WorldWideScience

Sample records for beer

  1. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  2. Beer identity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Martens, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study a sensory profiling and a consumer test including 10 commercially Danish beers were conducted. The 10 beer samples covered four types of beer namely; lager, strong lager, ale and wheat beer, representing both new and more established beers on the Danish market. A trained panel...... consisting of nine panellists completed the sensory profiling using the following attributes; colour, body, bitter, carbonation, alcohol, fruity, floral, spicy and grainy/roasted. All attributes discriminated significantly between the beer samples. Lager beers were mainly described by the attributes grainy....../roasted, bitter, alcohol and carbonation whereas the attributes fruity, spicy, body and floral primarily described the ale and wheat beers. Consumers tasted the same 10 beers in a hedonic test (affective response) and in an appropriateness test (cognitive-contextual response). Partial least squares regression...

  3. Beer Snobs do Exist: Estimation of Beer Demand by Type

    OpenAIRE

    Toro-González, Daniel; McCluskey, Jill J.; Mittelhammer, Ron C.

    2014-01-01

    Although mass-produced beers still represent the vast majority of U.S. beer sales, there has been a significant growth trend in the craft beer segment. This study analyzes the demand for beer as a differentiated product and estimates own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities for beer by type: craft beer, mass-produced beer, and imported beer. We verify that beer is a normal good with a considerably inelastic demand and also find that the cross-price elasticity across types of beer is cl...

  4. Foaming in stout beers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. T.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-10-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them several properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless, the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibers, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for investigating the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. We also consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer can with cellulose fibers.

  5. Foaming in stout beers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, W T

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibres, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for the scientific investigation of the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is very modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. Finally we consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer...

  6. Foaming in stout beers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W T; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same m...

  7. Beer Drinking Nations. The Determinants of Global Beer Consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Colen, Liesbeth; Swinnen, Johan F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the evolution of beer consumption between countries and over time. Historically, there have been major changes in beer consumption in the world. In recent times, per capita consumption has decreased in traditional ' beer drinking nations' while it increased strongly in emerging economies. Recently, China has overtaken the US as the largest beer economy. A quantitative empirical analysis shows the relationship between income and beer consumption has an inverse U-shape....

  8. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  9. Beer Market Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Koulová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the master's thesis is to find out similarities or differences among consumers in the Czech beer market by using primary and secondary research and content analysis. The thesis contains two parts, the theoretical and the practical one. Market segmentation, marketing research and Czech beer market are described in the theoretical part. The practical part includes market segmentation by using secondary data (agency data MML-TGI with Data Analyzer software), primary data (own researc...

  10. Experimental Study on Extruded Beer Adjunct Used for Brewing Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-chao

    2004-01-01

    The properties of saccharified and boiled worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts were studied at the laboratory and a small beer brewing equipment( 100 L) in this paper. Test results indicate that the main saccharification indices and filtration speeds of worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts are similar basically. The collected rate of extracted material of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 8%more than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. Fermentation time of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 10 %less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. The energy consumption of extruded beer adjuncts in saccharification process is 13 % less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts.

  11. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  12. Free Beer and Engaging Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper presents an analysis of art collective Superflex' FREE BEER project; a beer brand and an art work that seeks to promote a critical understanding of free creativity and intellectual property rights by inviting beer enthusiasts to brew their own beer. The paper seeks to demonstrate how...... the project contributes to Superflex' profile as contemporary avant-garde artists and how their work has contributed to the field of design. More specifically the paper seeks to demonstrate how the FREE BEER project succeeds in establishing a context of meaning that involves a political as well as a business...... dimension, and which makes possible the exchange of values to and from these dimensions as well as that of art. In the paper, this context of meaning is constructed in terms of a complex chain of analogies by means of which amateur beer production and beer consumption becomes an expression of the belief...

  13. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  14. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  15. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  16. Physics of beer tapping

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as {\\em beer tapping} consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO$_2$ from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time-scales, namely: bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, diffusion-driven stage and buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of pre-existing gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmenta...

  17. Beers Straight from the Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2007-01-01

    Consuming beer straight from the bottle a trend initiated by the US is now an accepted practice throughout Irish bars but that does not necessarily mean it is a good thing from either a hygiene or taste viewpoint.

  18. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis. PMID:26398285

  19. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumption is not in conflict with the alcohol industry," Rehm said. Joy Dubost is senior director for science and external affairs at the Beer Institute, which represents brewers. "Light beer is the ...

  20. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  1. Physical Factors Influencing Beer Overfoaming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Vitoušová, K.; Poštulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ecis2013.org/

  2. Some factors affecting beer quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigler, Karel; Pichová, Alena; Matoulková, D.; Gabriel, P.

    Bratislava : Bratislava: SAS, 2011. s. 38-38. ISSN 1336-4839. [Annual Conference on Yeasts /39./. 03.05.2011-06.05.2011, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : beer * yeast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Beer multinationals supporting Africa's development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); H. Kwakkenbos (Herma)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper addresses the question how partnerships include smallholders into sorghum-beer supply chains. Introduction Restrictions on the import of barley malt by the Nigerian government in the 1980s have facilitated an import substitution strategy that is now widely adopted by

  4. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. PMID:27542484

  5. Radioimmunoassays of papain in beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of papain is described which is capable of detecting 0.2 μg of papain/ml in beer, a level approximately 1% of that normally used for chillproofing. Changes in incubation conditions significantly accelerate the papain determination with only slight loss of accuracy. Apart from the high sensitivity it has been shown that the method is highly specific and distinguishes papain from the other chillproofing enzymes used. (author)

  6. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  7. Beer as a Teaching Aid in the Classroom and Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolija, Jasminka N.; Plavsic, Jovica V.; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mandic, Ljuba M.

    2012-01-01

    Beer was chosen as a teaching tool to maximize students' class participation and systemize and enhance their knowledge of chemistry. Viewing beer as a complex mixture allowed the students to learn how to directly apply their chemistry knowledge. Before the "Beer Unit" students were instructed to research beer and acquire data on beer composition…

  8. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  9. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  10. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  11. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  12. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-01-01

    Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is pla...

  13. A Rare Etiology of Hyponatremia: Beer Potomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan SARGIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyte abnormalities can be observed in chronic alcoholic patients. Hyponatremia is one of them. Beer potomania is an unusual cause of hyponatremia and was first described by Gwinup et all. in 1972. Patients usually have a history of binge beer drinking and poor solute intake. We present here a 48-year-old male patient who had hyponatremia secondary to binge beer drinking.

  14. A Historical Review of the Beer Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Poelmans, Eline; Swinnen, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transformed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidatio...

  15. Brewing the Recipe for Beer Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Calvo Porral; Normand Bourgault; Domingo Calvo Dopico

    2013-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the sources and consequences of beverages’ Brand Equity, and more specifically, the beer Brand Equity in a Sothern European mature market. For this purpose, based on the customer-based Aaker’s Brand Equity model, we developed an empirical study, using structural equation modeling (SEM) in order to assess how beer Brand Equity stems from in the brewery industry and to analyze its consequences in consumer behavior. Our findings suggest that the beer brand ima...

  16. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  17. Beer volatile compounds and their application to low-malt beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-10-01

    Low-malt beers, in which the amount of wort is adjusted to less than two-thirds of that in regular beer, are popular in the Japanese market because the flavor of low-malt beer is similar to that of regular beer but the price lesser than that of regular beer. There are few published articles about low-malt beer. However, in the production process, there are many similarities between low-malt and regular beer, e.g., the yeast used in low-malt beer fermentation is the same as that used for regular beer. Furthermore, many investigations into regular beer are applicable to low-malt beer production. In this review, we focus on production of volatile compounds, and various studies that are applicable to regular and low-malt beer. In particular, information about metabolism of volatile compounds in yeast cells during fermentation, volatile compound measurement and estimation methods, and control of volatile compound production are discussed in this review, which concentrates on studies published in the last 5-6 years. PMID:19000606

  18. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers...... industry. More generally, this work makes a number of original contributions to our understanding of determinants of consumers’ perception of novel food and beverages, as well as methodological advances in the use of consumers as subjects in sensory and consumer research....

  19. Drink beer to save the planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Barfield

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This student poster display example considers the ethics of the marketing of the “Cascade Green” beer inAustralia. Issues considered include the ethics of marketing beer, the environmental impacts of the beersmarketing and packaging and a reflection upon the societal impacts of the product.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2007-01-01

    The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...

  1. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant. PMID:26489032

  2. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  3. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  4. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  5. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  6. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  7. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  8. The Phenomenon of Czech Beer: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšovská, J.; Čejka, P.; Sigler, Karel; Hönigová, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2014), s. 309-319. ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Czech beer * chemical profile * sensorial profile Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.675, year: 2014

  9. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. PMID:26661797

  10. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  11. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Suruceanu; Sonia Socaci; Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura

    2013-01-01

    Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, ident...

  12. Image Analysis Of Beer Foam Collapse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Martin; Novák, Pavel; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    Bratislava : Slovak University of Technology, 2010 - (Markoš, J.), s. 139 ISBN 978-80-227-3290-1. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /37./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 24.05.2010-28.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD104/08/H055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer * physical-chemical properties * beer foam Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. Statistical analysis of beer consumption preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the statistical analysis of consumer behavior in the area of beer consumption. It aims to identify consumers’ preferences, which can significantly influence the level of their consumption. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the theoretical basis for defining the basic concepts of marketing, marketing research and survey. It further investigates the history of beer production, technology of production, the current situation and the structure ...

  14. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  15. Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Bommel, van Roelien; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Cees

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and

  16. Becoming a beer expert: is simple exposure with feedback sufficient to learn beer categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre-Desmas, Maud; Chollet, Sylvie; Abdi, Hervé; Valentin, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Category learning is an important aspect of expertise development which had been little studied in the chemosensory field. The wine literature suggests that through repeated exposure to wines, sensory information is stored by experts as prototypes. The goal of this study was to further explore this issue using beers. We tested the ability of beer consumers to correctly categorize beers from two different categories (top- and bottom-fermented beers) before and after repeated exposure with feedback to beers from these categories. We found that participants learned to identify the category membership of beers to which they have been exposed but were unable to generalize their learning to other beers. A retrospective verbal protocol questionnaire administrated at the end of the experiment indicates that contrary to what was suggested in the wine literature, prototype extraction is probably not the only mechanism implicated in category learning of foods and beverages. Exemplar-similarity and feature-frequency models might provide a better account of the course of learning of the categorization task studied. PMID:26355240

  17. Beer constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhäuser, Clarissa

    2005-09-01

    Beer is a complex alcoholic beverage made from barley (malt), hop, water and yeast. Phenolic constituents of beer are derived from malt (70-80%) and hop (20-30%). Structural classes include simple phenols, benzoic- and cinnamic acid derivatives, coumarins, catechins, di-, tri- and oligomeric proanthocyanidins, (prenylated) chalcones and flavonoids as well as alpha- and iso-alpha-acids derived from hop. Compounds belonging to different structural classes have distinct profiles of biological activity in in vitro test systems, and in combination might lead to enhanced effects. Scientific evidence has accumulated over the past 10 years pointing to the cancer preventive potential of selected hop-derived beer constituents, i.e., prenylflavonoids including xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol, and hop bitter acids. Chemopreventive activities observed with these compounds relevant to inhibition of carcinogenesis at the initiation, promotion and progression phases, as well as results from in vivo studies on metabolism, bioavailability and efficacy are summarised in this review. PMID:15953717

  18. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS ON THE BEER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research conducted in November among 220 students at the University of Life Sciences in Poznań. The aim was study the preferences and buying behaviour of students on the beer market. It shows the place of beer among other alcohols, frequency and place of consumption, as well the place of beer shopping and the criteria of beer purchase. The most popular brands and tastes of beer were researched. Otherwise was analysed preference for beer packaging and promotion effects on students. It was found that beer is the most often chosen alcohol among this group of consumers, and vast majority of them consume it at least once a week. Students often drink beer at home or at friends, and favourite brands are: Lech, Redd’s, Desperados and Żubr.

  19. Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enr...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enrollees in the Part D Program Inappropriate prescribing of certain medications known as Beers drugs may be...

  20. Beer Tourism – from Theory to Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Bujdosó; Csaba Szûcs

    2012-01-01

    Due to the interest in the development of gastronomy and the food and beverage culture of different countries and regions, culinary travel is gaining in popularity all over the world and gastronomic tourism has become an independent product on its own within tourism. Beer tourism has become an integrated part of gastronomic tourism. The purpose of this paper is to place beer tourism, which attracts a growing number of visitors, as a product into the system of tourism as well as to review its ...

  1. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  2. Can Niche Agriculturalists Take Notes from the Craft Beer Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Woolverton, Andrea E.; Parcell, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    This industry-level case study focuses on the growth cycles of craft brewing, a niche industry. The research case is defined as the craft beer industry evolution including the surrounding institutional and consumer environments. The research goal is to provide insight for niche agriculturalists by examining the case of the successful niche craft beer industry. First, the environment surrounding craft beer reemergence is analyzed. We examine the current state of the craft beer industry with a ...

  3. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  4. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  5. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  6. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  7. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced...... in the model beers. CONCLUSIONS: A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  8. Mycotoxins and fermentation--beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Along with food safety issues due to mycotoxins, the effects of Fusarium infections on malt and beer quality can be disastrous. While some of the Fusarium head blight mycotoxins, such as DON, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods for reducing the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods exist for inhibiting mold growth in grain. Irradiation is a promising means for preventing Fusarium growth during malting, but its effects on malt quality and mycotoxin production in surviving mold need to be evaluated in more detail. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which do not leave chemical residues in beer, also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality require further investigation. In addition, storage studies are needed to determine the effect of biological control on Fusarium viability and malt quality. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of mycotoxins present in wort. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain. PMID:11922090

  9. Beer's law in semiconductor quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Adamashvili, G T

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of a coherent optical linear wave in an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots is considered. It is shown that a distribution of transition dipole moments of the quantum dots changes significantly the polarization and Beer's absorption length of the ensemble of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for these quantities are presented.

  10. Drosophila and Beer: An Experimental Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvink, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a popular organism for studying genetics and development. Maintaining Drosophila on medium prepared with varying concentrations of beer and evaluating the effects on reproduction, life cycle stages and other factors is one of the exercises that is versatile and applicable to many student levels.

  11. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of all concerned is directed, in this connection, to the provisions of Regulations 7 (27 CFR part 7... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section...

  12. Making a frothy shampoo or beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The terms ``foam'' and ``froth'' refer to a dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid. Why do certain liquids show a tendency to foam while others do not? For example, bubbles can be produced in pure water by vigorous agitation, but then they rapidly coalesce and disappear. While foams cannot be produced with pure water, foams associated with beer or shampoo can persist for several minutes or even hours. What ingredient(s) in shampoo and beer make their foams stable, and what physical concepts control their stability? In this talk I'll review three basic mechanisms underlying foam stability, and I'll make connection with current research on coarsening by the diffusion of gas from smaller to larger bubbles. With thanks to Srinivasa Raghavan, Adam Roth, and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Grant NNX07AP20G.

  13. Modern Beer Factory Interwoven in Urban Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjorgjevska Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this research is to present a concept of integration of a beer factory in a new urban reality. Nowadays, modern development of industrial architecture enables beer factories to leave their typical locations in industrial zones and draw nearer to their customers. To design a modern industrial complex incorporating the ideas of the contemporary way of designing an industrial facility with a clear and indicative architectural expression of its hybrid character requires great skilfulness. Using a linear grid, the concept of this project will be developed in a composition consisting of several strips. This kind of structure creates a compositional equivalence from strip to strip, integrating the natural and the urban, the public and the private.

  14. Acute biochemical responses to moderate beer drinking.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.; Baylis, P. H.; Flear, C T; Skillen, A. W.; Diggle, P H

    1982-01-01

    The consequences of drinking six pints of beer (3.31) over three hours were investigated in six healthy men. The expected rise in plasma osmolality, fall in plasma vasopressin concentration, and increase in free water clearance occurred; these variables had returned to normal by nine hours. There was a small but significant fall in plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine accompanied by a rise in plasma potassium concentration. Serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl tran...

  15. Book review: Punk sociology by David Beer

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Dave

    2014-01-01

    "Punk Sociology." David Beer. Palgrave Pivot. Jan 2014. --- This book explores the possibility of drawing upon a punk ethos to inspire sociology and to cultivate a vibrant future for the discipline. Aiming to fire the sociological imaginations of sociologists at any stage of their careers, from new students to established professors, it uses punk to think creatively about what sociology is and how it might be conducted. Dave O’Brien finds this a readable, fun, intriguing and vital book, altho...

  16. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    OpenAIRE

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P.; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beer...

  17. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  18. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  19. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  20. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  1. Immunochemical determination of gluten in malts and beers

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálek, Pavel; Hochel, Igor; Méndez, Enrique; Hernando, Alberto; Gabrovská, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The glutent content in the different varieties of barley, malts, and different types of beers were determined by means of "sandwich" enzyme immunoassay. The commercial RIDASCREEN? Gliadin kit has been used. The gluten level ranges in barley wheat, rye and spelt malts are 18.8-45.0, 44.0-68.0, 41.6, and 21.2 g kg-1, respectively. When various types of beer are compared the gluten concentration rise in the following order: alcohol free beer (

  2. A review of flavour formation in continuous beer fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Vicente, A.A.; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The attractive prospect of a continuous beer fermentation system consists mostly of the accelerated transformation of wort into beer. Although continuous beer fermentation has been studied as a promising technology for several decades, the number of industrial applications is still limited. The major obstacle hindering the extensive industrial exploitation of this technology is the difficulty in achieving the correct balance of sensory compounds in the short time typical ...

  3. Demonstration of the exponential decay law using beer froth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of beer froth decays exponentially with time. This property is used to demonstrate the exponential decay law in the classroom. The decay constant depends on the type of beer and can be used to differentiate between different beers. The analysis shows in a transparent way the techniques of data analysis commonly used in science - consistency checks of theoretical models with the data, parameter estimation and determination of confidence intervals. (author)

  4. Influence of beer storage for the selected biogenic amines content

    OpenAIRE

    Brýdlová, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    This thesis does not only changes in the content of biogenic amines during storage of bottled beer, but beer in general. The production of beer in the world is gradually increasing. In 2010, produced a 811,4 million hectoliters of beer. Czech Republic in 2010 produced 17,1 million hectoliters in 2011 and ceased production decline. Average consumption in the Czech Republic was in 2010, 144 liters/person/year. Another chapter is devoted to biogenic amines. They are nitrogen compounds, in which ...

  5. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: A rapid tool for assessing beer composition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 ◦C), using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC–MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achi...

  6. The Demand for Wine and Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris; Riethmuller, Paul C.; Watts, Geof

    1983-01-01

    In this paper annual data series covering 1955-56 to 1978-79 are used to estimate the elasticity of demand for both wine and beer. These are first estimated using a flexible functional form. The habit formation hypothesis and the role of social and demographic factors are also examined. The demand for wine in aggregate is estimated to be relatively price inelastic in the short run, while in the long run it is relatively price elastic. With respect to income, the demand for wine is shown to be...

  7. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  8. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  9. Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, F.A.G. den; Delifotis, A.; Koning, Ruud H.

    1997-01-01

    Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer are empirically investigated for Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Italy. With the rise in disposable income we see a shift from the demand for beer to the demand for wine notably in the Netherlands and somewhat less clearly in Germany, and a shi

  10. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  11. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred between breweries without payment of tax, the shipping brewer shall prepare a serially numbered invoice or commercial record, in duplicate, covering the transfer. The invoice will be marked “transfer without...

  12. Characterization of beer flavour stability (EPR - spin trapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beer flavour stability is coupled with free radical degradation processes. Probably, aldehydes produced during the brewery but also generated by stalling are responsible for beer flavour as well as for its breaking down. The storing beer at the lower temperatures and in the dark place inhibits, and otherwise the rising temperature and illumination accelerate the rate of such radical processes. Beers contain naturally occurring radical scavengers - antioxidants which inhibit such unwanted reactions. Then depleting of scavengers results in the breaking down of the beer stability. EPR spin trapping technique was used as monitor such processes and for characterising so the flavour stability of beer. The probe was temperated at 60 grad C in the cavity of EPR spectrometer in the presence of spin trapping agent, N-tert.-butyl-α-phenyl nitrone (PBN) and EPR spectra were recorded for few hours. After beer antioxidants become depleted, free radicals formed by the beer degradation are scavenged by PBN spin trap and this point is characterised with a dramatically increased concentration of the free radicals trapped

  13. Identification of the lactogenic compound present in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawagado, L; Houdebine, L M

    1988-01-01

    Lyophylized beer and extracts of plants used to prepare beer have been administered orally to mature virgin rats and intravenously to ewe. After four days of treatment, beta-casein estimated by a radioimmunoassay was present in the mammary glands of the rats to which beer or barley extracts were given. Injections of lyophilised beer, barley or malt extracts triggered the release of prolactin in ewe whereas hop extracts were inactive. The active compound present in beer barley and malt, was insolubilized in 50% ethanol and it is in the aqueous phase in chloroform extraction. The active preparation contained essentially polysaccharides. This suggests that the lactogenic principle belongs to this class of macromolecule. PMID:3382062

  14. About the Bidimensional Beer-Lambert Law

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In acoustics, ultrasonics and in electromagnetic wave propagation, the crossed medium can be often modelled by a linear invariant filter (LIF) which acts on a wide-sense stationary process. Its complex gain follows the Beer-Lambert law i.e is in the form exp [-\\alphaz] where z is the thickness of the medium and \\alpha depends on the frequency and on the medium properties. This paper addresses a generalization for electromagnetic waves when the beam polarization has to be taken into account. In this case, we have to study the evolution of both components of the electric field (assumed orthogonal to the trajectory). We assume that each component at z is a linear function of both components at 0. New results are obtained modelling each piece of medium by four LIF. They lead to a great choice of possibilities in the medium modelling. Particular cases can be deduced from works of R. C. Jones on deterministic monochromatic light. keywords: linear filtering, polarization, Beer-Lambert law, random processes.

  15. PERCEPTIONS OF BEER ADVERTISING AND RISKY DRINKING AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślaski, Sławomir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether individuals at risk of drinking are people particularly susceptible to the effects of alcohol and viewing ads can be an incentive for re–consumption of alcohol. Material and method. The study group (40 persons were selected from 30 0 students, who used alcohol in a risky manner, and the control group (40 persons was selected, where alcohol was used with a little risk, or not at all. To assess the subjects selected product – beer (in the form of advertising leaflets, which was recently introduced into the Polish market. The Attitudes Questionnaire to view the Product was used in the study and contained scales: cognitive, emotional and behavioral component. To study perception of advertising the Advertising Scale was applied. To identify groups of people who use alcohol in a risky way, AUDIT Test was used. Results and conclusions. People at risk of drinking, liked beer more than those not at risk of addiction, and more often drink beer, have a more positive attitude towards the advertising of beer in emotional sphere, the above estimate of beer advertising in terms of potency, better evaluate the advertising of beer in terms of positive mood caused by it, and better evaluate beer advertising and its effectiveness in term of impact.

  16. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  17. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. PMID:25996521

  18. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  19. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  20. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  1. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  2. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  3. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  4. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  5. Global Competitiveness in the Beer Industry: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Jain

    1994-01-01

    Three companies (Anheuser-Busch, Miller, and Coors) in the brewing industry accounted for 78 percent of the U.S. market in 1992. Among these three, Anheuser-Busch is the apparent leader with 46.2 percent of the market. Although Anheuser-Busch produces and markets a number of brands, the Budweiser brand has been the top selling beer with 24.1 percent market share in 1992. Lately, light beers have been gaining ground, a trend likely to continue in the future. Foreign beer brands account for abo...

  6. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Gołaś; Mariusz Ścibek

    2010-01-01

    The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consume...

  7. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: a rapid tool for assessing beer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C Silva

    2011-02-18

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 °C), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC-MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achieving a threefold reduction of the chromatographic time. Although losing optimum resolution, rapid GC runs showed similar chromatographic profiles and semi-quantitative ability to characterize volatile compounds. To evaluate the variations on the global volatile signature (chromatographic profile and m/z pattern of fragmentation in each scan) of beer during thermal deterioration, a non-supervised multivariate analysis method, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was applied to the GC-MS data. This methodology allowed not only the rapid identification of the degree of deterioration affecting beer, but also the identification of specific compounds of relevance to the thermal deterioration process of beer, both well established markers such as 5-hydroxymethylfufural (5-HMF), furfural and diethyl succinate, as well as other compounds, to our knowledge, newly correlated to beer aging. PMID:21227435

  8. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  9. The impact of beer type, pizza spiciness and gender on match perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Robert J.; Miszczak, Daniel C.; Ottenbacher, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study surveys preferences of participants towards pairing three categories of beer (lager, ale and stout) with a non-spicy and spicy pizza. The goals of this study are to determine the level of a ‘just right’ match of pizza style with each beer type, determine any differences by gender, and to explore if spice has an impact on participants’ beer selection and beer preference. Implications of this research apply to restaurateurs’ ability to appropriately cater their beer and ...

  10. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the...

  11. Fate of xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J F; Taylor, A W; Clawson, J E; Deinzer, M L

    1999-06-01

    The fate of three prenylated flavonoids of the chalcone type, xanthohumol, desmethylxanthohumol, and 3'-geranylchalconaringenin, was monitored with LC/MS-MS from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) to beer in two brewing trials. The three prenylchalcones were largely converted into their isomeric flavanones, isoxanthohumol, prenylnaringenins, and geranylnaringenins, respectively, in the boiling wort. Losses of prenylflavonoids were due to incomplete extraction from the hops into the wort (13-25%), adsorption to insoluble malt proteins (18-26%), and adsorption to yeast cells (11-32%) during fermentation. The overall yield of xanthohumol, after lagering of the beer and largely in the form of isoxanthohumol, amounted to 22-30% of the hops' xanthohumol. About 10% of the hops' desmethylxanthohumol, completely converted into prenylnaringenins, remained in the beers. 3'-Geranylchalconaringenin behaved similarly to desmethylxanthohumol. Solubility experiments indicated that (1) malt carbohydrates form soluble complexes with xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol and (2) solubility does not dictate the isoxanthohumol levels of finished beers. PMID:10794646

  12. Determination of free fatty acids in beer wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Benedetti, Paolo; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-15

    The importance of free fatty acids (FFAs) in wort has been known for a long time because of their influence on beer quality and yeast metabolism. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as negative effects on beer quality. Lipids content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids seems to be related to gushing problems. A novel, simple, and reliable procedure for quantitative analysis of FFAs in wort was developed and validated. The determination of FFAs in wort was achieved via liquid-liquid cartridge extraction, purification of FFA fraction by solid phase extraction, boron trifluoride in methanol methylation, and injection into GC-FID system. The proposed method has high accuracy (Plato). PMID:24423546

  13. Filtering the Beer; A Permanent and Transitory Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Peter B. Clark; Ronald MacDonald

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we extend the BEER (Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate) approach which identifies an estimated equilibrium relationship between the real exchange rate and economic fundamentals. Here the economic fundamentals are decomposed using Johansen cointegration methods into transitory and permanent components, with the latter used to estimate the Permanent Equilibrium Exchange Rate, or PEER, for the U.S. and Canadian dollars and the pound sterling. The BEER and the PEER move closely to...

  14. Marketing Strategy of Imported Beers before Liquor Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sinee Sankrusme

    2012-01-01

    These are the case study analysis of imported beer companies: the C.V.S Syndicate Company and the TIS Worldwide Marketing (1997) Company. The purpose of the study is to analyze marketing strategy and marketing mix of imported beers before liquor liberalization in 2000. The qualitative and descriptive approaches to the case study analysis used standard research methodology. The results of the study indicated (1) Marketing strategy depended on the economic situation, (2) The company’s marketing...

  15. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measureme......We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption...

  16. Marketing Response Models for Shrinking Beer Sales in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Polasek, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Beer sales in Germany are confronted for several years with a shrinking market share in the market of alcoholic beverages. I use the approach of sales response function (SRF) models as in Polasek and Baier (2010) and adapt it to time series observation of beer sales for simultaneous estimation. I propose a new class of growth sales (gSRF) models having endogenous and exogenous variables as in Polasek (2011) together with marketing efforts that follow a sustained growth allocation pr...

  17. Craft Beer in the US: A Production of Culture Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Nathaniel Gray

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation I use the production of culture perspective as a lens to analyze the emergence of craft beer in the US. In doing so, I examine how the six facets of the production of culture perspective have both constrained and stimulated the production of craft beer in the US. The six facets of the production of culture perspective are: law and regulation, industry structure, organizational structure, markets, technology, and occupational careers. These six facets, in concert, allowed ...

  18. Evaluating Coordinated Effects: An application to the US beer industry

    OpenAIRE

    Beelitz, Frederik

    2009-01-01

    The paper brings Friedman's (1971) collusive game to data and investigates whether the merger between the fifth and fourth largest brewer (G. Heileman and Stroh) of the US beer industry in the mid 1990's had a significant impact on the incentives to collude in the industry. It does so by firstly estimating a random coefficient Logit demand system for the US beer market. In a second step the demand estimates are used to conduct a merger simulation (Davis, 2006) quantifying coordinated effects ...

  19. Analysis of production and consumption of beer in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrzlová, Jiřina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of production, consumption, export and import of beer in the Czech Republic in the years 1990 - 2011. The lengths of the time period of the individual indicators vary according to availability of the necessary data. The aim of this work is to assess the development of these indicators and predict their value for the year 2012. The theoretical work introduces to the problems of brewing and describes the origins of beer and Czech brewing, present ...

  20. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    OpenAIRE

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.; Nedović Viktor A.

    2005-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology (ICT) has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the sit...

  1. Globalization and taste convergence: The cases of wine and beer

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Brooks, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in cultural consumption patterns for a low-concentration industry: wine and beer. Using data on 38 countries from 1963-2000, there is clear convergence in the consumption of wine relative to beer between 1963 and 2000. Convergence occurs even more quickly within groups of countries that have a higher degree of integration. A key prediction of international trade is confirmed in the data: greater trade integration weakens the association between production and c...

  2. Kosovo beer markets - Consumer preferences and baying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gjonbalaj, M.; I. Miftari; H. Bytyqi; J.Shkodra

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes and presents important findings on the consumers buying behaviour and their preferences for beer. The paper also tests whether there is dependency of frequencies buying beer with demographic and economic factors. The data were entered and processed in Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS), while common statistical models have been used for interpretation of results and tested hypotheses. A research was part of the project ‘’Marketing Support of Food Products in Ko...

  3. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consumers who have received better quality product at a lower price. Moreover, changes in consumers’ habits have occurred. This is described by reduction in consumption of hard liquors on behalf of soft alcohols with the major position of beer. Polish beer market is close to satisfying consumers’ demands. Beer consumption per one inhabitant in Poland is close to European mean but its development will not be so dynamic as before. The situation is caused by the risk arising from the law which is not clear. Moreover, increasing fiscal aggravations and costs of production which due to the increase of prices of raw materials are also critical.

  4. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na⁺ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (-3.9%) and AB (-3.7%), plasma K⁺ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (-0.9%) and NAB (-1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise. PMID:27338452

  5. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W, beer (AB or non-alcoholic beer (NAB. Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05 in W (−1.1%, AB (−1.0% and NAB (−1.0%. In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05 in W (−3.9% and AB (−3.7%, plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05 in AB (8.5%, and USG was reduced in W (−0.9% and NAB (−1.0%. Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise.

  6. Bioprocess Intensification of Beer Fermentation Using Immobilised Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J.; Nedović, Viktor A.; Manojlović, Verica; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Laskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Bugarski, Branko; Willaert, Ronnie

    Beer production with immobilised yeast has been the subject of research for approximately 30 years but has so far found limited application in the brewing industry, due to engineering problems, unrealised cost advantages, microbial contaminations and an unbalanced beer flavor (Linko et al. 1998; Brányik et al. 2005; Willaert and Nedović 2006). The ultimate aim of this research is the production of beer of desired quality within 1-3 days. Traditional beer fermentation systems use freely suspended yeast cells to ferment wort in an unstirred batch reactor. The primary fermentation takes approximately 7 days with a subsequent secondary fermentation (maturation) of several weeks. A batch culture system employing immobilization could benefit from an increased rate of fermentation. However, it appears that in terms of increasing productivity, a continuous fermentation system with immobilization would be the best method (Verbelen et al. 2006). An important issue of the research area is whether beer can be produced by immobilised yeast in continuous culture with the same characteristic as the traditional method.

  7. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINUM CANS IN CONTACT WITH BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Esteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum cans with an organic coating are used in Brazil as packaging for carbonated beverages (soft drinks, beer, which act as electrolyte solutions. These electrolytes, in contact with the inner metal can, initiate a corrosion process of aluminum. The presence of metallic ions can change the flavor of the beverage, compromising the product quality. This work aims to evaluate the corrosion resistance of aluminum in beer environment using the technique of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS were used to evaluate the metal surface. Two batches with different coating thickness were analyzed for the same date of manufacture. The electrolyte resistance and the aluminum charge transfer resistance in beer varied depending on the batch analyzed.

  8. Kosovo beer markets - Consumer preferences and baying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gjonbalaj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and presents important findings on the consumers buying behaviour and their preferences for beer. The paper also tests whether there is dependency of frequencies buying beer with demographic and economic factors. The data were entered and processed in Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS, while common statistical models have been used for interpretation of results and tested hypotheses. A research was part of the project ‘’Marketing Support of Food Products in Kosovo’’ which was founded by European Agency for Reconstruction. The aim of this project was to support Kosovo producers of food industry by offering them relevant information on beer market, consumers buying behaviour and their preferences.

  9. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  10. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by...... ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. RESULTS: Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same...... alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time...

  11. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer. PMID:27006233

  12. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  13. Fluorescence studies of beer protein uptake by silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, Kathleen; Birch, David J. S.; Leiper, Kenneth; McKeown, Ian P.

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescence has been investigated with respect to new methods for monitoring protein uptake by silica, with particular attention being given to haze forming proteins and foam proteins present in beer. These are of particular interest to the brewing industry as an important aspect of the brewing process is the prevention of chill haze formation. This is necessary in order to maintain the clarity of the beer and to extend the shelf life. Chill haze, which is a result of the interaction of certain proteins with some polyphenols, can be prevented by the removal of one or both of these constituents.

