WorldWideScience

Sample records for beef

  1. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  2. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  3. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  4. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....

  5. LiGAPS-Beef 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  6. LiGAPS-Beef 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  7. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  8. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  9. Beef Production & Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, Jennifer; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  10. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  11. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF... Association Louisiana Beef Industry Council Maryland Beef Council Michigan Beef Industry Commission Minnesota...

  12. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relat...

  13. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    G. HOLLÓ; A. KOVÁCS; G. ZSARNÓCZAY; J. SEREGI; I. HOLLÓ

    2008-01-01

    In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids) and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian) was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the ...

  14. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  15. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    ' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  16. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intramuscular color stability variations in beef semimembranosus have been reported previously. Mitochondria remain biochemically active in postmortem muscle and can influence fresh beef color stability. However, the role of mitochondrial functionality in intramuscular color variations in beef semimembranosus is yet to be ...

  17. Beef Production and Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, J.; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  18. Dry aging of beef; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashmaa Dashdorj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow, eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness, microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %, trims loss (3 to 24 %, risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as “dry-aged beef”. But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  19. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness....... The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed...

  20. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than 10...

  1. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  2. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... onions, or onion powder; (3) Garlic, including fresh garlic, dehydrated garlic, or garlic powder; (4) Water; (5) Beef broth or beef stock; (6) Monosodium glutamate; (7) Hydrolyzed plant protein; (8) Beef...

  3. Differentiation between fresh beef and thawed frozen beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M T; Yang, W D; Guo, S L

    1988-01-01

    In order to prevent meat retailers offering thawed, imported frozen beef as fresh domestic beef, the method of Gottesmann and Hamm for differentiating between fresh and frozen/thawed meat is recommended. The principle of this method is based on the fact that freezing and thawing of meat results in a release of the enzyme β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HADH) from the mitochondrion into the sarcoplasm; an elevated HADH activity in the muscle press-juice indicates freezing and thawing of tissue. The HADH colour test of Gottesmann and Hamm was modified by replacing the electron-transmitter meldolablue by resazurin which results in a much higher colour stability after reaction with fresh meat extracts. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. THE BEEF COW REPLACEMENT DECISION

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Kenneth H., Jr.; Short, Sara D.

    2001-01-01

    This analysis examines effects of several common assumptions on net present values (NPVs) of beef cows. While effects on NPVs vary over a price cycle or successive price cycles, several generalities manifest themselves. A cow is not likely to recover the lost revenue from not having just one calf. Incorporating genetic improvement into the herd increases the probability of an older cow being culled. Variable net replacement/culling rates make sense in the context of cattle inventory and price...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  7. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  8. Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a natural pasture-fed beef (NPB) brand by smallholder cattle producers were investigated. In total, 18 meat traders (five abattoirs and 13 beef retailers) and 155 beef consumers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. All meat traders had the ...

  9. Potential for organic beef production by communal farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumers perceive organic beef as healthier and safer than conventional beef, and are willing to pay a premium. Civic engagement amongst all stakeholders through efficient management of indigenous knowledge systems and science is required for establishing organic beef niche market. Keywords: Organic beef, Nguni ...

  10. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  11. Virginia 4-H Contest Guide - Beef Ambassador Contest

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Beef Ambassador Contest provides the opportunity for youth to educate consumers about beef nutrition, food safety and stewardship practices of the beef industry. This program utilizes youth to tell the beef production story to consumers through promotion, education, media and the online environment.

  12. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  13. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  14. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  15. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Bellika, Siri Karlsen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  16. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  17. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  18. Bioactivity of herb-enriched beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M

    2009-08-01

    Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products.

  19. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  20. Hypomagnesaemia in beef cows wintered in Ontario.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Thompson, B K; Ho, S K; Proulx, J G

    1981-01-01

    A field experiment was undertaken in northern Ontario in order to assess the magnesium status of beef cattle raised in the area. Magnesium status was assessed using several criteria including blood and urine magnesium levels, and bone biopsy samples. Eighteen groups each containing four pregnant Shorthorn beef cows were used. Each of the following three mineral feeds were offered to six groups throughout the experiment: a mineral feed without magnesium, a mineral feed containing 8% magnesium ...

