expected flavor of a beer is affected by its visual appearance. No differences in flavor ratings were observed on tasting. Consumers expect dark beers to be more expensive than pale/amber beers.

  3. What's in a name? The effect of congruent and incongruent product names on liking and emotions when consuming beer or non-alcoholic beer in a bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Voss, Hans Peter; Zyl, van Hannelize; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study concerns the expectations, liking and emotions related to the consumption of conventional beer and non-alcoholic beer (NAB), which are related but different products. These beverages are derived from the same raw materials and have undistinguished visual sensory cues. However consumers

  4. Heavy and light beer: a carbon isotope approach to detect C(4) carbon in beers of different origins, styles, and prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J Renée; Buchmann, Nina; Phillips, Sue; Ehleringer, Bruce; Evans, R David; Lott, Mike; Martinelli, Luiz A; Pockman, William T; Sandquist, Darren; Sparks, Jed P; Sperry, Lynda; Williams, Dave; Ehleringer, James R

    2002-10-23

    The carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of 160 beers from around the world ranged from -27.3 to -14.9 per thousand, primarily due to variation in the percentage of C(3) or C(4) plant carbon in the final product. Thirty-one percent of beers had a carbon signature of C(3) plants (barley, rice, etc.), whereas the remaining 69% contained some C(3)-C(4) mixture (mean of mixtures, 39 +/- 11% C(4) carbon). Use of C(4) carbon (corn, cane sugar, etc.) was not confined to beers from any particular region (Pacific Rim, Mexico, Brazil, Europe, Canada, and the United States). However, the delta(13)C of European beers indicated mostly C(3) plant carbon. In contrast, U.S. and Canadian beers contained either only C(3) or C(3)-C(4) mixtures; Brazilian, Mexican, and Pacific Rim beers were mostly C(3)-C(4) mixtures. Among different lagers, U.S.-style lagers generally contained more C(4) carbon than did imported pilsners. Among different ales, those brewed by large high-production breweries contained significant proportions of C(4) carbon, while C(4) carbon was not detected in microbrewery or home-brew ales. Furthermore, inexpensive beers generally contained more C(4) carbon than expensive beers.

  5. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Spitaels

    Full Text Available Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration.

  6. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration.

  7. Reply to the Comment of Vermani and Beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.K.; Henneberger, W.C.; Mian, S.N.; Sanders, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    The argument of Vermani and Beers is centered around two examples. The smallness of the discrepancy noted in the case of the harmonic oscillation reinforces our confidence in the validity of the Kramers transformation method for the potential case. The generalization of the method to the two-level system is fundamentally different from the potential case. We are thus unwilling to accept conclusions drawn from this particular model as having general validity

  8. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  9. Using Microsatellites to Identify Yeast Strains in Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Bruke, Alexandria; Van Brocklin, Jennifer; Rivest, Jason; Prenni, Jessica E.; Ibrahim, Hend

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an integral part of the brewing process and is responsible for much of the taste and characteristics of beer. During the brewing process, yeast is subject to ageing and stress factors that can result in growth inhibition, decreased genetic stability, and changes in cell membrane stability. Characterization of yeast species used in industrial fermentation (e.g. S. cerevisiae) is of great importance to the brewing industry. The objective of this study was to develop an assay to identif...

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF THE BEER SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA DOBRE-BARON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse a sector of the Romanian economy which is currently among the most sustainable. It is about production and marketing of beer, a product with a long and rich history around the world but also in Romania. The analysis covers a period of seven years and takes into account the dynamic evolution of those market-specific indicators such as: production, consumption, imports, exports, workforce involved, the contribution to the state budget, etc.

  11. Consumer interest in specialty beers in three European markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadini, G; Fumi, M D; Kordialik-Bogacka, E; Maggi, L; Lambri, M; Sckokai, P

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the quality perception of specialty beers (SBs) in Italy, Spain and Poland. Five-hundred and fifty mainstream beer consumers were enrolled in this study (two-hundred and thirty Italians, one hundred and sixty Poles and Spaniards respectively). The authors adopted a conjoint rating experiment in which the respondents were given forty SB profiles to evaluate. Each profile was described on six attributes (malt type, adjuncts, alternative source of sugars, characterizing ingredients, sensory characteristics, and retail price) varied at different levels and were asked to state his/her preference for each profile on a 9-point scale of interest. The results of this study showed that the ideal SB: (1) for the aggregate Polish panel is brewed from malted wheat, raw wheat, honey, and tropical fruits, is alcoholic and is priced below 2.00 Euros; (2) for the aggregate Italian panel consists of a beer brewed from malted wheat, maize, honey, and vanilla, is blonde and costs a maximum of 2.00 Euros; (3) for the aggregate Spanish panel is brewed from malted wheat, rye or maize, vanilla, is fruity and is priced below 2.00 Euros. The heterogeneity of interest in specialty beers observed in the three countries under test requires for the adaptation of a SB specifically to each culture in which it is sold. In this process of customization, brewers must take into account that gender modulates the effect of culture on consumer interest in SB sensory characteristics and ingredient formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  13. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mochizuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZON is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL, b-zearalenol (b-ZOL, a-zearalanol (a-ZAL, and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL. A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to b-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process.

  14. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora.

  15. Influence of beer, wine and spirits consumption on craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemacher, Thomas; Bayerlein, Kristina; Reulbach, Udo; Sperling, Wolfgang; Wilhelm, Julia; Mugele, Brigitte; Kraus, Thomas; Bönsch, Dominikus; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    The importance of craving in alcoholism and the efficacy of treatment has been the subject of various studies. This study focuses on the consumption of different alcoholic beverages and their effect on craving, which has not yet been investigated. Therefore we assessed 197 inpatients using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) on the day of admission and after 1 week, distinguishing between the total score, the obsessive and the compulsive subscale. Socio-demographic data and the type of alcoholic beverage were recorded. Analysing data, the amount of beer consumption showed a significant influence on craving in male but not in female patients. These results were significant for the total score and both subscales of the OCDS (OCDS total score; day 0: Spearman's rho = 0.31; p = 0.001; logistic regression, dependent variable dichotomized OCDS total score day 0: OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.34; p = 0.011). On the other hand we, did not find any significant results for the amount of other beverages such as wine and spirits. Receiver operating curves analysis showed that beer consumption significantly predicts craving [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.66; p = 0.002]. We conclude that higher beer consumption is associated with higher withdrawal craving, at least in male patients. In addition, it is an important predictor for both obsessive and compulsive craving. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological basis of this finding.

  16. The effects of gamma-irradiation of Pilsner beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roey, G. Van; Delvaux, Freddy

    1986-01-01

    A commerical Belgian Pilsner beer was irradiation with 0, 40, 80 and 120 krad of Cesium 137 γ-rays. Analysis of the resultant beers showed that the analytical data for polyphenolics to a great extent had remained unaffected, that the treatment had no impact upon the liability to haze formation, the pH, the foam stability and the levels of dimethyl sulphide, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and diacetyl. There was an increase in the concentration of acetaldehyde, and a small decrease in the concentration of iso-α-acids and n-propanol, the changes being roughly proportional to the dosage applied. The sum of the fast and the moderately fast reducing agents increase with increasing irradiation dosages and in the same way the concentration of slow reducing agents diminishes. The treatment at the same time leads to a drastic loss of colour. The flavour of irradiated beer is totally unacceptable, even at the lowest dosages, the odour reminding one of hydrogen sulphide. (author)

  17. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae- the main character in beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolo, Elizabeth J; Kock, Johan L F; Axcell, Barry C; Brooks, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Historically, mankind and yeast developed a relationship that led to the discovery of fermented beverages. Numerous inventions have led to improved technologies and capabilities to optimize fermentation technology on an industrial scale. The role of brewing yeast in the beer-making process is reviewed and its importance as the main character is highlighted. On considering the various outcomes of functions in a brewery, it has been found that these functions are focused on supporting the supply of yeast requirements for fermentation and ultimately to maintain the integrity of the product. The functions/processes include: nutrient supply to the yeast (raw material supply for brewhouse wort production); utilities (supply of water, heat and cooling); quality assurance practices (hygiene practices, microbiological integrity measures and other specifications); plant automation (vessels, pipes, pumps, valves, sensors, stirrers and centrifuges); filtration and packaging (product preservation until consumption); distribution (consumer supply); and marketing (consumer awareness). Considering this value chain of beer production and the 'bottle neck' during production, the spotlight falls on fermentation, the age-old process where yeast transforms wort into beer.

  18. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Berrada, Houda; Mañes, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    Since cereals are raw materials for production of beer and beer-based drinks, the occurrence mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation in this study. The analyses were conducted using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. The analytical method showed recoveries for vast majority of analytes ranged from 70% to 110%, relative standard deviations lower than 15% and limits of detection from 0.05 to 8 μg/L. A significant incidence of HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in 9.1% and 59.7% of total samples, respectively. The exposure of European population to mycotoxins through beer consumption was assessed. No toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for average beer consumers. Despite that, for heavy beer drinkers, the contribution of this commodity to the daily intake is not negligible, approaching or even exceeding the safety levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteria associated with human saliva are major microbial components of Ecuadorian indigenous beers (chicha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Freire

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous beers (chicha are part of the indigenous culture in Ecuador. The fermentation process of these beers probably relies on microorganisms from fermented substrates, environment and human microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of artisanal beers (including a type of beer produced after chewing boiled cassava using bacterial culture and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene-based tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP. Surprisingly, we found that Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans (part of the human oral microbiota were among the most abundant bacteria in chewed cassava and in non-chewed cassava beers. We also demonstrated that S. salivarius and S. mutans (isolated from these beers could proliferate in cassava mush. Lactobacillus sp. was predominantly present in most types of Ecuadorian chicha.