  14. Craft vs. industrial: Habits, attitudes and motivations towards beer consumption in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; García, Mauricio; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Food choices tend to be stable over time; they do not change fast, since consumers tend to act like creatures of habits. However, food habits can evolve, like currently the craft beer category. A change of habits involves a change of perception towards a product. Therefore, what is changing in the perception of beer? Two studies were conducted to address this question. First study was preliminary and aimed at exploring beer consumption habits in Mexico and a better understanding of craft beer representation among beer users. A questionnaire was administrated to 207 consumers in Mexico City during a beer festival. Results showed that respondents could be classified in: industrial beer (41.1%), occasional industrial (24.1%), and craft beer (34.8%) consumers. Craft cluster included mostly 25-35 years old men with high-income level. Among the craft beers cited by respondents from this cluster some are industrial, suggesting that the concept of craft beer might not be well defined, or defined in ideological terms. The second and main study was conducted using consumer ethnographies to understand the motivations and benefits of craft beer consumption. Opposite to industrial, craft beer emerges as an experience-based and symbolic product rather than a utilitarian one. The main motivation for drinking craft beer seems to be the quest of authenticity. Respondents' motivations to drink craft beer are generated by three important factors: desire for more knowledge, new taste experiences, and move away from the mainstream beer consumption. Craft consumers do not drink the product for its functional attributes, they consume it for what it means and as a consequence they build an identity, perceived as more authentic and unique, in comparison to the mainstream industrial beer consumption in Mexico. PMID:26455311

  15. Characterisation and improvement of the quality of Rwandese traditional beer « ikigage » made from sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2013-01-01

    Ikigage is a Rwandese traditional beer made from sorghum malt and local plants, mainly Vernonia amygdalina “umubirizi”. However, this beer remains less attractive than Western beers of pils type because of poor hygienic quality, variations of organoleptic quality and limited shelf life. The aim of this work is to characterize ikigage beer in order to improve its hygienic quality and to reduce the organoleptic variations using the local raw materials. The first part of our study shows that iki...

  16. Potential Bacterial Consortium to Increase the Effectiveness of Beer Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Nia Anggraeni; Ida Bagus Wayan Gunam; Retno Kawuri

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of microbial consortia in beer wastewater treatment. The research was initiated with the isolation of soil microbial consortium that has been contaminated by beer waste water, followed by the selection of the best potential microbial beer wastewater treatment. At the end, the selection of the best microbial consortium was tested in beer wastewater treatment based on pollutant parameters namely biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  17. Assessment of factors influencing the antioxidant capacity and flavour stability of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Aumala, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Controlling beer flavour stability is of high importance to brewers because of export and extended storage of packaged beer. Antioxidant (AO) capacity has been claimed to be a major factor affecting the rate of beer staling. However, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative significance of oxidative vs. non-oxidative staling in beer packaged using modern methods enabling low oxygen concentrations (50-450 ppb) in the package. The current thesis aimed to investigate the relat...

  18. Metal Content and Stable Isotope Determination in Some Commercial Beers from Romanian Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cezara Voica; Dana-Alina Magdas; Ioana Feher

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of beer samples is of interest because their compositions affect the taste and stability of beer and, also, consumer health. In this work, the characterizations of 20 Romanian beers were performed by mean of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) in order to trace heavy metals and isotopic content of them. Major, minor, and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment fo...

  19. An application of classical and instrumental methods of analysis in quality control of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Sredović-Ignjatović Ivana D.; Ignjatović Ljubiša M.; Nedović Viktor A.; Prijić Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to control the quality of beer and raw materials for production of beer in Belgrade Beer Industry (BIP), water is analyzed (city, technological and demineralized water). Measurements of pH values indicated the increased pH values in the sample of tehnological water, which had no impact on wort hopping, since the tested samples of wort, young beer and final product had a pH value within the expected range. After processing city water, a sample of te...

  20. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzer Denise L; Webber Gail C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a s...

  1. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  2. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  3. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  4. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  5. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  6. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  7. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  8. The Impact of Hop Products on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Linhart, P.; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Prague: ICPF ASCR, 2013. s. 92. ISBN N. [Workshop on Smart and Green Interfaces 2013. 20.3.2013-22.03.2013, Prague] Grant ostatní: COST(XE) MP1106 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer foam * brewing industry * analysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  9. Carbohydrate chemistry of congress wort, hopped wort and green beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Čmelík, Richard; Bobálová, Janette

    České Budějovice, 2008. s. 190. [Biochemický sjezd /21./. 14.09.2008-17.09.2008, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosacharides * beer * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  10. Separation of complex oligosaccharides from wort and beer using HPLC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s608-s609. ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosacharides * beer * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  11. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arranz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  12. Hypolipidemic effect of beer proteins in experiment on rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinstein, S.; Leontowicz, H.; Lojek, Antonín; Leontowicz, M.; Číž, Milan; Stager, M. A. G.; Montes, J. M. B.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 265-271. ISSN 0023-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : lyophilized polyphenol-free beer * proteins * lipids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2002

  13. Effect of Different Hop Extracts on Beer Foam Quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Martin; Novák, Pavel; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Zedníková, Mária

    Frankfurt : DECHEMA, 2011, P44.27. ISBN N. [European Congress of Chemical Engineering /8./. Berlin (DE), 25.09.2011-29.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer foaming * foam behaviour * bubble size Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Adolescent Perceptions of Underage Drinkers in TV Beer Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tests adolescents' perception of characters' ages in four television beer advertisements and examines correlational relationships between such age judgments and alcohol use. Some 39.4% of participants reported that the youngest character was under 21. Perceptions were positively related to amount of alcohol use among junior high school students,…

  15. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Mortensen, N A; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.

  16. Effect of Container Wall Properties on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Zedníková, Mária; Drahoš, Jiří

    Vol. Session 6. -: -, 2011, P34. ISBN N. [European Brewery Convention Congress /33./. Glasgow (GB), 22.05.2011-26.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer foam * wetting properties * berr stability Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://ebc2011glasgow.org/

  17. The Impact of Hop Products on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Linhart, P.; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Prague : ICPF ASCR, 2013. s. 92. ISBN N. [Workshop on Smart and Green Interfaces 2013. 20.3.2013-22.03.2013, Prague] Grant ostatní: COST(XE) MP1106 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer foam * brewing industry * analysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  18. Effect of Container Wall Properties on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Zedníková, Mária; Drahoš, Jiří

    Vol. Session 6. - : -, 2011, P34. ISBN N. [European Brewery Convention Congress /33./. Glasgow (GB), 22.05.2011-26.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer foam * wetting properties * berr stability Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://ebc2011glasgow.org/

  19. Novel Apparatus for the Study of Gushing in Beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštulková, Michaela

    Prague : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v. v. i, 2014 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 36 ISBN 978-80-86186-61-0. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2014. Prague (CZ), 19.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gushing * foams * beer Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Continuous Fermentation: Way to Non-alcoholic Beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Kuřec, M.; Brányik, T.; Baszczyňski, Martin; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology, 2009 - (Markoš, J.), s. 318 ISBN 978-80-227-3072-3. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /36./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 25.05.2009-29.05.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : alcohol-free beer * continuous * fermentation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L). PMID:26984557

  2. The impact of beer type, pizza spiciness and gender on match perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington, Robert J.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study surveys preferences of participants towards pairing three categories of beer (lager, ale and stout with a non-spicy and spicy pizza. The goals of this study are to determine the level of a ‘just right’ match of pizza style with each beer type, determine any differences by gender, and to explore if spice has an impact on participants’ beer selection and beer preference. Implications of this research apply to restaurateurs’ ability to appropriately cater their beer and pizza offerings in terms of menu design and pro-duct delivery.

  3. Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wesley B.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Busch, David R.; Mesquita, Rickson C.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Yodh, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    The modified Beer-Lambert law is among the most widely used approaches for analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance signals for measurements of tissue blood volume and oxygenation. Briefly, the modified Beer-Lambert paradigm is a scheme to derive changes in tissue optical properties based on continuous-wave (CW) diffuse optical intensity measurements. In its simplest form, the scheme relates differential changes in light transmission (in any geometry) to differential changes in tissue absorption. Here we extend this paradigm to the measurement of tissue blood flow by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). In the new approach, differential changes of the intensity temporal auto-correlation function at a single delay-time are related to differential changes in blood flow. The key theoretical results for measurement of blood flow changes in any tissue geometry are derived, and we demonstrate the new method to monitor cerebral blood flow in a pig under conditions wherein the semi-infinite geometry approximation is fairly good. Specifically, the drug dinitrophenol was injected in the pig to induce a gradual 200% increase in cerebral blood flow, as measured with MRI velocity flow mapping and by DCS. The modified Beer-Lambert law for flow accurately recovered these flow changes using only a single delay-time in the intensity auto-correlation function curve. The scheme offers increased DCS measurement speed of blood flow. Further, the same techniques using the modified Beer-Lambert law to filter out superficial tissue effects in NIRS measurements of deep tissues can be applied to the DCS modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow monitoring of deep tissues.

  4. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  5. Role of riboflavin in beer flavor instability: determination of levels of riboflavin and its origin in beer by fluorometric apoprotein titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyvis, Martina G; Hilhorst, Riet; Laane, Colja; Evans, David J; Schmedding, Diederik J M

    2002-03-13

    A method for the quantitative determination of riboflavin levels in beer was developed. The method is based on the quenching of riboflavin fluorescence, which occurs when riboflavin binds to the aporiboflavin-binding protein from egg white. The method does not require any pretreatment of the beer before analysis, other than dilution, and proved to be simple, reliable, and sensitive. The lowest concentration that could be detected was approximately 10 nM riboflavin. The possible interference of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) with the determination of the riboflavin content of beer was excluded, because beer contains only a very small amount of FAD (0.03 microM) and no FMN. The riboflavin levels of the types and brands of beer investigated were in the range of 0.5-1.0 microM. The origin of the riboflavin in beer proved to be the malt. Hop and yeast hardly contributed to the riboflavin content of beer. Besides its use in the determination of riboflavin levels, the aporiboflavin-binding protein also provides a way to remove riboflavin from beer, which reduces the light sensitivity and the related lightstruck off-flavor formation in beer. PMID:11879035

  6. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  7. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  8. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  9. Brewing with Distinction: The Implications of a Quality Symbol for the Craft Beer Industry of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oppenheimer, Leonardo Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A growing segment of the Canadian beer market is the microbrew/craft beer segment. For the palates of many beer connoisseurs, craft beer has a taste that distinguishes it from other beers, thus setting it apart from the mass-marketed products of the giant commercial breweries. However, a large proportion of beer consumers in Canada remain oblivious to the virtues and properties that make craft beer unique. This study examines the feasibility of creating a quality symbol of distinction as a me...

  10. Drinking beer reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We here investigated and reported the effects of beer drinking on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Human blood that was collected either before or after drinking a 700 ml beer was in vitro irradiated with 200 kVp X rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The relation between the radiation dose and the aberration frequencies (fragments and dicentrics) was significantly (P<0.05) lower for lymphocytes collected 3 h after beer drinking than those before drinking. Fitting the dose response to a linear quadratic model showed that the alpha term of carbon ions was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by beer drinking. A decrease of dicentric formation was detected as early as 0.5 h after beer drinking, and lasted not shorter than 4.5 h. The mitotic index of lymphocytes was higher after beer drinking than before, indicating that a division delay would not be responsible for the low aberrations induced by beer drinking. An in vitro treatment of normal lymphocytes with 0.1 M ethanol, which corresponded to a concentration of 6-times higher than the maximum ethanol concentration in the blood after beer drinking, reduced the dicentric formation caused by X-ray irradiation, but not by carbon-ion irradiation. The beer-induced reduction of dicentric formation was not affected by serum. It is concluded that beer could contain non-ethanol elements that reduce the chromosome damage of lymphocytes induced by high-LET radiation. (author)

  11. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Arranz; Gemma Chiva-Blanch; Palmira Valderas-Martínez; Alex Medina-Remón; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós; Ramón Estruch

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortalit...

  12. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4). PMID:25793656

  13. High gravity primary continuous beer fermentation using flocculent yeast biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, J. A.; Brányik, Tomáš; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Brandão, Tiago; A.A. Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The current work assessed a new immobilized cell reactor system throughout a long-term (54 days) continuous primary fermentation of lager-type wort of high specific gravity. The experiment was performed in a 4 L airlift bioreactor and immobilization of biomass was attained solely by flocculation. Despite the constant liquid agitation and washout of biomass, up to 53 g dry wt/L of yeast remained immobilized in the system. Two types of beer were produced without interrupting the reactor, based ...

  14. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment. PMID:26857464

  15. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Colehour, Alese M.; Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Tara J. Cepon-Robins; Theresa E. Gildner; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Lawrence S. Sugiyama

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chic...

  16. Creating a beer degustation for restaurant "Talli". Marketing promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamanina, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    Restaurant business nowadays is not only catering establishment, with the function of food service. It includes the function of nutrition, education, leisure, media and competent marketing policy. Creating a new product for working business place is responsible and interesting work. It needs deep and wide range of knowledge, professional skills and willingness to actively work. The aim of the thesis is to submit to the customer new kind of product – beer degustation. Explain in details ...

  17. Beer classification by means of a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Calvo, Daniel; del Valle, Manel

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an electronic tongue (ET) system based on an array of potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for the discrimination of different commercial beer types is presented. The array was formed by 21 ISEs combining both cationic and anionic sensors with others with generic response. For this purpose beer samples were analyzed with the ET without any pretreatment rather than the smooth agitation of the samples with a magnetic stirrer in order to reduce the foaming of samples, which could interfere into the measurements. Then, the obtained responses were evaluated using two different pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed identifying some initial patterns, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in order to achieve the correct recognition of sample varieties (81.9% accuracy). In the case of LDA, a stepwise inclusion method for variable selection based on Mahalanobis distance criteria was used to select the most discriminating variables. In this respect, the results showed that the use of supervised pattern recognition methods such as LDA is a good alternative for the resolution of complex identification situations. In addition, in order to show an ET quantitative application, beer alcohol content was predicted from the array data employing an artificial neural network model (root mean square error for testing subset was 0.131 abv). PMID:23870992

  18. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora. PMID:17498234

  19. The effects of gamma-irradiation of Pilsner beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commerical Belgian Pilsner beer was irradiation with 0, 40, 80 and 120 krad of Cesium137 γ-rays. Analysis of the resultant beers showed that the analytical data for polyphenolics to a great extent had remained unaffected, that the treatment had no impact upon the liability to haze formation, the pH, the foam stability and the levels of dimethyl sulphide, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and diacetyl. There was an increase in the concentration of acetaldehyde, and a small decrease in the concentration of iso-α-acids and n-propanol, the changes being roughly proportional to the dosage applied. The sum of the fast and the moderately fast reducing agents increase with increasing irradiation dosages and in the same way the concentration of slow reducing agents diminishes. The treatment at the same time leads to a drastic loss of colour. The flavour of irradiated beer is totally unacceptable, even at the lowest dosages, the odour reminding one of hydrogen sulphide. (author)

  20. Bacteria associated with human saliva are major microbial components of Ecuadorian indigenous beers (chicha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ana L.; Zapata, Sonia; Mosquera, Juan; Mejia, Maria Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous beers (chicha) are part of the indigenous culture in Ecuador. The fermentation process of these beers probably relies on microorganisms from fermented substrates, environment and human microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of artisanal beers (including a type of beer produced after chewing boiled cassava) using bacterial culture and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Surprisingly, we found that Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans (part of the human oral microbiota) were among the most abundant bacteria in chewed cassava and in non-chewed cassava beers. We also demonstrated that S. salivarius and S. mutans (isolated from these beers) could proliferate in cassava mush. Lactobacillus sp. was predominantly present in most types of Ecuadorian chicha. PMID:27168974

  1. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else Marie;

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed...... towards a positive association or no association between beer intake and waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in men, whereas results for women were inconsistent. Data from a subset of studies indicated that beer intake > 500 mL/day may be positively associated with abdominal obesity. Regarding...... general obesity, most observational studies pointed towards an inverse association or no association between beer intake and body weight in women and a positive association or no association in men. Data from six experimental studies in men, in which alcoholic beer was compared with low-alcoholic beer...

  2. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.38{+-}1.0, 1.47{+-}1.1, 1.50{+-}1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11{+-}0.9, 1.29{+-}1.1, 1.15{+-}1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.17{+-}1.1, 1.13{+-}1.3, 1.38{+-}1.2, 1.32{+-}1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  3. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22±1.1, 1.22±1.1, 1.38±1.0, 1.47±1.1, 1.50±1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11±0.9, 1.29±1.1, 1.15±1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22±1.1, 1.17±1.1, 1.13±1.3, 1.38±1.2, 1.32±1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  4. Craft Beer Marketing. Do You Have to be First, Best, or Unique to Succeed?

    OpenAIRE

    Lahnalampi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the interplay of marketing and design in the craft brewing industry in Finland. The goal was to figure out what craft brewers do to successfully market their products. The thesis first explains that craft beer is different from generic beer in that it is uncompromising in its ingredients, special flavours, and sole focus on the beer rather than stock prices. Craft breweries use grassroots and guerrilla marketing tactics. They are heavily involved in social media marketi...

  5. How the East Was Won: Supply Chain Restructuring in the Eastern European Beer Market

    OpenAIRE

    van Herck, Kristine; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Deconinck, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Like all markets in the former communist countries, the Eastern European beer market has been strongly affected by the economic reforms in the beginning of the 1990s. In the first years after reforms, there was a substantial decline in the production of barley, malt and beer. However, the brewery sector soon attracted interest from foreign investors, who faced problems in sourcing sufficient high quality malt in order to produce high quality beer. Therefore, they reintroduced vertical coordin...

  6. From Monasteries to Multinationals (and Back): A Historical Review of the Beer Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Poelmans, Eline; Swinnen, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transfirmed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidatio...

  7. Development of polyhydroxyalkanoate/beer spent grain fibers composites for film blowing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Mara; Berthet, Marie-Alix; Pereira, Ricardo; Covas, José A.; Vicente, António A.; Hilliou, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    The high cost, narrow processing window, and poor mechanical properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates hamper their use as films for food packaging applications. We report the preparation, characterization, and film blowing of polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate (PHBV)/beer spent grain fibers (BSGF) composites. Beer spent grains are by-products of the beer industry submitted to an acid/caustic treatment and to successive grinding to achieve fibers with typical size of 30 microns. ...

  8. U.S. BEER FLOWS & THE IMPACT OF NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. MCGOWAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After World War II and up until the 1980’s, the liberalization of trade was realized on a multilateral basis. World trade grew at twice the pace of GDP growth (Krueger, 1999. However, starting in the mid 1980’s, preferential trading arrangements (PTAs increased in numbers. Perhaps the most influential PTA ever to be signed could be the North America Free Trade Agreement, or simply NAFTA, which came into effect January 1, 1994. The agreement established a free-trade area between its member countries- US, Canada and Mexico- in which all tariffs would be phased out between them, but each country would maintain its separate national barriers against the rest of the world. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of NAFTA on the welfare of its member countries and on the rest of the world. This paper will focus on the impact of the agreement on the US’s beer trade flows by analyzing annual import and export data using several methods. To our knowledge there is no precedent for such research. Section II provides a brief review of the conclusions and methodology of existing works on NAFTA trade issues, as well as some important aspects of the agreement. Section III provides an overview of the world beer industry, and the NAFTA member countries beer markets. Section IV provides in great detail the methodology that we will employ. The focus of Section V is to explain the results obtained. Section VI provides conclusions and implications for further research on this subject. References and other sources can be found in Section VII.

  9. Markets: Beer in Germany and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    William James Adams

    2006-01-01

    Between 1950 and 2000, the four-firm producer-concentration ratio for beer increased from 22 to 95 in the United States; and Anheuser-Busch's share of domestic output ballooned from 6 to 54 percent. In Germany, concentration has risen, but it remains low. In 2000, the four-firm producer-concentration ratio was just 29; and the eight-firm ratio in Germany was smaller than the one-firm ratio in the United States. In 2005, after five years of important mergers involving big brewers, the German b...

  10. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...

  11. Flavonoids in Beer and Their Potential Benefit on the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer is a popular alcoholic beverage and its consumption is characterized by a U- or J-shaped relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition to the ability of ethanol to elevate high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, other constituents of beer, including flavonoids, may also contr...

  12. Importance of tetrahydroiso alpha-acids to the microbiological stability of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Isabel; Agut, Montserrat; Armentia, Alicia; Blanco, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    While beer provides a very stable microbiological environment, a few niche microorganisms are capable of growth in malt, wort, and beer. The production of off-flavors and development of turbidity in the packaged product are due to the growth and metabolic activity of wild yeast, certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Beer also contains bitter hop compounds, which are toxic to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and contribute to preventing the spoilage of this beverage. In the boiling process, the hop alpha-acids (humulones) are isomerized into iso alpha-acids. These products are responsible for the bitter taste of beer, but they also play an essential role in enhancing foam stability. Antibacterial activity of iso alpha-acids and their hydrogenated derivates (rhoiso alpha-acids and tetrahydroiso alpha-acids) in MRS broth and beer have been evaluated against different LAB (Lactobacillus and Pediococcus) for the determination of their beer-stabilizing capabilities. Besides this, we have determined the minimum inhibitory concentration and the bacteriostatic effect of each compound against Pediococcus. We found that tetrahydroiso alpha-acids (added directly to beer during production processes) are the compounds that present the greatest antibacterial activity against the main agents implicated in beer spoilage. PMID:19714985

  13. Adolescent Responses to TV Beer Ads and Sports Content/Context: Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Finds that female adolescents responded less positively than males to beer advertisements and to sports content of advertising, and more positively to nonbeer advertisement. Shows also that positive responses to beer ads predicted alcohol use among female and male adolescents. Finds no differences in response patterns to ads due to Latino…

  14. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    -of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MS/MS and revealed common beer proteins, such as lipid transfer proteins (LTP1 and LTP2), protein Z and amylase-protease inhibitors. During fermentation, two protein spots, corresponding to LTP2, disappeared, while three protein spots were exclusively found in beer...

  15. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported...

  16. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  17. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER...

  18. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. PMID:27052714

  19. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. PMID:26187837

  20. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  1. EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE CONTENT OF ACETALDEHYDE IN BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Jonkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the temperature, the pitching rate of yeast and wort composition (Free Amino Nitrogen on the content of acetaldehyde in beer. It is known, that higher fermentation temperatures stimulate the formation of acetaldehyde, as well as the higher rate of acetaldehyde reduction, leading to lower concentrations in the final beer. Beer produced with increased pitching rate of yeast (26 and 35 × 10[sup]6[/sup] cells•mL[sup]-1[/sup], contains lower quantities of acetaldehyde as compared to the control beer. Lower content of α-amino nitrogen in result of substitution of 5 to 10�0of the malt with rice, sugar or a combination of both does not lead to considerable differences in the acetaldehyde concentration in beer.

  2. Glucose promotes controlled processing: Matching, maximizing, and root beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. McMahon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Participants drank either regular root beer or sugar-free diet root beer before working on a probability-learning task in which they tried to predict which of two events would occur on each of 200 trials. One event (E1 randomly occurred on 140 trials, the other (E2 on 60. In each of the last two blocks of 50 trials, the regular group matched prediction and event frequencies. In contrast, the diet group predicted E1 more often in each of these blocks. After the task, participants were asked to write down rules they used for responding. Blind ratings of rule complexity were inversely related to E1 predictions in the final 50 trials. Participants also took longer to advance after incorrect predictions and before predicting E2, reflecting time for revising and consulting rules. These results support the hypothesis that an effortful controlled process of normative rule-generation produces matching in probability-learning experiments, and that this process is a function of glucose availability.

  3. Supply Chain Collaboration under Uncertainty in the Albanian Beer Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa MAMILLO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today supply chain uncertainty is higher due to the global crisis, the fast changing technology and the increasing vulnerability of supply chains. Companies use different strategies to reduce uncertainty, like building agile supply chains, increasing resilience, postponement, etc. All these strategies require strong supply chain collaboration. Although research interest in supply chain collaboration is growing, no research has been done in Albania. This paper is one of the first to investigate supply chain management practices and the extent of supply chain collaboration in the Albanian beer industry. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to investigate how supply chain uncertainty influences the extent of collaboration with the supply chain members, and second, to analyze how organizational culture facilitates the collaboration process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers of the main beer companies. A guide questionnaire was prepared. It consisted of open and rate-scale questions about supply chain collaboration, supply chain uncertainty, supply chain management practices and organizational culture. The research will show that a high level of supply chain uncertainty does not always lead to a high degree of collaboration with the supply chain members. Organizational culture is the key driver of a successful collaboration. Not all types of culture can facilitate collaboration but only the ones with an external orientation.

  4. Effects of beer-battering on the frying properties of wheat or rice batters and their coated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice and wheat batters were prepared with and without the use of beer replacing water in the formulation. During frying, rice batters were found to absorb substantially lower oil, by about 50%, than the wheat counterparts with or without beer. With beer in the formulation, oil uptake of fried batt...

  5. 27 CFR 25.286 - Claims for remission of tax on beer lost in transit between breweries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tax on beer lost in transit between breweries. 25.286 Section 25.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.286 Claims for remission of tax on beer lost in...

  6. Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease: A consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaetano, G; Costanzo, S; Di Castelnuovo, A; Badimon, L; Bejko, D; Alkerwi, A; Chiva-Blanch, G; Estruch, R; La Vecchia, C; Panico, S; Pounis, G; Sofi, F; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Ursini, F; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; Iacoviello, L

    2016-06-01

    A large evidence-based review on the effects of a moderate consumption of beer on human health has been conducted by an international panel of experts who reached a full consensus on the present document. Low-moderate (up to 1 drink per day in women, up to 2 in men), non-bingeing beer consumption, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. This effect is similar to that of wine, at comparable alcohol amounts. Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate consumption of either beer or wine may confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits. Although specific data on beer are not conclusive, observational studies seem to indicate that low-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. There is no evidence that beer drinking is different from other types of alcoholic beverages in respect to risk for some cancers. Evidence consistently suggests a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption (including beer) and all-cause mortality, with lower risk for moderate alcohol consumers than for abstainers or heavy drinkers. Unless they are at high risk for alcohol-related cancers or alcohol dependency, there is no reason to discourage healthy adults who are already regular light-moderate beer consumers from continuing. Consumption of beer, at any dosage, is not recommended for children, adolescents, pregnant women, individuals at risk to develop alcoholism, those with cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, liver and pancreatic diseases, or anyone engaged in actions that require concentration, skill or coordination. In conclusion, although heavy and excessive beer consumption exerts deleterious effects on the human body, with increased disease risks on many organs and is associated to significant social problems such as addiction, accidents, violence and crime, data reported in this document show evidence for no harm of moderate beer consumption for major chronic conditions and some benefit against

  7. An application of classical and instrumental methods of analysis in quality control of beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control the quality of beer and raw materials for production of beer in Belgrade Beer Industry (BIP, water is analyzed (city, technological and demineralized water. Measurements of pH values indicated the increased pH values in the sample of tehnological water, which had no impact on wort hopping, since the tested samples of wort, young beer and final product had a pH value within the expected range. After processing city water, a sample of tehnological water was found with increased carbonate hardness, which is caused by the increased content of sodium hydrogen carbonate. Analysing the titration alkalinity, titration acidity and buffering power, it was found that the alkalinity was decreasing which is in accordance with the determination of pH values of wort and beer samples (young beer and final product. Analyzing the content of anions and cations in the examined water samples, it has been shown that the concentration of these examinated anions (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2- and PO4 3- and cations (NH4 +, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ are within the limits prescribed by the Regulations on hygienic safety of drinking water, and thus by the Regulations of quality and other requirements for beer. The contents of anions in wort and beer samples (young beer and final product were determined by ion chromatography method. The contents of sulphate and nitrate ions were within the recommended limits. The concentration of chloride ions was above 150 mg/dm3, which may have an impact on the sensory properties of beer, while changes in the content of phosphate ions were insignificant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  8. Determination of benzoxazinoids in wheat and rye beers by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-QTOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Kurtelius, Tuula

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds in beer have received considerable interest. Besides the more typical phenolic acids and flavonoids, beer contains also lesser-known compounds, such as hordatines, their agmatine precursors and other phenolamines. Current work shows that beers brewed from wheat or rye malts, in addition to barley malts, contain benzoxazinoids, a group of nitrogen containing secondary metabolites typical to wheat and rye. In this work, HPLC-DAD was used for the quantification of major benzoxazinoids in 32 wheat and four rye beers. Of the wheat beers 22 samples and all of the rye beers contained benzoxazinoids, or their breakdown products. Concentrations of DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) (as aglycon) varied from 1.7 to 21.9mg/l in wheat beers and from 5.6 to 31.6mg/l in rye beers. Breakdown products BOA (benzoxazolin-2-one), found in 15 beers, and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one), found in two beers, were measured at concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 10.7mg/l and 8.4 to 10.5mg/l, respectively. Identification of benzoxazinoids by UPLC-QTOF MS was done on selected beers. Benzoxazinoid profiles varied greatly between different wheat beers, and compared to rye beers the chemical diversity of benzoxazinoids was higher. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that other benzoxazinoids, rather than just the decomposition products BOA or MBOA, have been reported in beer. The results also show that benzoxazinoids can be present in beer glycosylated with three or four hexose units. PMID:26988518

  9. Draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus acetotolerans BM-LA14527, a beer-spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus acetotolerans is a hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium capable of entering into the viable putative nonculturable (VPNC) state. As part of an initial strategy to investigate the phenotypic behavior of L. acetotolerans, draft genome sequencing was performed. Results demonstrated a total of 1824 predicted annotated genes, with several potential VPNC- and beer-spoilage-associated genes identified. Importantly, this is the first genome sequence of L. acetotolerans as beer-spoilage bacteria and it may aid in further analysis of L. acetotolerans and other beer-spoilage bacteria, with direct implications for food safety control in the beer brewing industry. PMID:27559043

  10. Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-11-01

    In beer, the development of a solvent-like stale flavor is associated with the formation of furfuryl ethyl ether. The synthesis rate of this important flavor compound is proportional to the concentration of furfuryl alcohol in beer. This study shows that furfuryl alcohol in beer is mainly formed by Maillard reactions initiated during wort boiling and malt production. A mechanism for its formation from alpha-(1,4)-oligoglucans and amino acids in wort and beer is proposed. During wort boiling, a quadratic relationship was found between the wort extract concentration, on the one hand, and the increase of furfuryl alcohol and furfural, on the other. The reduction of furfural by yeast during fermentation further increases the furfuryl alcohol content. In pale beers, the furfuryl alcohol concentration is essentially determined by the thermal load on wort during brewing operations. In dark beers, a considerable fraction of furfuryl alcohol may, however, come from the dark malts used. These results lead to important practical conclusions concerning the control over furfuryl ethyl ether in beer. PMID:15506813

  11. A study of the antioxidant properties of beers using electron paramagnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Stanimirova, Ivana

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant properties of various kinds of beers were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This was possible by measuring the changes in the intensity of the EPR spectrum that resulted from the interaction of the stable radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) with the antioxidants found in a beer sample. The antioxidant capacity was then presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g. μM trolox in a beer sample of 100ml. The influence of the type, colour, the content of the extract and alcohol on the antioxidant activities of commercial beer samples was investigated using two-way hierarchical clustering and analysis of variance. The results showed that all of the beers investigated exhibit antioxidant properties. By performing an analysis of variance, it was found that the value of the antioxidant capacity significantly (0.05 level of significance) depends on the content of the extract and the colour of the beer. It seems that additives also influence the antioxidant properties to some extent, but neither the alcohol content nor the kind of fermentation affects the antioxidant properties of beer. PMID:23871057

  12. Who pays for the 'beer fridge'? Evidence from Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy intensity of refrigerators varies widely across vintages. Recent improvements in the energy efficiency of refrigerators have the potential to decrease residential energy use, and in some locations this could have a significant impact on a typical household's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among the impediments to the realization of the energy use and environmental benefits from the technological energy-efficiency gains in Canada is the fact that a large proportion of households continue to use their old refrigerators as 'beer fridges' after the purchase of a new refrigerator. In this paper, we use information from the Survey of Household Energy Use (SHEU-2003) to examine this phenomenon. The empirical results are discussed in the context of existing Canadian programs that target purchases of new refrigerators and the disposal of old ones

  13. EVALUATION OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS DURING HIGH-GRAVITY BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of advantages are obtained from the use of highly concentrated worts during the production of beer in a process referred to as "high-gravity". However, problems related to slow or stuck fermentations, which cause the lower productivity and possibility of contamination, are encountered. This study examines the influence of factors pH, percentage of corn syrup, initial wort concentration and fermentation temperature on the fermentation parameters, namely productivity, wort attenuation and the yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The results show that productivity increased when the higher temperature, the higher wort concentration and the lower syrup percentage were used, while wort attenuation increased when lower wort concentration and no syrup were used. The yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion was not influenced by any of the factors studied.

  14. Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallone, Brigida; Steensels, Jan; Prahl, Troels; Soriaga, Leah; Saels, Veerle; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Merlevede, Adriaan; Roncoroni, Miguel; Voordeckers, Karin; Miraglia, Loren; Teiling, Clotilde; Steffy, Brian; Taylor, Maryann; Schwartz, Ariel; Richardson, Toby; White, Christopher; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-09-01

    Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP. PMID:27610566

  15. Chemical-analytical and sensory characterisation of kettle hoppy aroma of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Hops constitute an indispensable raw material for beer production. The hop essential oil (-derived) volatiles are at the origin of the highly desired hoppy aroma of beer. (Bio)chemical transformations and losses during the brewing process alter the hop oil volatile fingerprint, resulting in hoppy aroma in beer that is clearly different from the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, the nature of hoppy aroma is up-to-date far from understood. Especially ‘noble kettle hop’ aroma, which is a typical ...

  16. Elements of design and aesthetics on the beer market in Romania. Case Study: Tuborg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MADAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development and modernization of trade, the packaging is a very valuable component of marketing policy, being a carrier of messages to the consumer. Classic elements of design that include any packaging refer to the shape, colour and graphics. The beer market in Romania was marked by originality and innovation in terms of packaging design elements. Tuborg is the leading brand in the portfolio of URBB and the first Tuborg beer bottle was produced in Romania in 1997. The Tubog beer is identified on the market by a special package that was always improved.

  17. EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE CONTENT OF ACETALDEHYDE IN BEER

    OpenAIRE

    Gunka Jonkova; Nevjana Petkova

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the temperature, the pitching rate of yeast and wort composition (Free Amino Nitrogen) on the content of acetaldehyde in beer. It is known, that higher fermentation temperatures stimulate the formation of acetaldehyde, as well as the higher rate of acetaldehyde reduction, leading to lower concentrations in the final beer. Beer produced with increased pitching rate of yeast (26 and 35 × 10[sup]6[/sup] cells•mL[sup]-1[/sup]), contains low...

  18. Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas : entering in the craft beer trend with Affligem

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Marta Filipa Freire Antón

    2014-01-01

    Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas (SCC) is one of biggest players in the Portuguese beer industry. In 2013, together with Unicer, its biggest competitor, both groups owned 94% of the market. Part of the Heineken International Company since 2007, SCC was invited to be part of the worldwide launch of Affligem, the new global brand from Heineken group. Aiming to be the beacon brand in the specialty beer category, Affligem is a Belgian abbey beer with almost one thousand years of history. B...

  19. Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29Si(n,p)29Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)

  20. Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajing; Liu, Li; Ball, Terry; Yu, Linjie; Li, Yuanqing; Xing, Fulai

    2016-06-01

    The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later. PMID:27217567

  1. Innovation Impact on the Beer Market during Economic Crisis in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Morosanu Dora Maria; Bumbac Robert

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is a means to success for the beer companies in the years to come. Even during the recent economic crisis it is noticeable an increase of profitability by leveraging the impact of the innovation.

  2. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Bottari; Giovanni Campari; Monica Gatti

    2014-01-01

    The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Ye...