  1. Australian Beef Exports: Dead or Alive?

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Arlene

    1995-01-01

    Northern Australia's live cattle exports to Southeast Asia have increased dramatically in recent years. In Australia's current political environment calling for greater domestic value-adding, the issue of potential trade-offs between Australia's live cattle and slaughtered beef exports are examined. From an investigation into the origins of Australia's live cattle export industry and the production and marketing of beef in Australia's major live cattle importing countries, it is concluded tha...

  2. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  3. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  4. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  5. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  6. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    and novel beef products and processes. Method: Eight focus groups, each with between 7 and 9 participants were conducted in the capital cities of Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom in May 2008. In total 65 individuals aged between 19 and 60 years took part in the discussions. The focus group......Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...

  7. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Karin; Herdmann, Andrea; Nuernberg, Gerd; Hagemann, Elke; Kienast, Walter

    2013-07-09

    The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage (SS)). Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%), or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12%) and linseed oil (3%). The study revealed that upon an 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 intervention the amounts of 18:3 n -3, EPA and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n -3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3 n -3 and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium) were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n -3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  8. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  9. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  10. The economic analysis of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economic efficiency of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State. In this regard, the different marketing function performed by the beef sellers were identified and evaluated. Also the size and different components of beef marketing costs and margins were determined. A total sample of 110 respondents ...

  11. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  12. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack......Executive summary 1. This report describes and analyses the market for fresh beef in Europe including both supply and demand issues. The report is made on the basis of published and unpublished reports and supplemented by in-depth interviews with industrialists in various types of companies...

  13. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  14. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  15. Modeling Irrigation Benefits on Beef Ranches

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Johnson, Roger G.; Schluntz, Larry J.; Ali, Mir B.

    1988-01-01

    A major irrigation benefit for beef ranchers is herd size stability. A sequential multiyear linear programming model was developed to trace the effect of drought with and without irrigation on a South Dakota ranch over 31 years. Irrigation benefits were higher with the dynamic model than with traditional static analysis.

  16. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... A total of 30 Qinchuan cattle were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of beef from three different parts of cattle carcass, namely longissimus dorsi (LD), serratus ventralis (SV) and semitendinosus (ST). Multiple parameters were ranked in the descending order of ST > SV > LD, and.

  17. Libido evaluation of virgin beef bulls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate the mating performance of bulls used in such herds. One facet which appears to warrant attention is that ... more females over a limited breeding season (Blockey, 1980). Fifty-four virgin beef bulls undergoing a phase D2 ... active pursuit of the female with persistent sexual interest. 4 one mount or mounting attempt, ...

  18. Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ) — its effect on animal performance and soil fertility. ... These by-products of animal digestion contain many ingredients necessary for plant growth, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Disadvantages include a tendency for K levels to ...

  19. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  20. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  1. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore,

  2. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  3. Optimal Replacement and Management Policies for Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marshall Frasier; George H. Pfeiffer

    1994-01-01

    Beef cow replacement studies have not reflected the interaction between herd management and the culling decision. We demonstrate techniques for modeling optimal beef cow replacement intervals and discrete management policies by incorporating the dynamic effects of management on future productivity when biological response is uncertain. Markovian decision analysis is used to identify optimal beef cow management on a ranch typical of the Sandhills region of Nebraska. Issues of breeding season l...

  4. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART III: BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part III: Beef Cow/Calf Health & Health Management were collected by federal and state veterinary officers (VMO's) in 18 of the largest cow/...

  5. TAX REFORM AND BEEF COW REPLACEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Robert; Carman, Hoy F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper models optimal beef cow replacement strategy in a stochastic environment under U.S. income tax rules effective before and after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under each tax regime, the producer's buy versus raise decision and optimal culling age choice are analyzed. Per-cow profit levels are also calculated. Results of the numerical analysis indicate that tax law changes, particularly the loss of the capital gains exclusion and restrictions on preproduction expensing, will have signi...

  6. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  7. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MokolobateM

    2014-08-16

    Aug 16, 2014 ... Beef cattle are unique, because they not only suffer from climate change, but they also contribute to .... designed crossbreeding systems, thereby reducing the carbon footprint of beef production. The fact that there are large differences in the kgC/LSU between certain genotypes, points to genetic differences ...