  20. Taste-active Components of Beers from Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccum Malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emmer wheat (EW, Triticum dicoccum grows under adverse climatic and soil conditions in the hilly areas of Italy and other temperate regions. So far, EW has been used for pasta or bakery products. The malt obtained from EW was used to produce a light beer, a double malt beer, and beers with 50% (B50 and 30% (B30 EW malt combined with barley malt. These top-fermented beers showed a sweet, fruity, citrus character. The different sensory impact and chemical composition (betaglucans and flavanoids of the beers was related to the germinative energy of EW and the different proportions of malted EW and barley malt. The light beer combines the moderate alcohol (3% vol. with a good intake of natural antioxidants (total phenolic content, TPC, 85 mg l−1, whereas B50 showed a high TPC (109 mg l−1 and the highest beta-glucan content (27 mg l−1.

  1. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  2. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  3. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa

    2007-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22±1.1, 1.22±1.1, 1.38±1.0, 1.47±1.1, 1.50±1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11±0.9, 1.29±1.1, 1.15±1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22±1.1, 1.17±1.1, 1.13±1.3, 1.38±1.2, 1.32±1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  4. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.38{+-}1.0, 1.47{+-}1.1, 1.50{+-}1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11{+-}0.9, 1.29{+-}1.1, 1.15{+-}1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.17{+-}1.1, 1.13{+-}1.3, 1.38{+-}1.2, 1.32{+-}1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  5. Ageing profiling of commercial and craft beers: a sensorial and chemical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Margarida Barbosa Pereira de

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biológica (área de especialização em Tecnologia Química e Alimentar) Beer is a beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation, containing alcohol, extract and carbon dioxide. It is prepared from barley malt, hops, brewing water, and yeasts (from which derive the predominant influences on overall beer types). Since different beer styles result from the combination and relationships between several factors (ingredients, processing, pac...

  6. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  7. Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: The influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, Liliana O; Fontes, Lívia C; Carnielli, Lorena; Reis, Tatiana A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, barley is the main source of carbohydrate in the brewing process. However, corn is often used as an adjunct to improve and accelerate the fermentation process. Considering that, these two substrates are susceptible to fungal contamination as well as mycotoxins. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in industrial beers. The method applied for mycotoxin analyses included high performance liquid chromatography . The mean levels for recovery experiments were 89.6% for DON and 93.3% for FB 1 . DON was not detected in any of the analyzed samples whereas FB 1 was found in 49% of the 114 samples. The current survey demonstrated levels of FB 1 contamination in industrial beer, possibly due to the addition of contaminated adjuncts. It is necessary to establish maximum levels of mycotoxins in beer in Brazil and other countries in order to reduce health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chinese consumers and European beer: Associations between attribute importance, socio-demographics, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The demand for western alcoholic beverages in China has increased tremendously in recent years. However, there is still a lack of understanding with regard to the behaviour of Chinese consumers towards European beer, which is a common western alcoholic beverage. This study explores associations between beer attribute importance scores, socio-demographic factors, general beer consumption frequency and country associations of European beer, and the consumption of imported European beer in China. The data (n = 541) were collected in two Chinese cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Results of ordered logistic regression analyses show that the consumption of imported European beer is positively associated with importance attached to the product attributes Origin, Brand, Colour and Texture, and it is negatively associated with importance attached to Price and Alcoholic content. Furthermore, male gender, living in Shanghai city, a good financial situation, frequent beer consumption and a high-level employment position have a significantly positive influence on European beer consumption in China. In addition, about two thirds of the study participants associate imported European beer with 'Germany'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of iso-α-acids to confirm beer consumption in postmortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-01-01

    Iso-α-acids (IAAs) can be used as markers for the consumption of beer. Postmortem specimens from a range of coronial cases were analyzed for IAAs in order to determine the prevalence of beer consumption and any correlation to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). A total of 130 cases were included in this study including those where beer was mentioned in the case circumstances, cases where beer was not mentioned specifically but alcohol was detected, and cases where neither beer was mentioned nor a positive BAC was present. Available blood, serum, vitreous humour and urine specimens were analyzed. Of the 50 cases where beer was mentioned, 86% had one or more IAAs detected. In cases that only had a positive BAC (n = 60), 57% of these cases also showed the presence of these beer markers. IAAs were detected in specimens obtained from traumatized, burnt, and decomposed cases with a mention of beer consumption or where BAC was positive in blood. No IAAs were detected in cases where BAC was negative. There was little or no correlation between blood IAA concentrations and BAC. This study demonstrates the possible detection of IAAs as a marker for beer consumption. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Consumption of beer and colorectal cancer incidence: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhong, Min

    2015-04-01

    Several meta-analyses and reports from the World Cancer Research Fund supported a risk association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association for beer consumption, the common type of alcoholic beverage, remains unclear. We identified studies by a literature search of PUBMED and EMBASE through 30 June 2014. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their 95% CIs were calculated with a fixed or random effects model. Twelve case-control and nine cohort studies were included. Compared with non-alcohol drinkers or non-beer drinkers, any beer drinkers were associated with an increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.06-1.37; p(heterogeneity) beer drinking was related to increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.26-1.49), while light or moderate beer drinking was not. The dose-response analysis demonstrated that an increase of one drink per day in beer consumption was related to an increased risk of CRC (SRR = 1.13, 95% CI, 1.06-1.21). There was evidence of a potential nonlinear association between beer intake and CRC incidence (p = 0.002 for nonlinearity). The results from this meta-analysis suggest that heavy (≥ 2 drinks/day) beer drinking may be associated with increased CRC risk. More researches with improved control of confounding and actual measurement of beer consumption are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. The Bacteriostasis Study of Nisin for the Raspberry Health Draft Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinxu; Zhu, Hui xia; Guo, Jiping; Xiao, Dong Guang

    The raspberry healthy draft beer was obtained by adding the extracting of raspberry into the raw fermentation materials of beer, in order to prolong the shelf life, the different concentrations nisin were added to the the raspberry healthy draft beer, the result shown that nisin could have obvious influence on the shelf life, the shelf life prolonged with nisin concentrations adding, the shelf life raspberry healthy draft beer was 44d after adding 0.02 nisin mg/mL, the shelf life prolonged 36d than blank.

  12. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-03-04

    To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Cross sectional study. Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer.

  13. Aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin survey in beer sold in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yarong; Huang, Jianxiang; Ma, Liyan; Liu, Shuai; Wang, Fuhua

    2017-03-01

    A total of 101 samples of beer from the Chinese market were analysed for the presence of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and sterigmatocystin (STC), using methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification and the limit of detection in beer were 0.1 and 0.03 µg/kg, respectively. Recoveries of AFB 1 and STC from spiked beer samples were 97.8-103.6% and 92.7-102.1%, respectively. None of the beer purchased samples were contaminated with AFB 1 or STC.

  14. Impact of Osmotic Distillation on the Sensory Properties and Quality of Low Alcohol Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguori Loredana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of low alcohol beer (LAB with a full and well-balanced flavour is still now a complex challenge because of the different flavour profile they have compared to regular beers. In this study, a brown ale beer was used to obtain a low alcohol beer by osmotic distillation in a small pilot plant. Beer-diluted carbonated solutions were used as strippers and were taken under flux of CO2 in order to contrast loss of volatiles from beer during the process. A forced carbonation was applied on LAB to avoid the foam collapse. Furthermore, hop extract and pectin solution were added to LAB to improve the overall taste and body. Results highlighted an improvement into retention of volatiles probably due to the use of carbonated solutions such as strippers. The forced carbonation and the addition of pectins ensured both a higher concentration of dissolved CO2 and a higher stability of foam in LAB. The antioxidant activity of beer remained unchanged. The sensory analysis highlighted differences among low alcohol beer and original one. The addition of hop extract and pectin solution to LAB better maintained hop and fruity-citrus notes during tasting, compared with the original beer.

  15. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  16. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  17. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  18. Aluminium and Aroma Compound Concentration in Beer During Storage at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Soldo Gjeldum

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of aluminium in beer has been elaborated in several papers over the last decade. However, the effect of aluminium on organoleptic properties of beer has been observed in few papers where it has been stated that aluminium gives beer a »metallic« and bitter flavour without any observations on particular aroma compound changes. Also, the number of reports on precise changes of aroma components throughout different storage conditions is surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate the changes of aluminium concentration along with aroma compound changes, graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GF-AAS with Zeeman background correction and gas chromatography with static headspace sampler (GC-HSS were used in this work. Analyses were conducted periodically throughout seven months of storage on three different brands of beer from name breweries. Samples were taken before and after filling in aluminium cans. One part of samples was stored in a refrigerator (4 °C and the other in a thermostatic chamber (22 °C. The effects of beer brand and storage conditions on aluminium concentration and level of aroma compounds were measured. To prove the effect of aluminium concentration on the changes of aroma compounds, the adequate level of aluminium sulphate was added to bottled beer samples stored at 28 °C. Although different beer types showed significantly different aluminium concentration, it could be the result of other factors (different batches of identical beer type showed significantly different aluminium concentration as well. Samples that were stored in the refrigerator were protected from aluminium migration from the can to the beer and showed increased aroma stability. Level of aroma constituents of analyzed beer brands was significantly different. Elevated aluminium concentration did not have any noticeable effect on the level of aroma compounds in beer samples stored at 28 °C.

  19. U.S. BEER FLOWS & THE IMPACT OF NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. MCGOWAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After World War II and up until the 1980’s, the liberalization of trade was realized on a multilateral basis. World trade grew at twice the pace of GDP growth (Krueger, 1999. However, starting in the mid 1980’s, preferential trading arrangements (PTAs increased in numbers. Perhaps the most influential PTA ever to be signed could be the North America Free Trade Agreement, or simply NAFTA, which came into effect January 1, 1994. The agreement established a free-trade area between its member countries- US, Canada and Mexico- in which all tariffs would be phased out between them, but each country would maintain its separate national barriers against the rest of the world. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of NAFTA on the welfare of its member countries and on the rest of the world. This paper will focus on the impact of the agreement on the US’s beer trade flows by analyzing annual import and export data using several methods. To our knowledge there is no precedent for such research. Section II provides a brief review of the conclusions and methodology of existing works on NAFTA trade issues, as well as some important aspects of the agreement. Section III provides an overview of the world beer industry, and the NAFTA member countries beer markets. Section IV provides in great detail the methodology that we will employ. The focus of Section V is to explain the results obtained. Section VI provides conclusions and implications for further research on this subject. References and other sources can be found in Section VII.