  3. The Effect of Organization Culture and Uncertainty in Supply Chain Management - The Albanian Beer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Denisa Mamillo

    2014-01-01

    Although research interest in supply chain management is growing, no such research has been done in Albania. This paper is one of the first to investigate supply chain management practices in the Albanian beer industry and the effect of supply chain uncertainty and organizational culture on supply chain management. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers of the main beer companies. The results show that a high level of supply chain uncertainty does not always bring high en...

  4. Consumer perceptions of beer products at the point of purchase / Veldman S.

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, Stian

    2011-01-01

    Customer perception and the way this phenomenon impacts customers' choices when purchasing products is an extremely significant marketing aspect in any industry. In a competitive market and economy, understanding and being able to predict consumer perceptions and responses is a crucial competitive factor that all suppliers should have an in–depth knowledge and understanding of. This applies especially to the South African beer market with more than forty competing beer brands. This study e...

  5. Banana as adjunct in beer production : applicability and performance of fermentative parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Bento, Camila V.; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidi...

  6. Sex, Teen Pregnancies, STDs, and Beer Prices: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    May Luong; Anindya Sen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of higher beer prices on gonorrhea, chlamydia, and teen pregnancy rates by pooling data across Canadian provinces over time. Higher real beer prices are significantly correlated with a reduction in both gonorrhea and chlamydia rates with price elasticities ranging from -0.6 to -1.4. In contrast, an increase in the minimum legal drinking age is significantly associated with a reduction in teen pregnancies as well as births. Finally, Instrumental Variables (IV) estimates...

  7. Molecular mechanisms of the high pressure inactivation of beer spoiling Lactobacillus plantarum

    OpenAIRE

    Ulmer, Helge M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of high pressure (HP) for food preservation requires insight into mechanisms of HP-mediated cell injury and death. The HP-inactivation in model beer of Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1.460, a beer spoiling organism, was investigated at pressures ranging from 200 to 600 MPa. Surviving cells were characterized by determination of (i) cell viability and sublethal injury, (ii) membrane permeability to the fluorescent dyes propidium iodide (PI) and ethidium bromide (EB), (iii) metaboli...

  8. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-04-14

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (SD 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3% inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet. PMID:26857156

  9. The positions of men and women to the advertising of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Bosáková, Júlia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to determine what position interested men and women of various ages and educational attainment to the advertising of beer. What advertising appeals and most responsive to the building negative. What position are interested to advertising for beer in terms that include the advertising of alcoholic products, and it plays a big role in the aspect of advertising purchase decisions. On the basis of marketing research companies and its own research, which was transfer...

  10. Continuous fermentation of alcohol-free beer : bioreactor hydrodynamics and yeast physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, André

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biological and Chemical Engineering In this study, the continuous product ion with immobilized cells of beer without alcohol was investigated. Apart from the evaluation of the various parameters affecting the quality of the continuous product ion of alcohol- free beer, a detailed study on the hydrodynamics of three phase bioreactors was also done. One of the major costs associated with continuous fermentations is the carrier cost where the yeast is immobilized. T...

  11. The Effect of Entry into the European Union on the Slovak Beer Industry and Its Consequences for the Tax Taken from the Excise Duty on Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Ing. Juraj Válek

    2015-01-01

    The following paper is concerned with the issue of increasing the excise duty on beer and its consequences for consumption of the studied product. The aim is to demonstrate the tax burden in relation to domestic producers and beer consumption in the domestic market. The time period considered is the 16 years from 1999 to 2014. Data on consumption and the evolution of excise duty rates were compared ex post and conclusions were drawn using an analysis of economic indicators. In general, it is ...

  12. Investigation on Beer Filtration%啤酒过滤性能探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚

    2011-01-01

    影响啤酒过滤的主要因素有过滤前酵母细胞浓度、酒液粘度、固形物含量、稳定剂等;对β-葡聚糖、α-葡聚糖、酵母、颗粒物对啤酒过滤性的影响进行研究分析。改善啤酒过滤性的措施主要有降低麦汁和啤酒中β-葡萄糖的含量,降低过滤前酒液中的酵母细胞数,控制添加剂的添加,添加过滤助剂。%The factors influencing beer filtration included yeast cells concentration for filtration,beer viscosity,solids content,stabilizer etc.The effects of β-dextran,α-dextran,yeast,and granules on beer filtration were investigated.The measures to improve beer filtration included reducing β-dextran content in wort and in beer,reducing yeast cells number in beer before the filtration,proper control of the addition level of additives,and the addition of auxilliary filtration agents.(Tran.by YUE Yang)

  13. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 μg Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of 67Cu (3.3 μCi as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t1/2 (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats

  14. Effects of beer administration in mice on acute toxicities induced by X rays and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the tissue specificity of radioprotection by beer, which was previously found for human lymphocytes. C3H/He female mice, aged 14 weeks, received an oral administration of beer, ethanol or saline at a dose of 1 ml/mouse 30 min before whole-body irradiation with 137Cs γ rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The dicentrics of chromosome aberrations in spleen cells were significantly (p0 (slope of a dose-survival curve) for γ rays and carbon ions as well. Beer administration significantly (p50/30 (radiation dose required to kill 50% of mice within 30 days) for γ rays and carbon ions. Ethanol-administration also significantly (p50/30 value for γ rays, but not for carbon ions. It is concluded that beer administration reduces the radiation injury caused by photons and carbon ions, depending on the tissue type. Radioprotection by beer administration is not solely due to OH radical-scavenging action by the ethanol contained in beer. (author)

  15. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  16. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  17. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Denise L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Methods Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. Results The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay, gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health, and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services. The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women

  18. Development of black beer bread%黑啤酒面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海娟; 朱珠; 张传智; 朱佳琪

    2013-01-01

    以面包专用粉为主要原料,添加黑啤酒、白砂糖、酵母、盐、面包改良剂等辅料,采用一次发酵工艺生产黑啤酒面包,通过单因素实验和正交实验确定黑啤酒面包的最佳工艺配方.结果表明,白砂糖投入量对黑啤酒面包品质影响最大,其次是黑啤酒的投入量,酵母的影响最小.黑啤酒面包的最佳工艺参数为:白砂糖量为48g、黑啤酒量为140g、酵母量为6g(以面粉270g计).%Bread flour as the main raw material,adding black beer,sugar,yeast,salt,bread improvers and other accessories by a fermentation process to produce malt beer bread.In addition,bread and dark beer by single factor test and orthogonal test to determine the optimum formulation.The result showed that the amount of sugar was the main impact on the quality of bread black beer.The amount of black beer was the minor impact and the amount of yeast was the minimum impact.Malt beer bread the optimum parameters were:sugar of 48g,malt beer of 140g,yeast of 6g(flour of 270g).

  19. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF SACCHAROSE TO THE SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Bobková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was the evaluation of physicochemical (pH value, ethanol content and initial worth extract and sensory properties of beer samples. The basic sensory properties are: color, limpidity, foaming (foam stability, followed by smell and taste beer. Beer of pilsner type with various concentration of saccharose was produced. The range of pH values varied from 5.36 (sample no. 4 to 5.51 (sample no. 2. Sample no. 1 without saccharose had pH value 4.98. The initial wort extract for light beers from 11.00 to 12.99 % in samples no. 1 and 2. Sample with 50 % saccharose and sample no. 3 did not meet the requirements of legislation. The lowest content of ethanol was in sample no. 4 (4.2 % with 50 % addition of saccharose. The highest content of ethanol was in sample no. 1 (5.12. Sensory properties were evaluated as bad in sample no. 4 in several parameters. Addition of saccharose has a negative impact on the sensory properties of beer.

  20. Determination of the δ13C (per mille) isotopic rate of the Brazilian beer pilsen type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer has been consumed in Brazil since the XIX century. However, at that time, this beverage was imported from England, and the first Brazilian breweries just appeared at the end of the XX century. Basically, beer is made from: malt of barley, Humulus lupulus, water and yeast. In this work, twenty brands of national beer (Pilsen type), and also two different cereals, barley, a C3 metabolism plant, corn, a C4 plant, were analysed to determine their isotope composition δ13 C (per mille) utilizing a mass spectrometer Delta Plus Finigam and Anca S.L. An aliquot of each sample was transferred using a capillary of glass to a tin capsule contends a small amount of sorbitol. The isotope compositions, δ13 C, of barley and corn samples determined were -27.2 and -11.5 per mille, respectively. These results were used to calculate the equation of mixture model. Considering the beer samples, the δ13 C ranged from -18.3 to -23.1 per mille; this result means that the percentage of C3 plant is from 43.3 to 73.9 per mille. In this manner, it is possible to concluded that all beer samples has malted cereals (C4 plant), as far as the low values of C3 plants were presented in these samples as shown through the equation of mixtures model. (author)

  1. Aerosol measurements in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva) using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the research were: 1) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the elemental composition of the aerosols in Beer-Sheva area and to measure the TSP in it, 2) to determine the aerosol size distribution, 3) to find the relation between the elemental composition of the aerosols and their diameter, 4) to determine correlations between the natural aerosols and the specific meteorological conditions of the Beer-Sheva area, 5) to determine the industrial pollution of the area. Between June 1977 and May 1978, 41 aerosol samples were measured for determination of their TSP mass concentration. The main methods used to analyse the aerosols were the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and the X-Ray Fluorescence. The aerosols were examined and analysed during normal meteorological conditions, during and/or after rainfall, during and/or after Hamsin and after sandstorm conditions. Comparison of the TSP of Beer-Sheva area to to the mean TSP of world large cities shows that the normal TSP in Beer-Seva area is relatively high. Since Beer-Sheva is a small town (1977 population 110000), it can be concluded that the relatively high TSP is primarily due to the natural conditions prevailing in the Negev desert

  2. Some metals determination in beers by atomic emission spectrometry of induced argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was made the identification and determination of metals in brazilian bottled and canned beer, using atomic emission spectrometry with d.c. are and argon coupled plasma excitation sources. The elements Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined in beer samples, after treatment with HNO sub(3) conc. /H sub(2) O sub(2) (30%). In the determination of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn and alternative method using HNO sub(3) conc. /O sub(3) was proved be useful. The results obtained for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were below the limits established by brazilian legislation, showing the good quality of the beer concerning the metals. The results of this work were requested by the previous Ministerio do Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo in order to contribute to review the brazilian legislation in foods and beverages about metals contents. (author)

  3. Convergence of Beer's Law for Radiation Transmission in Particle-Laden Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Ari; Rauenzahn, Rick; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mani, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Discrete random particulate media have been shown to produce significant deviations from Beer's law for radiation transmission. Though particle-resolved ray tracing models can exactly resolve the transmission, the computational expense of such approaches can be prohibitive in settings involving many particles where the radiative transfer equation must be solved at every time step. In this work we investigate the validity of projecting Lagrangian particles onto an Eulerian concentration field and using Beer's law on a local basis. We take particle distributions produced from clustering in turbulent flows and perform both particle-resolved Monte Carlo ray tracing and Beer's law computations. We show that the error in the calculated transmission decreases as the grid is refined, but that the homogenization error increases rapidly as the grid size approaches the particle diameter. This work was supported by the PSAAP2 program at Stanford University.

  4. New “Dog Only” Beer Hits Shelves%荷兰推出狗狗啤酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A Dutch① brewer② has started producing beer for the dogs and man's best friend can now join man in an ice cold brew. Dog Beer is made from a special blend of beef extracts and malt, giving dogs that clean, crisp lager taste while adding some meaty goodnes

  5. Structural Aspects of the Beer Market in Germany and in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Adams William James

    2007-01-01

    Between 1950 and 2000, the four-firm producer-concentration ratio for beer increased from 22 to 95 in the United States; and Anheuser-Busch's share of domestic output ballooned from 6 to 54 percent. In the same period, the four-firm producer-concentration ratio in Germany has risen, but it remains low (in 2000, it was just 29). In 2005, after five years of important mergers involving big brewers, the German beer industry was still much less concentrated than its American counterpart. In this ...

  6. Probing beer aging chemistry by nuclear magnetic resonance and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Carvalho, B.; Brandao, T. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955, S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Gil, Ana M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-09-30

    Graphical abstract: The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days) is described. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and an aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration revealed the importance of well known markers (e.g. 5-HMF) as well as of other compounds: amino acids, higher alcohols, organic acids, dextrins and some still unassigned spin systems. 2D correlation analysis enabled relevant compound variations to be confirmed and inter-compound correlations to be assessed, thus offering improved insight into the chemical aspects of beer aging. Highlights: {center_dot} Use of NMR metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging. {center_dot} Compositional variations evaluated by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. {center_dot} Results reveal importance of known markers and other compounds: amino and organic acids, higher alcohols, dextrins. {center_dot} 2D correlation analysis reveals inter-compound relationships, offering insight into beer aging chemistry. - Abstract: This paper describes the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in tandem with multivariate analysis (MVA), for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days). To evaluate the resulting compositional variations, both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and a clear aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration enabled the changing compounds to be identified, revealing the importance of well known

  7. Probing beer aging chemistry by nuclear magnetic resonance and multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days) is described. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and an aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration revealed the importance of well known markers (e.g. 5-HMF) as well as of other compounds: amino acids, higher alcohols, organic acids, dextrins and some still unassigned spin systems. 2D correlation analysis enabled relevant compound variations to be confirmed and inter-compound correlations to be assessed, thus offering improved insight into the chemical aspects of beer aging. Highlights: · Use of NMR metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging. · Compositional variations evaluated by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. · Results reveal importance of known markers and other compounds: amino and organic acids, higher alcohols, dextrins. · 2D correlation analysis reveals inter-compound relationships, offering insight into beer aging chemistry. - Abstract: This paper describes the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in tandem with multivariate analysis (MVA), for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days). To evaluate the resulting compositional variations, both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and a clear aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration enabled the changing compounds to be identified, revealing the importance of well known markers such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5

  8. Evaluating Coordinated E¤ects: An application to the US beer industry

    OpenAIRE

    Frederik Beelitz

    2009-01-01

    The paper brings Friedman?s (1971) collusive game to data and investigates whether the merger between the ?fth and fourth largest brewer (G. Heileman and Stroh) of the US beer industry in the mid 1990?s had a signi?cant impact on the incentives to collude in the industry. It does so by ?rstly estimating a random coe¢ cient Logit demand system for the US beer market. In a second step the demand estimates are used to conduct a merger simulation (Davis, 2006) quantifying coordinated e¤ects of th...

  9. Transcriptome Sequence and Plasmid Copy Number Analysis of the Brewery Isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T during Growth in Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Pittet; Phister, Trevor G.; Barry Ziola

    2013-01-01

    Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients); however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pe...

  10. Beer and its Non-Alcoholic Compounds: Role in Pancreatic Exocrine Secretion, Alcoholic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Feick

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available : In this article we provide an overview of the newest data concerning the effect of non-alcoholic constituents of alcoholic beverages, especially of beer, on pancreatic secretion, and their possible role in alcoholic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. The data indicate that non-alcoholic constituents of beer stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion in humans and rats, at least in part, by direct action on pancreatic acinar cells. Some non-alcoholic compounds of beer, such as quercetin, resveratrol, ellagic acid or catechins, have been shown to be protective against experimentally induced pancreatitis by inhibiting pancreatic secretion, stellate cell activation or by reducing oxidative stress. Quercetin, ellagic acid and resveratrol also show anti-carcinogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. However, beer contains many more non-alcoholic ingredients. Their relevance in beer-induced functional alterations of pancreatic cells leading to pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in humans needs to be further evaluated.

  11. The Effect of Entry into the European Union on the Slovak Beer Industry and Its Consequences for the Tax Taken from the Excise Duty on Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Juraj Válek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is concerned with the issue of increasing the excise duty on beer and its consequences for consumption of the studied product. The aim is to demonstrate the tax burden in relation to domestic producers and beer consumption in the domestic market. The time period considered is the 16 years from 1999 to 2014. Data on consumption and the evolution of excise duty rates were compared ex post and conclusions were drawn using an analysis of economic indicators. In general, it is the case that, by increasing the rates of the duty, governments expect to see an increase in the income side of the state budget, even though increases in tax lead to reductions in consumption. This is, however, only a short-term effect and, over a longer time frame, such measures have a negative effect not only on consumption, but also on domestic production and on the tax income in the state budget.

  12. Cheers, Proost, Saúde: Cultural, Contextual and Psychological Factors of Wine and Beer Consumption in Portugal and in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, G.; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de C.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and beer consumption are an integral part of European culture: Southern Europe is associated with wine and Northern Europe is associated with beer. When consumed in moderation, these alcoholic beverages can be part of a balanced and healthy diet. In the 1990s, non-alcoholic beer, which has no c

  13. Firma Moses Löw-Beer a osudy jejích majitelů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březina, Vladimír

    Brno : Technické muzeum v Brně, 2014 - (Čapka, F.; Slabotinský, R.; Stöhrová, R.), s. 130-137 ISBN 978-80-87896-12-9. - (Acta Musei Technici Brunensis. 6) Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Brno * textile industry * Löw Beer Subject RIV: AB - History

  14. Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalović Ida I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms like Ganoderma lucidum have been used for thousands of years as a traditional medicine in the Far East. Ganoderma received wide popularity as an eating mushroom with high nutritive value, but even more as medical fungi. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases: hepatitis, hypertension, insomnia, and even cancer. Due to its extraordinary action, it is often called 'Elixir of life', 'Food of gods' and 'Mushroom of universe'. The intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides (b-glucane inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Mushroom produces triterpenes of which especially ganoderic acid showed cytotoxicity on primary tumor liver cells, inhibition of histamine release, hepatoprotective effect, stimulation of the immune system functions, inhibition of the aggregation of blood plates, etc. On the other hand, beer as a purely natural beverage obtained in the process of fermentation, contains a number of ingredients which are important for human organism, and in moderate usage has favorable reaction on the general health condition of the body. As such, beer is a very good basis for the development of a number of new products with defined pharmacodynamics influence. In this work, we have investigated the possibilities of using extracts of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types. The composition of mushroom, properties of the most important active ingredients, extraction procedures, and sensory characteristics of the beers on the basis of such extracts were determined. The most important parameters of quality and possibility of adjustments using extracts of different medicinal herbs were investigated.

  15. Demonstrating the Effect of Supply Chain Disruptions through an Online Beer Distribution Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sourish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a classroom tool to teach the impact of supply chain disruptions and mitigation strategies based on information sharing and collaboration. The tool is an adaptation of the Beer Distribution Game, is easy to play, and can be hosted online or on local servers. The game considers several scenarios based on the location of the…

  16. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  17. A large set of newly created interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids increases aromatic diversity in lager beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Stijn; Steensels, Jan; Saels, Veerle; De Rouck, Gert; Aerts, Guido; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, "Saaz" and "Frohberg." This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma. PMID:26407881

  18. Prevalence of inappropriate medication using Beers criteria in Japanese long-term care facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niwata, Satoko; Yamada, Yukari; Ikegami, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    the basis of the 2003 Beers criteria. Results The patients in the sample were similar in terms of demographic characteristics to those in the national survey. Our study revealed that 356 (21.1%) of the patients were treated with potentially inappropriate medication independent of disease or condition...

  19. Survey of pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses for ochratoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Surveys have been carried out to estimate the levels of ochratoxin A in pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses.. A total of 286 samples were analysed The results show that compared with cereals and cereal products the contribution from the foods surveyed to the total intake of ochratoxin A by the...

  20. Net effect of wort osmotic pressure on fermentation course, yeast vitality, beer flavor, and haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, K; Matoulková, D; Dienstbier, M; Gabriel, P

    2009-04-01

    The net effect of increased wort osmolarity on fermentation time, bottom yeast vitality and sedimentation, beer flavor compounds, and haze was determined in fermentations with 12 degrees all-malt wort supplemented with sorbitol to reach osmolarity equal to 16 degrees and 20 degrees. Three pitchings were performed in 12 degrees/12 degrees/12 degrees, 16 degrees/16 degrees/12 degrees, and 20 degrees/20 degrees/12 degrees worts. Fermentations in 16 degrees and 20 degrees worts decreased yeast vitality measured as acidification power (AP) by a maximum of 10%, lowered yeast proliferation, and increased fermentation time. Repitching aggravated these effects. The 3rd "back to normal" pitching into 12 degrees wort restored the yeast AP and reproductive abilities while the extended fermentation time remained. Yeast sedimentation in 16 degrees and 20 degrees worts was delayed but increased about two times at fermentation end relative to that in 12 degrees wort. Third "back-to-normal" pitching abolished the delay in sedimentation and reduced its extent, which became nearly equal in all variants. Beer brewed at increased osmolarity was characterized by increased levels of diacetyl and pentanedione and lower levels of dimethylsulfide and acetaldehyde. Esters and higher alcohols displayed small variations irrespective of wort osmolarity or repitching. Increased wort osmolarity had no appreciable effect on the haze of green beer and accelerated beer clarification during maturation. In all variants, chill haze increased with repitching. PMID:19122996

  1. Teaching Beer's Law and Absorption Spectrophotometry with a Smart Phone: A Substantially Simplified Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Jacobson, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    A very simple protocol for teaching Beer's Law and absorption spectrophotometry using a smart phone is described. Materials commonly found in high school chemistry laboratories or even around the house may be used. Data collection and analysis is quick and easy. Despite the simple nature of the experiment, excellent results can be achieved.

  2. Beer Advertising to Latino Youth: The Effects of Spanish vs. English Language Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; And Others

    Although Latino youth have slightly lower rates of alcohol use than Anglo youth, evidence suggests that as Latinos acculturate their rates of use increase to match those of the Anglo adolescent population. In light of these cultural patterns, a study examined the reactions of young adult males of Latino origin to television beer and non-beer…

  3. Finger Millet: A Potential Source For Production of Gluten Free Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Bano,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to value addition of underutilized crops using fermentation technology need a radical approach. Present study has been made to explore the underutilized crops utilization for production of beer. Designed experiments were conducted to find the effect of three independent variables having three levels of each i.e. (blend ratio-80:20:0,80:10:10, 80:0:20 , α-amylase enzyme concentration - 0%, 0.4%, and 0.8% and slurry ratio -1:5, 1:7 and 1:9 on pH, colour and alcohol content of beer prepared from finger millet, barnyard millet and paddy. The data from all experiments were analyzed statistically using Design Expert 8.0.7.1 and the response functions were developed using the regression analysis. Result of fermented studies reveals that blend ratio had maximum effect on alcohol content,pH and colour but enzyme concentration had maximum effect on alcohol content while slurry ratio affected the colour of beer. Statistical analysis resulted in the optimum conditions of the independent variables as blend ratio (80:(9.6:(10.4, enzyme concentration 0.45% and slurry ratio 1:6.82 for maximum beer production. The second order model was found to be fitted to predict all the responses i.e., pH, colour and alcohol content.

  4. Optimization of biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Maojin; Yuan, Zhuliang; Zhi, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Beer lees are the main by-product of the brewing industry. Biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria was investigated in this study, and the effects of acidic pretreatment, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration on hydrogen production were studied at 35 C in batch experiments. The hydrogen yield was significantly enhanced by optimizing environmental factors such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) pretreatment of substrate, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration. The optimal environmental factors of substrate pretreated with 2% HCl, pH = 7.0 and 113.67 mg/l Fe{sup 2+} were observed. A maximum cumulative hydrogen yield of 53.03 ml/g-dry beer lees was achieved, which was approximately 17-fold greater than that in raw beer lees. In addition, the degradation efficiency of the total reducing sugar, and the contents of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and metabolites are presented, which showed a strong dependence on the environmental factors. (author)

  5. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. 31.75 Section 31.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in...

  6. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  7. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Erny, G.L. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNAA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esteves, V.I. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Cabrita, E. [Department of Chemistry, New University of Lisbon, 2825-114 Caparica (Portugal); Gil, A.M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-08-03

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  8. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Reservation. The land is trust land and this Ordinance allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of......

  9. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to wines and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Wholesale Dealers' Records and Reports §...

  10. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Farcas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BGS is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  11. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Farcas; Maria Tofana; Sonia Socaci; Stancuta Scrob; Liana Salanta; Doinita Bors

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BGS) is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  12. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this volume. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported distilled spirits... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER...

  13. UASB反应器处理啤酒废水%Beer Wastewater Treatment by UASB Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽霞; 魏海波

    2012-01-01

    Beer is the worldwide beverage, but 10~20 t wastewater are produced in producing 1 t beer. UASB reactor method was designed treat high concentrations of organic matter beer wastewater. The results showed it could effectively remove BOD and COD in the wastewater, the removal rate was more than 80 %, and the beer wastewater ultimately achieved the water quality requirements through the process.%啤酒是世界性的饮料,但每生产lt啤酒也会产生约10~20t废水。文章设计使用uAsB反应器法处理含高浓度有机物的啤酒废水,能有效地去除废水中的BOD和COD,去除率达到80%以上,啤酒废水经此工艺处理,最终达到出水水质要求。

  14. Lipidomics as an important key for the identification of beer-spoilage bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, D.; Benada, Oldřich; Sigler, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 536-543. ISSN 0266-8254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : beer * contamination * electrospray tandem mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2014

  15. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  16. Structural characterization of beer oligosaccharides using hilic chromatography hyphenated with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Bobálová, Janette

    Rome : National Research Council, 2010. s. 159 [International Symposium on Separation Science /16./. 06.09.2010-10.09.2010, Rome] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosaccharides * HPLC * beer Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  17. The enhancement of chromatographic analysis of beer oligosaccharides using solid-phase extraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Žídková, Jitka; Bobálová, Janette

    Poznan : Poznan University of Life Sciences, 2010 - (Ziółkowska, A.). s. 144 [International Symposium on Advances in Extraction Technologies /12./. 20.09.2010-22.09.2010, Poznań] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosaccharides * SPE * beer Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Beer oligosaccharides profiling by porous graphite and hilic HPLC-MS/MS techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Bobálová, Janette

    2010. [Advances in Metabolic Profiling, Advances in Protein Crystallography, European Biomarkers Summit, Mass Spec Europe. 09.11.2010-10.11.2010, Florence] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosaccharides * HPLC * beer Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. BAC and Beer: Operationalizing Drunk Driving Laws in a Research Methods Course Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph B.; McConnell, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on an exercise utilized in a research methods class and based on social problems that invites student interest. Explains the exercise has students determine their blood alcohol level (BAC) by asking them to estimate the number of beers it would take to have them just reach driving under the influence (DUI) status. (CMK)

  20. Beer and Fast Cars: How Brewers Target Blue-collar Youth through Motor Sport Sponsorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David R.; Lev, Jane

    This study explored how motor sports sponsorships complement and amplify the brewers' media campaigns by joining masculinity, risk, excitement, and beer in the actual "lived" experiences of potential consumers. To document industry expenditures and justifications for motor sports sponsorship, trade journals and newsletters (N=25) and other public…

  1. Optimisation of Lab-Scale Continuous Alcohol-Free Beer Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehnert, R.; Novák, Pavel; Macieira, F.; Kuřec, M.; Teixeira, J.A.; Brányik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 267-275. ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : alcohol-free beer * continuous reactor * immobilised yeast Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2009

  2. How will regional brewers and their cask beer brands survive and prosper in the face of market changes resulting from Government intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This project is a study of the current state of the cask beer market in England, focussing on one particular regional cask beer producer, "A". The project has been undertaken with two main objectives in mind. Firstly, the project sets out to determine the nature and extent of the impact of recent Government intervention in the cask beer market; in particular, the introduction in 2002 of Progressive Beer Duty, or Small Relief, and, in the same year, the revocation of the Beer Orders legis...

  3. The sedative effect of non-alcoholic beer in healthy female nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Franco

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hop (Humulus lupulus L., a component of beer, is a sedative plant whose pharmacological activity is principally due to its bitter resins, in particular to the α-acid degradation product 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The mechanism of action of hop resin consists of raising the levels of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting in the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the sedative effect of hops as a component of non-alcoholic beer on the sleep/wake rhythm in a work-stressed population. METHODS: The experiment was conducted with healthy female nurses (n = 17 working rotating and/or night shifts. Overnight sleep and chronobiological parameters were assessed by actigraphy (Actiwatch® after moderate ingestion of non-alcoholic beer containing hops (333 ml with 0.0% alcohol with supper for 14 days (treatment. Data were obtained in comparison with her own control group without consumption of beer during supper. RESULTS: Actigraphy results demonstrated improvement of night sleep quality as regards the most important parameters: Sleep Latency diminished (p≤0.05 in the Treatment group (12.01±1.19 min when compared to the Control group (20.50±4.21 min, as also did Total Activity (p≤0.05; Treatment group = 5284.78±836.99 activity pulses vs Control = 7258.78±898.89 activity pulses. In addition, anxiety as indexed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI decreased in the Treatment group (State Anxiety 18.09±3.8 vs Control 20.69±2.14. CONCLUSION: The moderate consumption of non-alcoholic beer will favour night-time rest, due in particular to its hop components, in addition to its other confirmed benefits for the organism.

  4. Guaiacol and 4-methylphenol as specific markers of torrefied malts. Fate of volatile phenols in special beers through aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Caroline; Nizet, Sabrina; Collin, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    Phenol-specific extracts of 12 Belgian special beers were analyzed by gas chromatography hyphenated to olfactometry (AEDA procedure) and mass spectrometry (single ion monitoring mode). As guaiacol and 4-methylphenol were revealed to be more concentrated in brown beers (>3.5 and >1.1 μg/L, respectively), they are proposed as specific markers of the utilization of dark malts. Analysis of five differently colored malts (5, 50, 500, 900, and 1500 °EBC) allowed confirmation of high levels of guaiacol (>180 μg/L; values given in wort, for 100% specialty malt) and 4-methylphenol (>7 μg/L) for chocolate and black malts only (versus respectively beer aging highlighted major differences between phenols. Guaiacol and 4-methylphenol appeared even more concentrated in dark beers after 14 months of aging, reaching levels not far from their sensory thresholds. 4-Vinylphenols and 4-ethylphenols, on the contrary, proved to be gradually degraded in POF(+)-yeast-derived beers. Vanillin exhibited an interesting pattern: in beers initially containing Beers initially showing an above-threshold level of vanillin displayed a decrease during aging. PMID:25174984

  5. Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeneden, Nele

    2007-01-01

    Among the flavour-active volatile phenols in beer, most of them originate from the raw materials used in the brewing process. Only some of them can be formed by yeast activity, namely 4-vinylguaiacol (4VG) and 4-vinylphenol (4VP). The presence of these volatile phenolic compounds is considered undesirable when present in excessive concentration in bottom-fermented pilsner beers, hence the term “phenolic off-flavour” (POF). It is attributed to beers with a strong medicinal, clove-like aroma. D...

  6. Seventy new non-eclipsing BEER binaries discovered in CoRoT lightcurves and confirmed by RVs from AAOmega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Or, Lev; Faigler, Simchon; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2015-09-01

    We applied the BEER algorithm to the CoRoT lightcurves from the first five LRc fields and identified 481 non-eclipsing BEER candidates with periodic lightcurve modulations and amplitudes of 0.5 - 87 mmag. Medium-resolution spectra of 281 candidates were obtained in a seven-night AAOmega radial-velocity (RV) campaign, with a precision of ˜ 1 km/s. The RVs confirmed the binarity of 70 of the BEER candidates, with periods of 0.3 - 10 days.

  7. Application of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR) of hydrogen to the characterization of European beers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.J.; Benbernou, M.; Lantier, F. (Nantes Univ., 44 (France))

    More than one hundred samples of European beers have been investigated by the new SNIF-NMR method which is based on 2H NMR at the natural abundance level and enables site-specific natural isotope fractionation factors in ethanol to be determined. The relative (R) and absolute (D/H)sub(i) parameters are shown to be characteristic of the country where the beers are brewed and the observed variations are explained in terms of cereal composition, water resource, and manufacturing processing (fermentation, yeast, temperature cycle). These new parameters find analytical and mechanistic applications in the identification of a beer and in the investigation of a fermentation process.

  8. Application of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR) of hydrogen to the characterization of European beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than one hundred samples of European beers have been investigated by the new SNIF-NMR method which is based on 2H NMR at the natural abundance level and enables site-specific natural isotope fractionation factors in ethanol to be determined. The relative (R) and absolute (D/H)sub(i) parameters are shown to be characteristic of the country where the beers are brewed and the observed variations are explained in terms of cereal composition, water resource, and manufacturing processing (fermentation, yeast, temperature cycle). These new parameters find analytical and mechanistic applications in the identification of a beer and in the investigation of a fermentation process. (author)

  9. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. PMID:26616936

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BEER analysis of CoRoT light curves (Tal-Or+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-05-01

    We performed RV follow-up observations with the AAOmega multi-object spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). In total, we observed 281 out of the 481 selected BEER candidates. Table 2 lists the coordinates, magnitudes, photometric ephemeris, and amplitudes of the three BEER effects for the candidates observed with AAOmega. For convenience, the confirmed binaries are indicated in the rightmost column of Table 2. Table 4 lists the 255 non-composite spectrum candidates observed, and the synthetic-spectrum parameters used to derive their RVs. For convenience, the rightmost column identifies the confirmed BEER single-line binaries (SB1s), 45 of which were identified in that list. Table 5 lists the 26 composite-spectrum BEER candidates detected, the primary and secondary synthetic-spectrum parameters used by TODCOR to derive the primary and secondary RVs, and the estimated flux ratio between the primary and the secondary components (TODCOR's alpha parameter). (3 data files).

  11. Continuous beer fermentation with yeast immobilized on alternative cheap carriers and sensorial evaluation of the final product

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e; J. A. Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Continuous beer fermentation offers a wide range of advantages, mostly of economic nature over the traditional batch process. However, due to increased complexity of operation comparing to batch process, flavor problems, risk of contamination, yeast viability, carrier price and inconvenience of immobilization, the continuous beer fermentation has found few practical applications so far. The carrier cost represents a significant part of the investment costs and therefore the need f...

  12. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  13. Cloning and characterization of the beer foaming gene CFG1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2012-10-31

    Foam production is an essential characteristic of beer, generated mainly from the proteins present in the malt and, to a minor extent, from the mannoproteins in brewer's yeast cell walls. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the novel fermentation gene CFG1 (Carlsbergensis foaming gene) from Saccharomyces pastorianus. CFG1 encodes the cell wall protein Cfg1p, a 105 kDa protein highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall mannoproteins, particularly those involved in foam formation, such as Awa1p and Fpg1p. Further characterization of Cfg1p revealed that this novel protein is responsible for beer foam stabilization. This report represents the first time that a brewing yeast foaming gene has been cloned and its action fully characterized. PMID:23039128

  14. 2012 Beers criteria update: how should practicing nurses use the criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The continued development of explicit lists of medications to avoid in older adults, such as the Beers criteria, is a key initiative in geriatrics. The involvement of nurse in this endeavor is critical , and nursing research, education, and practice will help not only develop but also disseminate important pharmacological management information to the public and thereby decrease drug-related problems and improve the health of older adults. Lastly, we wish to acknowledge Dr. Mark Beers' tremendous leadership in conceptualizing the importance of medication management in older adults and in acknowledging the significance of the full-team approach in patient care. Mark, who passed away in 2009, was an incredible mentor and true champion of safe medication use in adults. PMID:22657720

  15. Data-fusion for multiplatform characterization of an italian craft beer aimed at its authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancolillo, Alessandra; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Antonio L.; Magrì, Andrea D.; Marini, Federico, E-mail: fmmonet@hotmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of beer samples by five different fingerprinting techniques. • Chemometric discriminant and class-modeling techniques used for their authentication. • Mid-level data fusion allowed correct classification of all samples. - Abstract: Five different instrumental techniques: thermogravimetry, mid-infrared, near-infrared, ultra-violet and visible spectroscopies, have been used to characterize a high quality beer (Reale) from an Italian craft brewery (Birra del Borgo) and to differentiate it from other competing and lower quality products. Chemometric classification models were built on the separate blocks using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) obtaining good predictive ability on an external test set (75% or higher depending on the technique). The use of data fusion strategies – in particular, the mid-level one – to integrate the data from the different platforms allowed the correct classification of all the training and validation samples.