  8. Formulation and evaluation of beef/soy patties | Igene | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated composite beef/soy patties to ascertain the optimal level of soy flour inclusion acceptable to consumers and producers. These patties were formulated to contain 100/0%, 85/15%, 80/20%, 75/25% and 70/30% beef/soy flour respectively. This experiment was conducted 3 times as replicates. It was a ...

  9. Assessment of beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted from April to June, 2016 with the objective of assessing the beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in and around Mekelle. Accordingly, data was collected from all (N=108) beef cattle fatteners in the study area, by face-to-face interview using a pretested structured and ...

  10. Qualitative evaluation of Kilishi prepared from beef and pork

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... beef and pork had similar values (P > 0.05) for moisture, protein and fat while Kilishi from beef gave a higher ash value (P < 0.05) ... or two days depending on the relative humidity, intensity of the sun and air velocity. The meat .... give a cumulative mineral level minus the loss during processing. In this study ...

  11. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America

    The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and

  12. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-bred diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 64, 65. Cundiff, L.V, Gregory, K.E., Koch, R.M. & Dickerson, G.E., 1986. Genetic diversity among cattle breeds and its use to increase beef production efficiency in a temperate environment.

  13. Price Transmission Asymmetry in Pork and Beef Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Farm, wholesale, and retail prices for beef and pork show significant evidence of asymmetric price interactions. All prices display greater sensitivity to price-increasing shocks than to price-decreasing shocks. The farm beef price, in particular, reacts faster to wholesale price increases than to whole sale price decreases.

  14. Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. MM Magoro, BI Zondagh, PJ Jooste, L Morey. Abstract. This study determined the sensory attributes and acceptability of cooked meat sausages containing beef offal. Four formulations of sausages were selected for sensory evaluation and comparison ...

  15. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production of an extra calf (I\\4eaker et al., 1980). Since small- framed breeds usually mature earlier than large-framed breeds, the Nguni, which is the smallest beef breed in South Africa, was used to investigate the possibilities of early mating in beef cattle under extensive conditions. The research was conducted on the farm ...

  16. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  17. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  18. prevalence of escherichia coli 0157:h7 in fresh and roasted beef

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    on Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) at 250C for two hours for roasted beef samples. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by using E. coli 0157:H7 latex agglutination test kit. Prevalence rate of. 53% was obtained in fresh beef and 25.3% in roasted beef. Consumption of inadequately cooked beef poses a serious risk of infection.

  19. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  20. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  1. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  2. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF IMPORTED FROZEN BEEF: AN ALTERNATIVE TO INTEGRATE WITH LOCAL BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the supply chain management of imported frozen beef from Australia to Indonesia; to analyze where the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the frozen meat distributor, and what strategy should be chosen; and to analyze alternatives of cooperation between imported frozen beef distribution with local beef distribution chain. The research approach is qualitative, and the research strategy is a case study. This research was conducted in Jakarta, data collecting technique by interview method and literature study. Data analysis techniques use supply chain management (SCM and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis. The results show that the distribution chain management of imported frozen beef needs to tripartite cooperation with government and local beef distributors to conduct joint marketing of imported frozen beef and cooler procurement to the point of retailers in traditional markets; expanding the market share of imported frozen beef to industrial segments (hotels, restaurant, catering company; and meat processing factories; and cooperate with imported beef suppliers to overcome the problem of taste flavor and lack of weight of imported frozen meat, and clarify halal certification.

  3. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  4. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  5. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  6. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Scholderer, Joachim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2010-06-15

    Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  7. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  8. Consumer thresholds for establishing the value of beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M F; Carr, M A; Ramsey, C B; Crockett, K L; Hoover, L C