  20. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  1. Preparation of malts for production of special beers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kábelová-Ficová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with production of various malts intended for manufacture of special types of beer. The malts were used to brew samples of beer with alcoholic strength ranging between 8 - 12% EPM. The above range of original wort content was chosen due to its suitability for sensory evaluation and properties; in stronger types of beer, (more than 12% EPM, nature of the beverage can be drown by mashy flavour. In the experimental samples, the actual residual extract oscillated between 4.0 - 6.5%. The content of ethanol corresponded to the degree of fermentation and thereby also to the residual actual extract in balance equilibrium specifying that higher residual extract corresponds to lower content of alcohol by volume. It ranged between 2.5 - 5.0%. The sample 1 contained the highest amount of ethanol by mass (3.9% and the sample 13 showed the lowest one (1.9%; alike trend of ethanol content by volume was revealed (5 and 2.44%, respectively. The highest content of actual and apparent extract was found in the sample 2 (6.6 and 5.2%, respectively; the sample 13 showed the lowest levels (4.0 and 3.1%, respectively. The original wort extract content averaged 9.9% in most of the samples; the sample 1 showed distinctly higher value (12.6% and, on the contrary, the sample 13 demonstrated the lowest one (7.4%. The highest relative density was revealed in the sample 2 (1.02% and the lowest one in the sample 13 (1.01%. Considering differences in osmotic pressure, the sample 1 exhibited the highest value (1045 mOs and the sample 13 the lowest one (551 mOs. The highest level of fermentation was found in the sample 19 (61.7%, the lowest one was proved in the sample 19 (44.0%. Sensory analysis corresponded to originality and characteristics of each sample. The sample of beer made from spring barley was evaluated to be the best one.

  2. Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wesley B; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B; Busch, David R; Mesquita, Rickson C; Greenberg, Joel H; Yodh, A G

    2014-11-01

    We develop and validate a Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements. The new formulation enables blood flow monitoring from temporal intensity autocorrelation function data taken at single or multiple delay-times. Consequentially, the speed of the optical blood flow measurement can be substantially increased. The scheme facilitates blood flow monitoring of highly scattering tissues in geometries wherein light propagation is diffusive or non-diffusive, and it is particularly well-suited for utilization with pressure measurement paradigms that employ differential flow signals to reduce contributions of superficial tissues.

  3. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  4. Attitude and loyalty to two brands of beer of the same producer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    The focus of the presented research is attitude and loyalty to two brands of beer produced by the Carlsberg Group - Tuborg and Carlsberg. Both beers are lagers. The Carlsberg Group markets Tuborg as a more premium brand, and it also aims to promote it to women. Unlike in the Netherlands with one...

  5. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of acute beer ingestion on the liver: studies in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Landmann, Marianne; Prigl, Eva; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether the effects of acute consumption of stout or pilsner beer on the liver differ from those of plain ethanol in a mouse model. Seven-week-old female C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, stout or pilsner beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or isocaloric maltodextrin solution. Plasma alanine transaminase, markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade as well as lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis in the liver were measured 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Acute alcohol ingestion caused a marked ~11-fold increase in hepatic triglyceride accumulation in comparison to controls, whereas in mice exposed to stout and pilsner beer, hepatic triglyceride levels were increased only by ~6.5- and ~4-fold, respectively. mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase in the liver did not differ between alcohol and beer groups. In contrast, expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthases, but also the concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, nuclear factor κB and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were induced in livers of ethanol treated mice but not in those exposed to the two beers. Taken together, our results suggest that acute ingestion of beer and herein especially of pilsner beer is less harmful to the liver than the ingestion of plain ethanol.

  7. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the

  8. Household production of sorghum beer in Benin: technological and socio-economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Niehof, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sorghum brewing microenterprises in Benin with emphasis on the beer quality, the social significance of the product as well as the income generated. Tchoukoutou, the Benin opaque sorghum beer, has important social functions as it fosters the cooperative spirit and remains an

  9. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. RESULTS...... made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer....

  10. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Brand-Miller, J.; Fogelholm, M.; Raben, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

  11. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  12. Formation of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds in beer during storage of Pilsner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adriana; Herrera, Julio C; Scherer, Erika; Ju-Nam, Yon; Rübsam, Heinrich; Madrid, Jorge; Zufall, Carsten; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael

    2008-06-11

    With the aim of determining the formation of alpha-dicarbonyl intermediates during beer aging on the shelf, alpha-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified after derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenze to generate quinoxalines. The sensory effects of alpha-dicarbonyls were evaluated by the quantification of key Strecker aldehydes and by GC-olfactometry (GCO)analysis of beer headspace using solid phase microextraction. Four alpha-dicarbonyls, reported here for the first time, were detected in fresh and aged beers, three were derived from the 2,3-enolization pathway of mono- and disaccharides, and the fourth was derived from the epimerization of 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose. Ten alpha-dicarbonyls were quantified during beer processing and during different periods of beer aging at 28 degrees C. The aging periods were from 15 to 105 days. During beer aging, 1-deoxydiuloses were produced and degraded, while 1,4-dideoxydiuloses were produced at the highest rates. The GCO analysis indicated that forced beer aging increased the amounts of furaneol, trans-2-nonenal, and phenylacetaldehyde. The blockage of alpha-dicarbonyls inhibited the accumulation of sensory-active aldehydes in the beer headspace.

  13. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of different types of beer according to their colour characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Kr T.; Gabrova, R.; Boyadzhiev, D.; Pisanova, E. S.; Ruseva, J.; Yanakiev, D.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-two samples from different beers have been investigated in two colour systems - XYZ and SIELab - and have been characterised according to their colour parameters. The goals of the current study were to conduct correlation and discriminant analysis and to find the inner relation between the studied indices. K-means cluster has been used to compare and group the tested types of beer based on their similarity. To apply the K-Cluster analysis it is required that the number of clusters be determined in advance. The variant K = 4 was worked out. The first cluster unified all bright beers, the second one contained samples with fruits, the third one contained samples with addition of lemon, the fourth unified the samples of dark beers. By applying the discriminant analysis it is possible to help selections in the establishment of the type of beer. The proposed model correctly describes the types of beer on the Bulgarian market and it can be used for determining the affiliation of the beer which is not used in obtained model. One sample has been chosen from each cluster and the digital image has been obtained. It confirms the color parameters in the color system XYZ and SIELab. These facts can be used for elaboration for express estimation of beer by color.

  15. Correlates of in-store promotions for beer: differential effects of market and product characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W; Loomis, Brett; Engelen, Mark

    2007-03-01

    We estimated the strength and direction of the association between product characteristics (beer type, package size, and brand name) and market-area socioeconomic characteristics, and promoted sales of beer in grocery stores. Supermarket scanner data from 64 market areas across the United States over 5 years were used to estimate regression models of the share of beer sales that are promoted, controlling for beer price, packaging, and type; and for market-level age, race/ethnicity, income, unemployment rate, and percentage of the population living in an alcohol control state. Large-volume units, such as 144-oz and 288-oz packages, are more likely to be promoted than smaller package sizes. Malt-liquor beverages are less likely to be promoted than non-malt-liquor beverages. Age, race/ethnicity, income, and geographic location of the market area are not significantly related to promoted beer sales. Marketing research has shown that in-store merchandising and promotions can substantially increase beer sales and that purchasing large package sizes may increase total consumption. Our results suggest that high levels of promoted sales for large-volume beer packages may result in increased beer consumption.

  16. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  17. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  18. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  19. EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE CONTENT OF ACETALDEHYDE IN BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Jonkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the temperature, the pitching rate of yeast and wort composition (Free Amino Nitrogen on the content of acetaldehyde in beer. It is known, that higher fermentation temperatures stimulate the formation of acetaldehyde, as well as the higher rate of acetaldehyde reduction, leading to lower concentrations in the final beer. Beer produced with increased pitching rate of yeast (26 and 35 × 10[sup]6[/sup] cells•mL[sup]-1[/sup], contains lower quantities of acetaldehyde as compared to the control beer. Lower content of α-amino nitrogen in result of substitution of 5 to 10�0of the malt with rice, sugar or a combination of both does not lead to considerable differences in the acetaldehyde concentration in beer.

  20. Authentication of Trappist beers by LC-MS fingerprints and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarucchi, Elia; Stocchero, Matteo; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Giordano, Giuseppe; Reniero, Fabiano; Guillou, Claude

    2010-12-08

    The aim of this study was to asses the applicability of LC-MS profiling to authenticate a selected Trappist beer as part of a program on traceability funded by the European Commission. A total of 232 beers were fingerprinted and classified through multivariate data analysis. The selected beer was clearly distinguished from beers of different brands, while only 3 samples (3.5% of the test set) were wrongly classified when compared with other types of beer of the same Trappist brewery. The fingerprints were further analyzed to extract the most discriminating variables, which proved to be sufficient for classification, even using a simplified unsupervised model. This reduced fingerprint allowed us to study the influence of batch-to-batch variability on the classification model. Our results can easily be applied to different matrices and they confirmed the effectiveness of LC-MS profiling in combination with multivariate data analysis for the characterization of food products.