  16. Data-fusion for multiplatform characterization of an italian craft beer aimed at its authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Characterization of beer samples by five different fingerprinting techniques. • Chemometric discriminant and class-modeling techniques used for their authentication. • Mid-level data fusion allowed correct classification of all samples. - Abstract: Five different instrumental techniques: thermogravimetry, mid-infrared, near-infrared, ultra-violet and visible spectroscopies, have been used to characterize a high quality beer (Reale) from an Italian craft brewery (Birra del Borgo) and to differentiate it from other competing and lower quality products. Chemometric classification models were built on the separate blocks using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) obtaining good predictive ability on an external test set (75% or higher depending on the technique). The use of data fusion strategies – in particular, the mid-level one – to integrate the data from the different platforms allowed the correct classification of all the training and validation samples

  17. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziola Barry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol. Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  18. Reduction and restoration of culturability of beer-stressed and low-temperature-stressed Lactobacillus acetotolerans strain 2011-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Fang, Huijing; Tu, Jingxia; Li, Bing; Liu, Jing; Li, Huiping; Xu, Zhenbo

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria, regardless of beer type, and therefore pose significant problems for the brewing industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable, but putatively non-culturable (VPNC) state of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage species, Lactobacillus acetotolerans. Upon prolonged contact with degassed beer, L. acetotolerans was found to show decreased culturability. After 17 subcultures in beer, 100-μL aliquots of the culture were no longer culturable on MRS agar until 14 days of incubation despite the presence of 10(5) viable cells, indicating that a large population of cells entered into a VPNC state. Furthermore, a significant reduction or even putative loss of culturability, but maintenance of viability, of L. acetotolerans could also be induced by storing the strain at 0 °C for 105 days. Adding catalase at a concentration of 1000 U/plate enabled the VPNC cells, both induced by beer subculture treatment and cold treatment, to regain culturability with a resuscitation time of 4 days and 3 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that cells decreased in size and gradually changed morphology from short rods to coccoids when they entered the VPNC state. It was concluded that the difficulty in culturing the spoilage bacterium from brewery environments could be partly attributed the hard-to-culture or the viable, but non-culturable characteristic of this organism. PMID:26001377

  19. Impact of the brewing process on the concentration of silicon in lager beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Cejnar, R.; Kučera, Jan; Dostálek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2014), s. 433-437. ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : beer * brewing * hops * INAA * malt * silicon Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2014

  20. Furfural Determination with Disposable Polymer Films and Smartphone-Based Colorimetry for Beer Freshness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Yuste, Alberto; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Benito-Peña, Elena; de Las Casas Engel, Tomás; Orellana, Guillermo; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    We have developed disposable color-changing polymeric films for quantification of furfural-a freshness indicator-in beer using a smartphone-based reader. The films are prepared by radical polymerization of 4-vinylaniline, as a furfural-sensitive indicator monomer, 2-hydroxymethyl methacrylate as a comonomer, and ethylene dimethyl methacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker. The sensing mechanism is based on the Stenhouse reaction in which aniline and furfural react in acidic media with the generation of a deep red cyanine derivative, absorbing at 537 nm, which is visible to the naked eye. The colorimetric response has been monitored using either a portable fiber-optic spectrophotometer or the built-in camera of a smartphone. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response to furfural in beer was obtained in the 39 to 500 μg L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 12 μg L(-1), thus improving the performance of other well-established colorimetric or chromatographic methods. The novel films are highly selective to furfural, and no cross-reactivity has been observed from other volatile compounds generated during beer aging. A smartphone application (app), developed for Android platforms, measures the RGB color coordinates of the sensing membranes after exposure to the analyte. Following data processing, the signals are converted into concentration values by preloaded calibration curves. The method has been applied to determination of furfural in pale lager beers with different storage times at room temperature. A linear correlation (r > 0.995) between the storage time and the furfural concentration in the samples has been confirmed; our results have been validated by HPLC with diode-array detection. PMID:26965182

  1. Identification and in vitro reactivity of celiac immunoactive peptides in an apparent gluten-free beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Real

    Full Text Available Gluten content from barley, rye, wheat and in certain oat varieties, must be avoid in individuals with celiac disease. In most of the Western countries, the level of gluten content in food to be considered as gluten-free products is below 20 parts per million measured by ELISA based on specific anti-gluten peptide antibody. However, in beverages or food suffering complex hydrolytic processes as beers, the relative proportion of reactive peptides for celiac patients and the analytical techniques may differ, because of the diversity of the resulting peptide populations after fermentations. A beer below 20 parts per million of gluten but yet detectable levels of gluten peptides by anti-gliadin 33-mer antibodies (G12 and A1 was analyzed. We identified and characterized the relevant peptides for either antibody recognition or immunoactivity in celiac patients. The beer was fractionated by HPLC. The relative reactivity of the different HPLC fractions to the G12/A1 antibodies correlated to the reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 14 celiac individuals. Peptides from representative fractions classified according to the relative reactivity to G12/A1 antibodies were identified by mass spectrometry. The beer peptides containing sequences with similarity to those of previously described G12 and A1 epitopes were synthesized and confirmed significant reactivity for the antibodies. The most reactive peptides for G12/A1 also confirmed the highest immunogenicity by peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation and interferon γ production from celiac patients. We concluded that preparative HPLC combined with anti-gliadin 33-mer G12/A1 antibodies were very sensitive and specific methods to analyze the relevant immunogenic peptides in hydrolyzed gluten.

  2. Violence, Gender and the Price of Beer in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Kent; Shepherd, Jonathan; Sivarajasingham, Vaseekaran; Benbow, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of the real price of beer on violence-related injuries split by gender across the economic regions in England and Wales. It was concluded that alcohol prices and injury sustained in violence is causally related in both males and females. Injury of females is causally related to poverty but injury of males. However, nationwide sports events were associated only with male assault injury. Violence-related harm was significantly and independently linked to other ...

  3. Incentives to Advertise and Economic Efficiency: The Difference Between Beef and Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Hunnicutt, Lynn; Israelsen, L. Dwight

    2001-01-01

    There is some debate about whether firms advertise too much or too little. We present a simple model to examine the incentives of a firm to advertise, and distinguish between the market-expansion effect and the business-stealing effect of advertising. Firms advertise homogeneous products (beef) too little relative to the amount that would maximize total industry profits. The possibility of stealing customers from competitors causes firms in differentiated products markets (beer) to advertise ...

  4. Excise and Import Taxes on Wine vs Beer and Spirits: An International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all countries tax the domestic consumption of alcoholic beverages. However, the rates of taxation, and the tax instruments used, vary enormously between countries. This paper provides estimates, for a wide range of high-income and developing countries, of the consumer tax equivalents (CTEs) of wine, beer and spirits taxes as of 2008. It encompasses wholesale sales taxes, excise taxes and import tariffs expressed both in dollars per litre of alcohol and as a percentage of what the whole...

  5. A case of type I variant Kounis syndrome with Samter-Beer triad

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Jayesh S; Virpariya, Kapil M; Thakkar, Ashok S.; Abhyankar, Atul D.

    2013-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is defined as the coexistence of acute coronary syndromes with situations associated with allergy or hypersensitivity, as well as anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, to a variety of medical conditions, environmental and medication exposures. We report a case of Kounis-Zavras syndrome type I variant in the setting of aspirin-induced asthma, or the Samter-Beer triad of asthma, nasal polyps and aspirin allergy. When there is a young individual with no predisposing factors of...

  6. Influence of Wettability of Container Wall on Beer Foam Structure and Stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin

    Frankfurt : DECHEMA, 2011, P44.05. ISBN N. [European Congress of Chemical Engineering /8./. Berlin (DE), 25.09.2011-29.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA ČR(CZ) GD104/08/H055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wetting properties * beer * foam Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. Automatic control with fuzzy logic of home-made beer production in maceration and cooking stages

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Luján Corro; Víctor Vásquez Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    The process of home-made beer production in the malt maceration and cooking stages was controlled automatically with fuzzy logic, across different performers considering the time and temperature of the process, using 2009LabVIEW. The equipment was mainly composed of three 20 L capacity stainless steel containers (water supply, maceration and cooking), an additional hops container, a data acquisition card (PIC 16F877a micro controller), three LM35 temperature sensors and 11 on/off type perform...

  8. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2003-01-01

    A high intake of alcohol may prolong waiting time to pregnancy, whereas a moderate intake may have no or perhaps even a positive effect on fecundity. In previous studies on fecundity, different types of beverages have not been taken into consideration, although moderate wine drinkers appear to have...... fewer strokes, lung and digestive tract cancers, and overall mortality than both abstainers and moderate drinkers of beer or spirits. We examined the association between different types of alcoholic beverages and waiting time to pregnancy....

  9. Effective photons in weakly absorptive dielectric media and the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, A C; Bhat, N A R; Sipe, J E; Steel, M J; de Sterke, C Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We derive effective photon modes that facilitate an intuitive and convenient picture of photon dynamics in a structured Kramers-Kronig dielectric in the limit of weak absorption. Each mode is associated with an effective line-width which determines the temporal decay rate of the photon. These results are then applied to obtain an expression for the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law absorption coefficient for unidirectional propagation in structured media consisting of dispersive, weakly absorptive dielectric materials.

  10. On consumption, censorship, beer, and celebrity: Building the meaning for the Devassa brand

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Maria Ribeiro de Souza

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to reflect on the assumptions of the advertising activity by presenting and analyzing the Devassa Bem Loura beer launch campaign in Brazil. The case represents a transition from traditional advertising, practiced since the beginning of the last century through paid insertions into the media, using an invasive model of persuasion, to current advertising, which seeks to engage consumers on multiple media platforms, no longer by imposing sales arguments, but, rather, by invitat...

  11. Bullwhip effect and inventory oscillations analysis using the Beer Game model

    OpenAIRE

    Strozzi, Fernanda; Coppini, Matteo; Rossignoli, Chiara; Rossi, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This work examines the bullwhip effect generated and suffered by each level of a four-stage beer game supply chain when different demand scenarios are considered. The paper shows that the actors who generate lower bullwhip are those who suffer more from its effects. Moreover, a new definition of an inventory oscillations measure based on bullwhip definition is introduced. Finally the paper verifies that the new measure of inventory oscillations provides more information ...

  12. Solid-phase extraction approach in comprehensive analysis of wort and beer samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Žídková, Jitka; Bobálová, Janette

    Praha : Institute of Chemical Technology, 2011 - (Pulkrabová, J.; Tomaniová, M.). s. 237 ISBN 978-80-7080-795-8. [International Symposium on Recent Advances in Food Analysis /5./. 01.11.2011-04.11.2011, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : solid phase extraction * carbohydrates * beer Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  13. Market Power of the German Beer Industry on Export Markets - An Empirical Study -

    OpenAIRE

    Glauben, Thomas; Loy, Jens-Peter, 1964-

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the existence and magnitude of market power for the German beer exporters is tested. Two theoretical approaches to model incomplete competition on international markets are employed, the ?pricing to market? (PTM) model the ?residual demand elasticity? (RDE) approach. Estimations for both models over the period from 1991 to 1998 reveal incompatible results regarding the underlying theoretical models and with respect to the approach that is used. While significant market power is ...

  14. Inspection of bottles crates in the beer industry through computer vision

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Mário; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Martins, Teresa; Santos, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a system developed for the industry of bottling beer. The system has to perform the inspection of various items in the final stage, meaning after the production phase where the bottles are already in the crate. The items to inspect are the following: whether the crate is correct (with the correct color), whether the crate is broken, whether the crate is fully populated, i.e., all bottles are present, to check for bottles without caps and whether the ...

  15. Inappropriate prescribing in an acutely ill population of elderly patients as determined by Beers' Criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul F

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with inappropriate prescribing (IP) and result in increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilisation. We used Beers\\' Criteria to determine the three-month prevalence of IP in a non-selected community-dwelling population of acutely ill older people requiring hospitalisation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 597 consecutive acute admissions was performed. Diagnoses and concurrent medications were recorded before hospital physician intervention, and Beers\\' Criteria applied. RESULTS: Mean patient age (SD) was 77 (7) years. Median number of medications was 5, range 0-13. IP occurred in 32% of patients (n = 191), with 24%, 6% and 2% taking 1, 2 and 3 inappropriate medications respectively. Patients taking >5 medications were 3.3 times more likely to receive an inappropriate medication than those taking < or =5 medications (OR 3.34: 95%, CI 2.37-4.79; P<0.001). Forty-nine per cent of patients with inappropriate prescriptions were admitted with adverse effects of the inappropriate medications. Sixteen per cent of all admissions were associated with such adverse effects. CONCLUSION: IP is highly prevalent in acutely ill older patients and is associated with polypharmacy and hospitalisation. However, Beers\\' Criteria cannot be used as a gold standard as they do not comprehensively address all aspects of IP in older people.

  16. Analysis of multiple mycotoxins in beer employing (ultra)-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariasova, Milena; Cajka, Tomas; Godula, Michal; Malachova, Alexandra; Veprikova, Zdenka; Hajslova, Jana

    2010-11-30

    The objective of the presented study was to develop and optimize a simple, high-throughput method for the control of 32 mycotoxins (Fusarium and Alternaria toxins, aflatoxins, ergot alkaloids, ochratoxins, and sterigmatocystin) in beer. Due to the broad range of their physicochemical properties, the sample preparation step was simplified as much as possible to avoid analyte losses. The addition of acetonitrile to beer samples enabled precipitation of abundant matrix components. The clean-up efficiency was controlled by ambient mass spectrometry employing a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source. For determination of analytes, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with high-resolution mass spectrometry utilizing an orbitrap (U-HPLC-orbitrapMS) or time-of-flight (TOFMS) technology was used. Because of significantly better detection capabilities of the orbitrap technology, the U-HPLC-orbitrapMS method was chosen as a determinative step and fully validated. To compensate matrix effects, matrix-matched calibration was employed. The lowest calibration levels for most of the target mycotoxins ranged from 1 to 8  µg  L(-1) beer and the recoveries of analytes were in range from 86 to 124%. PMID:20973012

  17. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  18. Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Prelle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common technique used to detect ochratoxin A (OTA in food matrices is based on extraction, clean-up, and chromatography detection. Different clean-up cartridges, such as immunoaffinity columns (IAC, molecular imprinting polymers (MIP, Mycosep™ 229, Mycospin™, and Oasis® HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic balance as solid phase extraction were tested to optimize the purification for red wine, beer, roasted coffee and chili. Recovery, reproducibility, reproducibility, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated for each clean-up method. IAC demonstrated to be suitable for OTA analysis in wine and beer with recovery rate >90%, as well as Mycosep™ for wine and chili. On the contrary, MIP columns were the most appropriate to clean up coffee. A total of 120 samples (30 wines, 30 beers, 30 roasted coffee, 30 chili marketed in Italy were analyzed, by applying the developed clean-up methods. Twenty-seven out of 120 samples analyzed (22.7%: two wines, five beers, eight coffees, and 12 chili resulted positive to OTA. A higher incidence of OTA was found in chili (40.0% more than wine (6.6%, beers (16.6% and coffee (26.6%. Moreover, OTA concentration in chili was the highest detected, reaching 47.8 µg/kg. Furthermore, three samples (2.5%, two wines and one chili, exceeded the European threshold.

  19. Cloning and expression of a novel prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae and its application in beer stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    A novel prolyl endopeptidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Amino acid sequence analysis of the prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AO-PEP) showed that this enzyme belongs to a class serine peptide S28 family. Expression, purification and characterization of AO-PEP were analyzed. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by metal ion Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+). The K m and k cat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The results implied that the recombinant AO-PEP possessed higher affinity for the larger substrate. A fed-batch strategy was developed for the high-cell-density fermentation and the enzyme activity reached 1,130 U/l after cultivation in 7 l fermentor. After addition of AO-PEP during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, demonstrated the potential application of AO-PEP in the non-biological stability of beer, which favor further industrial development of this new enzyme in beer stabilization, due to its reducing operational costs, as well as no beer losses unlike regeneration process and beer lost with regenerated polyvinylpolypyrrolidone system. PMID:25547787

  20. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  1. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions): application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers' criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul

    2012-02-03

    Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established Beers\\' criteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. METHODS: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and Beers\\' criteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. RESULTS: median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0-21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. Beers\\' criteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. Beers\\' criteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). CONCLUSION: STOPP criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than Beers\\' criteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.

  2. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves III. Sixty New Non-Eclipsing BEER Binaries Discovered in CoRoT Light Curves Confirmed by RVs from AAOmega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the BEER algorithm (Faigler& Mazeh 2011) to the CoRoT white-light curves from the first five LRc fields. We have found 491 non-eclipsing BEER candidates with periodic photometric modulations and amplitudes of 0.5-80 mmag. Medium-resolution spectra of 281 candidates were obtained in a seven-night AAOmega radial-velocity (RV) campaign, with a precision of ˜1 km s-1. The RVs confirmed the binarity of at least 60 of the BEER candidates, with RV semi-amplitudes ranging from 6 to 115 km s-1, and periods from 0.3 to 10 days. We detected an F-type star that may possibly have a brown dwarf companion in a 0.7-day period orbit.

  3. Transcriptome sequence and plasmid copy number analysis of the brewery isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344 T during growth in beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pittet

    Full Text Available Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients; however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T (Pc344-358. Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria.

  4. Analysis of solar irradiation measurements at Beer Sheva, Israel from 1985 through 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In depth analysis of long-term solar irradiation at Beer Sheva, Israel. • Construction of a typical meteorological year for global and beam irradiation. • Statistical analysis of the global and beam irradiation. • Analysis of long-term trends regarding global and beam irradiation. - Abstract: An in-depth analysis of the solar horizontal global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation monitored at Beer Sheva from 1985 through 2013 has been performed. The horizontal beam irradiation, daily clearness index, daily beam index and beam fraction of the horizontal global irradiation were determined from the measured parameters. A statistical analysis, which included average, median, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values and the coefficient of variation, was performed on the parameters under investigation. The monthly frequency distribution types were determined for the solar global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation based upon their corresponding skewness and kurtosis values. In addition, typical meteorological years were developed for the solar horizontal global and normal incidence beam irradiation. Beer Sheva is characterized as a site with a high incidence of clear days with global irradiation consisting of a relatively high beam fraction. A relatively steep minimum in the annual average daily normal incidence beam irradiation is observed from 1991 to 1993 and has been attributed to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines during June 1991. A time series analysis of the both individual monthly and annual average daily global and normal incidence irradiation indicated a slight trend of solar brightening for this region during the time interval 1985 through 2013, but in most cases they were not statistically significant based upon their p values

  5. Pulsed UV laser light on Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in non-alcoholic beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elikaei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed ultra-violet (UV irradiation on inactivation of beer spoilage microorganisms. UV irradiation is nowadays cost effective enough to compete with traditional biological, physical, and chemical treatment technologies and has become an alternative to such methods."nMaterial and Methods: Photoinactivation effects of pulsed UV laser with the wavelengths of 355 and 266 nm, which inactivate typical prokaryotic (Escherichia coli and eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae microorganisms, were examined with different doses and exposure times."nResults: A dose of 100 J/cm2 of the 355 nm pulsed UV laser was able to reduce about 1 to 2 log (88.75% of E.coli with the population of 1.6×108 colony-forming units (CFU/ml, and 97% of 3.2×107, 3×106, 5.5×105, and 9×104 CFU/ml. In the case of 266 nm, more than 99% reduction in E. coli serial dilutions was inactivated, using 10 J/cm2 with exception of 7×104 CFU/ml which was not detected any bacterial growth using 5 J/cm2. In addition, 50, 40, and 20 J/cm2 energy were used successfully to inactivate S. cerevisiae at the populations of 5.4×106, 7×105, 5×104 and 4×103 CFU/ml, respectively."nAs a result, pulsed UV Laser with 266 nm was strong enough to inactivate a high titer of bacterial and yeast indicator standards suspended in non-alcoholic beer in comparison with 355nm doses."nConclusion: Results indicate that pulsed UV technology, in principle, is an attractive alternative to conventional methods for the inactivation of indicator microorganisms and has potential in irradiation of unpasteurized beer.

  6. Potentially inappropriate medication use: the Beers' Criteria used among older adults with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ageing population means prescribing for chronic illnesses in older people is expected to rise. Comorbidities and compromised organ function may complicate prescribing and increase medication-related risks. Comorbid depression in older people is highly prevalent and complicates medication prescribing decisions. AIM: To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use in a community-dwelling population of older adults with depressive symptoms. METHODS: The medications of 191 community-dwelling older people selected because of depressive symptoms for a randomised trial were reviewed and assessed using the modified version of the Beers' Criteria. The association between inappropriate medication use and various population characteristics was assessed using Chi-square statistics and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The mean age was 81 (±4.3 years and 59% were women. The median number of medications used was 6 (range 1-21 medications. The most commonly prescribed potentially inappropriate medications were amitriptyline, dextropropoxyphene, quinine and benzodiazepines. Almost half (49% of the participants were prescribed at least one potentially inappropriate medication; 29% were considered to suffer significant depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale ≥5 and no differences were found in the number of inappropriate medications used between those with and without significant depressive symptoms (Chi-square 0.005 p=0.54. DISCUSSION: Potentially inappropriate medication use, as per the modified Beers' Criteria, is very common among community-dwelling older people with depressive symptoms. However, the utility of the Beers' Criteria is lessened by lack of clinical correlation. Ongoing research to examine outcomes related to apparent inappropriate medication use is needed.

  7. A case of type I variant Kounis syndrome with Samter-Beer triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Jayesh S; Virpariya, Kapil M; Thakkar, Ashok S; Abhyankar, Atul D

    2013-04-26

    Kounis syndrome is defined as the coexistence of acute coronary syndromes with situations associated with allergy or hypersensitivity, as well as anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, to a variety of medical conditions, environmental and medication exposures. We report a case of Kounis-Zavras syndrome type I variant in the setting of aspirin-induced asthma, or the Samter-Beer triad of asthma, nasal polyps and aspirin allergy. When there is a young individual with no predisposing factors of atherosclerosis and apparent coronary lesion, with or without electrocardiography and biochemical markers of infarction, the possibility of Kounis syndrome should be kept in mind. PMID:23675559

  8. Finger Millet: A Potential Source For Production of Gluten Free Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Ishrat Bano,; Kopal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Studies related to value addition of underutilized crops using fermentation technology need a radical approach. Present study has been made to explore the underutilized crops utilization for production of beer. Designed experiments were conducted to find the effect of three independent variables having three levels of each i.e. (blend ratio-80:20:0,80:10:10, 80:0:20 , α-amylase enzyme concentration - 0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and slurry ratio -1:5, 1:7 and 1:9) on pH, colour and alcohol...

  9. Interaction of Gas Bubbles with Solid Particles in Continuous Beer Fermenting System with Potential for Foaming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Orvalho, Sandra; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology, 2009 - (Markoš, J.), s. 60 ISBN 978-80-227-3072-3. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /36./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 25.05.2009-29.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD104/08/H055; GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA ČR GA104/06/1418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer fermentation * bubble column fermentor * hydrodynamics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  10. Ant colony system algorithm for the optimization of beer fermentation control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杰; 周泽魁; 张光新

    2004-01-01

    Beer fermentation is a dynamic process that must be guided along a temperature profile to obtain the desired results. Ant colony system algorithm was applied to optimize the kinetic model of this process. During a fixed period of fermentation time, a series of different temperature profiles of the mixture were constructed. An optimal one was chosen at last. Optimal temperature profile maximized the final ethanol production and minimized the byproducts concentration and spoilage risk. The satisfactory results obtained did not require much computation effort.

  11. A case of type I variant Kounis syndrome with Samter-Beer triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh S Prajapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kounis syndrome is defined as the coexistence of acute coronary syndromes with situations associated with allergy or hypersensitivity, as well as anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, to a variety of medical conditions, environmental and medication exposures. We report a case of Kounis-Zavras syndrome type I variant in the setting of aspirin-induced asthma, or the Samter-Beer triad of asthma, nasal polyps and aspirin allergy. When there is a young individual with no predisposing factors of atherosclerosis and apparent coronary lesion, with or without electrocardiography and biochemical markers of infarction, the possibility of Kounis syndrome should be kept in mind.

  12. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong's zero wine and beer tax policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Sungwon; Lam Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that ha...

  13. Chemometric classification of Chinese lager beers according to manufacturer based on data fusion of fluorescence, UV and visible spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2015-10-01

    We report an application of data fusion for chemometric classification of 135 canned samples of Chinese lager beers by manufacturer based on the combination of fluorescence, UV and visible spectroscopies. Right-angle synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) at three wavelength difference Δλ=30, 60 and 80 nm and visible spectra in the range 380-700 nm of undiluted beers were recorded. UV spectra in the range 240-400 nm of diluted beers were measured. A classification model was built using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA with cross-validation showed that the data fusion could achieve 78.5-86.7% correct classification (sensitivity), while those rates using individual spectroscopies ranged from 42.2% to 70.4%. The results demonstrated that the fluorescence, UV and visible spectroscopies complemented each other, yielding higher synergic effect. PMID:25872423

  14. Seven new binaries discovered in the Kepler light curves through the BEER method confirmed by radial-velocity observations

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, S; Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Tal-Or, L

    2011-01-01

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic radial-velocity follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range of 0.07-0.4 Msun. The discovered binaries establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-perio...

  15. Using mass spectrometry to detect hydrolysed gluten in beer that is responsible for false negatives by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2014-11-28

    Gluten is the collective name for a class of proteins found in wheat, rye, barley and oats. Eating gluten triggers an inappropriate auto-immune reaction in ∼70 million people globally affected by coeliac disease, where the gut reacts to gluten proteins and this triggers an immune response, resulting in intestinal inflammation and damage. Gluten-free foods are now commonplace, however, it is difficult to accurately determine the gluten content of products claiming to be gluten-free using current methodologies as the antibodies are non-specific, show cross-reactivity and have different affinities for the different classes of gluten. The measurement of gluten in processed products is further confounded by modifications to the proteins that occur during processing and in some case hydrolysis of the proteins. In this study, LC-MS/MS was used to profile whole beer, and two beer fractions representing hydrolysed hordeins (beer and revealed that certain classes of hordein were prone to hydrolysis (B- and D-hordein). Furthermore, select beers contained very high levels of gluten-derived fragments. Strikingly, those beers that contained high levels of B-hordein fragments gave near zero values by ELISA. The hydrolysed fragments that persist in beer show a dose-dependent suppression of ELISA measurement of gluten despite using a hordein standard for calibration of the assay. The development of MS-based methodology for absolute quantification of gluten is required for the accurate assessment of gluten, including hydrolysed forms, in food and beverages to support the industry, legislation and to protect consumers suffering from CD. PMID:25454134

  16. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  17. Study of innovative methods of control in the cereal productive chain for the production of beer and spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Sileoni, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Researches performed during the PhD course intended to assess innovative applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in reflectance (NIR) in the production chain of beer. The purpose is to measure by NIR the "malting quality" (MQ) parameter of barley, to monitor the malting process and to know if a certain type of barley is suitable for the production of beer and spirits. Moreover, NIR will be applied to monitor the brewing process. First of all, it was possible to check the quality of the...

  18. Evaluation of a distribution model for a new beer company production site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Menoncin Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambev dominates the beer market in Brazil with a 70% share. The group formed in the 1990s by the merger of the two largest companies in the industry at the time, Brahma and Antarctica. Even with new entrants in the market AmBev kept growing and increasing its participation. One of the biggest challenges to work in the beer market is the distribution strategy. AmBev’s success has, in its distribution strategy, one of the critical factors in reaching this level of market share. The model AmBev has implemented and continues to invest is what Brahma, pre AmBev, adopted as its strategy in the 1990s. This work aims to determine whether, in a company starting its production activities in the same industry, the AmBev distribution model can be applied. Based on the concepts of logistics and supply chain management, the possible concepts of distribution strategies were identified, seeking to understand those underlying the AmBev reference model. With this, a company has been identified and a case study conducted to understand the application of the AmBev model. The main findings of the study point to possibilities for adopting the model, but with restrictions and constant monitoring to control the implementation of the strategy.

  19. Automatic control with fuzzy logic of home-made beer production in maceration and cooking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Luján Corro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of home-made beer production in the malt maceration and cooking stages was controlled automatically with fuzzy logic, across different performers considering the time and temperature of the process, using 2009LabVIEW. The equipment was mainly composed of three 20 L capacity stainless steel containers (water supply, maceration and cooking, an additional hops container, a data acquisition card (PIC 16F877a micro controller, three LM35 temperature sensors and 11 on/off type performers, which were governed by a total of 47 Mandani type fuzzy rules with trapezoidal membership functions, using the method of center area for the defuzzification. The performers: electrovalves (5, pumps (2, heaters (3 and a stirrer, in approximately 4 hours, were adequately controlled in their early maceration and cooking stages. The beer obtained by automatic control with fuzzy logic in the maceration and cooking stages, had the following characteristics: 0.98 g/cm3 of density, 3.9 of pH, total acidity expressed as 0.87% of lactic acid, 6.2ºGL of alcoholic degree and 0.91% w/v of CO2 percentage.

  20. The development of fermented juice beer%发酵果汁啤酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴平; 李文兴; 曹显俊

    2001-01-01

    How a juice beer is prepared with fruit juice and malt juice through fermenting by beer yeast under lower temperature is in troduced in the paper. The results show that the fruit - juice- to- malt - juice ratio of 6: 1 is ideal, and that alcohol 3 % (V / V),sugar 5.5°Bx and pH 4.4 in the formulation of fermenting liquid can help to obtain pleasant flavour in the final products.%介绍了以果汁、麦汁为原料,以啤酒酵母为菌种,通过低温发酵研制成果汁啤酒的方法。研究表明:果汁:麦汁以6:1混合较好,对发酵液进行调配时,酒精度3%(V/V),糖度5.5°Bx,pH值4.4,最终产品可以形成令人满意的风味。

  1. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts. PMID:19089653

  2. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material. PMID:26788308

  3. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2015-10-16

    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine. PMID:26362807

  4. Beer and wine in antiquity: beneficial remedy or punishment imposed by the Gods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    Different types of alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer were used in ancient times for various medicinal purposes. Being the oldest and probably the most widely used drugs, they were known to have some therapeutic value, in addition to the vital part they played in the daily life of people. Ethanol is produced by fermentation of a variety of plants and consumed either in a diluted form or concentrated by distillation to concoct alcoholic beverages. Beer made of fermented barley is an alcoholic drink that was believed to contain a spirit or a god. It is a drink of relatively low alcohol content with supernatural properties. The same was believed for wine. Considered to be divine, these beverages were the long sought elixirs of life and appeared in religious ceremonies, in mythology, and in social meals, such as the Greek symposia. In addition, these alcoholic drinks were considered to be a remedy for practically every disease and, therefore, were a common ingredient in ancient prescriptions. They were used as anaesthetics that dull the pain, as stimulants, as analgesics, as antiseptics to cleanse wounds and relieve pain, as emetics, as digestives, as antidotes for plant poisoning, for bites and stings, and as purifiers. However, we should not overlook the harmful effects of alcohol abuse such as drunkenness, chronic liver disease and, in modern terminology, infirmities that included pancreatitis, cardiomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, and central nervous system disorders. PMID:23560753

  5. Friedrich Beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Zdenko

    Praha: Národní archiv, 2008, s. 10-15 ISBN 978-80-86712-68-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : world war II * Czechoslovak resistance abroad * Germans against nacism Subject RIV: AB - History

  6. Friedrich Beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Zdenko

    Praha: Národní archiv, 2008 - (Kokošková, Z.), s. 10-15 ISBN 978-80-86712-67-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : WWII - Czechoslovak resistance abroad - German against nacism Subject RIV: AB - History

  7. Novel prediction method of beer foam stability using protein Z, barley dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and yeast thioredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Takoi, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Takafumi; Kihara, Makoto; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Ito, Kazutoshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2008-09-24

    Foam stability is an important quality trait of beer. Our previous results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) analyses of beer proteins implied a relationship between barley dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and beer foam stability as judged by the NIBEM-T analyzer. To develop a novel prediction method of beer foam stability under different conditions of barley cultivar and malt modification, multiple linear regression analysis was applied. The spot intensities of major beer proteins on 2DE gel were quantified and used as explanatory variables. The foam stabilities of 25 beer samples each brewed from malt with different malt modification in one of the three cultivars (cultivars A, B, and C) were explained by the spot intensities of BDAI-1 at the 5% significance level ( r = 0.421). Furthermore, two other major protein spots (b0 and b5) were observed on the 2DE gels of Japanese commercial beer samples with different foam stability. Then, multiple regression for foam stability was calculated using these three spot intensities as explanatory variables. As a result, 72.1% of the beer foam stability in 25 beer samples was explained by a novel multiple regression equation calculated using spot b0 and BDAI-1 as positive explanatory variables and spot b5 as a negative variable. To verify the validity of the multiple regression equation and the explanatory variables, the beer foam stability in practical beer samples was analyzed. As a result, 81.5% of the beer foam stability in 10 Japanese commercial beer samples was also explained by using spot b0 and BDAI-1 as positive explanatory variables and spot b5 as a negative variable. Mass spectrometry analyses followed by database searches revealed that protein spots b0 and b5 were identified as protein Z originated from barley and thioredoxin originated from yeast, respectively. These results confirm that BDAI-1 and protein Z are foam-positive factors and identify yeast thioredoxin as a possible novel foam

  8. Confirmation of brand identity of a Trappist beer by mid-infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jasper; Blanchet, Lionel; Buydens, Lutgarde M C; Downey, Gerard

    2012-09-15

    Authentication of foods is of importance both to consumers and producers for e.g. confidence in label descriptions and brand protection, respectively. The authentication of beers has received limited attention and in most cases only small data sets were analysed. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR ATR) spectroscopy was applied to a set of 267 beers (53 different brands) to confirm claimed identity for samples of a single beer brand based on their spectral profiles. Skewness-adjusted robust principal component analysis (ROBPCA) was deployed to detect outliers in the data. Subsequently, extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data while simultaneously achieving maximum class separation. Finally, the reduced data were used as inputs to various linear and non-linear classifiers. Work focused on the specific identification of Rochefort 8° (a Trappist beer) and both direct and indirect (using an hierarchical approach) identification strategies were studied. For the classification problems Rochefort vs. non-Rochefort, Rochefort 8° vs. non-Rochefort 8° and Rochefort 8° vs. Rochefort 6° and 10°, correct prediction abilities of 93.8%, 93.3% and 97.3%, respectively were achieved. PMID:22967575

  9. Exploring the use of natural antimicrobial agents and pulsed electric fields to control spoilage bacteria during a beer production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, M A; Gil, G R; Iannone, L J; Cerrutti, P

    2007-01-01

    Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 degrees C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1 mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage. PMID:17987854

  10. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: → EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. → CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. → Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  11. Influence of yeast immobilization on fermentation and aldehyde reduction during the production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Brouwer-Post, E.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence

  12. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Pengpeng, E-mail: xupp.cn@gmail.com [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, Edwin Hon-Wan; Queena Kun Qian [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-11-15

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: > EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. > CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. > Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  13. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions...