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, a national consumer evaluation was conducted for beef tenderness on USDA Select strip loin steaks of known Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values, ranging from tough (> 5.7 kg) to tender (market price if guaranteed tender, and to estimate the number of meals in a 2-wk period that included beef. The consumers were 52% light beef users, consuming 0 to 8 meals containing beef in 2 wk, 41% heavy beef users (greater than 12 meals/2 wk), and 6% moderate beef users (9 to 12 meals/2 wk). Consumer tenderness acceptability increased as WBS values decreased (P or = 86% consumer acceptability. Consumer acceptability for tenderness decreased from 86% at 4.3 kg for a "slightly tender" rating to 59% at 4.9 kg for a "slightly tough" rating. Data from the present study suggested that consumer WBS tenderness values of 4.9 kg would result in 100, 99, 94, 86, and 25% customer satisfaction for beef tenderness, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of the consumers would purchase steaks if the retailer guaranteed them to be tender. The retail steak value differences found in this study would result in the opportunity for a premium to be paid for a guaranteed tender ( 5.7 kg) classification. A premium of $66.96 could be paid to the tender classification carcasses vs the tough (> 4.9 kg) classification carcasses, and a premium of $36.58 could be paid for the tender classification carcasses vs the intermediate (> 3.0 to < 4.6 kg) classification carcasses. Results from the present study show that consumers can segregate differences in beef tenderness and that consumers are willing to pay more for more-tender beef.

  9. [Microbiological quality of mechanically deboned beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasovská, M; Pleva, J; Gorzová, A

    1991-01-01

    Microbial quality of mechanically deboned beef (MDB), which was obtained by the discontinuous hydraulic horizontal separator, type Inject-Star (firm LASKA, Austria), was analyzed for the presence of indicatory microorganisms (coliforms and enterococci), pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. The basic microbial parameters have been determined separately for MDB of 1st, 2nd degrees as well as for average daily samples from one collecting vessel. Apart from it, also a raw material (beef from flesh bones intended for separation) and salt MDB after 24 hrs storing in chiller before working it into meat products were examined by the same way. From our results it follows that the number of all microorganisms observed in MDB of 1st degree was lower than that of 2nd degree. During the separation process the increase of microbial parameters compared with those in initial raw material occurred by 1-2 radices and following subsequent salting and storing in chiller there was a repeated decrease by 1 radix (with exception of the number of Staphylococci remaining unchanged). The change in the amount of microflora present was also influenced by season--in summer there was an increase by about 1 radix. From the view point of food hygiene the finding of salmonellas and the presence of large number of Staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus on average 10(5).g-1 as well as the presence of wide extent of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms from the family of Enterobacteriaceae, especially from genera Proteus, Providencia, Morganella and Citrobacter are of great importance.

  10. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...... to improve the oxidative stability, nutritive value and sensory quality of beef.......Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...

  11. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-12-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  12. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Hao Kuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9 from three wet markets (A, B, and C in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  13. Econometrics Analysis Of Semi Intensive Beef Cattle Fattening In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Nigeria: A Case Study Of Yola South Local Government Area. ... KEY WORDS: Econometrics analysis, Semi intensive, Beef cattle fattening, Profitability and marketing routes. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(1) 2005: 35- ...

  14. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  15. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda veld, receiving three different levels of lick supplementation - Preliminary results. LA Foster, PJ Fourie, FWC Neser ...

  16. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; Eller, A. L. (Arthur Laxton), 1933-

    2011-01-01

    Contains articles on August beef management, Tri-State Cow Calf Conference, Virginia Livestock Hall of Fame, tips for successful sheep breeding, sheep field day, and an upcoming conference on parasite control in sheep and goats.

  17. Total quality management in beef production and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Zoran; Milićević, Dragan; Parunović, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Total quality management is the concept of product quality management focused on the final consumer. The application of this concept in beef production is primarily determined by the definition of quality beef, or what is the ultimate goal of quality management, and defining measurable quality parameters. Defining physical parameters of quality, such as shear force according to the Warner-Bratzler, in the sample of m. longissimus dorsi muscle can be accepted as the resulting measurable value ...

  18. Beef Cow Numbers, Crop Acreage, and Crop Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barry W. Bobst; Joe T. Davis

    1987-01-01

    Land use shifts between cropland and pasture affect the demand for beef cow inventories because economically viable cow-calf enterprises are pasture-based. Econometric analysis indicates an inverse relationship of −36.6 thousand head of beef cows per million acre change in harvested cropland. Curtailment of the expansion phase of the current cattle cycle and subsequent declines in cow numbers is in part attributable to large acreages converted from pasture to cropland in the early 1980s. Conv...