  1. Industrial brewing yeast engineered for the production of primary flavor determinants in hopped beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, Charles M; Li, Rachel A; Vu, Van T; Costello, Zak; Lin, Weiyin; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Williams, Joseph; Donaldson, Bryan; Bamforth, Charles W; Petzold, Christopher J; Scheller, Henrik V; Martin, Hector Garcia; Keasling, Jay D

    2018-03-20

    Flowers of the hop plant provide both bitterness and "hoppy" flavor to beer. Hops are, however, both a water and energy intensive crop and vary considerably in essential oil content, making it challenging to achieve a consistent hoppy taste in beer. Here, we report that brewer's yeast can be engineered to biosynthesize aromatic monoterpene molecules that impart hoppy flavor to beer by incorporating recombinant DNA derived from yeast, mint, and basil. Whereas metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways is commonly enlisted to maximize product titers, tuning expression of pathway enzymes to affect target production levels of multiple commercially important metabolites without major collateral metabolic changes represents a unique challenge. By applying state-of-the-art engineering techniques and a framework to guide iterative improvement, strains are generated with target performance characteristics. Beers produced using these strains are perceived as hoppier than traditionally hopped beers by a sensory panel in a double-blind tasting.

  2. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  3. 27 CFR 25.286 - Claims for remission of tax on beer lost in transit between breweries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tax on beer lost in transit between breweries. 25.286 Section 25.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.286 Claims for remission of tax on beer lost in transit...

  4. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who has...

  5. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate.

  6. Moderate beer consumption does not change early or mature atherosclerosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Vaca Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the consumption of wine in particular has been associated with a lower risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease, systematic reviews differ as to the relative protective effect of beer, wine and spirits. Two previous studies showed that red wine reduces fatty streak formation (early atherosclerosis but not mature atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein (apo E-deficient (apoE-/- mice. Aim of the study To determine whether a moderate beer intake would affect early and mature atherosclerotic lesion formation using control C57BL/6 and apoE-/- mice, respectively, as models. Methods Control C57BL/6 and apoE-/- mice were randomized to receive either water, ethanol, mild beer, dark beer or ethanol-free beer. The level of beer was designed to approximate the alcohol intake currently believed to be beneficial in reducing human vascular risk. Control C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western diet for 24 weeks, and apoE-/- mice a chow diet for 12 weeks. At the end of the trial period, mice were euthanized and atherosclerotic lesions quantified. Plasma lipid concentrations were also measured. Results The amount of atherosclerosis and average number of lesions in the proximal aortic region did not differ among groups in control C57BL/6 mice (p = 0.32 and p = 0.29, respectively and apoE-/- mice (p = 0.19 and p = 0.59, respectively. No consistent differences were observed in plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations among water, ethanol and beer groups. Conclusions Moderate beer consumption does not change the development of early or mature atherosclerosis in mice. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of an anti-atherogenic effect of beer. Other potential protective actions of moderate beer consumption such as plaque stabilization, a reduction in plaque intrinsic thrombogenicity, or a reduction in the systemic propensity to thrombosis, remain to be studied.

  7. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  8. Brown beer vinegar: A potentially functional product based on its phenolic profile and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudura Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to create a functional, enriched in polyphenols and free of alcohol product obtained by acetic fermentation of beer. Beer and vinegar were tested first for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity, by the Folin Ciocalteu and the free radical scavenging activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay, respectively. Then, the separation and identification of the 30 phenolic compounds was realized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with positive electrospray ionisation and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD–ESI(+-MS analysis. Identification of the phenolic compounds data was realized based on the UV spectra of each compound. Based on a calibration curve (R2 = 0.9985, the amounts of the phenolic compounds, expressed as mg cathechin equivalents (CE/L, were calculated. The total phenolic content of the beer and vinegar samples determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent were of 428.9±1.58 and 661.5±7.69 mg GAE L-1, respectively, which contributed to the high antioxidant activity in the vinegar sample of 82.18 %. Statistically significant differences were observed after acetic fermentation between each parameter (p < 0.05. Brown beer vinegar represents a rich source of polyphenols and phenolic derivatives, compared to beer. By its increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity, brown beer vinegar could be considered another source of valuable compounds to beer, which could also be of interest in special diets.

  9. Beer as a Rich Source of Fluoride Delivered into the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styburski, D; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Goschorska, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride is an element which in the minimum amount is necessary for the proper construction of the teeth and bones. But on the other hand, it increases the synthesis of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory mediators, and impairs the action of enzymes. Beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage in the world. Due to its prevalence and volume of consumption, it should be considered as a potential source of F- and taken into account in designing a balanced diet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze beer samples in terms of F- levels. The concentrations of fluoride were examined using ion-selective electrode Thermo Scientific Orion and statistical analysis was based on two-way ANOVA and t test. When compared to imported beers, Polish beers were characterized by the lowest mean F- concentration (0.089 ppm). The highest mean F- concentrations were recorded in beers from Thailand (0.260 ppm), Italy (0.238 ppm), Mexico (0.210 ppm), and China (0.203 ppm). Our study shows that beer is a significant source of fluoride for humans, which is mainly associated with the quality of the water used in beer production.

  10. Identification of a Protein with Antioxidant Activity that is Important for the Protection against Beer Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming J.; Clarke, Frank M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Young, Paul; Sales, Narelle; O’Doherty, Patrick J.; Higgins, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian lager flavour was maintained in the fresh and vintage beers but was lost in the aged beer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and free thiol group labelling analyses of beer proteins found that this flavour stability correlated with the presence of an unknown 10 kilodaltons (kDa) protein with a higher level of free thiols. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography, then peptide sequencing and database matching identified it as the barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1). Further characterisation using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based antioxidant screening assay demonstrated that the LTP1 protein was active in DPPH reduction and antioxidant activity. The absence of free thiol in the aged beer indicates that the thiol functional groups within the LTP1 protein were saturated and suggests that it is important in the flavour stability of beer by maintaining reduction capacity during the ageing process. PMID:22016646

  11. Metal Content and Stable Isotope Determination in Some Commercial Beers from Romanian Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezara Voica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of beer samples is of interest because their compositions affect the taste and stability of beer and, also, consumer health. In this work, the characterizations of 20 Romanian beers were performed by mean of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS in order to trace heavy metals and isotopic content of them. Major, minor, and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment for yeast growth and influence yeast metabolism. Beside this, the presence of the C4 plants in the brewing process was followed. Our study has shown that the analyzed beers indicated the presence of different plant types used in brewing: C3, C3-C4 mixtures, and also C4, depending on producers. Also the trace metal content of each sample is presented and discussed in this study. A comparison of the beers quality manufactured by the same producer but bottled in different type of packaging like glass, dose, or PET was made; our results show that no compositional differences among the same beer type exist.

  12. Characterisation of brewpub beer carbohydrates using high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfelli, Giuseppe; Sartini, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    High performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised in order to quantify mannose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose content of beer. The method allows the determination of above mentioned oligosaccharides, in a single chromatographic run, without any pre-treatment. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were suitable for beer. Accuracy and repeatability were good for the entire amount considered. Once optimised HPAEC PAD for the specific matrix, the second goal of this research was to verify the possibility to discriminate beers, depending on their style. The carbohydrates content of brewpub commercial beers was very variable, ranging from 19.3 to 1469mg/L (mannose), 34.5 to 2882mg/L (maltose), 141.9 to 20731mg/L (maltotriose), 168.5 to 7650mg/L (maltotetraose), 20.1 to 2537mg/L (maltopentaose), 22.9 to 3295mg/L (maltohexaose), 8.5 to 2492mg/L (maltoeptaose), even in the same style of beer. However, the carbohydrates content was useful, jointed with other compounds amount, to discriminate different styles of beer. As a matter of fact, principal component analysis put in evidence beer differences considering some fermentation conditions and colour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estrogenic Activities of Food Supplements and Beers as Assessed by a Yeast Bioreporter Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2017-10-31

    Mounting evidence of the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans has led to assaying a vast array of food items (processed or packaged) as possible sources of human exposure to estrogens. In this study, we investigated the current situation in this respect of different food supplements and beer brands. Eleven food supplements and 24 beer brands were obtained from Helsinki, Finland. Sample preparation was carried out by established methods while estrogenic activities were assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). All the food supplements as well as 81% of the beer samples tested were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol equivalent concentrations of food supplements and beer brands ranging from 7.5 to 11.5 µg/ml and from below detection limits to 43.6 ng/ml, respectively. The estrogenic activities detected in beer samples were not dependent on the beer's alcoholic content, the country of production, or the size of the production brewery. The results of our study imply that both food supplements and beers can be a significant source of human exposure to estrogens. Therefore, further studies and regular surveillance are warranted.

  14. The effect of consuming small volumes of beer on gastric motility and the involvement of gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Jodai, Yasutaka; Omori, Takafumi; Sumi, Kazuya; Ichikawa, Yuichiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Hirata, Ichiro; Ohmiya, Naoki; Nakao, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming small amounts of beer or a nonalcoholic beer taste beverage (non-beer) on gastric emptying and the polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related enzyme-encoding genes. Twenty male healthy volunteers were questioned regarding their alcohol consumption status, and body measurement was performed. The genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984, Arg47His) and ALDH2 (rs671 Glu487Lys) were analyzed. The subjects consumed 150 mL of beer or non-beer once per week, followed by the ingestion of 200 kcal of the test nutrient containing 13 C-acetate 15 min later, after which the subjects' exhalations were collected up to 120 min. The concentration peak of 13 C was measured as Tmax. Diamine oxidase (DAO) activity for the marker of small intestinal function activity was also measured the day after the test. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in the group that consumed a small amount of beer, and in daily beer consumption group, and also in the ADH1B *2/*2, ALDH2 *1/*2 genotypes compared to non-beer drinking group. DAO values were not significantly changed between beer and non-beer group. The consumption of even a small amount of beer and the polymorphisms in ADH1B / ALDH2 affects gastric motility.