  14. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  15. Redox Titration of Ferricyanide to Ferrocyanide with Ascorbic Acid: Illustrating the Nernst Equation and Beer-Lambert Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tina H.; Salter, Gail; Kahn, Sarah L.; Gindt, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a simple, resilient experiment that illustrates the Nernst equation and Beer-Lambert law for our second-semester general chemistry students. In the experiment, the students monitor the reduction of ferricyanide ion, [Fe(CN)[subscript 6

  16. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  17. DECISION MAKING IN SUPPLY CHAINS AND VALUE NETWORKS: THE BEER GAME EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spagnoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New trends in inter-organization configurations are challenging the traditional concept of supply chain. Concepts such as Virtual Enterprise were introduced to describe scenarios in which manufacturers operate as nodes within a network of suppliers, customers, engineers, and other specialized service functions. Our aim is to build a simulation tool based on the rules of the Beer Game that includes the variables of a virtual enterprise, VirtuE in particular, and risk management in order to understand the strategies underlying the subject’s behavior in the face of risk within a means-end chain. The simulation tool will contribute to understanding the complexity of managing decision making in supply chains and networks. This study presents the tests carried out on the original game, the new variables introduced, and the simulation results.

  18. On consumption, censorship, beer, and celebrity: Building the meaning for the Devassa brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Ribeiro de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the assumptions of the advertising activity by presenting and analyzing the Devassa Bem Loura beer launch campaign in Brazil. The case represents a transition from traditional advertising, practiced since the beginning of the last century through paid insertions into the media, using an invasive model of persuasion, to current advertising, which seeks to engage consumers on multiple media platforms, no longer by imposing sales arguments, but, rather, by invitation and the consenting participation of Internet users in promoting the brand. The article discusses the assumptions of the advertising activity in this transition scenario and presents the creative, visual, and verbal elements that now constitute the brand's signs of identity and personality.

  19. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  20. Bread, beer and wine: yeast domestication in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Delphine; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    Yeasts of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species complex are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO(2) via fermentation. They have been used for thousands years by mankind for fermenting food and beverages. In the Neolithic times, fermentations were probably initiated by naturally occurring yeasts, and it is unknown when humans started to consciously add selected yeast to make beer, wine or bread. Interestingly, such human activities gave rise to the creation of new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex by interspecies hybridization or polyploidization. Within the S. cerevisiae species, they have led to the differentiation of genetically distinct groups according to the food process origin. Although the evolutionary history of wine yeast populations has been well described, the histories of other domesticated yeasts need further investigation. PMID:21377618

  1. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer...... and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion: Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose...... syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition....

  2. Why does a beer bottle foam up after a sudden impact on its mouth?

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Fuster, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A sudden vertical impact on the mouth of a beer bottle generates a compression wave that propagates through the glass towards the bottom. When this wave reaches the base of the bottle, it is transmitted to the liquid as an expansion wave that travels to free surface, where it bounces back as a compression wave. This train of expansion-compression waves drives the forced cavitation of existing air pockets, leading to their violent collapse. A cloud of very small daughter bubbles are generated upon these collapses, that expand much faster than their mothers due to their smaller size. These rapidly growing bubble clusters effectively act as buoyancy sources, what leads to the formation of bubble-laden plumes whose void fraction increases quickly by several orders of magnitude, eventually turning most of the liquid into foam.

  3. Field Trip 5: HYDROGEOLOGY OF BEER AND WINE IN THE YAKIMA VALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Bachmann, Matthew P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2011-05-05

    The climate and geology of eastern Washington are ideally suited to the production of hops and wine grapes. Nearly all of Washington’s hop and wine-grape production is located in the lower Yakima River Basin , which is one of the most intensively irrigated areas in the United States. Most of this irrigation water has been supplied by surface water reservoirs and canal systems drawing from the Yakima River. However, increasing demands for water has spurred the increased use of groundwater resources. This field trip guide explores many aspects of the geology and hydrogeology in the lower Yakima River Basin, particularly as they relate to water resources that support the local beer and wine industries.

  4. Changes in the Microbial Composition of Microbrewed Beer during the Process in the Actual Manufacturing Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Jeon, S H; Kim, N H; Kim, H W; Lee, N Y; Cho, T J; Jung, Y M; Lee, S H; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated changes in the microbial composition of microbrewed beer during the manufacturing processes and identified potential microbial hazards, effective critical quality control points, and potential contamination routes. Comprehensive quantitative (aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, fungi, acetic acid bacteria, coliforms, and Bacillus cereus) and qualitative (Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens) microbiological analyses were performed using samples of raw materials (malt and manufacturing water), semiprocessed products (saccharified wort, boiled wort, and samples taken during the fermentation and maturation process), and the final product obtained from three plants. The initial aerobic plate count and lactic acid bacteria counts in malt were 5.2 and 4.3 log CFU/g, respectively. These counts were reduced to undetectable levels by boiling but were present at 2.9 and 0.9 log CFU/ml in the final product. Fungi were initially present at 3.6 log CFU/g, although again, the microbes were eliminated by boiling; however, the level in the final product was 4.6 log CFU/ml. No E. coli or foodborne pathogens (except B. cereus) were detected. B. cereus was detected at all stages, although it was not present in the water or boiled wort (total detection rate ¼ 16.4%). Results suggest that boiling of the wort is an effective microbial control measure, but careful management of raw materials and implementation of effective control measures after boiling are needed to prevent contamination of the product after the boiling step. The results of this study may constitute useful and comprehensive information regarding the microbiological quality of microbrewed beer. PMID:26613919

  5. Development of aromatic hop compounds and bitterness in beer during room temperature- and cold storage based on three different hopping methods

    OpenAIRE

    Torgals, Ann Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether storage temperature or hopping method had influence on the aroma and bitterness in beer. The focus was set on the aroma that comes from hops, and not from yeast. The secondary objective to this study was to explore the development of the alcohol, CO2 and bitterness in the beer after priming and bottling. The thesis’ main perspective is that of home brewers, and to some extent that of microbreweries. Beer was brewed with 100 % pilsn...

  6. Seventy-two new non-eclipsing BEER binaries discovered in CoRoT lightcurves and confirmed by RVs from AAOmega

    CERN Document Server

    Tal-Or, Lev; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2014-01-01

    We applied the BEER algorithm to the CoRoT lightcurves from the first five LRc fields and identified $491$ non-eclipsing BEER candidates with periodic lightcurve modulations and amplitudes of $0.5-80$ mmag. Medium-resolution spectra of $281$ candidates were obtained in a seven-night AAOmega radial-velocity (RV) campaign, with a precision of $\\sim1$ km/s. The RVs confirmed the binarity of $72$ of the BEER candidates, with periods of $0.3-10$ days.

  7. 啤酒中胺类物质的系统分析%System analysis of amines in beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金珠; 刘翻; 孙元社; 唐涛; 张维冰; 李彤

    2012-01-01

    Many amine compounds are exist in Beer. Whose taste and quality are closely related to the content and the kind of the amine compounds. A method for trace amine compounds analysis in beer was developed in this paper. The amine compounds withNH2 and NH in beer were analyzed by HPLC separation and LIFD determination, using FITC as derivative regent. Then the nitrosamines in beer were quantitative analyzed by lowtemperature vacuum distillation com bined with GCFID. Further more, various kinds of beer on sell were analyzed. Using the developed method, the result indicated that there existed some differences of amine compounds among different brands and different series of beer. Setting the integral threshold at lmv, the largest number of HPLC peaks is 53 and the least number is 38. In the chromato grams of beer samples, Analyze the content of nitrosamines in three kinds of beer and trace nitrosamines have been de tected in two kinds of them. The method has a high sensitivity, good stability and is easily operated. It can be used for de tection of quality of beer and fake and shoddy products and is valuable significance to control the content of carcinogenic amine compounds. It is very important for the health of people. The method is also suitable for amine compounds analysis in other beverage and food.%啤酒中含有大量胺类物质,其种类和含量与啤酒口感与质量密切相关。本文以异硫氰酸荧光素(FITC)为衍生试剂,高效液相色谱(HPLC)-激光诱导荧光(LIFD)检测,分析啤酒中含有-NH2和-NH-基团的胺类物质;低温真空蒸馏结合气相色谱-氢火焰离子化(GC-FID)测定啤酒中亚硝胺类物质含量,建立了啤酒中胺类物质的系统分析方法。进-步以该方法,对市售多种啤酒进行了系统分析。结果表明,不同啤酒中胺类物质的种类及其含量均具有-定差异。以峰高值lmV为积分阈值,样品色谱图中最多检测出53个

  8. Effects of a Proline Endopeptidase on the Detection and Quantitation of Gluten by Antibody-Based Methods during the Fermentation of a Model Sorghum Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Fiedler, Katherine L; Cho, Chung Y; Cheng, Raymond; Stutts, Whitney L; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers. A competitive ELISA using a pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate calibrant was unreliable because the peptide profiles of the beers were inconsistent with that of the hydrolysate calibrant. Analysis by MS indicated that PEP enhanced the loss of a fragment of an immunopathogenic 33-mer peptide in the beer. However, Western blot results indicated partial resistance of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins to the action of PEP, questioning the ability of PEP in digesting all immunopathogenic sequences present in gluten. PMID:26548701

  9. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen;

    2015-01-01

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content...... and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable...

  10. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Gail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications. Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include

  11. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health. PMID:27295128

  12. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter;

    2009-01-01

    of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity...... resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup...... of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer....

  13. Proteome-Based Analysis of Colloidal Instability Enables the Detection of Haze-Active Proteins in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fabian; Flaschel, Erwin; Niehaus, Karsten

    2016-09-01

    Colloidal haze is a serious quality defect of bright beers that considerably reduces their shelf life and is thought to be triggered by hordeins, a class of proline-rich barley proteins. In this work, the proteomes of fresh and old beers were investigated in bottled pilsners and compared to the protein inventory of haze to identify specific haze-active proteins. Haze isolates dissolved in rehydration buffer contained high concentrations of proteins and sugars but provided protein gels with weak spot signals. Consequently, a treatment for the chemical deglycation with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid was applied, which resulted in the identification of protein Z4, LTP1, CMb, CMe, pUP13, 3a, and Bwiph as constituents of the haze proteome. Because only one hordein was detectable and the proline content in haze hydrolysates was lower than those of barley prolamins, our results suggest that this class of proteins is of minor importance for haze development. PMID:27515584

  14. Antioxidative Mechanisms of Sulfite and Protein-Derived Thiols during Early Stages of Metal Induced Oxidative Reactions in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Krämer, Anna C; Andersen, Mogens L

    2015-09-23

    The radical-mediated reactions occurring during the early stages of beer storage were studied by following the rate of oxygen consumption, radical formation as detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and concentrations of the antioxidant compounds sulfite and thiols. Addition of either Fe(III) or Fe(II) had similar effects, indicating that a fast redox equilibrium is obtained between the two species in beer. Addition of iron in combination with hydrogen peroxide gave the most pronounced levels of oxidation due to a direct initiation of ethanol oxidation through generation of hydroxyl radicals by the Fenton reaction. The concentration of sulfite decreased more than the thiol concentration, suggesting that thiols play a secondary role as antioxidants by mainly quenching 1-hydroxyethyl radicals that are intermediates in the oxidation of ethanol. Increasing the temperature had a minor effect on the rate of oxygen consumption. PMID:26325117

  15. Behavior of field-applied triadimefon, malathion, dichlorvos, and their main metabolites during barley storage and beer processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhiqiang; Li, Minmin; Chen, Jieying; Gui, Yuejing; Bao, Yuming; Fan, Bei; Jian, Qiu; Francis, Frédéric; Dai, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-15

    The behavior and fate of 3 pesticides (triadimefon, malathion, and dichlorvos) and the main metabolites (triadimenol and malaoxon) during barley storage or beer processing were assessed using a pilot-plant equipment. The residues of all products were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Field investigation of the dissipation rate kinetics for triadimefon and malathion during storage indicated that their half-life was twice as high when 5 times the recommended dosage was used. Milling had little effect on the removal of dichlorvos and malathion residues, whereas these were substantially removed when the spent grains were filtered after mashing. The calculated processing factors were all <1, indicating the residual ratios of dichlorvos and malathion were reduced during the entire process. In conclusion, storage and processing considerably reduced pesticide residue levels in barley and beer; however, greater focus needs to be paid to the toxicity of their metabolites in commercial by-products. PMID:27283683

  16. Forensic applications of stable isotope analysis: case studies of the origins of water in mislabeled beer and contaminated diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papesch, Wolfgang; Horacek, Micha

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the use of oxygen (18O) isotope analysis of water contained in two different materials--beer and diesel fuel--involved in the resolution of two separate cases. In the first case study, it was possible to demonstrate that a sample of beer labelled as premium brand in fact belonged to a cheap brand. The second case related to the contamination of diesel fuel from a service station. The diesel fuel contained visible amounts of water, which caused vehicles that had been filled up with it to become defective. For insurance purposes, it was necessary to determine the source of water. The delta18O values for the water of nearly all samples of diesel was close to the delta18O of local tap water at the filling station. PMID:19606593

  17. Rapid and simple method for determination of vanadium in beer by ICP-AES with ultrasonic nebulization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate and reproducible method for direct determination of vanadium in beer using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with an ultrasonic nebulization system is described. The analytical conditions were optimized in order to achieve the appropriate sensitivity. Samples were digested with a 1:1 nitric acid-perchloric acid (or hydrogen peroxide) mixture. The analytical detection limit was 0.4 μg/L, and the relative standard deviation was 2.8% at the 10 ng/ml V levels. The method was applied to determine vanadium in 11 different samples of beer widely consumed in the Argentine Republic. Vanadium levels ranged from 15.9 to 244.3 μg/L

  18. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production. PMID:25387611

  19. The alcohol industry lobby and Hong Kong’s zero wine and beer tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sungwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas taxation on alcohol is becoming an increasingly common practice in many countries as part of overall public health measures, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government is bucking the trend and lowered its duties on wine and beer by 50 percent in 2007. In 2008, Hong Kong removed all duties on alcohol except for spirits. The aim of this paper is to examine the case of Hong Kong with its history of changes in alcohol taxation to explore the factors that have driven such an unprecedented policy evolution. Methods The research is based on an analysis of primary documents. Searches of official government documents, alcohol-related industry materials and other media reports on alcohol taxation for the period from 2000 to 2008 were systematically carried out using key terms such as “alcohol tax” and “alcohol industry”. Relevant documents (97 were indexed by date and topic to undertake a chronological and thematic analysis using Nvivo8 software. Results Our analysis demonstrates that whereas the city’s changing financial circumstances and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government’s strong propensity towards economic liberalism had, in part, contributed to such dramatic transformation, the alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics and influence were clearly the main drivers of the policy decision. The alcohol industry’s lobbying tactics were two-fold. The first was to forge a coalition encompassing a range of catering and trade industries related to alcohol as well as industry-friendly lawmakers so that these like-minded actors could find common ground in pursuing changes to the taxation policy. The second was to deliberately promote a blend of ideas to garner support from the general public and to influence the perception of key policy makers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the success of aggressive industry lobbying coupled with the absence of robust public health advocacy was the

  20. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Attitudes Towards Foreign Beer Brands: With Evidence from Zlin Region in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Wanninayake W.M.C.Bandara; Chovancová Miloslava

    2012-01-01

    In modern times, consumer ethnocentrism has become an important strategic tool used by domestic firms in the face of global competition. However, the ability to use this phenomenon and its practical validity can vary in different industrial and cultural contexts. Hence, in this study, researchers address this issue by investigating the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and the attitudes of Czech customers towards foreign beer brands while paying special attention to whether the ethn...

  1. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer

    OpenAIRE

    Coronel, Maria Bernarda; Marín, Sonia; Cano-Sancho, German; Ramos, Antonio J.; Sanchis, Vicent

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts, and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets of twelve cities of the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis: liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC-fluorescence detection. Consumption data of the selected food...

  2. Evaluation of the appropriateness of prescribing in geriatric patients using Beers criteria and Phadke′s criteria and comparison thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate appropriateness of prescribing medicines in geriatric patients using both Beers criteria and Phadke′s criteria and compare them for validation of Phadke′s criteria as a tool to evaluate rationality of prescribing in elderly. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective observational study was conducted and the baseline data were collected from different inpatient and outpatient departments in Shree Krishna Hospital (SKH, Karamsad. A total of 400 patients of geriatric age group (≥65 years from various inpatient and outpatient departments of SKH were included in the study. Relevant information from patients included in the study was recorded in a structured proforma from their case files. Data were evaluated for appropriateness of prescribing by using both Beers criteria and Phadke′s criteria and comparison between the two criteria was also carried out. Results: Out of total 400 patients, 291 (72.75% patients were prescribed appropriately according to Beers criteria. Based on Phadke′s criteria, 158 (39.5% prescriptions were rational, 129 (32.3% were semirational and 113 (28.3% were irrational. Mean rationality score on a 30-point semiscientific scale was found to be 18.47 ± 9.66 (mean ± SD. The comparison of outcome by both the criteria showed no significant difference in appropriateness of prescribing (P>0.05. Conclusions: Inappropriate prescribing is common in elderly patients. Beers criteria is a well-established method for evaluating appropriateness of prescribing. This study has shown that Phadke′s method of evaluating rationality of prescriptions compares equally well and hence can be a valuable objective tool for assessing appropriateness of prescribing in geriatric patients.

  3. Continuous immobilized yeast reactor system for complete beer fermentation using spent grains and corncobs as carrier materials

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Lehnert, Radek; Silva, João B. Almeida e; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive research carried out in the last few decades, continuous beer fermentation has not yet managed to outperform the traditional batch technology. An industrial breakthrough in favour of continuous brewing using immobilized yeast could be expected only on achievement of the following process characteristics: simple design, low investment costs, flexible operation, effective process control and good product quality. The application of cheap carrier materials of by-produc...

  4. Xanthohumol-supplemented beer modulates angiogenesis and inflammation in a skin wound healing model. Involvement of local adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Rita; Costa, Raquel; Duarte, Delfim; Gomes, Tiago Taveira; Coelho, Pedro; Guimarães, João T; Guardão, Luísa; Azevedo, Isabel; Soares, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis and inflammation are two intermingled processes that play a role in wound healing. Nevertheless, whenever exacerbated, these processes result in nonhealing wounds. Xanthohumol (XN), a beer-derived polyphenol, inhibits these processes in many physiopathological situations. This study aimed at examining whether XN ingestion affects wound healing. Wistar rats drinking water, 5% ethanol, stout beer (SB) or stout beer supplemented with 10 mg/L XN (Suppl SB) for 4 weeks, were subjected to a 1.5 cm full skin-thickness longitudinal incision, and further maintained under the same beverage conditions for another week. No differences in beverage consumption or body weight were found throughout the study but food intake decreased in every group relative to controls. Consumption of Suppl SB resulted in decreased serum VEGF levels (18.42%), N-acetylglucosaminidase activity (27.77%), IL1β concentration (9.07%), and NO released (77.06%), accompanied by a reduced redox state as observed by increased GSH/GSSG ratio (to 198.80%). Also, the number of blood vessels within the wound granulation tissue seems to reduce in animals drinking Suppl SB (23.08%). Interestingly, SB and primarily Suppl SB showed a tendency to increase adipocyte number (to 194.26% and 156.68%, respectively) and reduce adipocyte size (4.60% and 24.64%, respectively) within the granuloma. Liver function and metabolism did not change among the animal groups as analyzed by plasma biochemical parameters, indicating no beverage toxicity. This study shows that XN intake in its natural beer context reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis, ameliorating the wound healing process, suggesting that this polyphenol may exert beneficial effect as a nutritional supplement. PMID:21898537

  5. Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy Following Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty: The New Face of “Beer Drinker’s Cardiomyopathy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik O’Connell,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1966, the “beer drinker’s cardiomyopathy” was described in Quebec City, Canada among heavy drinkers following the addition of cobalt by breweries for foam stabilisation. Almost half of those affected died. A similar process has been proposed for cardiovascular periprosthetic metallosis in patients receiving cobalt-containing hip prostheses. This case describes a young man with congenital osteonecrosis treated with cobalt containing prosthetic arthroplasty. Postoperatively, he developed pericardial effusion, dilated cardiomyopathy, polycythemia and lactic acidosis. His serum cobalt level was 156 mcg/L ( normal 0.1 – 0.4 mcg/L. Metal-on-metal hip implants have been associated with arthroprosthetic cobaltisim, a presentation indistinguishable from “beer drinker’s cardiomyopathy.” Up to 35% of hip replacements utilize metal-on-metal bearing surfaces, making this a potentially wide-spread and relatively underappreciated etiology of postoperative idiopathic cardiomyopathy. This clinical vignette emphasizes the importance of considering cobalt cardio- toxicity, or “beer drinker’s cardiomyopathy,” as a differential diagnosis of idiopathic cardiomyopathy following total hip arthroplasty.

  6. Determination of cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Aguinaga, Nerea; López-García, Ignacio; Hernandez-Córdoba, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Procedures were developed for determining cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and the products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Beer samples were injected into the furnace and solid samples were introduced as suspensions after preparation in a medium containing hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for cadmium atomization. Calibration was performed with aqueous standards, and characteristic masses and detection limits were, respectively, 1 and 0.3 pg for cadmium, 18 and 5.4 pg for aluminium, and 5.6 and 6.8 pg for copper. Different samples of beer, wort, brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops were analyzed by the proposed procedures. Cadmium was found in low concentrations (0.001-0.08 microg/g and 0-1.3 ng/mL); copper (3-13 microg/g and 25-137 ng/mL) and aluminium (0.6-9 microg/g and 0.1-2 microg/mL) were found at higher levels. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with others based on microwave oven sample digestion, and by analyzing several certified reference materials. PMID:12083268

  7. SEVEN NEW BINARIES DISCOVERED IN THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVES THROUGH THE BEER METHOD CONFIRMED BY RADIAL-VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.; Tal-Or, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Quinn, S. N.; Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M{sub Sun }. The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.

  8. SEVEN NEW BINARIES DISCOVERED IN THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVES THROUGH THE BEER METHOD CONFIRMED BY RADIAL-VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M☉. The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.

  9. Potential of lees from wine, beer and cider manufacturing as a source of economic nutrients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bibbins, B; Torrado-Agrasar, A; Salgado, J M; Oliveira, R Pinheiro de Souza; Domínguez, J M

    2015-06-01

    Lees are the wastes generated during the fermentation and aging processes of different industrial activities concerning alcoholic drinks such as wine, cider and beer. They must be conveniently treated to avoid uncontrolled dumping which causes environmental problems due to their high content of phenols, pesticides, heavy metals, and considerable concentrations of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium as well as high organic content. The companies involved must seek alternative environmental and economic physicochemical and biological treatments for their revalorization consisting in the recovery or transformation of the components of the lees into high value-added compounds. After describing the composition of lees and market of wine, beer and cider industries in Spain, this work aims to review the recent applications of wine, beer and cider lees reported in literature, with special attention to the use of lees as an endless sustainable source of nutrients and the production of yeast extract by autolysis or cell disruption. Lees and/or yeast extract can be used as nutritional supplements with potential exploitation in the biotechnological industry for the production of natural compounds such as xylitol, organic acids, and biosurfactants, among others. PMID:25824282

  10. Identification of inappropriate prescribing in a Brazilian nursing home using STOPP/START screening tools and the Beers' Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins Gonzaga Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM use and associated factors, as well as the prevalence of Prescribing Omissions (PO. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a philanthropic Brazilian nursing home involving 46 individuals aged 60 years or older. The following information was collected from medical records and drug prescriptions: gender, age, health conditions and drugs used in the past thirty days. PIM and PO were identified according to the Beers' Criteria and the STOPP/START screening tools. Over one third (37% of the population used at least one PIM according to the Beers' Criteria (n=17 and 60.9% according to the STOPP tool. A significant association was found between polypharmacy (use of five or more drugs and use of PIM according to the Beers' Criteria, but not according to the STOPP. Eight residents (17.4% were exposed to eight PO. This study allowed the diagnosis of a concerning drug utilization profile with use of a high number of PIMs. Thus, there is an evident need to implement strategies for improving geriatric prescription.

  11. ¿Influye la cerveza en el aumento de peso?: Efectos de un consumo moderado de cerveza sobre la composición corporal Does beer have an impact weight gain?: Effects of moderate beer consumption on body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romeo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Son numerosos los estudios que han investigado los efectos del consumo de alcohol en el peso corporal, sugiriendo una relación tanto inversa como positiva en relación al peso y la grasa corporal. Objetivo: Examinar la relación entre un consumo moderado de cerveza y el peso corporal en una población adulta española sana. Material y métodos: Después de un período de 30 días de abstinencia alcohólica, 58 voluntarios sanos (31 varones y 27 mujeres fueron sometidos a un consumo moderado de cerveza diario durante los 30 días siguientes. Se evaluaron los parámetros antropométricos correspondientes a la talla, peso, pliegues cutáneos y perímetros, al principio del estudio (a, tras un mes de abstinencia de alcohol (b, y tras un mes de consumo moderado de cerveza (c. Resultados: Se observó un aumento significativo (p Background: The effects of alcohol consumption on body weight have been evaluated in a large number of studies suggesting to be inversely as well as positively related to body weight and body fat. Objective: This study examined the relationships between moderate beer consumption and anthropometrical parameters in Spanish healthy adults. Method: After a 30 day alcohol abstemious period, 58 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate consumption of beer during the following 30 days. Weight, height, skinfolds and circumferences were measured at three points: a basal; b abstemious and c after moderate consumption of beer. Results: Biceps skinfold (mm increased (p < 0.05 in men after moderate beer consumption in regard to abstinence period (5.74 ± 1.70 vs 6.23 ± 1.74. No significant differences were observed in the rest of anthropometrical parameters studied in both women and men along the study intervention. Conclusion: Moderate beer consumption during one month did not mostly change weight and weight-related parameters in healthy adults.

  12. Occurrence of Theaspirane and its Odorant Degradation Products in Hop and Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Caroline; Nizet, Sabrina; Massart, Hadrien; Gerbaux, Pascal; Collin, Sonia

    2015-09-23

    In model oxidized media, six theaspirane-derived compounds were identified by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry: 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-α-ionone, dihydrodehydro-β-ionone, two monoepoxides, and a derived alcohol. Only 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone and dihydrodehydro-β-ionone have been described previously in the literature. Investigation of hop revealed five of these compounds in free form together with theaspirane (especially in the Mosaic variety), while the Citra and Amarillo hop varieties emerged as very interesting for the release of theaspirane, 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, and dihydrodehydro-β-ionone from glucoside precursors. For the first time, theaspirane, 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-α-ionone, and both monoepoxides were found in a fresh commercial top fermentation beer (only theaspirane, 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, and dihydrodehydro-β-ionone have recently been mentioned as Gueuze constituents). PMID:26321162

  13. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and risk of gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barstad, B; Sørensen, T I A; Tjønneland, A;

    2005-01-01

    adjustment for age, gender, educational level, body mass index, smoking habits, inhalation and physical activity. There was no association between beer or spirits drinking and gastric cancer. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a daily intake of wine may prevent development of gastric cancer.......-up 122 incident cases of gastric cancer were identified. Total alcohol intake itself was not associated with gastric cancer, but type of alcohol seemed to influence risk. Compared with non-wine drinkers, participants who drank 1-6 glasses of wine had a relative risk ratio of 0.76 (95% confidence interval...... (CI) 0.50-1.16), whereas those who drank >13 glasses of wine per week had a relative risk ratio of 0.16 (95% CI 0.02-1.18). Linear trend test showed a significant association with a relative risk ratio of 0.60 (95% CI 0.39-0.93) per glass of wine drunk per day. These relations persisted after...

  14. What’s in a Beer? Cultures that Interact in Brewery Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Erdei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study of a local beer factory, located in the Serbian province of Vojvodina, which recently went through the privatization process. At the end of 2003, the Pančevo Brewery was taken over by Efes Group, thus becoming the most western operation in the process of Efes spreading across the European market. Although it is customary to conceptualize privatization as a purely economic issue, research of the privatization of such a local company by a large international producer provided us with an opportunity to observe, analyze and interpret various ways in which economy and culture inter-reacted, and became mutually dependent. The field of economic change was observed as a space of cultural transformation, where business, organizational and working cultures of “socialism” and “capitalism” met and influenced each other, both on institutional and personal levels. Different notions of “culture” that illustrate the increasing “culturalization” of economy at the turn of the century were singled out. Particular attention was paid to socialism as a legacy, operating through narrative and residual practices. At the same time, this legacy was an obstacle for desired change as well as a source for sustaining a sense of personal worth among employees faced with the approaching hegemonic narrative of “capitalism triumphant”.

  15. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater

  16. Novel Centromeric Loci of the Wine and Beer Yeast Dekkera bruxellensis CEN1 and CEN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, Olena P; Vojvoda Zeljko, Tanja; Schifferdecker, Anna J; Mebrahtu Wisén, Sofia; Hagström, Åsa K; Rozpędowska, Elżbieta; Rørdam Andersen, Mikael; Hellborg, Linda; Ling, Zhihao; Sibirny, Andrei A; Piškur, Jure

    2016-01-01

    The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis thrives in environments that are harsh and limiting, especially in concentrations with low oxygen and high ethanol. Its different strains' chromosomes greatly vary in number (karyotype). This study isolates two novel centromeric loci (CEN1 and CEN2), which support both the yeast's autonomous replication and the stable maintenance of plasmids. In the sequenced genome of the D. bruxellensis strain CBS 2499, CEN1 and CEN2 are each present in one copy. They differ from the known "point" CEN elements, and their biological activity is retained within ~900-1300 bp DNA segments. CEN1 and CEN2 have features of both "point" and "regional" centromeres: They contain conserved DNA elements, ARSs, short repeats, one tRNA gene, and transposon-like elements within less than 1 kb. Our discovery of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) next to CEN2 is the first report of such transposons in yeast. The transformants carrying circular plasmids with cloned CEN1 and CEN2 undergo a phenotypic switch: They form fluffy colonies and produce three times more biofilm. The introduction of extra copies of CEN1 and CEN2 promotes both genome rearrangements and ploidy shifts, with these effects mediated by homologous recombination (between circular plasmid and genome centromere copy) or by chromosome breakage when integrated. Also, the proximity of the MITE-like transposon to CEN2 could translocate CEN2 within the genome or cause chromosomal breaks, so promoting genome dynamics. With extra copies of CEN1 and CEN2, the yeast's enhanced capacities to rearrange its genome and to change its gene expression could increase its abilities for exploiting new and demanding niches. PMID:27560164

  17. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  18. Study on the Technology to Produce the Secondary Fermentaton Hullessbarley Beer%二次发酵青稞啤酒工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韶华; 宋扬; 周广田

    2015-01-01

    二次发酵青稞啤酒以大麦麦芽、小麦麦芽和青稞麦芽为原料,通过上面发酵酵母No.303主发酵和下面发酵酵母No.308后发酵而成,符合优质淡色啤酒国家标准且具有怡人的特征香气。本生产工艺的研究为二次发酵青稞啤酒的开发提供了可行的工艺参数。%The secondary fermentaton hullessbarley beer was brewed with malt, wheat malt, hullessbarley malt as the main raw material, through lord fermentation by top-fermentation yeast and secondary fermentation by bottom-fermentation yeast. The secondary fermentaton hullessbarley beer meets the national standards of ale beer, and has a pleasant flavor. This research on brewing process of the secondery fermentaton hullessbarley beer provides the best way to produce this kind of beer product.

  19. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Marín, S; Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets from 12 cities in the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis involving liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Consumption data for the selected foodstuffs were collected by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. The studied population was grouped by age in infants, children, adolescents and adults; and exposure to OTA through the specified foodstuffs, and through wine and coffee, was assessed. Exposure assessment was done through deterministic and probabilistic modelling of the contamination and consumption data. OTA occurrence and mean of positive samples (ng g(-1) or ng ml(-1), for beer) were the following: 8.7% and 0.233 in baby foods; 88.7% and 0.022 in beer; 2.8% and 0.728 in corn-based breakfast cereals; 25% and 0.293 in wheat-based breakfast cereals; 12.9% and 0.283 in loaf bread; 41.7% and 0.241 in peanuts; and 2.9% and 0.228 in pistachios. The median estimated daily intake of OTA through the foodstuffs by each age group were below the latest provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) of 17 and 14 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006 and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, respectively, ranging from 1% and 2% of those values in adolescents and children, to 3% and 11% in adults and infants. PMID:22394208

  20. Investigation of shelf-life extension of sorghum beer (Chibuku) by removing the second conversion of malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyauripo, Josphat; Parawira, Wilson; Tinofa, Sharai; Kudita, Ivy; Ndengu, Clement

    2009-02-28

    The effect of removing the second step of malt conversion in the brewing of Chibuku beer was investigated with the intention of extending the shelf-life of the product. Chibuku was brewed in the laboratory scale fermenters using Delta Beverages' standard brewing procedure. A variation was made where the second malt conversion was not conducted on one brew. The effect of increasing pasteurisation time was also investigated. The extension of shelf-life was determined by following the physicochemical and the sensory profile of the products for a period of ten days under sub-tropical ambient conditions. Ethanol productions were similar between the control and test beers (without second conversion malt). A product with overall acceptability of 70% was made from the brew without the second malt conversion and with 15 min pasteurisation at 80 degrees C. The product was, however, low in bite and head retention, but had less bacterial load, decreased acid production, and improved keeping quality by at least two days. However, due to contamination of the pitching yeast with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total acids rapidly increased after 168 h and caused unacceptable sourness. Increasing pasteurisation time to 20 min reduced bacterial load of the wort to figures as low as 2 x 10(3) cfu/ml. General hygiene levels of the brewery were acceptable and no coliforms were detected in the product or contact surfaces along the production line. Bacterial contamination of the product mainly comes from the raw materials with pasteurisation greatly reducing this load. If improved, the procedure has the potential of extending the shelf-life of the beer to beyond 168 h. PMID:19162356

  1. Detection and Quantification of Gluten during the Brewing and Fermentation of Beer Using Antibody-Based Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Zoerb, Hans F; Cho, Chung Y; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined the term ''gluten-free'' and identified a gap in the analytical methodology for detection and quantification of gluten in foods subjected to fermentation and hydrolysis. To ascertain the ability of current enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect and quantify gluten in fermented and hydrolyzed products, sorghum beer was spiked in the initial phases of production with 0, 20, and 200 μg/ml wheat gluten, and samples were collected throughout the beer production process. The samples were analyzed using five sandwich ELISAs and two competitive ELISAs and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western analysis employing four antibodies (MIoBS, R5, G12, and Skerritt). The sensitivity of the MIoBS ELISA (0.25 ppm) enabled the reliable detection of gluten throughout the manufacturing process, including fermentation, when the initial concentration of 20 μg/ml dropped to 2 μg/ml. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based sandwich ELISAs were unable to reliably detect gluten, initially at 20 μg/ml, after the onset of production. The Skerritt antibody-based sandwich ELISA overestimated the gluten concentration in all samples. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based competitive ELISAs were less sensitive than the sandwich ELISAs and did not provide accurate results for quantifying gluten concentration. The Western analyses were able to detect gluten at less than 5 μg/ml in the samples and confirmed the results of the ELISAs. Although further research is necessary before all problems associated with detection and quantification of hydrolyzed and fermented gluten are resolved, the analytical methods recommended by the FDA for regulatory samples can detect ≥ 20 μg/ml gluten that has undergone brewing and fermentation processes associated with the manufacture of beer. PMID:26038908

  2. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in institutionalised older patients in Spain: the STOPP-START criteria compared with the Beers criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonet M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing using the Beers and STOPP criteria. The START criteria were applied to detect prescription omission in the geriatric population. We compared the utility of these criteria in institutionalised older people.Methods: Descriptive study reviewing the medication and clinical records of 81 residents (aged 65 years and more by pharmacists in a nursing home in the Lleida region (Spain.Results: The mean patients’ age was 84 (SD=8 years, with an average of 5 drugs per resident (total prescriptions: 416 medicines. The Beers criteria identified potentially inappropriate medication use in 25% of patients and 48% of patients used at least 1 inappropriate medication according to STOPP criteria. The most frequent potentially inappropriate medications for both criteria were long-acting benzodiazepines and NSAIDs. START detected 58 potential prescribing omissions in 44% of patients. Calcium-vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis was the most frequent rule (15%, but omissions corresponding to the cardiovascular system implied 23% of patients.Conclusion: The STOPP-START criteria reveal that potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP is a highly prevalent problem among Spanish nursing home residents, and a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the number of medicines prescribed and the number of PIP detected in this study. The STOPP criteria detect a larger number of PI medications in this geriatric population than the Beers criteria. The prescribing omissions detected by the START criteria are relevant and require intervention. Pharmacists’ review of medications may help identify potentially inappropriate prescribing and, through an interdisciplinary approach, working with physicians may improve prescribing practices among geriatric residents of nursing homes.