  19. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  20. A Market Analysis for Specialty Beef in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Virginia beef producers have been overwhelmed with increasing costs and decreasing profits as well as facing challenges such as development pressures, drought, increasing competition for grazing land. Together these have reduced opportunities for expansion and often increased incentives for farmers to sell land for non-agriculture use. Nevertheless, opportunities exist for the Virginia beef market. Consumer demand is changing and consumers are seeking food from alternative production systems ...

  1. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit......Utility cut-off values allow consumers to use simplifying decision strategies to lower the cognitive burden of decision making. Product attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or considered but with a great discount on their values....... This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...

  2. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  3. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  4. Opportunities for predicting and manipulating beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Botreau, Raphaëlle; Picard, Brigitte; Jacquet, Alain; Pethick, David W; Scollan, Nigel D

    2012-11-01

    Meat quality is a complex concept and can be defined as the characteristics of meat which satisfy consumers and citizens. The quality concept can be divided into intrinsic quality traits (which are the characteristics of the product itself) and extrinsic quality traits (which are more or less associated to the product for instance the price, a major determinant of purchase, or any brand or quality label). Quality can also be generic for the mass market or specific for niche markets. The relative importance of the different quality traits varies with human culture and time with a general trend of an increasing contribution of healthiness, safety and extrinsic quality traits. This review underlines the need for the development of methods to interpret and aggregate measures under specific rules to be defined in order to produce an overall assessment of beef quality. Such methods can be inferred for example from genomic results or data related to muscle biochemistry to better predict tenderness or flavor. A more global assurance quality scheme (the Meat Standards Australia System) based on the aggregation of sensory quality traits has been developed in Australia to ensure palatability to consumers. We speculated that the combination of indices related to sensory and nutritional quality, social and environmental considerations (carbon footprint, animal welfare, biodiversity of pasture, rural development, etc.) and economic efficiency (incomes of farmers and of others players along the supply chain, etc.) will provide objective assessment of the overall quality of beef (i.e. incorporating an all encompassing approach) not only for the mass market but also to support official quality labels of niche markets which are so far mainly associated with the geographical origins of the products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  6. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  7. National Beef Market Basket Survey - 2006: External fat thickness measurements and separable component determinations for beef from US retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C L; Nicholson, K L; Brooks, J C; Delmore, R J; Henning, W R; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E; Gwartney, B L; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2009-02-01

    A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n=17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05cm), round (0.05cm), and miscellaneous (0.04cm) having less (Pmarketing purposes.

  8. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer

  9. Environmental and economic performance of beef farming systems with different feeding strategies in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Linden, van der Aart; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Malafaia, Guilherme Cunha; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beef production is one of the contributors to emission of pollutants to the environment, and increasingly competes for natural resources. Beef producers can improve their environmental performance by adopting alternative feeding strategies. Adoption of alternative feeding strategies, however,

  10. Effects of Price and Quality Differences in Source Differentiated Beef on Market Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In order to estimate demand elasticities of source differentiated beef in South Korea, this study used the quantity of an endogenous demand system derived through maximizing the economic welfare of market participants including local beef consumers and local and foreign beef suppliers. The demand system is then weighted with respect to quality adjustment parameters to identify the effects of quality differences in source differentiated beef on market demand. As implied by the high relative pr...

  11. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other... slaughtered in Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is...

  12. An analysis of beef demand in a nigerian urban city | Udoh | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of beef demand and consumption in Nigerian cities has been questionably and progressively low. This study empirically modeled a demand function of beef meat in Lagos city with the aim of identifying major demand shifters. Based on the regression analysis, unit retail price of beef and disposable income were ...

  13. Arcobacter Isolation from Minced Beef Samples in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Calderón, Oscar; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Castro-Arias, Eduardo; Arias-EchandI, María Laura

    2017-04-03

    The presence of Arcobacter spp. in minced meat (including beef) samples has been well documented in different countries, with varying frequencies. Nevertheless, the only Latin American country reporting this bacterium in minced beef samples is Mexico, with a 28.8% frequency in 2003. Previous studies in Costa Rica have demonstrated the presence of Arcobacter species in samples taken from the poultry production chain, but still there are no studies performed in bovine meat. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this bacterium in 120 samples of minced beef acquired from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica and to describe the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained. A total of 75 different Arcobacter strains were isolated from minced beef samples, for a final frequency of 48.3%. After species PCR identification, the strains were classified as A. butzleri (37.3%), A. cibarius (14.7%), A. thereius (12%), and Arcobacter spp. (36%). All samples were sensitive to gentamicin but were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The results obtained in this study show that the frequency of isolation of Arcobacter in minced beef samples is high and that there is a high resistance rate for antibiotics in common use. This suggests that Arcobacter represents a health risk for Costa Rica and that control measures should be developed to decrease its potential impact.