  15. Characterization of the volatile profiles of beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Serena; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe; Marconi, Ombretta

    2014-03-30

    The objective of this study was a multivariate characterization of the volatile profile of beers. Such a characterization is timely considering the increasing worldwide consumption of beer, the continuous growth of microbreweries and the importance of volatile compounds to beer flavour. A method employing solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was optimized and then applied to a sample set of 36 industrial and craft beers of various styles and fermentation types. The volatile profiles of different beer styles is described, with particular attention paid to the volatile compounds characteristic of a spontaneously fermented lambic raspberry framboise beer. Furthermore, it was also possible to identify which specific volatile compounds are principally responsible for the differences in the volatile profiles of top- and bottom-fermented beers. Moreover, a volatile fingerprint of the craft top-fermented Italian beers was defined, as they show a very similar volatile profile. Finally, the volatile compounds that are characteristic of the bock-style beers are described. The SPME-GC-MS analytical method optimized in this study is suitable for characterizing the volatile fingerprint of different beers, especially on the basis of the kind of fermentation (top, bottom or spontaneous), the method of production and the style of the beer. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Voltammetric detection of the α-dicarbonyl compound: methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra; Chen, Aicheng

    2012-11-02

    A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant α-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1×10(-6) to 100×10(-6)M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8×10(-9)M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  18. Special Beer obtained by Synchronous Alcoholic Fermentation of Two Different Origin Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MUDURA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide. Both beer and wine are  recognized since ancient times for their health benefits. Nowadays, these beverages are consumed for its sensory, social interaction, and recently even in culinary dishes. In addition, studies showed the benefits of beer moderate consumption on health. Beer is a low-alcohol beverage and also presents many nutritional properties outlined by its nutritional content rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that come from the raw material (malt and hop. Wishing to attract as many niches of consumers, brewers tend to produce every year new and innovative beers. The purpose of this study was to develop the technology for an innovative special beer. The synchronous alcoholic fermentation of two different origin substrates – wort and grape must - was monitored and their composition was assessed in order to obtain special beer with superior sensory properties. Technological process was developed in the Winery Pilot Station of the UASVM Cluj-Napoca. Special beer was obtained by alcoholic fermentation of hopped dark wort with grape must from the autochthonous Feteasca neagra grapes variety. Second fermentation process was followed by the maturation (3 weeks at 5oC in order to harmonize sensory qualities. The entire process was monitored considering fermentation and final products physicochemical parameters. The optimized ratio of the two fermentation substrates was of 2.5:3 on primary raw materials – beer wort and grapes must. The process was monitored on optimizing the fermentation process. The best fermentation yield was obtained when lower fermentation extracts were used. This study demonstrated that the simultaneous fermentation of the two substrates with different glucidic origin may proceed under controlled conditions and may be carried out so as to obtain the desired fermentation products with improved sensorial properties and increased health benefits.

  19. Bubble clustering in a glass of stout beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Fumiya; Watamura, Tomoaki; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu

    2017-11-01

    To clarify why the texture in stout beer poured into a pint glass descends, we investigated local time development of the void fraction and velocity of bubbles. The propagation of the number density distribution, i.e. the texture, appearing near the inclined wall is observed. We visualized individual advective bubbles near the inclined wall by microscope and measured the local void fraction using brightness of images while the velocity of bubbles by means of Particle Tracking Velocimetry. As the result of measurements, we found the local void fraction and the bubbles advection velocity increase and decrease repeatedly with a time delay. We conclude the texture pattern is composed of fluid blobs which contain less bubbles; extruding and suction flows respectively toward and from the interior of the container form respectively in front and back of the blobs.

  20. Distorted Facets of Marketing Ethics for Alcoholic Beer Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newaj Avinash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is the art of delivering value whilst ethical marketing is to provide this value through what is morally right. This new era customers are well informed, more knowledgeable, less vulnerable to unethical practices and cannot be easily manipulated by marketers. Many companies are thus, moving towards ethical marketing so as to develop trust among existing and new customers. Strict regulations by the Mauritian government have further forced marketers to act ethically; whereby the advertising of alcoholic beers has been banned. Yet, indirect strategies have been adopted by marketers so as to pave their way in this competitive industry. What are they? Are customers aware about them and are they influenced? Road accidents, social violence and health problems are associated to such malpractice. This study has shed light on the above and measures have been proposed for the benefit of customers, marketers and the government. This study was connected to the ethical theories.

  1. EVALUATION OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS DURING HIGH-GRAVITY BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of advantages are obtained from the use of highly concentrated worts during the production of beer in a process referred to as "high-gravity". However, problems related to slow or stuck fermentations, which cause the lower productivity and possibility of contamination, are encountered. This study examines the influence of factors pH, percentage of corn syrup, initial wort concentration and fermentation temperature on the fermentation parameters, namely productivity, wort attenuation and the yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The results show that productivity increased when the higher temperature, the higher wort concentration and the lower syrup percentage were used, while wort attenuation increased when lower wort concentration and no syrup were used. The yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion was not influenced by any of the factors studied.

  2. Multiple-scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zardecki, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of multiple scattering on the validity of the Beer-Lambert law is discussed for a wide range of particle-size parameters and optical depths. To predict the amount of received radiant power, appropriate correction terms are introduced. For particles larger than or comparable to the wavelength of radiation, the small-angle approximation is adequate; whereas for small densely packed particles, the diffusion theory is advantageously employed. These two approaches are used in the context of the problem of laser-beam propagation in a dense aerosol medium. In addition, preliminary results obtained by using a two-dimensional finite-element discrete-ordinates transport code are described. Multiple-scattering effects for laser propagation in fog, cloud, rain, and aerosol cloud are modeled

  3. Industrial brewing yeast engineered for the production of primary flavor determinants in hopped beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denby, Charles M.; Li, Rachel A.; Vu, Van T.

    2018-01-01

    Flowers of the hop plant provide both bitterness and "hoppy" flavor to beer. Hops are, however, both a water and energy intensive crop and vary considerably in essential oil content, making it challenging to achieve a consistent hoppy taste in beer. Here, we report that brewer's yeast can...... be engineered to biosynthesize aromatic monoterpene molecules that impart hoppy flavor to beer by incorporating recombinant DNA derived from yeast, mint, and basil. Whereas metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways is commonly enlisted to maximize product titers, tuning expression of pathway enzymes...

  4. Elements of design and aesthetics on the beer market in Romania. Case Study: Tuborg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MADAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development and modernization of trade, the packaging is a very valuable component of marketing policy, being a carrier of messages to the consumer. Classic elements of design that include any packaging refer to the shape, colour and graphics. The beer market in Romania was marked by originality and innovation in terms of packaging design elements. Tuborg is the leading brand in the portfolio of URBB and the first Tuborg beer bottle was produced in Romania in 1997. The Tubog beer is identified on the market by a special package that was always improved.

  5. Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas : entering in the craft beer trend with Affligem

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Marta Filipa Freire Antón

    2014-01-01

    Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas (SCC) is one of biggest players in the Portuguese beer industry. In 2013, together with Unicer, its biggest competitor, both groups owned 94% of the market. Part of the Heineken International Company since 2007, SCC was invited to be part of the worldwide launch of Affligem, the new global brand from Heineken group. Aiming to be the beacon brand in the specialty beer category, Affligem is a Belgian abbey beer with almost one thousand years of history. B...

  6. Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic drinks and mortality. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol intake, smoking habit, income, education, and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--6051 men and 7234 women aged 30-70 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of cause-specific deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--The risk of dying steadily decreased with an increasing intake of wine--from a relative risk of 1.00 for the subjects who never drank wine to 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.81) for those who drank three to five glasses a day. Intake of neither beer nor spirits, however, was associated with reduced risk. For spirits intake the relative risk of dying increased from 1.00 for those who never drank to 1.34 (1.05 to 1.71) for those with an intake of three to five drinks a day. The effects of the three types of alcoholic drinks seemed to be independent of each other, and no significant interactions existed with sex, age, education, income, smoking, or body mass index. Wine drinking showed the same relation to risk of death from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease as to risk of death from all causes. CONCLUSION--Low to moderate intake of wine is associated with lower mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and other causes. Similar intake of spirits implied an increased risk, while beer drinking did not affect mortality. PMID:7767150

  7. The microbial diversity of an industrially produced lambic beer shares members of a traditionally produced one and reveals a core microbiota for lambic beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The microbiota involved in lambic beer fermentations in an industrial brewery in West-Flanders, Belgium, was determined through culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. More than 1300 bacterial and yeast isolates from 13 samples collected during a one-year fermentation process were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by sequence analysis of rRNA and various protein-encoding genes. The bacterial and yeast communities of the same samples were further analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified V3 regions of the 16S rRNA genes and D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA genes, respectively. In contrast to traditional lambic beer fermentations, there was no Enterobacteriaceae phase and a larger variety of acetic acid bacteria were found in industrial lambic beer fermentations. Like in traditional lambic beer fermentations, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Dekkera bruxellensis and Pediococcus damnosus were the microorganisms responsible for the main fermentation and maturation phases. These microorganisms originated most probably from the wood of the casks and were considered as the core microbiota of lambic beer fermentations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  9. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  10. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  11. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  12. Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We present a concise overview of the modified Beer-Lambert law, which has been extensively used in the literature of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of scattering media. In particular, we discuss one form of the modified Beer-Lambert law that is commonly found in the literature and that is not strictly correct. However, this incorrect form of the modified Beer-Lambert law still leads to the correct expression for the changes in the continuous wave optical signal associated with changes in the absorption coefficient of the investigated medium. Here we propose a notation for the modified Beer-Lambert law that keeps the typical form commonly found in the literature without introducing any incorrect assumptions. (note)

  13. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  14. Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausova, Ivana; Kucera, Jan; Dostalek, Pavel; Potesil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29 Si(n,p) 29 Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)

  15. Above the message and beyond reach: persuasion knowledge by a European teenage beer commercial audience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellman, Matilda; Demant, Jakob; Rolando, Sara; Rossetti, Sara; Wothge, Jördis; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; Bujalski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article accounts for qualitative knowledge on European adolescents’ (n=326) ad literacy, genre scepticism and persuasion knowledge as expressed in group discussions about televised beer commercials. Data was collected from six European countries: Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands,

  16. Simulation and flavor compound analysis of dealcoholized beer via one-step vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; García-Serna, Juan; Montero, Olimpio; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    The coupled operation of vacuum distillation process to produce alcohol free beer at laboratory scale and Aspen HYSYS simulation software was studied to define the chemical changes during the dealcoholization process in the aroma profiles of 2 different lager beers. At the lab-scale process, 2 different parameters were chosen to dealcoholize beer samples, 102mbar at 50°C and 200mbar at 67°C. Samples taken at different steps of the process were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC-MS focusing on the concentration of 7 flavor compounds, 5 alcohols and 2 esters. For simulation process, the EoS parameters of the Wilson-2 property package were adjusted to the experimental data and one more pressure was tested (60mbar). Simulation methods represent a viable alternative to predict results of the volatile compound composition of a final dealcoholized beer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed...