  3. Development of a rapid method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection for the determination of polyphenols in alcohol-free beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A Alonso; Grande, B Cancho; Gándara, J Simal

    2004-10-29

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and followed by liquid chromatographic separation and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) is proposed for the determination of 10 phenolic compounds which participate on beer stability and sensory properties in alcohol-free beers. Acetonitrile was found to be the most appropriate solvent for the elution of polyphenolic compounds adsorbed on C18 cartridges. The performance of the method was assessed by the evaluation of parameters such as absolute recovery (generally higher than 60%), repeatability (lower than 10%), linearity (r2 higher than 0.993) and limits of quantitation (ranging from 1 to 37 microg/L); no matrix effects were observed. The polyphenol content of different Spanish alcohol-free beers is presented. Five phenolic compounds such as protocatechuic, p-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic acids, and (+)-catechin were identified at levels lower than 10 mg/L. PMID:15553142

  4. Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly: a comparison of the Beers criteria and the improved prescribing in the elderly tool (IPET) in acutely ill elderly hospitalized patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In appropriate prescribing is a significant and persistent problem in elderly people, both in hospital and the community and has been described in several countries in Europe and also the USA. The problem of inappropriate prescribing has not been quantified in the Republic of Ireland. The most commonly used criteria for the identification of inappropriate prescribing are the Beers\\' criteria [both independent of diagnosis (ID) and considering diagnosis (CD) - 2003 version]. The Beers\\' criteria ID includes 48 different categories of either single medications or multiple medications of a similar class identified as inappropriate prescriptions and the Beers\\' criteria CD contains 19 different categories containing possible drug-disease interactions. A second tool, the improved prescribing in the elderly tool (IPET) has also been validated and used in hospital and community studies and has 14 categories of either explicitly contraindicated medications or possible drug-disease interactions. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the study is to measure the incidence of inappropriate prescribing among older community-dwelling individuals presenting to an acute hospital in the Republic of Ireland. A secondary aim of this study was also therefore to compare the efficacy of the above two tools in identifying inappropriate prescribing. METHODS: A prospective, consecutive observational cohort study was carried out over a 4-month period. The setting was an urban-based university hospital acute geriatric medicine assessment unit. Subjects in this study (n = 350) were consecutively screened on admission to hospital (mean age = 80.3 +\\/- 6.1 years) and all patients had both Beers\\' criteria ID and CD and IPET applied to their list of prescription drugs on admission, cross-referenced with their list of current active medical diagnosis. RESULTS: The results of the study identified a high rate of inappropriate prescribing among this population of community

  5. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  6. In vitro ability of beer fermentation residue and yeast-based products to bind aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Fernanda; Franco, Larissa Tuanny; Rosim, Roice Eliana; Barbalho, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to verify the in vitro ability of beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and five commercial products that differed in the viability and integrity of S. cerevisiae cells to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from a citrate-phosphate buffer solution (CPBS). BFR was collected at a microbrewery and prepared by drying and milling. The commercial yeast-based products were as follows: inactive intact yeast cells from beer alcoholic fermentation, inactive intact yeast cells from sugarcane alcoholic fermentation, hydrolyzed yeast cells, yeast cell walls and active yeast cells. Adsorption assays were performed in CPBS spiked with 1.0 μg AFB1/mL at pH 3.0 and 6.0 for a contact time of 60 min at room temperature. Analysis of AFB1 in the samples was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. AFB1 adsorption by the products ranged from 45.5% to 69.4% at pH 3.0 and from 24.0% to 63.8% at pH 6.0. The higher percentages (p 0.05) from commercial products containing inactive intact yeast cells. The results of this trial indicate that the yeast-based products tested, especially the BFR, have potential applications in animal feeds as a suitable biological method for reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxins. PMID:26273277

  7. In vitro ability of beer fermentation residue and yeast-based products to bind aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bovo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the in vitro ability of beer fermentation residue (BFR containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and five commercial products that differed in the viability and integrity of S. cerevisiae cells to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 from a citrate-phosphate buffer solution (CPBS. BFR was collected at a microbrewery and prepared by drying and milling. The commercial yeast-based products were as follows: inactive intact yeast cells from beer alcoholic fermentation, inactive intact yeast cells from sugarcane alcoholic fermentation, hydrolyzed yeast cells, yeast cell walls and active yeast cells. Adsorption assays were performed in CPBS spiked with 1.0 μg AFB1/mL at pH 3.0 and 6.0 for a contact time of 60 min at room temperature. Analysis of AFB1 in the samples was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. AFB1 adsorption by the products ranged from 45.5% to 69.4% at pH 3.0 and from 24.0% to 63.8% at pH 6.0. The higher percentages (p 0.05 from commercial products containing inactive intact yeast cells. The results of this trial indicate that the yeast-based products tested, especially the BFR, have potential applications in animal feeds as a suitable biological method for reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxins.

  8. Impact of flavouring substances on the aggregation behaviour of dissolved barley β-glucans in a model beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetz, M; Sacher, B; Becker, T

    2016-06-01

    Structural polymers such as cereal β-glucan may cause various processing problems in beverage industry depending on concentration, molar size distribution and agglomeration behaviour. In this context, influences of the beer volatiles dodecanoic acid, octyl butanoate, ethyl decanoate and decyl acetate on molar mass and radii of barley β-glucan were investigated in ethanolic (4% w/w) model solution. After addition of 100mg/l ethyl decanoate and decyl acetate to the β-glucan solution, a wider-ranging molar mass distribution could be observed by means of asymmetric field-flow-fractionation. Due to agglomeration, average molar mass of β-glucan standard (MW=6.8×10(6)g/mol) increased by 2×10(6)g/mol (P<0.05) in solution containing decyl acetate. Furthermore, a significant growth (P<0.05) from 86 to 102 nm in gyration radius was measured. The obtained results elucidate the importance of fatty acid derived flavouring substance composition in beer regarding the aggregation behaviour of β-glucan. PMID:27083361

  9. The influence of beer with different antioxidant potential on plasma lipids, plasma antioxidant capacity, and bile excretion of rats fed cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gasowski, B.; Leontowicz, M.; Leontowicz, H.; Katrich, E.; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan; Trakhtenberg, S.; Gorinstein, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 9 (2004), s. 527-533. ISSN 0955-2863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : beer * antioxidant compounds * antioxidant potential Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2004

  10. An Experiment on the Effect of Sexual Appeal in Real Beer Advertising on Young Adults’ Purchase Intent and Attitude Towards Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Dias da Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The permanent presence of sexual information in Brazilian advertising, whether in the form of sexual behavior, use of attractive models, nudity, fetishism or promises of sexual satisfaction and intimacy, is not accompanied by the development of knowledge about the use of sexual appeals in national advertising. The present paper aims to advance the understanding of consumer perceptions about the sexual appeals used in real ads and investigate relationships between the use of sexual appeals in advertising and attitude towards advertising and consumer purchase intent. Thus, we performed a study on sexual appeals in beer advertising with college students. Our product choice was based on the fact that the beer is widely consumed among young adults and because producers have a constant concern in developing new ads in order to maintain or even expand its market share. The data did not provide consistent answers regarding the use of sexual appeals in advertisements for beer and purchase intent or attitude toward the advertisement, but served for a discussion on the sex appeal directly related to beer. Furthermore, the study provided some answers related to the identification of effective sex appeal, such as increased sensitivity of the female audience and implications related to the use of sexual appeals in advertising relevant to practitioners and academics.

  11. Ponteration over 2004 China International beer festival%对2004中国国际啤酒节的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Inter national China International Beer Festival fosters and markets the brands for the establishments, put in to effect brand development strategy, heightens the brand's popularity and reputation, provides the rare environment and sage. It is an advance opportunity for the brewing enterprises to improve their whole economic benefit and their competitiveness in the world market.

  12. Beer-spoiling Ability of Lactic Acid Bacteria and its Relation with Genes horA, horC a hitA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoulková, D.; Kubizniaková, P.; Sigler, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, 11-12 (2012), s. 336-342. ISSN 0023-5830 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : beer spoilage * lactic acid bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. PMID:26830592

  14. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. I. DISCOVERY OF KEPLER-76b: A HOT JUPITER WITH EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first case in which the BEER algorithm identified a hot Jupiter in the Kepler light curve, and its reality was confirmed by orbital solutions based on follow-up spectroscopy. The companion Kepler-76b was identified by the BEER algorithm, which detected the BEaming (sometimes called Doppler boosting) effect together with the Ellipsoidal and Reflection/emission modulations (BEER), at an orbital period of 1.54 days, suggesting a planetary companion orbiting the 13.3 mag F star. Further investigation revealed that this star appeared in the Kepler eclipsing binary catalog with estimated primary and secondary eclipse depths of 5 × 10–3 and 1 × 10–4, respectively. Spectroscopic radial velocity follow-up observations with Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph and SOPHIE confirmed Kepler-76b as a transiting 2.0 ± 0.26 MJup hot Jupiter. The mass of a transiting planet can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude. The ellipsoidal-based mass estimate of Kepler-76b is consistent with the spectroscopically measured mass while the beaming-based estimate is significantly inflated. We explain this apparent discrepancy as evidence for the superrotation phenomenon, which involves eastward displacement of the hottest atmospheric spot of a tidally locked planet by an equatorial superrotating jet stream. This phenomenon was previously observed only for HD 189733b in the infrared. We show that a phase shift of 10.°3 ± 2.°0 of the planet reflection/emission modulation, due to superrotation, explains the apparently inflated beaming modulation, resolving the ellipsoidal/beaming amplitude discrepancy. Kepler-76b is one of very few confirmed planets in the Kepler light curves that show BEER modulations and the first to show superrotation evidence in the Kepler band. Its discovery illustrates for the first time the ability of the BEER algorithm to detect short-period planets and brown dwarfs.

  15. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. I. DISCOVERY OF KEPLER-76b: A HOT JUPITER WITH EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buchhave, L. A. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-01

    We present the first case in which the BEER algorithm identified a hot Jupiter in the Kepler light curve, and its reality was confirmed by orbital solutions based on follow-up spectroscopy. The companion Kepler-76b was identified by the BEER algorithm, which detected the BEaming (sometimes called Doppler boosting) effect together with the Ellipsoidal and Reflection/emission modulations (BEER), at an orbital period of 1.54 days, suggesting a planetary companion orbiting the 13.3 mag F star. Further investigation revealed that this star appeared in the Kepler eclipsing binary catalog with estimated primary and secondary eclipse depths of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, respectively. Spectroscopic radial velocity follow-up observations with Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph and SOPHIE confirmed Kepler-76b as a transiting 2.0 {+-} 0.26 M{sub Jup} hot Jupiter. The mass of a transiting planet can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude. The ellipsoidal-based mass estimate of Kepler-76b is consistent with the spectroscopically measured mass while the beaming-based estimate is significantly inflated. We explain this apparent discrepancy as evidence for the superrotation phenomenon, which involves eastward displacement of the hottest atmospheric spot of a tidally locked planet by an equatorial superrotating jet stream. This phenomenon was previously observed only for HD 189733b in the infrared. We show that a phase shift of 10. Degree-Sign 3 {+-} 2. Degree-Sign 0 of the planet reflection/emission modulation, due to superrotation, explains the apparently inflated beaming modulation, resolving the ellipsoidal/beaming amplitude discrepancy. Kepler-76b is one of very few confirmed planets in the Kepler light curves that show BEER modulations and the first to show superrotation evidence in the Kepler band. Its discovery illustrates for the first time the ability of the BEER algorithm to detect short

  16. Studies on the Simultaneous Formation of Aroma-Active and Toxicologically Relevant Vinyl Aromatics from Free Phenolic Acids during Wheat Beer Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-03-23

    During the brewing process of wheat beer, the desired aroma-active vinyl aromatics 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol as well as the undesired and toxicologically relevant styrene are formed from their respective precursors, free ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid, deriving from the malts. Analysis of eight commercial wheat beers revealed high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol always in parallel with high concentrations of styrene or low concentrations of the odorants in parallel with low styrene concentrations, suggesting a similar pathway. To better understand the formation of these vinyl aromatics, each process step of wheat beer brewing and the use of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated. During wort boiling, only a moderate decarboxylation of free phenolic acids and formation of desired and undesired vinyl aromatics were monitored due to the thermal treatment. In contrast, this reaction mainly occurred enzymatically catalyzed during fermentation with S. cerevisiae strain W68 with normal Pof(+) activity (phenolic off-flavor) resulting in a wheat beer eliciting the typical aroma requested by consumers due to high concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (1790 μg/L) and 4-vinylphenol (937 μg/L). Unfortunately, also a high concentration of undesired styrene (28.3 μg/L) was observed. Using a special S. cerevisiae strain without Pof(+) activity resulted in a significant styrene reduction (beer aroma. PMID:26800353

  17. Automated and quantitative headspace in-tube extraction for the accurate determination of highly volatile compounds from wines and beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Julián; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; Lopez, Ricardo; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-03-23

    An automatic headspace in-tube extraction (ITEX) method for the accurate determination of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, diacetyl and other volatile compounds from wine and beer has been developed and validated. Method accuracy is based on the nearly quantitative transference of volatile compounds from the sample to the ITEX trap. For achieving that goal most methodological aspects and parameters have been carefully examined. The vial and sample sizes and the trapping materials were found to be critical due to the pernicious saturation effects of ethanol. Small 2 mL vials containing very small amounts of sample (20 μL of 1:10 diluted sample) and a trap filled with 22 mg of Bond Elut ENV resins could guarantee a complete trapping of sample vapors. The complete extraction requires 100 × 0.5 mL pumping strokes at 60 °C and takes 24 min. Analytes are further desorbed at 240 °C into the GC injector under a 1:5 split ratio. The proportion of analytes finally transferred to the trap ranged from 85 to 99%. The validation of the method showed satisfactory figures of merit. Determination coefficients were better than 0.995 in all cases and good repeatability was also obtained (better than 7% in all cases). Reproducibility was better than 8.3% except for acetaldehyde (13.1%). Detection limits were below the odor detection thresholds of these target compounds in wine and beer and well below the normal ranges of occurrence. Recoveries were not significantly different to 100%, except in the case of acetaldehyde. In such a case it could be determined that the method is not able to break some of the adducts that this compound forms with sulfites. However, such problem was avoided after incubating the sample with glyoxal. The method can constitute a general and reliable alternative for the analysis of very volatile compounds in other difficult matrixes. PMID:22340891

  18. Rapid and mobile determination of alcoholic strength in wine, beer and spirits using a flow-through infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Ever since Gay-Lussac's time, the alcoholic strength by volume (% vol) has been determined by using densimetric measurements. The typical reference procedure involves distillation followed by pycnometry, which is comparably labour-intensive and therefore expensive. At present, infrared (IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate regression is widely applied as a screening procedure, which allows one to determine alcoholic strength in less than 2 min without any sample preparation. The disadvantage is the relatively large investment for Fourier transform (FT) IR or near-IR instruments, and the need for matrix-dependent calibration. In this study, we apply a much simpler device consisting of a patented multiple-beam infrared sensor in combination with a flow-through cell for automated alcohol analysis, which is available in a portable version that allows for on-site measurements. Results During method validation, the precision of the infrared sensor was found to be equal to or better than densimetric or FTIR methods. For example, the average repeatability, as determined in 6 different wine samples, was 0.05% vol and the relative standard deviation was below 0.2%. Accuracy was ensured by analyzing 260 different alcoholic beverages in comparison to densimetric or FTIR results. The correlation was linear over the entire range from alcohol-free beers up to high-proof spirits, and the results were in substantial agreement (R = 0.99981, p distillation are not necessary. Therefore, the alcoholic strength can be economically and quickly controlled (requiring less than 60 s per sample). The device also gives the opportunity for mobile on-site control in the context of labelling control of wine, beer and spirits, the process monitoring of fermentations, or the evaluation of unrecorded alcohols. PMID:20331845

  19. Rapid and mobile determination of alcoholic strength in wine, beer and spirits using a flow-through infrared sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansay Bob

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever since Gay-Lussac's time, the alcoholic strength by volume (% vol has been determined by using densimetric measurements. The typical reference procedure involves distillation followed by pycnometry, which is comparably labour-intensive and therefore expensive. At present, infrared (IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate regression is widely applied as a screening procedure, which allows one to determine alcoholic strength in less than 2 min without any sample preparation. The disadvantage is the relatively large investment for Fourier transform (FT IR or near-IR instruments, and the need for matrix-dependent calibration. In this study, we apply a much simpler device consisting of a patented multiple-beam infrared sensor in combination with a flow-through cell for automated alcohol analysis, which is available in a portable version that allows for on-site measurements. Results During method validation, the precision of the infrared sensor was found to be equal to or better than densimetric or FTIR methods. For example, the average repeatability, as determined in 6 different wine samples, was 0.05% vol and the relative standard deviation was below 0.2%. Accuracy was ensured by analyzing 260 different alcoholic beverages in comparison to densimetric or FTIR results. The correlation was linear over the entire range from alcohol-free beers up to high-proof spirits, and the results were in substantial agreement (R = 0.99981, p Conclusions The flow-through infrared device is much easier to handle than typical reference procedures, while time-consuming sample preparation steps such as distillation are not necessary. Therefore, the alcoholic strength can be economically and quickly controlled (requiring less than 60 s per sample. The device also gives the opportunity for mobile on-site control in the context of labelling control of wine, beer and spirits, the process monitoring of fermentations, or the evaluation of

  20. Voltammetric detection of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng, E-mail: achen@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 100 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  1. Voltammetric detection of the α-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. ► Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. ► Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. ► The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant α-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 × 10−6 to 100 × 10−6 M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 × 10−9 M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  2. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Attitudes Towards Foreign Beer Brands: With Evidence from Zlin Region in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninayake W.M.C.Bandara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, consumer ethnocentrism has become an important strategic tool used by domestic firms in the face of global competition. However, the ability to use this phenomenon and its practical validity can vary in different industrial and cultural contexts. Hence, in this study, researchers address this issue by investigating the relationship between consumer ethnocentrismand the attitudes of Czech customers towards foreign beer brands while paying special attention to whether the ethnocentric tendencies of the Czech customers are altered by demographic variables. The sample for this study was drawn from adult customers who live in the Zlin region in the Czech Republic. The group of students from the bachelor degree programme in management and economics, Tomas Bata Universty in Zlin were selected as enumerators for data collection. Altogether 155 questionnaires were distributed and 108 completedquestionnaires were taken in for final analysis. The consumer ethnocentric tendency was measured using the famous CETSCALE developed by Shimp and Sharma. Cronbach’s Alpha values of each construct confirmed that a good interring reliability exists with the data. Principle component analysis was employed to determine the important factors of CETSCALE and independent t test, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and one way ANOVA were used for testing hypotheses. The results revealed that the ethnocentric tendency of consumers is negatively correlated with the favorable attitudes of customers towards foreign beer brands in Czech Republic and also that highly ethnocentric customers hold less favorableattitudes towards foreign brands. Further findings revealed that there are no significant differences between consumer ethnocentrism and all the demographic variables of Czech customers. Finally, the researchers provide some suggestions for domestic brewery firms in the Czech Republic to develop appropriate branding strategies in considering

  3. Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

  4. Determination of thiamine and its esters in beers and raw materials used for their manufacture by liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; López-Erroz, Carmen; Balsalobre, Nuria; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2003-05-21

    Thiamine and its mono- and pyrophosphate esters were determined in beer and the raw materials used for its manufacture (brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops) after separation using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The method used fluorescence detection and a new amide-based stationary phase, which avoids the need to form ion pairs, leading to narrower peaks and a simpler mobile phase. Analyses were performed by isocratic elution with a phosphate buffer mobile phase and using a postcolumn derivatization system based on the oxidation of thiamine to fluorescent thiochrome with potassium ferricyanide in alkaline solution. Only thiamine was found in the beers and raw products, especially in brewer's yeast and malt. A stability study pointed to a faster decrease in the thiamine content of samples stored at room temperature and in sunlight. PMID:12744646

  5. 小麦深色啤酒生产工艺研究%Study on the Production Process of Deep-colored Wheat Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小龙

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to develop the production process of deep-colored beer. [Method]With wheat malt, barley malt and burnt malt as raw materials, after they were mixed at the ratio of 1∶1∶0.25 and wetted and grinded, they were saccharified at 65 ℃ and filtered at 78 ℃, the acquired 14° Bx wort was added with the yeast at the volume ratio of 0.8 to 100 after cooling, and fermented for 48 h under the conditions of inoculation temperature at 14 ℃ and the highest fermentation temperature at 18 ℃, and then pressured to 0.1 MPa and fermented for 72 h at 12 ℃, and afterward reduced the temperature with the velocity of 4 ℃/d, when cooling at 4 and 0 ℃, the yeasts were removed for the 1st and 2nd time resp., the beer was stored for 10 d at -1-0 ℃ finally, and the remaining sugar concn. should be controlled below 2.7% when the liquid beer came out. [Result]The original beer wort concn. of finished product was 12° P, chroma 25 EBC, bitter value 20 BU, alcoholicity 4.2%(W/W), apparent fermenting degree 75.3%. The beer liquid was clear and transparent, the foam was white and fine with long cup-hanging time, the beer had obvious fruit aroma, and pure, soft and refreshing taste. [Conclusion]The deep-colored wheat beer developed could completely attain the production standard of minitype beer.%[目的]研制深色小麦啤酒的生产工艺.[方法]以小麦麦芽、大麦麦芽、焦香大麦芽为原料,按1∶1∶0.25的比例混合增湿粉碎后,在 65 ℃下进行糖化,在78 ℃下进行过滤,所得麦芽汁(14° Bx)冷却后按0.8∶100 的体积比添加酵母,在接种温度14 ℃和最高发酵温度18 ℃条件下发酵48 h,之后加压至0.1 MPa,12 ℃下发酵72 h,然后以4 ℃/d的速度降温,降至4和0 ℃时,分别排第1和2次酵母,最后在-1~0 ℃下贮酒10 d,出酒时残糖浓度应控制在2.7%以下.[结果]成品啤酒原麦汁浓度12° P,色度为25 EBC,苦味值20 BU,酒精含量为4.2%(W/W),外观发酵度为75.3%;

  6. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits.

    OpenAIRE

    Rimm, E. B.; Klatsky, A.; Grobbee, D.; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the effect of specific types of alcoholic drink on coronary risk. DESIGN: Systematic review of ecological, case-control, and cohort studies in which specific associations were available for consumption of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of coronary heart disease. SUBJECTS: 12 ecological, three case-control, and 10 separate prospective cohort studies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alcohol consumption and relative risk of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. RESU...

  7. Monitoring and Analysis about in Wine and Beer on Sale%市售葡萄酒、啤酒中生物胺监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏靖; 林淑云

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To learn the pollution situation of Biogenic Amines in wine and beer on Sale.Method:According to GB/T5009.208-2008 Test of Biogenic Amines in Food,Diamino heptane is set as internal standard,C18 column of High Performance Liquid chromatography is seperated and detected by UV detector.Result:Biogenic Amines is found in wind and beer.Putrescine and Tyramine in wine were higher,Spermidine and Putrescine in beer were higher.Conclusion:Biogenic Amines exists in wine and beer commonly.The level of biogenic amines in wine should be reduced by resource selection,Purified bacteria and process Improvement.%目的:了解市售葡萄酒和啤酒中生物胺的污染状况。方法:据GB/T 5009.208-2008《食品中生物胺含量的测定》以1,7-二氨基庚烷为内标,采用高效液相色谱的C18柱分离,紫外检测器检测,内标法定量测定。结果:葡萄酒和啤酒中均检出生物胺,葡萄酒中腐胺和酪胺检出率,含量较高,啤酒中亚精胺检出率较高,含量腐胺较高。结论:葡萄酒、啤酒中普遍存在生物胺,应通过原料选择、菌种纯化、改进加工工艺等方法降低酒中生物胺水平。

  8. Brewing with 100%barley beer beverage using the top-fermentation%上面发酵100%大麦啤酒饮料的酿造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔云前; 庞帅; 朱维岳

    2014-01-01

    利用100%大麦添加Ondea Pro复合酶进行啤酒饮料的酿造,同时进行100%大麦芽啤酒的酿造,对制取的麦汁和成品进行理化指标检测。对比发现:100%大麦麦汁成分和100%大麦芽麦汁成分相差不多,能够为酵母生长繁殖提供足够的营养成分。成品检测中,风味物质含量相差不多,感官品评相差不大。使用100%大麦进行啤酒酿造,能有效降低麦芽成本,减少麦芽制备过程中的环境污染,具有推广价值。%100%barley added Ondea Pro®complex enzyme is used to brewing beer,at the same time, brewing beer with 100% malt.Then, the worts, beer ingredients and the corresponding physical and chemical indicators were tested , respectively .The results showed that:in 100% malt wort and 100%barley wort almost the same ingredients,both of them can provide enough nutrients for yeast growth and reproduction.The flavor compounds content in both of the beers are similar.Brewing with 100% barley can fundamentally solve the conventional high cost of raw materials for barley malt, high energy consumption in malting.The final product is worth being promoted.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF THE YEAST WASTE FROM BEER MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Davud Kadimaliev,; Vladimir Telyatnik,; Victor Revin,; Alexander Parshin,; Surhay Allahverdi,; Gokhan Gunduz; Elena Kezina,; Nejla Asık

    2012-01-01

    During the production of beer large amounts of yeast waste are generated. This paper considers the possible making of environmentally friendly adhesive compositions from such wastes. Chemical treatment of yeast wastes increases their adhesive characteristics. Chemical cross-linking with glutaric aldehyde and biological cross-linking by enzyme transglutaminase improves the moisture resistance of the adhesive compositions. In terms of their physical and mechanical parameters they are not inferi...

  10. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. II. EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION IN THE PHASE CURVES OF THREE KEPLER HOT JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-02-10

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler.

  11. Growth Model and Metabolic Activity of Brewing Yeast Biofilm on the Surface of Spent Grains: A Biocatalyst for Continuous Beer Fermentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brányik, T.; Vicente, A. A.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Podrazký, Ondřej; Dostálek, P.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 20 (2004), s. 1733-1740. ISSN 8756-7938. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2004 /16./. Praha, 22.08.2004-26.08.2004] Grant ostatní: SFRH(PT) BPD/3541/2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : growth model * beer fermentation * immobilized cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.635, year: 2004

  12. Prescription of potentially inappropriate medication in Korean older adults based on 2012 Beers Criteria: a cross-sectional population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, You-Seon; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Kiheon

    2016-01-01

    Background A high number of elderly people with multiple comorbidities are exposed to the risk of polypharmacy and prescription of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of PIM prescription in Korean older adults according to the 2012 Beers Criteria. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment (KHIRA) database of outpatient prescription claims collected...

  13. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. II. EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION IN THE PHASE CURVES OF THREE KEPLER HOT JUPITERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot Jupiter systems—KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2, and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radius of their parent stars. For KOI-13, HAT-P-7, and Kepler-76 we find that the beaming-based planetary mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by equatorial superrotation of the planet atmosphere, which induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation, as was suggested for Kepler-76 in the first paper of this series. We propose a modified BEER model that supports superrotation, assuming either a Lambertian or geometric reflection/emission phase function, and provides a photometry-consistent estimate of the planetary mass. Our analysis shows that for Kepler-76 and HAT-P-7, the Lambertian superrotation BEER model is highly preferable over an unshifted null model, while for KOI-13 it is preferable only at a 1.4σ level. For TrES-2 we do not find such preference. For all four systems the Lambertian superrotation model mass estimates are in excellent agreement with the planetary masses derived from, or constrained by, radial velocity measurements. This makes the Lambertian superrotation BEER model a viable tool for estimating the masses of hot Jupiters from photometry alone. We conclude that hot Jupiter superrotation may be a common phenomenon that can be detected in the visual light curves of Kepler

  14. Study on the processing technology of health oat tea beer%保健燕麦茶啤酒的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妮; 逯家富; 徐亚杰; 于洪梅; 姜海波; 刘志勤

    2012-01-01

    The production process and the manufacturing process of health oat tea beer were introduced.The beer was made by 60% malt,20% oatmeal,and 20% sugar as raw material,adding 5% tea juice that the tea boiled in water 20min with the proportion of 1:180 at 85℃ 20min later,and 0.02% hop.In the pilot production,health oat tea beer met all indexes provided by GB.%阐述了保健燕麦茶啤酒的生产工艺流程及生产工艺要点,采用大麦芽60%,燕麦20%,糖浆20%的原料配比,并在85℃对茶水比为1:180进行20min的绿茶浸提,生产过程中浸提后茶汁添加量为5%,酒花添加量0.02%,添加时间初沸后20min。经过中试生产,保健型燕麦茶啤酒各项指标均符合GB。

  15. Heat and mass transfer during the warming of a bottle of beer - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i2.8273

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vinicius Barbosa Monteiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The warming of a bottle of beer during a Friday evening happy hour directly involves transport phenomena, such as mass transfer due to condensation of air humidity on the bottle surface and heat transfer from the ambient to the bottle, which occurs by free convection and water condensation. Both processes happen simultaneously and are directly associated with the heat and mass transfer coefficients involved, which are affected by the ambient humidity and temperature. Several runs were made in several ambient conditions by exposing a cold bottle of beer to varied temperature and humidity and measuring the temperature of beer and the mass of water condensed on the bottle surface over time. From these measures, a theoretical and experimental methodology was developed and applied for the evaluation of the heat and mass transfer coefficients that govern this process. Both the relative humidity and ambient temperature exert a significant influence on the convective heat transfer coefficient. However, the mass transfer coefficient is affected only by the temperature.

  16. Strategies on Developing Dishes for Qingdao International Beer Festival%青岛国际啤酒节配餐菜品开发策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波

    2011-01-01

    Qingdao International Beer Festival is a comprehensive beer event enjoying a nlgn renown anu poFularity at home and abroad. However,little attention has been paid to the dishes to accompany beer. To promote the sustainable development of the festival, this paper suggests different strategies such as diversification of di- shes, cultural integration and sales promotion in the hope that it might be of reference for the festival organiz- ers.%青岛国际啤酒节是具有独特风韵的综合型啤酒盛会,在国内外已具有较高的知名度和美誉度,但是与之相匹配的菜品却并未引起管理者足够的重视,缺乏有效的开发研究,存在诸多不足。笔者从促进青岛国际啤酒节可持续发展的角度,提出了开发啤酒节配餐菜品的多元化、文化融合、促销大众化等多项策略,希望对同业者有所启迪。

  17. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves: I. Discovery of a hot Jupiter with superrotation evidence in Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, Simchon; Mazeh, Tsevi; Latham, Dave W; Buchhave, Lars A

    2013-01-01

    We present the first case in which the BEER algorithm identified a hot Jupiter in the Kepler light curve, and its reality was confirmed by orbital solutions based on follow-up spectroscopy. The companion KIC 4570949b was identified by the BEER algorithm, which detected the BEaming (sometimes called Doppler boosting) effect together with the Ellipsoidal and Reflection/emission modulations (BEER), at an orbital period of 1.54 days, suggesting a planetary companion orbiting the 13.3 mag F star. Further investigation revealed that this star appeared in the Kepler eclipsing binary catalog with estimated primary and secondary eclipse depths of 5e-3 and 1e-4 respectively. Spectroscopic radial-velocity follow-up observations with TRES and SOPHIE confirmed KIC 4570949b as a transiting 2.0+/-0.26 Mjup hot Jupiter. The mass of a transiting planet can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude. The ellipsoidal-based mass estimate of KIC 4570949b is consistent with the spectroscopically measured mas...

  18. Novel optical sensing film based on a functional nonwoven nanofibre mat for an easy, fast and highly selective and sensitive detection of tryptamine in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, the combination of Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (SS-RTP) and nanotechnology has led to a new approach in the detection of biogenic amines in complex matrices. This novel approach allows, for the first time, the direct determination of the concentration of tryptamine in beers. The novelty of the proposed optical sensor resides in its simplicity, rapidity, absence of complex chromatographic separation, sample clean-up, preconcentration, and derivatization protocols. Therefore, this novel methodology simplifies and reduces considerably the time and cost of the analysis, resolving the two major problems of the determination of tryptamine in beer up to now: low sensitivity and matrix effects. The proposed sensor is based on a novel white, uncharged, and non-luminescent functional nonwoven nanofibre mat (Tiss®-Link) formed by hydrophilic nanofibres of 300 nm of diameter functionalized with a high concentration of active vinyl groups (330 µmol g(-1)). It is used to carry out a kinetically controlled covalent immobilisation of tryptamine via Michael type-reaction. The transduction of the sensor is phosphorescence; the covalently immobilized tryptamine is quantified by SS-RTP, obtaining a detection limit of 6 ng mL(-1) with short response times (15 min). The applicability of the sensor was demonstrated by analysing tryptamine in 10 different varieties of beers, obtaining recovery percentages close to 100%. PMID:26761616

  19. PTR-MS Characterization of VOCs Associated with Commercial Aromatic Bakery Yeasts of Wine and Beer Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the increasing attention towards “green” solutions to improve food quality, the use of aromatic-enhancing microorganisms offers the advantage to be a natural and sustainable solution that did not negatively influence the list of ingredients. In this study, we characterize, for the first time, volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with aromatic bakery yeasts. Three commercial bakery starter cultures, respectively formulated with three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from white wine, red wine, and beer, were monitored by a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS, a direct injection analytical technique for detecting volatile organic compounds with high sensitivity (VOCs. Two ethanol-related peaks (m/z 65.059 and 75.080 described qualitative differences in fermentative performances. The release of compounds associated to the peaks at m/z 89.059, m/z 103.075, and m/z 117.093, tentatively identified as acetoin and esters, are coherent with claimed flavor properties of the investigated strains. We propose these mass peaks and their related fragments as biomarkers to optimize the aromatic performances of commercial preparations and for the rapid massive screening of yeast collections.