  14. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  15. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study are to understand how Portuguese consumers perceive beef quality in a real-life purchase environment, which intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues consumers use when evaluating and forming beef quality expectations, and how extrinsic quality cues influence t...... was found to be the predominant extrinsic quality cue. Consumers used brand both for perception of intrinsic quality cues and for inference of quality expectations. Future purchase intention is mainly influenced by experienced eating quality.......The main objectives of the present study are to understand how Portuguese consumers perceive beef quality in a real-life purchase environment, which intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues consumers use when evaluating and forming beef quality expectations, and how extrinsic quality cues influence...... the perception of intrinsic quality cues. Furthermore, the study attempts to investigate how quality expectations are related to quality experience and future purchase intention after blind-tasting of beef steaks. Results show that extrinsic quality cues influence perception of intrinsic quality cues. Brand...

  16. Space Weather: Where Is The Beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.

    Space weather has become a highly fashionable topic in solar-terrestrial physics. It is perhaps the best tool to popularise the field and it has contributed significantly to the dialogue between solar, magnetospheric, and ionospheric scientist, and also to mu- tual understanding between science and engineering communities. While these are laudable achievements, it is important for the integrity of scientific space weather re- search to recognise the central open questions in the physics of space weather and the progress toward solving them. We still lack sufficient understanding of the solar physics to be able to tell in advance when and where a solar eruption will take place and whether it will turn to a geoeffective event. There is much to do to understand ac- celeration of solar energetic particles and propagation of solar mass ejecta toward the Earth. After more than 40 years of research scientific discussion of energy and plasma transfer through the magnetopause still deals mostly with qualitative issues and the rapid acceleration processes in the magnetosphere are not yet explained in a satisfac- tory way. Also the coupling to the ionosphere and from there to the strong induction effects on ground is another complex of research problems. For space weather science the beef is in the investigation of these and related topics, not in marketing half-useful space weather products to hesitant customers.

  17. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  18. The relevance of methane emissions from beef production and the challenges of the Argentinean beef production platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearte, D H; Pordomingo, A J

    2014-11-01

    The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems. In Argentina, the livestock area was reduced in favor of increasing the grain cropping area, which took place in the last two decades. Production systems were intensified to maintain cattle stock. Cattle programs changed from 100% pasture to pasture supplemented with cereal grains and conserved forages, and confinement on grain feeding for fattening was incorporated. Due to land sharing competition with cash crops, no increment of cattle stock is expected therefore improving production efficiency appears as the only way to increase beef production while reducing methane emissions intensity. Beef produced on intensive grazing systems on supplemented pastures maintained organoleptic, nutritional and lipid profile than that of beef produced on pure grazing systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  20. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    .5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis......The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  1. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... as concepts: 1) marinating by injection for increased healthiness; 2) marinating by injection for increased safety; 3) marinating by injection for increased eating quality; 4) marinating by submerging for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement; 6) shock wave treatment; 7) muscle profiling and 8...... are less demanding in terms of beef quality and have less culinary skills. However, consumers support the development of technologies that can provide more healthiness and better eating quality, and if such technologies are 'not invasive', the chances to be accepted increase. Current trends and development...

  2. Antimicrobial Effect of Nisin against Bacillus cereus in Beef Jerky during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Lee, Joo Yeon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The microbial distribution of raw materials and beef jerky, and the effect of nisin on the growth of Bacillus cereus inoculated in beef jerky during storage, were studied. Five strains of pathogenic B. cereus were detected in beef jerky, and identified with 99.8% agreement using API CHB 50 kit. To evaluate the effect of nisin, beef jerky was inoculated with approximately 3 Log CFU/g of B. cereus mixed culture and nisin (100 IU/g and 500 IU/g). During the storage of beef jerky without nisin, t...