  18. A new rapid high-throughput method for prediction of beer colloidal stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriel, P.; Sladký, P.; Sigler, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2016), s. 304-309 ISSN 0046-9750 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : colloidal stability * beer stabilization * forced aging test Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.859, year: 2016

  19. Comment on the modified Beer-Lambert law for scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-07-21

    We present a concise overview of the modified Beer-Lambert law, which has been extensively used in the literature of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of scattering media. In particular, we discuss one form of the modified Beer-Lambert law that is commonly found in the literature and that is not strictly correct. However, this incorrect form of the modified Beer-Lambert law still leads to the correct expression for the changes in the continuous wave optical signal associated with changes in the absorption coefficient of the investigated medium. Here we propose a notation for the modified Beer-Lambert law that keeps the typical form commonly found in the literature without introducing any incorrect assumptions.

  20. Investigations on the Maillard reaction of dextrins during aging of Pilsner type beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakete, Stefan; Klaus, Alexander; Glomb, Marcus A

    2014-10-08

    Although Maillard reaction plays a pivotal role during preparation of food, only few investigations concerning the role of carbohydrate degradation in beer aging have been carried out. The formation of Maillard specific precursor structures and their follow-up products during degradation of low molecular carbohydrate dextrins in the presence of proline and lysine was studied in model incubations and in beer. Twenty-one α-dicarbonyl compounds were identified and quantitated as reactive intermediates. The oxidative formation of 3-deoxypentosone as the precursor of furfural from oligosaccharides was verified. N-Carboxymethylproline and N-formylproline were established as novel proline derived Maillard advanced glycation end products. Formation of N-carboxymethylproline and furfural responded considerably to the presence of oxygen and was positively correlated to aging of Pilsner type beer. The present study delivers an in-depth view on the mechanisms behind the formation of beer relevant aging parameters.

  1. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  2. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.-T.; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M.

    2008-01-01

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater

  3. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Hsu, Hsin-Chieh; Su, Ting-Yi; Lin, Keng-Yu; Lin, Chien-Ming

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  4. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.-T. [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wttsai@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  5. Continuous primary fermentation of beer with yeast immobilized on spent grains : the effect of operational conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Vicente, A. A.; Cruz, José Machado; Teixeira, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    A one-stage continuous primary beer fermentation with immobilized brewing yeast was studied. The objective of the work was to optimize the operational conditions (aeration and temperature) in terms of volumetric productivity and organoleptic quality of green beer. The system consisted of an internal-loop airlift reactor and a carrier material prepared from spent grains (a brewing by-product). An industrial wort and yeast strain were used. The immobilized biomass (in amounts from two to sevenf...

  6. The Celiac Patient Antibody Response to Conventional and Gluten-Removed Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Laura K; Lesko, Katherine; McKiernan, Diane; Kupper, Cynthia; Guandalini, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic digestion, or hydrolysis, has been proposed for treating gluten-containing foods and beverages to make them safe for persons with celiac disease (CD). There are no validated testing methods that allow the quantitation of all the hydrolyzed or fermented gluten peptides in foods and beverages that might be harmful to CD patients, making it difficult to assess the safety of hydrolyzed products. This study examines an ELISA-based method to determine whether serum antibody binding of residual peptides in a fermented barley-based product is greater among active-CD patients than a normal control group, using commercial beers as a test case. Sera from 31 active-CD patients and 29 nonceliac control subjects were used to assess the binding of proteins from barley, rice, traditional beer, gluten-free beer, and enzymatically treated (gluten-removed) traditional beer. In the ELISA, none of the subjects' sera bound to proteins in the gluten-free beer. Eleven active-CD patient serum samples demonstrated immunoglobulin A (IgA) or immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding to a barley extract, compared to only one nonceliac control subject. Of the seven active-CD patients who had an IgA binding response to barley, four also responded to traditional beer, and two of these responded to the gluten-removed beer. None of the nonceliac control subjects' sera bound to all three beer samples. Binding of protein fragments in hydrolyzed or fermented foods and beverages by serum from active-CD patients, but not nonceliac control subjects, may indicate the presence of residual peptides that are celiac-specific.

  7. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-04-14

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (SD 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3% inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet.

  8. Biochemical and Microbiological Changes during the Ivorian Sorghum Beer Deterioration at Different Storage Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Constant K. Attchelouwa; Solange Aka-Gbézo; Florent K. N’guessan; Clémentine A. Kouakou; Marcellin K. Djè

    2017-01-01

    In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C) for four days and at 4 °C for six days were assessed. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the yeast counts remained stable during the storage time. However, variations were observed in the lactic acid bacteria and aceti...

  9. Recognition of beer brand based on multivariate analysis of volatile fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajka, Tomas; Riddellova, Katerina; Tomaniova, Monika; Hajslova, Jana

    2010-06-18

    Automated head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-based sampling procedure, coupled to gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), was developed and employed for obtaining of fingerprints (GC profiles) of beer volatiles. In total, 265 speciality beer samples were collected over a 1-year period with the aim to distinguish, based on analytical (profiling) data, (i) the beers labelled as Rochefort 8; (ii) a group consisting of Rochefort 6, 8, 10 beers; and (iii) Trappist beers. For the chemometric evaluation of the data, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and artificial neural networks with multilayer perceptrons (ANN-MLP) were tested. The best prediction ability was obtained for the model that distinguished a group of Rochefort 6, 8, 10 beers from the rest of beers. In this case, all chemometric tools employed provided 100% correct classification. Slightly worse prediction abilities were achieved for the models "Trappist vs. non-Trappist beers" with the values of 93.9% (PLS-DA), 91.9% (LDA) and 97.0% (ANN-MLP) and "Rochefort 8 vs. the rest" with the values of 87.9% (PLS-DA) and 84.8% (LDA) and 93.9% (ANN-MLP). In addition to chromatographic profiling, also the potential of direct coupling of SPME (extraction/pre-concentration device) with high-resolution TOFMS employing a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source has been demonstrated as a challenging profiling approach. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law. 1: Open detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, W G; Zardecki, A

    1982-07-01

    Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law are analyzed by means of a rigorous small-angle solution to the radiative transfer equation. Transmission functions for predicting the received radiant power-a directly measured quantity in contrast to the spectral radiance in the Beer-Lambert law-are derived. Numerical algorithms and results relating to the multiple scattering effects for laser propagation in fog, cloud, and rain are presented.

  11. Gaps of free-space optics beams with the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2009-05-10

    Lasers used in free-space optics propagate a beam within a truncated cone. Because of this shape, the intensity cannot follow the Beer-Lambert law. In the case of a homogeneous atmosphere, we calculate the gap from the cylinder case. We will see that the gap exists but is generally very weak and, therefore, that the use of the Beer-Lambert law is a justified approximation.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of reduced iso-α-acids in volunteers following clear bottled beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-05-01

    Reduced iso-α-acids (reduced IAA) consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-IAA groups (RIAA, TIAA and HIAA, respectively) are ingredient congeners specific to beer and generally found in clear and also occasionally green bottled beer. Concentrations of reduced IAA were determined in the blood and urine of five volunteers over 6h following the consumption of small volumes of beer containing each of the reduced IAA. The reduced IAA were absorbed and bioavailable with peak concentrations at 0.5h followed by a drop of generally fivefold by 2h. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of these compounds in humans shows relatively small inter-individual differences and an estimated short half-life varying between ∼38 and 46min for the three groups. Comparison of RIAA analyte ratios within the group indicate that some analytes eliminate relatively faster than others and the formation of metabolite products was observed. Preliminary urine analysis showed only unmodified RIAA analytes were detectable throughout 6h and suggests extensive phase I metabolism of TIAA and HIAA analytes. In authentic forensic casework where clear or green bottled beers are consumed, the identification of reduced IAA groups may provide a novel method to target ingredient congeners consistent with beer ingestion and suggest the type of beer consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 μg Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of 67 Cu (3.3 μCi as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t 1/2 (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats

  14. [Benefits of moderate beer consumption at different stages of life of women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Medina, Tirso; de Argila Fernández-Durán, Nuria; Pereira Sánchez, Augusto; Serrano González, Lucía

    2015-07-18

    Beer is a natural beverage low calorie, low degree of alcohol, no fats or sugars and a significant amount of carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins. Beneficial health qualities are based on the presence in the beer of antioxidant compounds (polyphenols), which reduce the presence of free radicals in the organism, and phytoestrogens, elements biosimilars to natural estrogens. In pregnant women, beer, obviously alcohol-free, presents elements in its composition that differ it from other fermented beverages as it is the folic acid, vitamin necessary to prevent defects of the neural tube in the fetus or regulate homocysteine. With regard to breastfeeding, beer alcohol-free supplementation increases the antioxidant activity in breast milk and therefore reduces the oxidative stress of the newborn after birth In menopause, the presence of antioxidants, vitamins, nutrients, and dietetic fiber, as well as phytoestrogens, is highly beneficial in the prevention of pathologies arising from the decline in estrogens. Osteoporosis also is effectively combated by the beer. The intake of beer, favors a greater bone mass in women, irrespective of their gonadal status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid screening of aflatoxin B1 in beer by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, N V; Eremin, S A