  20. Physiological analysis of yeast cells by flow cytometry during serial-repitching of low-malt beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2007-05-01

    At the end of beer brewing fermentation, yeast cells are collected and repitched for economical reasons. Although it is generally accepted that the physiological state of inoculated yeast cells affects their subsequent fermentation performance, the effect of serial-repitching on the physiological state of such yeast cells has not been well clarified. In this study, the fermentation performance of yeast cells during serial-repitching was investigated. After multiple repitchings, the specific growth rate and maximum optical density (OD(660)) decreased, and increases in isoamyl alcohol, which causes an undesirable flavor, and residual free amino acid nitrogen (FAN) concentrations were observed. The physiological state of individual cells before inoculation was characterized by flow cytometry using the fluorescent dyes dehydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (OXN). The fluorescence intensities of DHR, an indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), and OXN, which indicates membrane potential, gradually increased as the number of serial-repitching cycles increased. Fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with cell growth. The subsequent fermentation performance can be predicted from this correlation. PMID:17609161

  1. PTR-MS Characterization of VOCs Associated with Commercial Aromatic Bakery Yeasts of Wine and Beer Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Makhoul, Salim; Aprea, Eugenio; Romano, Andrea; Cappellin, Luca; Sanchez Jimena, Ana; Spano, Giuseppe; Gasperi, Flavia; Scampicchio, Matteo; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In light of the increasing attention towards "green" solutions to improve food quality, the use of aromatic-enhancing microorganisms offers the advantage to be a natural and sustainable solution that did not negatively influence the list of ingredients. In this study, we characterize, for the first time, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with aromatic bakery yeasts. Three commercial bakery starter cultures, respectively formulated with three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from white wine, red wine, and beer, were monitored by a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), a direct injection analytical technique for detecting volatile organic compounds with high sensitivity (VOCs). Two ethanol-related peaks (m/z 65.059 and 75.080) described qualitative differences in fermentative performances. The release of compounds associated to the peaks at m/z 89.059, m/z 103.075, and m/z 117.093, tentatively identified as acetoin and esters, are coherent with claimed flavor properties of the investigated strains. We propose these mass peaks and their related fragments as biomarkers to optimize the aromatic performances of commercial preparations and for the rapid massive screening of yeast collections. PMID:27077836

  2. Low cost and compact analytical microsystem for carbon dioxide determination in production processes of wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Izquierdo, David; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2016-08-10

    The design, construction and evaluation of a low cost, cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow microanalyzer, with optical detection, to monitor carbon dioxide in bottled wines and beers as well as in fermentation processes, is presented. The microsystem, constructed by computer numerically controlled (CNC) micromilling and using a multilayer approach, integrates microfluidics, gas-diffusion module and an optical flow-cell in a single polymeric substrate. Its size is slightly bigger than a credit card, exactly 45 × 60 × 4 mm in the microfluidic and diffusion module zone and 22.5 × 40 × 3 mm in the flow-cell zone. The gas-diffusion module is based on a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which allows the transfer of the carbon dioxide present in the sample to a bromothymol blue (BTB) pH-sensitive acceptor solution, where the color change is measured optically. The detection system consisted of a LED with an emission peak at 607 nm and a photodiode integrated in a printed circuit board (PCB). The obtained analytical features after the optimization of the microfluidic platform and hydrodynamic variables are a linear range from 255 to 10000 mg L(-1) of CO2 and a detection limit of 83 mg L(-1) with a sampling rate of 30 samples h(-1). PMID:27282752

  3. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  4. Synthesis and performances of bio-sourced nanostructured carbon membranes elaborated by hydrothermal conversion of beer industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Korhani, Oula; Zaouk, Doumit; Cerneaux, Sophie; Khoury, Randa; Khoury, Antonio; Cornu, David

    2013-03-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process of beer wastes (Almaza Brewery) yields a biochar and homogeneous carbon-based nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs have been used to prepare carbon membrane on commercial alumina support. Water filtration experiments evidenced the quasi-dense behavior of the membrane with no measurable water flux below an applied nitrogen pressure of 6 bar. Gas permeation tests were conducted and gave remarkable results, namely (1) the existence of a limit temperature of utilization of the membrane, which was below 100°C in our experimental conditions, (2) an evolution of the microstructure of the carbon membrane with the operating temperature that yielded to improved performances in gas separation, (3) the temperature-dependent gas permeance should follow a Knudsen diffusion mechanism, and (4) He permeance was increasing with the applied pressure, whereas N2 and CO2 permeances remained stable in the same conditions. These results yielded an enhancement of both the He/N2 and He/CO2 permselectivities with the applied pressure. These promising results made biomass-sourced HTC-processed carbon membranes encouraging candidates as ultralow-cost and sustainable membranes for gas separation applications.

  5. 使用路德类酵母生产无醇啤酒%Non-alcoholic Beer Production by Saccharomycodes ludwigii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨; 李红; 杜金华

    2011-01-01

    研究路德类酵母菌落和细胞形态特征及其利用麦汁中糖的特点,发现其菌落为奶油色,半透明,有光泽,表面光滑,湿润,质软,中间凸起,边缘整齐;细胞为柠檬形,较大,两端出芽生殖。路德类酵母发酵89.9%的果糖和91.9%的葡萄糖,而对于蔗糖的利用率达到100%,但是不发酵麦芽糖和麦芽三糖。将路德类酵母应用于发酵麦汁制得无醇啤酒,并对其产酒精及风味物质的特点予以研究,结果发现:路德类酵母发酵麦汁产酒精量较低,约只相当于同条件下普通啤酒酵母的1/6,当原麦汁浓度低于8°P时,乙醇含量低于0.5%;风味物质的种类与普通啤%In this study,the colonies of Saccharomycodes ludwigii were observed to have a cream-colored,translucent,glossy,humid and smooth surface with middle bulge and regular fringe,and the cells were large and lemon-shaped with budding at both ends.Saccharomycodes ludwigii could ferment 89.9% fructose and 91.9% glucose and its rate of sucrose utilization was 100%,but it could ferment neither maltose nor maltotriose.Saccharomycodes ludwigii was used for producing non-alcoholic beer.We determined the main physicochemical indices and main flavor compounds in final the fermentation broth.The results indicated that Saccharomycodes ludwigii fermented wort produced a lower alcohol content,which was approximately 6 times less than that of common brewer s yeast fermentation under the same conditions.When the original wort concentration was lower than 8 °P,the alcohol content of prepared beer was lower than 0.5%(V/V).The main flavor compounds were identical to those in common beers.Compared with the non-alcoholic beer available in markets,the obtained non-alcoholic beer had fewer esters,no obvious difference in high-grade alcohol and similar taste.

  6. Partial purification of saccharifying and cell wall-hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in waste from beer fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Kang, Minkyung; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-06-01

    A number of hydrolyzing enzymes that are secreted from malt during brewing, including cell wall-hydrolyzing, saccharide-hydrolyzing, protein-degrading, lipid-hydrolyzing, and polyphenol and thiol-hydrolyzing enzymes, are expected to exist in an active form in waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB). In this study, the existence of these enzymes was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, after which enzyme extract was partially purified through a series of purification steps. The hydrolyzing enzyme activity was then measured under various conditions at each purification step using carboxymethyl cellulose as a substrate. The best hydrolyzing activities of partially purified enzymes were found at pH 4.5 and 50 °C in a citrate buffer system. The enzymes showed highest thermal stability at 30 °C when exposed for prolonged time. As the temperature increased gradually from 25 to 70 °C, yeast cells in the chemically defined medium with enzyme extract lost their cell wall and viability earlier than those without enzyme extract. Cell wall degradation and the release of cell matrix into the culture media at elevated temperature (45-70 °C) in the presence of enzyme extract were monitored through microscopic pictures. Saccharification enzymes from malt were relatively more active in the original WBFB than supernatant and diluted sediments. The presence of hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in WBFB is expected to play a role in bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation without the need for additional enzymes, nutrients, or microbial cells via a cell-free enzyme system. PMID:23377262

  7. Determination of the {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) isotopic rate of the Brazilian beer pilsen type; Determinacao da razao isotopica {delta}{sup 13}C (per mille) de cerveja clara tipo pilsen nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossete, Alexssandra L.R.M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Lopes, Fabio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia Isotopica; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada

    2002-07-01

    Beer has been consumed in Brazil since the XIX century. However, at that time, this beverage was imported from England, and the first Brazilian breweries just appeared at the end of the XX century. Basically, beer is made from: malt of barley, Humulus lupulus, water and yeast. In this work, twenty brands of national beer (Pilsen type), and also two different cereals, barley, a C3 metabolism plant, corn, a C4 plant, were analysed to determine their isotope composition {delta}{sup 13} C (per mille) utilizing a mass spectrometer Delta Plus Finigam and Anca S.L. An aliquot of each sample was transferred using a capillary of glass to a tin capsule contends a small amount of sorbitol. The isotope compositions, {delta}{sup 13} C, of barley and corn samples determined were -27.2 and -11.5 per mille, respectively. These results were used to calculate the equation of mixture model. Considering the beer samples, the {delta}{sup 13} C ranged from -18.3 to -23.1 per mille; this result means that the percentage of C3 plant is from 43.3 to 73.9 per mille. In this manner, it is possible to concluded that all beer samples has malted cereals (C4 plant), as far as the low values of C3 plants were presented in these samples as shown through the equation of mixtures model. (author)

  8. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2014-10-01

    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials. PMID:24799238

  9. Comparison of Two Methods for Determination of Pentosan in Beer%啤酒中戊聚糖检测方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘键; 王燕; 张彦青; 苏红霞

    2012-01-01

    为了能够准确测定麦芽、麦汁和啤酒中的戊聚糖,通过比较地衣酚-盐酸法和间苯三酚法在测定不同样品时的精密度和回收率得出:间苯三酚测定麦芽中戊聚糖较为准确,通过测定几种麦芽,发现不同品种的麦芽之间戊聚糖存在较大的差异;麦汁不能直接采用两种方法测定,经过酵母发酵处理之后的麦汁采用地衣酚-盐酸法测定时结果较为准确;地衣酚-盐酸法测定啤酒的戊聚糖较为准确,通过测定几种啤酒,发现不同啤酒中戊聚糖存在明显差异。%In order to determine pentosan in the malt , wort and beer accurately, orcinol-hydrochloric acid and phloroglucinol methods were used to compare accuracy and recovery. The results showed that Phloroglucdinol method could determine the content of pentosan in malt accurately and several varieties of malt identified are quite different from each other. Both methods do not directly measure wort, but when fermented by yeast, oreinol-hydrochloric acid method could determinate pentosan accurately. Orcinol-hydrochloric acid method can determine pentosan in beer ac- curately and big differences among several varieties of beer were also determined.

  10. 啤酒和腊肠中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺的测定%Determination of N-dimethyl nitrosamine in beer and sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘印平; 刘玉欣; 云鹏; 路杨; 王丽英; 常凤启; 杨立新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of N-dimethyl nitrosamine in beer and sausage by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.MethodsHomogenized samples sequentially were extracted by methylene chloride, centrifugation, and SILICA/PSA columns cleanup before analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantification of N-dimethyl nitrosamine was based on the use of D6-N-dimethyl nitrosamine.ResultsThe present method showed acceptable recoveries of 66.9%~103.4%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) ranging from 2.5% to 7.7%. Analysis of 30 beer samples and 8 sausage samples by the current method were successfully performed. N,N-dimethyl nitrosamine were not detected in beer samples. Two positive sausage samples were detected and the content was lower than the limited value of 3.0 µg/kg in meat products.ConclusionThis quantitative method is demonstrated to be rapid, simple, and high sensitive, which can be applied in the accurate determination of N-dimethyl nitrosamine in beer and sausage.%目的:建立气相色谱-质谱法(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS)测定啤酒和腊肠中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺的方法。方法试样经二氯甲烷超声提取、离心, SILICA/PSA玻璃柱净化后气相色谱/质谱仪直接测定, D6-N,N-二甲基亚硝胺内标法定量。结果加标回收率范围为66.9%~103.4%,相对标准偏差(RSD)在2.5%~7.7%。将该方法用于实际样品分析,30份啤酒中均未检出N,N-二甲基亚硝胺,8份腊肠样品中检出2份阳性样品,含量均低于肉制品中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺限量值3.0µg/kg。结论此方法简便快速,灵敏度较高,可以用于啤酒和腊肠中N,N-二甲基亚硝胺的准确定量。

  11. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER) AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Berhanu Andualem; Amare Gessesse

    2013-01-01

    ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were id...

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF THE YEAST WASTE FROM BEER MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davud Kadimaliev,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the production of beer large amounts of yeast waste are generated. This paper considers the possible making of environmentally friendly adhesive compositions from such wastes. Chemical treatment of yeast wastes increases their adhesive characteristics. Chemical cross-linking with glutaric aldehyde and biological cross-linking by enzyme transglutaminase improves the moisture resistance of the adhesive compositions. In terms of their physical and mechanical parameters they are not inferior to glues of natural origin and can be used for bonding paper, cardboard, and wood. The bonding strength of paper was 421.8 N / m, and that of wood was 27.8 MPa.

  13. Simultaneous electrophoretic concentration and separation of herbicides in beer prior to stacking capillary electrophoresis UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Alain; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous electrophoretic concentration and separation (SECS) was used as a simple and environmental friendly sample preparation strategy for herbicides in beer samples. An electric field was used to facilitate the separation and concentration of the analytes based on their charge from a 20 mL sample of diluted beer into two separate 20 μL aliquots of an acceptor electrolyte housed inside a micropipette. The anionic organophosphonate and cationic quaternary ammonium herbicides were concentrated in the anodic and cathodic pipette, respectively. Under optimized conditions, SECS was completed in 30 min at an applied voltage of 150 V, which provided analyte concentration factors of up to 90. After sample preparation, the SECS concentrate of cationic and anionic herbicides was analyzed by stacking CE with UV detection and also by LC-MS, respectively. The method detection limit for the diluted and undiluted sample was as low as 3 and 15 ng/mL, respectively. The method was linear over two orders of concentration with repeatability and intermediate precision of better than 5.8 and 7.0%RSD, respectively. Accuracy values were between 91.0-115.1%. PMID:26921124

  14. Qualitative determination of β-acids and their transformation products in beer and hop using HR/AM-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušek, Martin; Olšovská, Jana; Krofta, Karel; Jurková, Marie; Mikyška, Alexandr

    2014-08-01

    Hops represent an important source of β-acids with antimicrobial and sensory properties. Transformation products of β-acids formed during their oxidation, mainly hulupones, have been shown to have an interesting kind of bitterness. Their structures were recently elucidated using LC-TOFMS and 1D/2D NMR in solution after thermal treatment of the hop β-acids. This study demonstrates the advantages of MS detection with high resolution and accurate mass measurements. The structure of transformation products in an experimental solution of oxidized β-acids was elucidated using a newly developed method by hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. In addition to already known structures, two new ones were identified and named epoxycohulupone and epoxyhulupone. The method was verified on real samples; the profiles of these products in Sládek hops harvested in 2008 and 2012 and in corresponding beers were compared. For this purpose, a new QuEChERS assay was used for the preparation of beer samples. PMID:25099125

  15. 荧光光谱法测定啤酒中核黄素的含量%Riboflavin analysis in beer using fluorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽丽; 胡北; 崔胜云

    2012-01-01

    Uv-vis spectrometric and fluorometric properties of riboflavin are investigated in different acidity and light degradation.A modified fluorescence method is used to detect the content of riboflavin in different brands of beer.The results indicated that the content of riboflavin in beers ranges from 0.025 97-0.034 29 μg/mL.The method effectively eliminates metrix interferences and applicable to determination complex matrix samples.%探讨了酸度和光降解作用对核黄素吸收和荧光光谱的影响.利用改进后的荧光光谱法测定了不同品牌啤酒样品中游离核黄素的含量,结果表明,所选啤酒样品中的核黄素含量在0.025 97~0.034 29μg/mL范围内.该方法操作简单、结果可靠,为定量测定基体复杂样品中的核黄素含量提供了新的方法.

  16. Assessing and comparing the total antioxidant capacity of commercial beverages: application to beers, wines, waters and soft drinks using TRAP, TEAC and FRAP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Raquel B; Tafulo, Paula A R; Sales, M Goreti F

    2013-01-01

    This work measures and tries to compare the Antioxidant Capacity (AC) of 50 commercial beverages of different kinds: 6 wines, 12 beers, 18 soft drinks and 14 flavoured waters. Because there is no reference procedure established for this purpose, three different optical methods were used to analyse these samples: Total Radical trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Parameter (FRAP). These methods differ on the chemical background and nature of redox system. The TRAP method involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms while TEAC and FRAP involves electron transfer reactions. The AC was also assessed against three antioxidants of reference, Ascorbic acid (AA), Gallic acid (GA) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl- 2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The results obtained were analyzed statistically. Anova one-way tests were applied to all results and suggested that methods and standards exhibited significant statistical differences. The possible effect of sample features in the AC, such as gas, flavours, food colouring, sweeteners, acidity regulators, preservatives, stabilizers, vitamins, juice percentage, alcohol percentage, antioxidants and the colour was also investigated. The AC levels seemed to change with brand, kind of antioxidants added, and kind of flavour, depending on the sample. In general, higher ACs were obtained for FRAP as method, and beer for kind of sample, and the standard expressing the smaller AC values was GA. PMID:22931382

  17. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves. III. Spectroscopic confirmation of seventy new beaming binaries discovered in CoRoT lightcurves

    CERN Document Server

    Tal-Or, Lev; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2015-01-01

    (abridged for arXiv) The BEER algorithm, introduced by Faigler & Mazeh (2011), searches stellar lightcurves for the BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection photometric modulations caused by a short-period companion. Applying the search to the first five long-run center CoRoT fields, we identified $481$ non-eclipsing candidates with periodic flux amplitudes of $0.5-87$ mmag. Optimizing the Anglo-Australian-Telescope pointing coordinates and the AAOmega fiber-allocations with dedicated softwares, we acquired $6-7$ medium-resolution spectra of $281$ candidates in a seven-night campaign. Analysis of the red-arm AAOmega spectra, which covered the range of $8342-8842$ \\AA{}, yielded a radial-velocity precision of $\\sim1$ km/s. Spectra containing lines of more than one star were analyzed with TODCOR$-$the two-dimensional correlation algorithm. The measured radial velocities confirmed the binarity of seventy of the BEER candidates$-45$ single-line binaries, $18$ double-line binaries, and $7$ diluted binaries. We sho...

  18. On-cartridge derivatisation using a calixarene solid-phase extraction sorbent for facile, sensitive and fast determination of formaldehyde in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhifen; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Yongming; Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Fei; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Wenfen; He, Juan; Huang, Yanjie; Zhang, Shusheng

    2016-11-15

    This work demonstrates the successful application of an on-cartridge derivatisation procedure for facile, fast and sensitive determination of formaldehyde in beer by HPLC-UV. The derivatisation and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were integrated into a novel calixarene SPE sorbent: tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine bonded silica gel. Specifically, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine was adsorbed onto the sorbent in advance, based on the charge-transfer interaction between the macrocyclic molecule and nitrobenzenes. The method was optimised and validated: under the optimal conditions of derivatisation, SPE and HPLC separation, good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.080-3.2μgmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9939, the limit of detection was 3.0ngmL(-1) (S/N=3), the limit of quantification was 10ngmL(-1) (S/N=10), and the recovery level using this method was desirable at 75-84%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine formaldehyde content in real beer samples; the results were in the range of 0.11-1.1μgmL(-1). PMID:27283638

  19. Application of conventional solid-phase extraction for multimycotoxin analysis in beers by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, Jose Luis; Aguilera-Luiz, M M; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2009-10-28

    A new analytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1, fumonisins B1 and B2, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, and zearalenone) in beers. Mycotoxins were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using C18 as the cartridge. Several parameters such as type of sorbent, elution solvent, and dilution of the sample were evaluated. The separation and determination were carried out by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated, and mean recoveries ranging from 70 to 106% were obtained. Repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed as relative standard deviations, were lower than 21% for all mycotoxins and levels assayed. The limits of quantification were lower than 0.5 microg/L. The developed method has been applied for the analysis of several types of beers with different alcoholic content (nonalcoholic, normal, and special), and T2, HT-2 toxins, aflatoxin B1, and fumonisin B2 were detected. This methodology combines the simplicity of SPE using conventional cartridges and UHPLC-MS/MS, producing a rapid, sensitive, and reliable procedure. PMID:19788189

  20. UV/VIS SPECTROMETER DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN GREEN COFFEE BEANS FROM HARARGHE, ETHIOPIA, USING BEER-LAMBERT’S LAW AND INTEGRATED ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EPHREM G. DEMISSIE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of fifteen samples of green coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans from the major producing region of Hararghe Ethiopia were studied using UV-Vis spectrometer measurement caffeine quantitative analysis from coffee beans. The number density of caffeine in green coffee beans has been reported using Beer-Lambert’s law and integrating absorption coefficient technique. Our results obtained using integrated absorption and Beer-Lambert’s law has a good agreement and we observed a maximum difference of 10.4 %. Based on their low caffeine concentrations among the samples collected were found in Jarso coffee. Coffee beans from the Harar Aboker were characterized by higher concentrations of caffeine. The determined concentration for caffeine in coffee beans (% w/w ranged 0.601 % to 0.903 %. The concentrations of the caffeine varied significantly, depending on the geographical origin of the beans. The concentrations of caffeine in coffee collected from in Hararghe region were noticeably lower than their counterpart (1.0 - 1.2 % grows in the other parts of Ethiopia.

  1. Effect of meteorologic conditions on total suspended particulate (TSP) levels and elemental concentration of aerosols in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva, Israel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) levels in Beer-Sheva, situated in a semi-arid area with winds bringing in dust from the surrounding deserts, was measured 41 times between June 1977 and May 1978. The TSP levels are correlated with climatic conditions. High TSP levels (890 +- 250 μg m-3) were found during Sharav conditions and sandstorms (hot, dry weather, typical to this region). Low TSP levels (59 +- 28 μg m-3) were found in the winter following rain. Usual TSP levels were found to be 140 +- 20 μg m-3 occurring during normal weather conditions. The elemental composition of the Beer-Sheva aerosols were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The concentrations of the following elements Fe, Na, Br, K, Sm, Au, Sb, Ga, La, Yb, Lu, Se, Hg, Cr, Sc, Rb, Co, Ta and Zn were determined by INNA and Ca, Si, S, Ti, Cl, Pb, Fe, V, Ni and Mn by XRF. Their relative abundances were found to depend on the prevailing TSP level. (Auth.)

  2. ArtBeer

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Mainar, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Aplicación para dispositivos con SO Android que trata de documentar y organizar las cervezas artesanales gracias a la participación de los usuarios. A partir de estos registros esta aplicación permite la edición de comentarios y valoraciones, realización de fotografías, uso del barcode-scanner y geolocalización en un mapa de sitios.

  3. Influencia del consumo moderado de cerveza sobre la toxicocinética del aluminio: estudio agudo Influence of moderate beer consumption on aluminium toxico-kynetics: acute study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peña

    2007-06-01

    neurodegenerative disorders due to this metal is conducive to oxidative stress in the brain. According to different researches, it has been suggested that silicon may interfere in the toxicokinetic of this metal. The present study has examined the effect of beer consumption as a source of silicon on the bioavailability of aluminium and the possible role of beer consumption in averting aluminium's neurotoxicity. Material and methods: In a three-day study, male rats were subjected to acute exposure to aluminium while being given two types of beer, i.e., alcoholic and non-alcoholic beer, to drink at two intake levels, one equivalent to moderate to low consumption in humans (0.5 l/d; 27.5 g alcohol/d and another equivalent to moderate to high consumption in humans (1 l/d; 55 g alcohol/day. Aluminium and silicon were determined by ICP-MS and ICPOES, respectively. Results: The results obtained seem indicate that at moderately high levels of alcoholic beer intake the silicon present in the beer was able to reduce aluminium uptake in the digestive tract, increasing its excretion by faecal route. In addition, a possible interaction of both elements at level of distribution and renal excretion is suggested. Conclusion: In consequence, moderate beer consumption, possibly affording a protective factor for the toxic effect of aluminium, one of the environmental factors for Alzheimer's disease.

  4. The comparison of biogenic amine content in different beers%不同啤酒生物胺含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾光辉; 刘春凤; 李崎

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) method was applied to detect eight kinds of common biogenic amine content in beers. It took the benzoyl chloride as derivative reagent, Agilent Eclipse XDB - C18 as stationary phase, acetonitrile and ammonium acetate solution as mobile phase. Ultraviolet detection wavelength of 254 nm and gradient elution were set. First of all, biogenic amine types and the range of its content were studied. Test results showed that the commercially available beers contained 8 kinds of biogenic amines, but different samples contained different types. And some amines content was too low to be quantified. The products from different manufacturer had different amounts and content. The total content of beer biogenic amine was 4.21 - 10. 59 mg/L. It was too low to harm human health. Then this paper studied the relationship between the original wort concentration, alcohol content and the biogenic amine content. The results indicated that the two factors had some relationship with amine content, though they were relatively minor factors compared with different manufacturers and fermentation conditions.%使用反相高效液相色谱法,测定啤酒中8种常见生物胺含量.以苯甲酰氯为衍生试剂,Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18为固定相,乙腈和乙酸铵溶液为流动相,紫外检测波长设置为254 nm,梯度洗脱.本文首先对国内市售啤酒生物胺种类及含量范围进行研究,检测结果表明国内啤酒中8种生物胺均有存在,但不同样品所含种类不同,且有个别胺含量偏低无法定量.不同厂家的产品在种类和含量上存在差别,但整体含量接近,生物胺总量为4.21~ 10.59 mg/L,不足以对人类健康产生危害.原麦汁浓度、酒精度与生物胺含量的关系显示,二者与生物胺有一定联系,但非主要因素,相对于生产厂家和发酵情况,原麦汁浓度、酒精度对生物胺含量的影响较小.

  5. Beers Criteria: a strong guarantee for improving medication safety in older adults%Beers标准是老年人用药安全的有力保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红; 康琳

    2012-01-01

    多重用药在老年人中非常普遍,特别需要重视.优化药物治疗是老年人医疗的重要部分,也是对临床医师的挑战.美国老年医学会(AGS)制定的Beers标准是老年人用药安全的有力保障.%The use of five or more drugs (polypharmacy) is common problem in the elderly,and need to attach importance.Optimization of drug treatment is a major part of medication in older adults,and also is a challenge to clinical physician.Beers Criteria provided by American Geriatrics Society (AGS) is a strong guarantee for improving medication safety in older adults

  6. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed. PMID:24384752

  7. Determination of carbonyl compounds in beer by derivatisation and headspace solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-06-26

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for quantification of 41 chemically diverse carbonyl compounds in beer. Therefore, in-solution derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) combined with SPME was optimised for fibre selection, PFBHA concentration, extraction temperature and time and ionic strength. Afterwards, the method was calibrated and validated successfully and extraction efficiency was compared to sampling with on-fibre derivatisation. In-solution derivatisation enabled the detection of several compounds that were poorly extracted with on-fibre derivatisation such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, acrolein, hydroxyacetone, acetoin, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Others, especially (E)-2-nonenal, were extracted better with on-fibre derivatisation. PMID:19450805

  8. Faction fights, student protests, and rebellion: the politics of beer-drinks and bad food in the Transkei, South Africa, 1955-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This article examines two cases of conflict from the Transkei region of South Africa. In the first instance in 1955, young men caught up in a stick fight after drinking beer were arrested, tried, and convicted, and they received harsh sentences of six months of hard labor. In the second case in 1961, boys at an elite school in Umtata protested their poor food and lodging arrangements, set fire to the school library, and threatened to kill the headmaster. While they were convicted, their punishment of caning was considered a very light sentence. These two cases illuminate the emerging nature of youthful resistance to the inception of home rule that was later to give rise to the Bantustans, as well as the response by state officials seeking to cope with the enlarging rural opposition to the structures of apartheid. The paradox of the strikingly different sentences is examined and explained. PMID:20939136

  9. The extended Beer-Lambert theory for ray tracing modeling of LED chip-scaled packaging application with multiple luminescence materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cadmus C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Optical ray tracing modeling applied Beer-Lambert method in the single luminescence material system to model the white light pattern from blue LED light source. This paper extends such algorithm to a mixed multiple luminescence material system by introducing the equivalent excitation and emission spectrum of individual luminescence materials. The quantum efficiency numbers of individual material and self-absorption of the multiple luminescence material system are considered as well. By this combination, researchers are able to model the luminescence characteristics of LED chip-scaled packaging (CSP), which provides simple process steps and the freedom of the luminescence material geometrical dimension. The method will be first validated by the experimental results. Afterward, a further parametric investigation has been then conducted.

  10. Inter-comparison of the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation clearness and UV indices for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea), Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, A.I. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory; Dead Sea Research Center, Neve Zohar (Israel); Lyubansky, V.; Ianetz, A. [Israel Meteorological Service, Bet Dagan (Israel). Research Development Div.; Evseev, E.G. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Solar Energy Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    An inter-comparison of the clearness indices for the solar UVB, UVA and global radiation for Beer Sheva and Neve Zohar (Dead Sea) are presented utilizing radiation data measured from January 1995 through December 2001 for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between the measurements, viz., any day for which a hourly value for one of the sites was missing is rejected and not included in the analysis for that particular radiation type. Beer Sheva is located ca. 65 km to the west and is approximately 700 m above Neve Zohar, which is located on the western shore of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is the lowest terrestrial point on the earth, approximately 400 m below mean sea level. The relative magnitudes of the global, UVB and UVA radiation intensities at the two sites can be attributed to the enhanced scattering at the Dead Sea due to the longer optical path length the solar radiation must traverse at the Dead Sea. The degree of attenuation due to scattering phenomena is inversely proportional to the wavelength raised to some power and, consequently, it is greatest for UVB and very small for global radiation. The UVB and UVA solar constants were determined from the extraterrestrial radiation values tabulated by Froehlich and Wehrli [Spectral distribution of solar irradiance from 25000 nm to 250nm, in: M. Iqbal, An introduction to solar radiation, Academic Press, New York, 1981, Appendix C, pp. 380-381]. The clearness indices for global and UVA radiation were of similar magnitude, whereas those for UVB radiation were of two orders of magnitude smaller. In addition, the monthly average hourly UV Index at both sites has also been determined and an inter-comparison of the values has been performed for all available hourly values from January 1995 through August 2002 for both sites. It is observed that the monthly average hourly UV Index values at the Dead Sea are never in the extreme range. (author)

  11. Long-Term n-Caproic Acid Production from Yeast-Fermentation Beer in an Anaerobic Bioreactor with Continuous Product Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijian; Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional reactor microbiomes can elongate short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs) to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), such as n-caproic acid. However, it is unclear whether this microbiome biotechnology platform is stable enough during long operating periods to consistently produce MCCAs. During a period of 550 days, we improved the operating conditions of an anaerobic bioreactor for the conversion of complex yeast-fermentation beer from the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry into primarily n-caproic acid. We incorporated and improved in-line, membrane liquid-liquid extraction to prevent inhibition due to undissociated MCCAs at a pH of 5.5 and circumvented the addition of methanogenic inhibitors. The microbiome accomplished several functions, including hydrolysis and acidogenesis of complex organic compounds and sugars into SCCAs, subsequent chain elongation with undistilled ethanol in beer, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The methane yield was 2.40 ± 0.52% based on COD and was limited by the availability of carbon dioxide. We achieved an average n-caproate production rate of 3.38 ± 0.42 g L(-1) d(-1) (7.52 ± 0.94 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) with an n-caproate yield of 70.3 ± 8.81% and an n-caproate/ethanol ratio of 1.19 ± 0.15 based on COD for a period of ∼55 days. The maximum production rate was achieved by increasing the organic loading rates in tandem with elevating the capacity of the extraction system and a change in the complex feedstock batch. PMID:25941741

  12. Analysis of the effect of inoculum characteristics on the first stages of a growing yeast population in beer fermentations by means of an individual-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginovart, M; Prats, C; Portell, X; Silbert, M

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a limited replicative lifespan. The cell mass at division is partitioned unequally between a larger, old parent cell and a smaller, new daughter cell. Industrial beer fermentations maintain and reuse yeast. At the end of fermentation a portion of the yeast is 'cropped' from the vessel for 'serial repitching'. Harvesting yeast may select a population with an imbalance of young and aged individuals, but the output of any bioprocess is dependent on the physiology of each single cell in the population. Unlike continuous models, individual-based modelling is an approach that considers each microbe as an individual, a unique and discrete entity, with characteristics that change throughout its life. The aim of this contribution is to explore, by means of individual-based simulations, the effects of inoculum size and cell genealogical age on the dynamics of virtual yeast fermentation, focussing on: (1) the first stages of population growth, (2) the mean biomass evolution of the population, (3) the rate of glucose uptake and ethanol production, and (4) the biomass and genealogical age distributions. The ultimate goal is to integrate these results in order to make progress in the understanding of the composition of yeast populations and their temporal evolution in beer fermentations. Simulation results show that there is a clear influence of these initial features of the inocula on the subsequent growth dynamics. By contrasting both the individual and global properties of yeast cells and populations, we gain insight into the interrelation between these two types of data, which helps us to deal with the macroscopic behaviour observed in experimental research. PMID:20811925

  13. A fully automated and fast method using direct sample injection combined with fused-core column on-line SPE-HPLC for determination of ochratoxin A and citrinin in lager beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotská, Ivona; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-05-01

    A new fast and sensitive method based on on-line solid-phase extraction on a fused-core precolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) determination in lager beer samples. Direct injection of 100 μL filtered beer samples into an on-line SPE-HPLC system enabled fast and effective sample extraction including separation in less than 6 min. Preconcentration of OTA and CIT from beer samples was performed on an Ascentis Express RP C18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase of methanol/0.5 % aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). The flow switch from extraction column to analytical column in back-flush mode was set at 2.0 min and the separation was performed on the fused-core column Ascentis Express Phenyl-Hexyl (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase acetonitrile/0.5 % aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 in a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 335/497 nm. The accuracy of the method, defined as the mean recoveries of OTA and CIT from light and dark beer samples, was in the range 98.3-102.1 %. The method showed high sensitivity owing to on-line preconcentration; LOQ values were found to be 10 and 20 ng L(-1) for OTA and CIT, respectively. The found values of OTA and CIT in all tested light, dark and wheat beer samples were significantly below the maximum tolerable limits (3.0 μg kg(-1) for OTA and 2000 μg kg(-1) for CIT) set by the European Union. Graphical Abstract The beer contamination - potential sources of mycotoxins. PMID:26993307

  14. 全小麦啤酒酵母菌株的诱变育种及应用研究%The Application and Mutation Breeding of Whole Wheat Beer Yeast Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 张百胜; 张慎举; 马绮云; 陈柯羽

    2011-01-01

    采用10 Kev低能N+注入啤酒酵母,经筛选获得-菌株Lz37,再用150 MPa超高压处理菌株Lz37,经双乙酰平板筛选获得-菌株Gy3,其凝聚性很强,适合于在小麦汁中发酵啤酒,其发酵度为66%-68%,双乙酰含量低于口味阈值,遗传稳定性良好.将Gy3酵母定为全小麦啤酒生产应用酵母,命名为商啤3号(SP-03)."SP-03"啤酒酵母菌株的各项生理及生产性能都较优良,特别是在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,经过对发酵工艺等的调整,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、淡爽、柔和.%Low energy N+ implantation using 10 Kev Saccharomyces cerevisiae by screening to obtain a bacteria Lz37, using ultra high pressure 150 MPa strains Lz37, screened by a plate of diacetyl bacteria Gy3, the cohesion was very strong, suitable for use in wheat beer fermented juice, the degree of fermentation was from 68% to 66%, diacetyl content below the taste threshold, genetic stability was good.Gy3 as whole wheat yeast beer yeast was named No.3 commercial beer (SP-03)."SP-03" beer yeast strains of the physiological and production performance were relatively good, especially in the full-malt beer brewed in the applicability of strong, such as through the adjustment of the fermentation process, with its pure taste of beer brewed, cool light, soft.