  3. [Rapid evaluation of beef quality by NIRS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Song; Meng, Qing-Xiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Xie, Xiang-Xue

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy rapid method for evaluation of beef quality. Partial least squares (PLS) prediction model for the physic-chemical characteristics such as moisture, fat, protein, pH, color and WBSF in beef was established with good veracity. One hundred fourteen samples from five different parts of beef carcass (tenderloin, ribeye, topside, shin, striploin) were collected from meat packer after 48 h aging. Spectra were obtained by scanning sample from 950 to 1 650 nm and pretreated the model by MSC, SNV and first derivative. Predictive correlation coefficients of physic-chemical parameters in beef were 0.947 2 (moisture), 0.924 5 (fat), 0.934 6 (protein), 0.620 2 (pH), 0.820 3 (L), 0.864 6 (a*), 0.753 0 (b*) and 0.475 9 (WBSF) respectively. Root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) were 0.313 3 (moisture), 0.221 0 (fat), 1.243 2 (protein), 0.744 6 (pH), 1.778 3 (L*), 1.394 2 (a*), 1.763 9 (b*) and 1.0743 (WBSF). They were externally validated with additional 30 beef samples. Statistics showed that there was no significant difference between predicted value and those obtained with conventional laboratory methods. The results showed that NIRS is a rapid, effective technique for evaluating beef quality. The predictions for chemical characteristics gave higher accuracy than prediction for physical characteristics.

  4. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  5. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  6. Semen quality of fertile US males in relation to their mothers' beef consumption during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Overstreet, J W; Brazil, C; Skakkebaek, N E

    2007-06-01

    BACKGROUND To look at possible long-term risks from anabolic steroids and other xenobiotics in beef, we examined men's semen quality in relation to their mother's self-reported beef consumption during pregnancy. The study was carried out in five US cities between 1999 and 2005. We used regression analyses to examine semen parameters in 387 partners of pregnant women in relation to the amount of beef their mothers reported eating while pregnant. Mothers' beef consumption was also analysed in relation to the son's history of previous subfertility. RESULTS Sperm concentration was inversely related to mothers' beef meals per week (P = 0.041). In sons of "high beef consumers" (>7 beef meals/week), sperm concentration was 24.3% lower (P = 0.014) and the proportion of men with sperm concentration below 20 x 10(6)/ml was three times higher (17.7 versus 5.7%, P = 0.002) than in men whose mothers ate less beef. A history of previous subfertility was also more frequent among sons of "high beef consumers" (P = 0.015). Sperm concentration was not significantly related to mother's consumption of other meat or to the man's consumption of any meat. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that maternal beef consumption, and possibly xenobiotics in beef, may alter a man's testicular development in utero and adversely affect his reproductive capacity.

  7. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...

  9. Antimicrobial Effect of Nisin against Bacillus cereus in Beef Jerky during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Lee, Joo Yeon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The microbial distribution of raw materials and beef jerky, and the effect of nisin on the growth of Bacillus cereus inoculated in beef jerky during storage, were studied. Five strains of pathogenic B. cereus were detected in beef jerky, and identified with 99.8% agreement using API CHB 50 kit. To evaluate the effect of nisin, beef jerky was inoculated with approximately 3 Log CFU/g of B. cereus mixed culture and nisin (100 IU/g and 500 IU/g). During the storage of beef jerky without nisin, the number of mesophilic bacteria and B. cereus increased unlikely for beef jerky with nisin. B. cereus started to grow after 3 d in 100 IU nisin/g treatment, and after 21 d in 500 IU nisin/g treatment. The results suggest that nisin could be an effective approach to extend the shelf-life, and improve the microbial safety of beef jerky, during storage.