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript describes the development of a sensitive, fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in various beer samples, both lager and dark. The highest sensitivity was determined for six poly- and monoclonal antibodies selective towards aflatoxins. The sample pretreatment design was emphasized since beer samples are characterized by extremely diverse matrices. Herein, the choice of sorbent for effective removal of matrix interferences prior to analysis was crucial. The samples were diluted with a borate buffer solution containing 1% PEG 6000 and passed through the clean-up column packed with NH2-derivated silica. This sample pretreatment technique was perfectly suitable for the FPIA of lager beer samples, but for dark beer and ale it did not suffice. An artificial matrix was constructed to plot a calibration curve and quantify the results of the latter samples. The developed immunoassay was characterized by a limit of detection of 1 ng mL(-1). Apparent recovery values of 89-114% for lager and 80-125% for dark beer were established. The FPIA data for AFB1 was characterized by elevated linear regression coefficients, 0.9953 for spiked lager and 0.9895 for dark beer samples respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of beer administration in mice on acute toxicities induced by X rays and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Manami

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the tissue specificity of radioprotection by beer, which was previously found for human lymphocytes. C3H/He female mice, aged 14 weeks, received an oral administration of beer, ethanol or saline at a dose of 1 ml/mouse 30 min before whole-body irradiation with 137 Cs γ rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The dicentrics of chromosome aberrations in spleen cells were significantly (p 0 (slope of a dose-survival curve) for γ rays and carbon ions as well. Beer administration significantly (p 50/30 (radiation dose required to kill 50% of mice within 30 days) for γ rays and carbon ions. Ethanol-administration also significantly (p 50/30 value for γ rays, but not for carbon ions. It is concluded that beer administration reduces the radiation injury caused by photons and carbon ions, depending on the tissue type. Radioprotection by beer administration is not solely due to OH radical-scavenging action by the ethanol contained in beer. (author)

  18. New Trends of Development of Beer Industry in Lithuania – Diversification and Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislavas Petraškevičius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to outline the current challenges of beer industry in Lithuania and provide suggestions for future development of organizations in this industry, by focusing on diversification strategy and social responsibility. The main challenges of Lithuanian beer industry are related to finding ways of future development in a constantly contracting market, as well as to find a competitive strategy of market penetration. In connection of these challenges, product differentiation creates new benefits for the consumers. However this strategy proves itself not being sufficient to reach the desired goals. Diversification of portfolio, being more risky, gives opportunity to target new customer groups and increase market presence. However, both strategies are less effective without changing the culture of drinking and consumer perceptions of beer. These issues will be addressed through the lenses of social responsibility, by emphasizing the promotion of responsible alcohol consumption and responsible behaviour of beer industry. As a result, the customers have to be ready to pay higher price for new products and develop a more responsible culture of beer consumption. To overcome outlined challenges, organizations in Lithuanian beer industry, must rethink their existing strategies and operations. Based on proposed future directions, the paper provides suggestions for business practices, how to implement differentiation strategy and actions in order to increase the level of social responsibility of various stakeholders.

  19. Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease: A consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaetano, G; Costanzo, S; Di Castelnuovo, A; Badimon, L; Bejko, D; Alkerwi, A; Chiva-Blanch, G; Estruch, R; La Vecchia, C; Panico, S; Pounis, G; Sofi, F; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Ursini, F; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; Iacoviello, L

    2016-06-01

    A large evidence-based review on the effects of a moderate consumption of beer on human health has been conducted by an international panel of experts who reached a full consensus on the present document. Low-moderate (up to 1 drink per day in women, up to 2 in men), non-bingeing beer consumption, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. This effect is similar to that of wine, at comparable alcohol amounts. Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate consumption of either beer or wine may confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits. Although specific data on beer are not conclusive, observational studies seem to indicate that low-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. There is no evidence that beer drinking is different from other types of alcoholic beverages in respect to risk for some cancers. Evidence consistently suggests a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption (including beer) and all-cause mortality, with lower risk for moderate alcohol consumers than for abstainers or heavy drinkers. Unless they are at high risk for alcohol-related cancers or alcohol dependency, there is no reason to discourage healthy adults who are already regular light-moderate beer consumers from continuing. Consumption of beer, at any dosage, is not recommended for children, adolescents, pregnant women, individuals at risk to develop alcoholism, those with cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, liver and pancreatic diseases, or anyone engaged in actions that require concentration, skill or coordination. In conclusion, although heavy and excessive beer consumption exerts deleterious effects on the human body, with increased disease risks on many organs and is associated to significant social problems such as addiction, accidents, violence and crime, data reported in this document show evidence for no harm of moderate beer consumption for major chronic conditions and some benefit against

  20. Postexercise rehydration with beer impairs fluid retention, reaction time, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Salamanca, Rebeca; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Beer is promoted by popular media as a good choice for rehydration, but there is limited support for the claim. To assess the effect of beer alcohol on rehydration and motor control, 11 young (24.4 ± 3.7 years old) males of legal drinking age were dehydrated to 2.12% ± 0.20% body mass (mean ± SD) by exercising in a climatic chamber (31.7 ± 1.6 °C, 55.0% ± 8.3% relative humidity) on 3 different days, 1 week apart, and rehydrated with 100% of their sweat loss using water (WATER), 4.6% alcohol beer (BEER), or low-alcohol beer (LAB), in random order. Urine output, blood alcohol content (BAC), reaction time (RT), and balance (as measured by center of pressure velocity (VCoP)) were measured every 30 min over 3 h and compared via 2-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs). After consuming ≈1.6 L in 1 h, urine output was greater for BEER (1218 ± 279 mL) than for LAB (745 ± 313 mL, p = 0.007) and WATER (774 ± 304 mL, p = 0.043). BAC remained at 0 with WATER and LAB; with BEER, BAC reached 0.857 g/L (95% confidence intervals [0.752, 0.963]) immediately postrehydration. RT was longer for BEER (0.314 ± 0.039 s) than for LAB (0.294 ± 0.034 s, p = 0.009), but was no different from WATER (0.293 ± 0.049 s, p = 0.077). VCoPx was significantly higher for BEER (0.0284 ± 0.0020 m/s) compared with LAB (0.0233 ± 0.0010 m/s) or WATER (0.0238 ± 0.0010 m/s) (p = 0.022), but VCoPy was not different among beverages. In conclusion, rehydration with BEER resulted in higher diuresis, slower RT, and impaired VCoP than rehydration with LAB or WATER.

  1. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L

    2010-07-01

    In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay), gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health), and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services). The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women. Sexual harassment in the workplace and challenges in

  2. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Denise L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Methods Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. Results The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay, gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health, and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services. The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women

  3. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  4. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans

    OpenAIRE

    Junyan Liu; Yang Deng; Brian M. Peters; Lin Li; Bing Li; Lequn Chen; Zhenbo Xu; Mark E. Shirtliff

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA1...

  6. Broth and agar hop-gradient plates used to evaluate the beer-spoilage potential of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakensen, M; Schubert, A; Ziola, B

    2009-03-15

    Identification of the beer-spoilage Lactobacillus and Pediococcus bacteria has largely taken two approaches; identification of spoilage-associated genes or identification of specific species of bacteria regardless of ability to grow in beer. The problem with these two approaches is that they are either overly inclusive (i.e., detect all bacteria of a given species regardless of spoilage potential) or overly selective (i.e., rely upon individual, putative spoilage-associated genes). Our goal was to design a method to assess the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus to spoil beer that is independent of speciation or genetic background. In searching for a method by which to differentiate between beer-spoilage bacteria and bacteria that cannot grow in beer, we explored the ability of lactobacilli and pediococci isolates to grow in the presence of varying concentrations of hop-compounds and ethanol in broth medium versus on agar medium. The best method for differentiating between bacteria that can grow in beer and bacteria that do not pose a threat as beer-spoilage organisms was found to be a hop-gradient agar plate containing ethanol. This hop-gradient agar plate technique provides a rapid and simple solution to the dilemma of assessing the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer, and provides new insights into the different strategies used by these bacteria to survive under the stringent conditions of beer.

  7. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  8. Holistic and consumer-centric assessment of beer: A multi-measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Cardello, Armand V; Chheang, Sok L; Beresford, Michelle K; Hedderley, Duncan I; Pineau, Benedicte

    2017-09-01

    Despite occupying a cornerstone position in consumer research and innovation, product liking/disliking provides only partial insight into consumer behaviour. By adopting a consumer-centric perspective and drawing on additional factors that underpin food-related consumer behaviour, a more complete product understanding is gained. The present research showcases this approach in a study with New Zealand beer (incl. pilsner, lager and ale categories). Implementation of a multi-variate approach with 128 regular beer drinkers provided assessments pertaining to liking and sensory novelty/complexity, situational appropriateness of consumption, as well as attitudes/perceptions and emotional associations. The 9 samples grouped into two clusters, where 4 of the beers were similar in being perceived as having less complex flavours, being appropriate for many uses and evoking stronger emotional associations of "relaxed/calm." The 4 beers were perceived as "easy to drink", and were, on average, most liked. One of the samples in this cluster was lighter in alcohol (2.5% ABV), but not inferior to beers with 4-5% ABV. The 5 beers in the second cluster were, on average, less liked and were associated with more negative emotions, e.g. "unhappy, "jittery", and "tense". Additional insights were gained from segmentation which identified two groups of consumers, named 'Lager Lovers' and 'Ale Aficionados'. Beers 1-4 were positively perceived by 'Lager Lovers' but less so by 'Ale Aficionados', and vice versa. The study was conducted under central location test conditions compatible with testing protocols often used in product research. The study protocol can be amended to include few/many consumer-centric measures and extended to product testing where packaging, brand, and other extrinsic information is available to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beer self-administration provokes lateralized nucleus accumbens dopamine release in male heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; O'Connor, Sean J; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2015-03-01

    Although striatal dopamine (DA) is important in alcohol abuse, the nature of DA release during actual alcohol drinking is unclear, since drinking includes self-administration of both conditioned flavor stimuli (CS) of the alcoholic beverage and subsequent intoxication, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Here, we used a novel self-administration analog to distinguish nucleus accumbens (NAcc) DA responses specific to the CS and US. Right-handed male heavy drinkers (n = 26) received three positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the D2/D3 radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) and performed a pseudo self-administration task that separately administered a flavor CS of either a habitually consumed beer or the appetitive control Gatorade®, concomitant with the US of ethanol intoxication (0.06 g/dL intravenous (IV) administration) or IV saline. Scan conditions were Gatorade flavor + saline (Gat&Sal), Gatorade flavor + ethanol (Gat&Eth), and beer flavor + ethanol (Beer&Eth). Ethanol (US) reduced RAC binding (inferring DA release) in the left (L) NAcc [Gat&Sal > Gat&Eth]. Beer flavor (CS) increased DA in the right (R) NAcc [Gat&Eth > Beer&Eth]. The combination of beer flavor and ethanol (CS + US), [Gat&Sal > Beer&Eth], induced DA release in bilateral NAcc. Self-reported intoxication during scanning correlated with L NAcc DA release. Relative to saline, infusion of ethanol increased alcoholic drink wanting. Our findings suggest lateralized DA function in the NAcc, with L NAcc DA release most reflecting intoxication, R NAcc DA release most reflecting the flavor CS, and the conjoint CS + US producing a bilateral NAcc response.