  15. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves. III. Spectroscopic confirmation of seventy new beaming binaries discovered in CoRoT light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Or, L.; Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The BEER algorithm searches stellar light curves for the BEaming, Ellipsoidal, and Reflection photometric modulations that are caused by a short-period companion. These three effects are typically of very low amplitude and can mainly be detected in light curves from space-based photometers. Unlike eclipsing binaries, these effects are not limited to edge-on inclinations. Aims: Applying the algorithm to wide-field photometric surveys such as CoRoT and Kepler offers an opportunity to better understand the statistical properties of short-period binaries. It also widens the window for detecting intrinsically rare systems, such as short-period brown-dwarf and massive-planetary companions to main-sequence stars. Methods: Applying the search to the first five long-run center CoRoT fields, we identified 481 non-eclipsing candidates with periodic flux amplitudes of 0.5-87 mmag. Optimizing the Anglo-Australian-Telescope pointing coordinates and the AAOmega fiber-allocations with dedicated softwares, we acquired six spectra for 231 candidates and seven spectra for another 50 candidates in a seven-night campaign. Analysis of the red-arm AAOmega spectra, which covered the range of 8342-8842 Å, yielded a radial-velocity precision of ~1 km s-1. Spectra containing lines of more than one star were analyzed with the two-dimensional correlation algorithm TODCOR. Results: The measured radial velocities confirmed the binarity of seventy of the BEER candidates - 45 single-line binaries, 18 double-line binaries, and 7 diluted binaries. We show that red giants introduce a major source of false candidates and demonstrate a way to improve BEER's performance in extracting higher fidelity samples from future searches of CoRoT light curves. The periods of the confirmed binaries span a range of 0.3-10 days and show a rise in the number of binaries per ΔlogP toward longer periods. The estimated mass ratios of the double-line binaries and the mass ratios assigned to the single

  16. The transformation of high palletizing machine in beer filling and packing line%啤酒灌装线高位码垛机的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘伟健

    2012-01-01

    In high-speed filling and packing line of beer industry, stacking machine is one of the important equipment. Now high palletizing machine control system for filling line was transformed , the stack form of boxes and how to reduce the gap between the box and box in order to avoid the boxes dropping down when transferred were studied. Practice proved that compared with the original stack, after increased the total area of each layer, it narrowed the gap between the box and the box in the palletizing and improved the production efficiency of the stacker.%在啤酒高速包装线上,码垛机是其中的重要设备,本文就对高位码垛机控制系统进行改造。研究了箱物料的堆叠形式,如何减少箱与箱之间的间隙,以避免叉车转运时掉箱的现象。实践证明,改造后与原堆叠形式相比,每层箱的总面积增大,缩小了码垛过程中箱与箱间的间隙,大大提高了堆垛机生产效率。

  17. Enhanced production of bioethanol from waste of beer fermentation broth at high temperature through consecutive batch strategy by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Khan, Taous; Ha, Jung Hwan; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-10-10

    Malt hydrolyzing enzymes and yeast glycolytic and fermentation enzymes in the waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB) were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A new 'one-pot consecutive batch strategy' was developed for efficient bio-ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using WBFB without additional enzymes, microbial cells, or carbohydrates. Bio-ethanol production was conducted in batches using WBFB supernatant in the first phase at 25-67°C and 50rpm, followed by the addition of 3% WBFB solid residue to the existing culture broth in the second phase at 67°C. The ethanol production increased from 50 to 102.5g/L when bare supernatant was used in the first phase, and then to 219g ethanol/L in the second phase. The amount of ethanol obtained using this strategy was almost equal to that obtained using the original WBFB containing 25% solid residue at 33°C, and more than double that obtained when bare supernatant was used. Microscopic and gel electrophoresis studies revealed yeast cell wall degradation and secretion of cellular material into the surrounding medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported the existence of enzymes in WBFB involved in bioethanol production at elevated temperatures. The results of this study will provide insight for the development of new strategies for biofuel production. PMID:24034431

  18. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

  19. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves: IV. Discovery of four new low-mass white-dwarf companions in the Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, Simchon; Mazeh, Tsevi; Kiefer, Flavien; Latham, David W; Bloemen, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white-dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD) - KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474 and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler, and 18 WASP, previously known short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. The light curves together with follow-up spectroscopic observations allow us to derive the masses, radii and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17-3.82 d, and WD masses, of 0.19-0.22 Msun, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035 and 0.026 Rsun, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and sm...

  20. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves: II. Evidence for emission phase shift due to superrotation in four Kepler hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, Simchon

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the Kepler light curves of four transiting hot-Jupiter systems- KOI-13, HAT-P-7, TrES-2 and Kepler-76, which show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations. The mass of the four planets can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude, given the mass and radii of their parent stars. For all four systems, we find that the beaming-based planetary-mass estimate is larger than the mass estimated from the ellipsoidal amplitude, consistent with previous studies for three of these systems- KOI-13, TrES-2 and Kepler-76. We suggest the apparent discrepancy is due to superrotation, first observed for HD 189733b in the infrared. Superrotation of a tidally-locked hot-Jupiter involves an eastward displacement of the planet hot spot from the substellar point, probably due to winds in the planetary atmosphere, an effect that induces an angle shift of the planet reflection/emission phase modulation. In our analysis this angle shift "leaks" into the beaming modulation, artif...

  1. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves. IV. Discovery of Four New Low-mass White-Dwarf Companions in the Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigler, S.; Kull, I.; Mazeh, T.; Kiefer, F.; Latham, D. W.; Bloemen, S.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD)—KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler and 18 WASP short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries that were previously known. The light curves, together with follow-up spectroscopic observations, allow us to derive the masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17-3.82 days, and WD masses, of 0.19-0.22 M⊙, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035, and 0.026 R⊙, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and smaller WD secondaries. KOI-3818 displays evidence for a fast-rotating primary and a minute but significant eccentricity, ˜1.5 × 10-3. These features are probably the outcome of the mass-transfer process.

  2. Method to Improve Enzymatic Activity during Beer Brewing%改善啤酒酿造过程酶活力方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃侨; 孙丽华

    2011-01-01

    以国外大麦Gairdner为原料,分别用麦芽厂所用的空白水、pH值4.0盐酸溶液、pH值4.0硫酸溶液、100 mg/L钙离子溶液、1μg/L赤霉素溶液使大麦浸渍、发芽来达到降低绿麦芽内部pH值的目的,实验结果表明,虽然硫酸、盐酸2种强酸物质具备降低大麦发芽内部pH值的能力,但其食品安全性差、对设备腐蚀大,而用钙离子和赤霉素溶液培养大麦发芽,虽然在大麦发芽过程中对pH值的变化影响不是很稳定,但均能使大麦发芽结束点即绿麦芽的pH值降低,所以对于后期啤酒的酿造均能够使淀粉酶、蛋白酶等活力近于最适pH值状态,为在啤酒酿造过程中减少外源添加酸的使用量,或为温和型弱酸或酸性中草药等物质的添加提供条件.%The aim of the experiment was to reduce pH value inside green malt during barley germination using Gaird-ner barley as raw material, soaking respectively with fresh water used in the malt factory, pH 4. 0 hydrochloric acid solution, pH 4.0 sulphuric acid solution, 100 mg/L calcium ion solution, and 1 u.g/L gibberellin solution. The results showed that although strong acids of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid possesses the capabilities to reduce pH value inside the barley during the germination, yet the food security is poor, and they corrode the facilities greatly, though while using calcium ion and/or gibberellin solution to cultivate barley to germinate had unstable pH changes during the barley germination, but they all could reduce pH value when reaching the end of barley germination I. E. Green malt. Therefore, at the late stage of beer brewing it could reach closely to the most suitable pH value for the activities of amylase and protease, to reduce the adding amount of acid during the beer brewing process, or provide conditions of adding mild weak acids and/or acidic Chinese medical herbs, and other materials.

  3. Simultaneous determination of sample thickness, tilt, and electron mean free path using tomographic tilt images based on Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J; Pankratz, Logan M; Kuhn, Richard J; Lanman, Jason K; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging technique that can elucidate the architecture of macromolecular complexes and cellular ultrastructure in a near-native state. Some important sample parameters, such as thickness and tilt, are needed for 3-D reconstruction. However, these parameters can currently only be determined using trial 3-D reconstructions. Accurate electron mean free path plays a significant role in modeling image formation process essential for simulation of electron microscopy images and model-based iterative 3-D reconstruction methods; however, their values are voltage and sample dependent and have only been experimentally measured for a limited number of sample conditions. Here, we report a computational method, tomoThickness, based on the Beer-Lambert law, to simultaneously determine the sample thickness, tilt and electron inelastic mean free path by solving an overdetermined nonlinear least square optimization problem utilizing the strong constraints of tilt relationships. The method has been extensively tested with both stained and cryo datasets. The fitted electron mean free paths are consistent with reported experimental measurements. The accurate thickness estimation eliminates the need for a generous assignment of Z-dimension size of the tomogram. Interestingly, we have also found that nearly all samples are a few degrees tilted relative to the electron beam. Compensation of the intrinsic sample tilt can result in horizontal structure and reduced Z-dimension of tomograms. Our fast, pre-reconstruction method can thus provide important sample parameters that can help improve performance of tomographic reconstruction of a wide range of samples. PMID:26433027

  4. Application of “SP-3” and “SP-2” in the whole wheat beer brewing%“SP-3”与“SP-2”在全小麦啤酒酿造中应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 杨继远

    2011-01-01

    " SP-3 " was a new beer yeast strain, while " SP-02 " was the normal strain used in the production of malt beer. Comparison experiments of the application of" SP-3 " and " SP-2 " in production of wheat beer were conducted. The results showed that strains " SP-3 " is more adaptable in the whole wheat beer brewing than that of strain " SP-2 ". The parameters of beer by strain "SP-3 " were superior to that of" SP-2 ", which has pure taste, clean and soft, could meet for the current consumer's requirements.%“SP-3”是新选育的啤酒酵母菌株,而“SP-2”为通常生产大麦芽啤酒使用的啤酒酵母菌株,“SP-3”与“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦啤酒生产中应用对比试验结果表明,“SP-3”啤酒酵母菌株在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,各项指标均优于“SP-2”啤酒酵母菌株,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、清爽、柔和,能够较好地适应当前消费者的口感需求.

  5. 国内消费市场葡萄酒与啤酒中生物胺污染水平的分析%Analysis of Biogenic Amines in Wine and Beer in Chinese Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 钟其顶; 邢江涛; 熊正河; 吴永宁

    2013-01-01

    In the paper,an improved RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitation of eight biogenic amines (Tryptamine,Phenylethylamine,Putrescine,Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spermidine,and Spermine) in wine and beer.Eight biogenic amines were analyzed in 38 samples of domestic wine,33 samples of wine from eleven countries,and 26 samples of domestic beer.Tryptamine was not found in any of the samples.β-Phenylethylamine,Putrescine,Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spennidine,and Spermine were found in the Chinese red wine samples.Most of the red wines presented low concentrations (less than 8 mg/l).Tryptamine was not found in any of the red wine samples.Putrescine was detected in all samples (100%),followed by β-Phenylethylamine (84.2%),Spermidine (60.5%),Histamine (57.8%),Tyramine(57.8%),Cadaverine(47.4%),and Spermine(36.8%).Putrescine and β-Phenylethylamine were found in white wines,meanwhile the other biogenic amines were not found.The mean total biogenic amines in imported wine sample slightly higher than the domestic wine.The primary biogenic amines in Chinese beer were Putrescine,Tyramine,Spermidine,and Cadaverine.These beers presented contents of Histamine lower than 2 mg/L.With the merits of high sensitivity,precision and well repeatability,the method was feasible for the determination of biogenic amines in wine and beer.Domestic wine,beer and wine importing are safe for the lower biogenic amines content in them.%研究建立一种同时检测葡萄酒和啤酒中8种生物胺的高效液相色谱法,对国内消费市场部分葡萄酒和啤酒中生物胺的污染情况进行分析.结果显示:在所有酒类样品中均未检出色胺;从干红葡萄酒中检出其它生物胺,如腐胺检出率100%,其次为β-苯乙胺;干白葡萄酒中的生物胺主要为腐胺,还检出微量的β-苯乙胺,其它生物胺未检出.国产与进口葡萄酒样品中生物腰污染水平无显著差异(P>0.05).啤酒中常见的生物胺是腐胺、

  6. Development of a Method for the Quantitation of Three Thiols in Beer, Hop, and Wort Samples by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction with in Situ Derivatization and Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Kishimoto, Toru

    2015-08-01

    A method for analysis of hop-derived polyfunctional thiols, such as 4-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (4S4M2Pone), 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SHol), and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), in beer, hop water extract, and wort at nanogram per liter levels was developed. The method employed stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization (der-SBSE) using ethyl propiolate (ETP), followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. A prior step involved structural identification of the ETP derivatives of the thiols by TD-GC-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with parallel sulfur chemiluminescence detection (Q-TOF-MS/SCD) after similar der-SBSE. The der-SBSE conditions of the ETP concentration, buffer concentration, salt addition, and extraction time profiles were investigated, and the performance of the method was demonstrated with spiked beer samples. The limits of detection (LODs) (0.19-27 ng/L) are below the odor threshold levels of all analytes. The apparent recoveries at 10-100 ng/L (99-101%) and the repeatabilities [relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.3-7.2%; n = 6] are also good. The method was successfully applied to the determination of target thiols at nanogram per liter levels in three kinds of beer samples (hopped with Cascade, Citra, and Nelson Sauvin) and the corresponding hop water extracts and wort samples. There was a clear correlation between the determined values and the characteristics of citrus hop aroma for each sample. PMID:26166150

  7. 烧烤食品和啤酒对大鼠肝脏抗氧化系统的影响%Effect of Barbecue Food and Beer on the Antioxidant System of Rat Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海麦; 李彩艳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The reference of the scientific diet for human body health was provided through the experiment.. [ Method] The rats were fed with barbecue (BBQ) food and beer and another group as CK was fed with non-BBQ food and pure water. The activity of superoxide dismutsse( SOD), the activity of catalase(CAT), the ability of · OH radical-removing, the reducing power and the content of malondialdehyde(MDA) in rat liver were measured by the spectrophotometric method and the data was analyzed. [ Result] The BBQ food and beer would resulted in the reduction of the capacity of antioxidant of liver, particularly for significant decrement in the activity of SOD and CAT, and the ability in the · OH radical-scavenging and reducing power was also decreased, which were not significantly difference with those of CK, and the content of MDA was significantly increased. [ Conclusion] A diet oflots of BBQ food and beer would decrease the capacity of antioxidant of liver. Therefore the barbecue food and beer in diet should be appropriately reduced and the addition of some natural antioxidant food was beneficial to the health of human body.%[目的]为促进人们科学饮食提供参考.[方法]用烧烤食品和啤酒喂养大鼠,以非烧烤食品和纯净水喂养的大鼠为对照组,利用分光光度法对烧烤食品和啤酒对大鼠肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、清除·OH自由基能力、还原力及丙二醛(MDA)含量影响进行分析.[结果]烧烤食品和啤酒会降低大鼠肝脏抗氧化能力,其中SOD活性极显著降低,CAT活性显著降低,清除·OH自由基能力和还原力减弱,但与对照差异不显著,MDA含量极显著增加.[结论]大量食用烧烤食品和啤酒会使肝脏抗氧化能力减弱,氧化性损伤增加,因此应适当减少食用烧烤和啤酒,同时补充一些天然抗氧化剂有益于健康.

  8. 废啤酒酵母泥吸附活性黑31的机理研究%Biosorption Mechanism of Reactive Black 31 by Waste Beer Yeast Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝娥; 沈学斌

    2011-01-01

    Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of reactive black 31 from aqueous solutions by waste beer yeast sludge was investigated. The interaction between functional groups of waste beer yeast sludge and reactive black 31 was studied by the aid of Fourier infrared spectroscopy analysis. Results showed that the biosorption of reactive black 31 by waste beer yeast sludge was easy. Biosorption was quick before 20min, afterwards slowed down until the equilibrium time of 2h. The biosorption kinetics data could be described by pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Biosorption isotherm of reactive black 31 by waste beer yeast sludge confirmed with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. It indicated that the adsorption was dominated by physical adsorption accompanied with chemical adsorption. The maximum biosorption capacity was 142.8 mg/g from Langmuir equation. Amide components involved in protein participated in biosorption process, which may be achieved by mutual electrostatic adsorption process between the positively charged amino in reactive black 31 with a negatively charged carboxyl group or sulfonic group.%探讨了废啤酒酵母泥吸附水中活性黑31的平衡、动力学规律,利用傅里叶红外光谱技术分析了废啤酒酵母泥及活性黑31的吸附官能团间的相互作用.结果表明,废啤酒酵母泥对活性黑31的吸附容易进行;20min前吸附速度都较快,2h后吸附都达到平衡;吸附动力学符合准二级动力学模型.废啤酒酵母泥对活性黑31的吸附等温曲线符合Freundlich方程和Langmuir方程,表明吸附作用以物理吸附为主,兼有化学吸附;由Langmuir方程得到最大吸附量为142.8 mg/g.蛋白质酰胺成分参与了吸附过程,吸附过程可能是菌体中带正电荷的氨基与活性黑31中带负电荷的羧基或磺酸基相互静电吸引的结果.

  9. superoxide dismutase in beer production and its application%超氧化物歧化酶在啤酒生产过程中的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路玉兰

    2011-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a class of enzyme existing in the organisms and has the ability to clear the free radicals. It plays an important role in the beer production. This study analyzes the beer flavor aging factors, and provides some technical solutions to prevent. SOD is an antioxidants which can clear and block the oxygen. The characteristics of SOD in the malt and yeast are discussed. The methods of increasing SOD content in the different fermentation stage of beer are illustrated. Exogenous SOD had significantly impact on increasing the reduction ability of the original malt juice, antioxidants capacity in the fermentation, as well as keep stable of beer flavor. The exogenous SOD resources and the problems are discussed. The prospects of its application in the industry are also proposed.%超氧化物歧化酶普遍存在于生物体内,具有清除氧活性自由基的生物活性,在啤酒生产过程中具有重要的作用.本文对啤酒风味老化因素给予了分析,并对减少啤酒风味的老化提供了一定的技术方案,重点对影响老化的关键因素氧进行了论述,并给与清除和阻断氧的方法,超氧化物歧化酶作为一种抗氧化剂,本文分别对麦芽、酵母中的超氧化物歧化酶的特性进行了分析,并且对啤酒发酵中不同时期提高超氧化物歧化酶的含量的措施给予了探讨,在生产过程中添加外源性超氧化物歧化酶对于提高原麦汁的还原力,发酵液的抗氧化力以及成品啤酒的风味稳定性都有明显的作用,同时,本文就目前外源性超氧化物歧化酶的来源,存在的问题进行了探讨,并对其在工业化生产上的应用前景进行了分析和探讨.

  10. 老年人潜在的不适当药物使用标准解读:2015年版比尔斯Beers标准%Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults: 2015 Beers Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙树森; 朱斌; 赵志刚

    2015-01-01

    美国老年医学会比尔斯标准(Beers Criteria)是在老年人中应避免使用的潜在不适当药物列表,包括一般情形下和在那些有某些疾病或综合症的老年人中应避免使用、需要降低剂量或慎用或仔细监测的药物.比尔斯标准制定的目的是为了改善临床老年人的用药选择、教育临床医生和患者、减少药物不良反应、以及作为评估护理质量、成本以及老年人药物使用模式的工具.2015年美国老年医学会对2012年版标准进行了更新,同时增加了基于患者肾功能应当避免的药物或需要调整的剂量以及与老年人危害相关的药物-药物相互作用列表.本文对2015版比尔斯标准进行解读,为国内老年人合理和安全用药提供一定的参考,并对药师利用该标准提供药学服务提供一定的借鉴.%The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) Use in Older Adults is an explicit list of PIMs best avoided in older adults in general and in those with certain diseases or syndromes, prescribed at reduced dosage or with caution or carefully monitored. The 2015 Beers Criteria updated the existing criteria, and added two major components: 1) drugs for which dose adjustment is required based on kidney function and 2) drug–drug interactions. The intentions of the criteria are to: improve medication selection; educate clinicians and patients; reduce adverse drug events; and serve as a tool for evaluating quality of care, cost, and patterns of drug use of older adults. This paper aims to interpret the 2015 Beers Criteria and discuss the role of pharmacists in the safe and appropriate use of medications in older adults.

  11. Knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free legislation and second-hand smoking exposure among workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbogi, Olanrewaju Olusola; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Onigbogi, Modupe; Sekoni, Oluwakemi

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods: A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the second-hand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0%) and 79 females (52.0%). On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2%) with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0%) was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5%) had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion: Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke

  12. Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoke-Free Legislation and Second-Hand Smoking Exposure among Workers in Indoor Bars, Beer Parlors and Discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of

  13. Implementation of a new integrated d-lactic acid biosensor in a semiautomatic FIA system for the simultaneous determination of lactic acid enantiomers. Application to the analysis of beer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Ruiz, M A; Campuzano, S; González de Rivera, G; López-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-05-15

    An integrated amperometric d-lactic acid biosensor involving a gold film deposited by sputtering on a stainless steel disk electrode where the enzymes D-lactic acid dehydrogenase (DLDH) and diaphorase (DP) as well as the redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) are coimmobilized by using a dialysis membrane, is reported in this work. Amperometry in stirred solutions at a detection potential of +0.15 V (vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode) provided a linear calibration plot for D-lactic acid over the 1.0×10(-4) to 3.8×10(-3) g L(-1) concentration range, with a limit of detection of 3.1×10(-5) g L(-1). The usefulness of the biosensor was demonstrated by determining D-lactic acid in beer samples with good results. Additionally, the biosensor was implemented together with a commercial L-lactic amperometric biosensor in a semiautomatic flow-injection analysis (FIA) system able to perform a rapid and simple stereo-specific determination of D- and D-lactic without a previous separation step. The operational characteristics of the biosensors under flow conditions were evaluated and its applicability was demonstrated through the simultaneous determination of both enantiomers in beer samples. PMID:26992505

  14. The Thresholds of Nine Organic Acids in Control and Degassed Light Beer%未除气与除气淡爽型啤酒中9种有机酸的阈值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 张彦青; 张菡; 童军茂

    2011-01-01

    采用ASTM679标准方法测定了未除气与除气淡爽型啤酒中乙酸、乳酸、柠檬酸、苹果酸、琥珀酸、富马酸、丙酮酸、酒石酸和草酸的个人和小组阈值。结果发现,在未除气啤酒中,9种有机酸的小组阈值大小顺序为苹果酸、富马酸、乳酸、柠檬酸、丙酮酸、琥珀酸、乙酸、草酸、酒石酸。其中品评员对苹果酸、琥珀酸、富马酸、草酸和柠檬酸的口感差异相对较小,而对酒石酸、乙酸、丙酮酸和乳酸的口感差异较大。在除气啤酒中,9种有机酸的小组阈值大小顺序为丙酮酸、乳酸、乙酸、富马酸、琥珀酸、苹果酸、酒石酸、草酸、柠檬酸。品评员对柠檬酸、苹果酸和乳%The individual and group thresholds of nine organic acids were measured in control and degassed beer using the ASTM method 679 protocol. The results show that the group threshold of malic acid in control beer had the highest value in the 9 organic acids, followed by fumaric acid, lactic acid, citric acid, pyruvic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid in rank. The panelists have relative small differences in taste of malic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, oxalic acid and citric acid in the control beer, and the great discrepancy in mouth -feel of tartaric acid, acetic acid, pyruvic acid and lactic acid. The group thresholds of nine organic acids in degassed beer followed by pyruvic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid and citric acid in rank. The panelists have relative small differences in taste of citric acid, malic acid and lactic acid, and the great discrepancy in mouth -feel of pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid and acetic acid. Besides, we have found significant difference in the group thresholds of nine organic acids between degassed and control beers. Triprotic acid has more significant difference

  15. Contribución a la ingesta de macro y micronutrientes que ejerce un consumo moderado de cerveza Contribution to the intake of macro and micro nutrients exerted by moderate beer consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romeo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El consumo moderado de cerveza puede formar parte de una dieta saludable, como la dieta mediterránea. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la contribución del consumo moderado de cerveza a la ingestión de energía y nutrientes en adultos españoles sanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Como parte de un estudio intervencionista más amplio, se midió la ingestión dietética mediante un registro de 7 días de los alimentos de la dieta en 24 hombres y 22 mujeres (edad: 34,18 ± 5,80 años dos veces: durante la última semana de un periodo de 30 días de abstinencia absoluta de alcohol y durante la última semana de un periodo de 30 días de consumo moderado de cerveza. Se analizó el contenido energético y en nutrientes de los alimentos mediante el programa GEA, basado en las tablas españolas de composición de los alimentos¹. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres, el consumo moderado de cerveza aumentó de forma significativa (p OBJECTIVE: Moderate beer consumption can be part of a healthy diet, like the Mediterranean diet. The aim of the present study was to analyse the contribution a moderate beer consumption makes to energy and nutrient intake in Spanish healthy adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: As part of a larger intervention study, dietary intake was measured by means of a 7-day food dietary record in 24 men and 22 women (age 34.18 ± 5.80 years twice: during the last week of the 30 days of complete alcohol abstinence and during the last week of 30 days of moderate beer consumption. Energy and nutrient content of food was analysed by means of the GEA program, based on the Spanish food composition tables. RESULTS: In women, moderate beer consumption increased significantly (p < 0.05 mean vitamin B6 (1.24 ± 0.32 to 1.47 ± 0.34 mg, B12 (3.87 ± 1.46 to 5.58 ± 2.76 µg, A (614.45 ± 224.75 to 788.3 ± 486.1 µg, and folate (139.5 ± 39.88 to 168.25 ± 56.32 µg intake, whereas there was a decrease in mean iodine intake (327.1 ± 148.4 to 281.2

  16. 啤酒对血清酶活性影响的体内外实验%In vivo and in vitro experiment on the effect of beer on the serum enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾洪雁; 陶如; 翟静; 孙凌云; 王涛; 柏素云

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no reports available about the direct effect of beer on serum enzyme activity.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of the activity of various serum enzymes of the subjects in the in vivo and in vitro experiments after drinking bear.DESIGN: An observational controlled experiment.SETTING: The Institute of Basic Medicine of Taishan Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: The experiment was performed at the Institute of Basic Medicine of Taishan Medical College between March 2005 and April 2005.We selected 17 college students, aged 19 to 35 years, from Taishan Medical College, including undergraduate students and graduate students. In formed consents were obtained from the subjects before the experiment was conducted.METHODS: ① In vivo experiment: 3 mL of venous blood was collected from the subjects 3 hours after the ordinary diet as the control. Then, the subjects drank beer at an amount of 4 mL/kg according to their body mass immediately. 3 mL of blood was collected respectively 15, 30, 45, 60, 90,120, 80 minutes later to measure the changes of the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, al kaline phosphatase, creatine kinase , lactate dehydrogenase, diastase and lipase. ② In vitro experiment: 17 fresh serum samples were added into two test tubes separately with 0.5 mL of serum in each tube. 20 μL of normal saline was added to the tube of the control and 20 μL of beer was added into the test tube. The direct effect of beer on the activity of various enzymes was observed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The changes of the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, al kaline phosphatase, creatine kinase , lactate dehydrogenase, diastase and lipase of the serum on the in vivo and in vitro experiment .RESULTS: Totally 17 students were involved and all the students entered the stage of result analysis with no loss in the midway. ① In vivo experiment: Beer

  17. EXPERIMENTO DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO PROTÉICA POR AUTOLIZADO DE FERMENTO DE CERVEJA NA ALIMENTAÇÃO DE VACAS LEITEIRAS DA RAÇA HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN EXPERIMENT ON PROTEIC SUPPLEMENTATION SUBSTITUTION BY AUTOLYZED BEER YEAST IN HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN RACE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fischer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho experimentou substituir a suplementação protéica de vacas leiteiras da raça Holstein-Frisian por autolizado de fermento de cerveja, um subproduto da fabricação de cerveja. O produto é muito rico em aminoácidos, vitaminas e minerais. Após 6 semanas de uso do produto não se registrou nenhuma elevação da produção de leite.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the protein supplementation in Holstein-Frisian cows could be substituted by autolyzed beer yeast, a by-product of beer brewing. Beer yeast is rich in aminoacids, vitamin and minerals. The beer yeast was given to the cows for six weeks, but no modification in the production of milk occurred during that period.

  18. 利用废啤酒酵母泥对活性黑31的吸附特性研究%Study on biosorptive characteristics of Reactive Black 31 by using waste beer yeast sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝娥; 周康群; 郭琇; 古伟杰

    2011-01-01

    Reactive Black 31 was removed from aqueous by biosorption using powder waste beer yeast sludge.The effect of initial pH and temperature on biosorption,biosorption thermodynamics and desorption ability was investigated.The results showed that the biosorption capacity was the largest at initial pH 3.The effect of temperature on biosorption of Reactive Black 31 was little.The biosorption capacity decreased only 9.9 mg/g at 25 ℃ to 50 ℃.Thermodynamics analysis indicated that the biosorption process by powder waste beer yeast sludge was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.The dye molecules movements decreased slightly in random at the solid/liquid interface during the biosorption of dye on biosorbents.The desorption efficiency of Reactive Black 31 absorbed on powder waste beer yeast sludge by 0.2 mol/L of NaOH solution was 84.6%.%利用粉末状废啤酒酵母泥对水中活性黑31进行吸附去除实验,研究了不同溶液初始pH值、不同温度对活性黑31的吸附性能,继而探讨了其吸附热力学和解吸性能。结果表明:在强酸条件下(pH 3),废啤酒酵母泥对活性黑31的吸附量最大;温度对废啤酒酵母泥吸附活性黑31的性能影响不大,温度从25℃升至50℃,吸附量只减少了9.9 mg/g;吸附热力学表明吸附过程是一个自发进行的放热过程;吸附过程中染料分子在固/液界面的随意运动性能稍有降低。用0.2mol/L的NaOH溶液对吸附活性黑31后的废啤酒酵母泥的解吸率为84.6

  19. Development and Stability of Beer Incorporated with Fermented Goat Milk with Added Red Date Juice%红枣羊乳啤的制备及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄新曼; 王存芳

    2015-01-01

    为丰富羊乳产品,开阔羊乳市场,给消费者带来更多的消费选择,实验以山羊乳、麦芽、红枣、酒花为主要原料,分别通过乳酸菌的乳酸发酵和酵母菌的酒精发酵后,将得到的红枣羊乳酸液和啤酒原浆按一定体积比配比,制备出兼具酸乳、啤酒、碳酸饮料风味和保健功能的新型红枣羊乳啤饮料,并通过测定沉淀率和稳定系数对其稳定性进行分析。结果表明:当红枣羊乳酸液与啤酒原浆的体积比为1∶1,红枣羊乳酸液中红枣汁添加量12%、羧甲基纤维素钠添加量0.2%、果胶添加量0.15%、蔗糖酯添加量0.1%、白砂糖添加量4%时生产的红枣羊乳啤口感最佳,稳定性最好。%In recent years, goat milk has attracted growing attention from consumers, which has highlighted the importance of enriching the types of goat milk products, expand the goat milk market and providing more options for consumers. A fermented alcoholic beverage with the blended flavors of yoghurt, beer and carbonated beverage was developed consisting of original beer produced by alcoholic fermentation of malt and hops with yeast and lactic acid bacteria fermented goat milk with added red date juice. The stability of the formulated beverage was evaluated based on precipitation rate and stability coefficient. The best taste and stability were achieved concurrently when the original beer was blended with the fermented goat milk added with 12% red date juice, 0.2% CMC-Na, 0.15% pectin, 0.1% sucrose ester and 4% white granulated sugar.

  20. 小麦啤酒有机酸组成的优化研究%Study on optimization of fermentation technologies for the composition of organic acids in wheat beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 郑飞云; 刘春凤; 李永仙; 李崎; 顾国贤

    2009-01-01

    The effect of yeast types and wheat malt varieties on the composition of organic acids in wheat beer was observed.According to the composition of organic acids of German high-grade wheat beer, the relative optimal range of organic acids was determined, and through the L_9 (3~3) orthogonal experiment, respectively. Finally, the best fermentation parameters were obtained as follows: wort pH 5.5; inoculation of 1.0 × 10~7/mL; the main fermentation temperature 10℃.The results showed that the acetic acid and succinic acid content could be effectively reduced,and citric acid content could increase at the same time with yeast strains owing reasonable organic composition,excellent wheat malts and the better fermentation parameters.Therefore, the composition of organic acids,acid sense and flavor of final wheat beer would be improved.%分别考察了酵母种类和小麦芽品种对成品小麦啤酒有机酸组成的影响.基于德国品牌小麦啤酒的有机酸组成,确定了小麦啤酒主要有机酸的较佳组成范围,并且通过L_9(3~3)正交实验设计,最终确定了较佳的发酵工艺参数:麦汁pH5.5;接种量为1.0×10~7个/mL;主酵温度10℃.研究表明,选择产酸合理的酵母菌株和优良的小麦芽以及使用较佳发酵工艺,可以有效地降低乙酸、琥珀酸含量和增加柠檬酸含量,进而优化小麦啤酒的有机酸组成,这对改善小麦啤酒的酸感和风味都有很大的指导意义.