  10. Analysis of Mycotoxins in Beer Using a Portable Nanostructured Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sweccha; Annida, Rumaisha M; Zuilhof, Han; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-11-02

    A competitive inhibition immunoassay is described for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer using a portable nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor, also referred to as imaging nanoplasmonics. The toxins were directly and covalently immobilized on a 3-dimensional carboxymethylated dextran (CMD) layer on a nanostructured iSPR chip. The assay is based on competition between the immobilized mycotoxins and free mycotoxins in the solution for binding to specific antibodies. The chip surface was regenerated after each cycle, and the combination of CMD and direct immobilization of toxins allowed the chips to be used for more than 450 cycles. The limits of detection (LODs) in beer were 17 ng/mL for DON and 7 ng/mL for OTA (or 0.09 ng/mL after 75 times enrichment). These LODs allowed detection of even less than 10% depletion of the tolerable daily intake of DON and OTA by beer. Significant cross-reactivity of anti-DON was observed toward DON-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-DON, while no cross-reactivity was seen for 15-acetyl-DON. A preliminary in-house validation with 20 different batches of beer showed that both toxins can be detected at the considered theoretical safe level for beer. The assay can be used for in-field or at-line detection of DON in beer and also in barley without preconcentration, while OTA in beer requires an additional enrichment step, thus making the latter in its present form less suitable for field applications.

  11. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  12. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  13. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  14. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  15. N-nitrosamines in drinking water and beer: Detection and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-Cheng; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2018-06-01

    Occurrence and risk related to nitrosamines, a group of carcinogenic compounds found in some drinking waters and beer, are studied. An analytical method using a solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) along with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) was developed to determine seven N-nitrosamines in drinking water and beer, including N-nitrosomethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), and N-nitrosodinbutylamine (NDBA). The analysis can be completed in 70 min, and only a 4 mL sample is required, with a detection limit of 0.1-0.8 ng/L for the seven nitrosamines in water and 6-15.7 ng/L in beer. The method was applied to analyze water samples collected from 11 reservoirs and their associated drinking water treatment plants in Taiwan and 10 beer samples from 6 brands with factories located in 6 countries. In the drinking water samples, all seven N-nitrosamines were detected, with NDMA having the highest level at 10.2 ng/L. In the beer samples, NDMA was detected at much lower concentrations (0.12-0.23 μg/L) than the 5 μg/L US standard, while NPip was detected at much higher concentrations (4.1-5.3 μg/L) compared to NDMA. The risk assessment indicates that the risk associated with NDMA is the highest among the studied N-nitrosamines in Taiwan's drinking water, with an average cancer risk of 6.4 × 10 -06 . For other nitrosamines, the risks are all below 10 -6 . For the risks associated with N-nitrosamines in beer, NDMA, NDEA, NDPA, and NPip are in the range of 1.5 × 10 -05 to 4.6 × 10 -04 , while that for other nitrosamines are much lower. As for beer, no information for NPip and no modern information for NDEA and NDPA have previously been available, more studies about nitrosamines in beer are suggested for better estimation and control of the risks associated with consumption of beer. Copyright © 2018

  16. [Could the moderate consumption of beer be included within a healthy diet?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, A; López Díaz-Ufano, M; Pascual Fuster, V

    2015-05-01

    Beer is a beverage that has been usually included in our habitual diet from immemorial time. However, beer consumption depends on food habits and lifestyle in different populations. In Mediterranean countries, fermented beverages like beer, takes up a key space in the Mediterranean diet that has been declared in 2010 as Cultural Immaterial World Heritage by UNESCO. The positioning where the Spanish Society of Primary Care Medicine and the Beer and Health Information Centre have conjointly worked on has the following beer consumption-related aims: a) to update its knowledge based on the scientific evidence; b) to evaluate the possibility to include it within a healthy diet for healthy adults; c) to inform health professionals and the general population about its possible health benefits. A panel of experts, represented by clinicians and researchers in the field of nutrition held a meeting with the purpose to review the scientific literature related to the effects of the moderate consumption of fermented beverages, particularly beer, and to reach a consensus on the results, conclusions and recommendations suggested and established by other experts at an international level. The current scientific evidence reflects that moderate consumption of beer does not affect anthropometry related variables. Although energy supply from beer is very low, its nutrients and bioactive compound contents are interesting, since its potential antioxidant effect together with the fact that anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects have been demonstrated, as well as its beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, leading to a greater protection than even in the abstemious population. In view of the results obtained from the literature consulted by the expert panel, we can conclude that the moderate consumption of beer can be considered within a healthy diet. Nevertheless, the general recommendation is addressed only to healthy adults, never to children, adolescents or

  17. Absorption and peak blood alcohol concentration after drinking beer, wine, or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mack C; Teigen, Erin L; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2014-05-01

    Both the amount and the rate of absorption of ethanol (EtOH) from alcoholic beverages are key determinants of the peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and exposure of organs other than gut and liver. Previous studies suggest EtOH is absorbed more rapidly in the fasting than in the postprandial state. The concentration of EtOH and the type of beverage may determine gastric emptying/absorption of EtOH. The pharmacokinetics of EtOH were measured in 15 healthy men after consumption of 0.5 g of EtOH/kg body weight. During this 3-session crossover study, subjects consumed in separate sessions, beer (5.1% v/v), white wine (12.5% v/v), or vodka/tonic (20% v/v) over 20 minutes following an overnight fast. BAC was measured by gas chromatography at multiple points after consumption. Peak BAC (Cmax ) was significantly higher (p wine (61.7 ± 10.8 mg/dl) or beer (50.3 ± 9.8 mg/dl) and was significantly higher (p wine than beer. The time to Cmax occurred significantly earlier (p wine (54 ± 14 minutes) or beer (62 ± 23 minutes). Six subjects exceeded a Cmax of 80 mg/dl after vodka/tonic, but none exceeded this limit after beer or wine. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was significantly greater after drinking vodka/tonic (p wine or beer. Comparison of AUCs indicated the relative bioavailability of EtOH was lower after drinking beer. Findings indicate that BAC is higher after drinking vodka/tonic than beer or wine after fasting. A binge pattern is significantly more likely to result in BAC above 80 mg/dl after drinking vodka/tonic than beer or wine. Men drinking on an empty stomach should know BAC will vary depending on beverage type and the rate and amount of EtOH. © 2014 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  19. Determination of the δ13C (per mille) isotopic rate of the Brazilian beer pilsen type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossete, Alexssandra L.R.M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Lopes, Fabio; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Beer has been consumed in Brazil since the XIX century. However, at that time, this beverage was imported from England, and the first Brazilian breweries just appeared at the end of the XX century. Basically, beer is made from: malt of barley, Humulus lupulus, water and yeast. In this work, twenty brands of national beer (Pilsen type), and also two different cereals, barley, a C3 metabolism plant, corn, a C4 plant, were analysed to determine their isotope composition δ 13 C (per mille) utilizing a mass spectrometer Delta Plus Finigam and Anca S.L. An aliquot of each sample was transferred using a capillary of glass to a tin capsule contends a small amount of sorbitol. The isotope compositions, δ 13 C, of barley and corn samples determined were -27.2 and -11.5 per mille, respectively. These results were used to calculate the equation of mixture model. Considering the beer samples, the δ 13 C ranged from -18.3 to -23.1 per mille; this result means that the percentage of C3 plant is from 43.3 to 73.9 per mille. In this manner, it is possible to concluded that all beer samples has malted cereals (C4 plant), as far as the low values of C3 plants were presented in these samples as shown through the equation of mixtures model. (author)

  20. Effect of the Addition of Propolis Extract on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Craft Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Ulloa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant-rich foods and beverages play an essential role in the prevention of diseases. This study assessed the influence of the addition of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP to beer at different concentrations (0.05, 0.15, and 0.25 g/L. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC were determined. Antioxidant activity (AA was evaluated by radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS and reducing power (FRAP. The addition of EEP in beer resulted in a linear increase in the TPC with values of 4.5%, 16.7%, and 26.7% above a control (no EEP added; 242 mg gallic acid equivalent/L. A similar increase was observed with TFC values 16.0%, 49.7%, and 59.2% above the control (16.9 mg quercetin equivalent/L. The FRAP assay indicated linear increases in AA relative to control with values of 1555, 1705, and 1892 μmol Trolox equivalent/L following EEP additions. The incorporation of EEP resulted in increases in the bioactive compounds and AA in beer without altering the physicochemical parameters of golden ale beer. The results indicate a promising use of propolis extract as a functional ingredient in beer.