  10. Chemical basis for beef charqui meat texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Y. Youssef

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the relationship of charqui meat (CHM chemical composition with the tenderness throughout its production. CHM was prepared from beef Vastus lateralis of 4-5 years old. Shear force of fresh CHM showed an approx. 3-fold increase in toughness compared to the raw material while, in the case of cooked CHM it was 6-fold increased in relation to the raw charqui. The moisture content decreased by 39.0 and 58.0% (pEste trabalho avaliou a relação entre a composição química aproximada do charque (CHM com a maciez durante todas as etapas de sua produção. CHM foi produzida do m. Vastus lateralis bovino (patinho de aproximadamente 4-5 anos de idade. A força de cisalhamento do charque cru mostrou o valor aproximado de 3 vezes maior em dureza comparada à matéria prima enquanto que no caso do CHM cozido houve 6 vezes maior em aumento sob as mesmas condições.O índice de umidade diminui de 39 a 58% (p<0,05 para CHM cru e cozido, respectivamente, em relação à matéria prima. O modelo matemático da influência destes componentes mostrou que a força de cisalhamento aumentou exponencialmente com a perda de umidade. A textura do charque é o resultado da associação de multifatores envolvendo proteínas miofibrilares que provocam eventos bioquímicos dinâmicos como a sua ligação com as moléculas da água. É a quantidade destas que determina a textura final do charque.

  11. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of beef: 1. A single composite score can predict beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2017-08-01

    Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. The consumers also scored beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking. The beef was sourced from all countries involved in the study and cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, with each experimental group in the study consisting of a single cooking doneness within a cooking method for each country. For each experimental group, and for the data set as a whole, a linear discriminant function was calculated, using the four sensory scores which were used to predict the quality grade. This process was repeated using two conglomerate scores which are derived from weighting and combining the consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking, the original meat quality 4 score (oMQ4) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and current meat quality 4 score (cMQ4) (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3). From the results of these analyses, the optimal weightings of the sensory scores to generate an 'ideal meat quality 4 score (MQ4)' for each country were calculated, and the MQ4 values that reflected the boundaries between the four quality grades were determined. The oMQ4 weightings were far more accurate in categorising European meat samples than the cMQ4 weightings, highlighting that

  12. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants and opportunities for commercial marketing of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the factors influencing smallholder producers' potential to sell cattle and identify marketing opportunities for sustainable beef production in South Africa. A total of 95 structured questionnaires was administered to the Ncorha and Gxwalibomvu communities in the Eastern Cape ...

  14. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO 4 . Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  15. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the United States’ beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosy...

  16. Physical and chemical properties of selected beef muscles infused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the biceps femoris (BF, silverside), rectus femoris muscle (RF), semitendinosus muscle (ST, eye of the silverside), supraspinatus muscle (SS, scotch fillet) and longissimus et lumborum muscles from the left side of beef carcasses were infused, 3 d post mortem, with a blend consisting of various ...

  17. Measuring beef production in the cow herd | Klosterman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1981) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Measuring beef production in the cow herd.

  18. Variance component estimation on female fertility traits in beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to define possible breeding objectives for Southern African beef cattle farmers and to review different means of expressing genetic reproductive merit. The breeding objective considered was to maximize the number of calves born or weaned for a given number of cows in a herd under prevailing ...

  19. Scrotal circumference in young beef bulls: Relationships to growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Young beef bulls, scrotal circumference, growth para- meters, compatible. 149 ... dairy cattle, but natural mating accounts for most of the pregnancies .... quality and fertility. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 5, 31. SWANEPOEL, F.J.C. & HEYNS, H., 1986. Relationships between growth parameters and scrotal circumference in.

  20. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef industry. L.L. Benyshek* and J.K. Bertrand ... cattle industry is accepting, in fact, demanding estimates of genetic values on yearling bulls. Single and multiple analy- ses are ... teristic in a directed fashion without change of the genetic material (mutation) or ...

  1. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    IJAAAR 9 (1&2): 106-112, 2013 International Journal of Applied Agricultural and Apicultural Research. © Faculty ... 1Department of Agricultural Economics, and 2Department of Animal Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo. University ... Factors identified were; household size, educational level, occupation, expenditure on beef, and.

  2. Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef cattle with measured milk production. MD MacNeil, VR Leesburg, TB Mott. Abstract. The objective of this research was to validate the maternal breeding value for preweaning gain as a predictor of genetic differences in milk production. Phenotypic variation ...

  3. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Oxytetracycline Residue in Beef and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study showed that a high proportion of beef and chicken consumed in the cities contained violative levels of oxytetracycline residue arising possibly from indiscriminate antibiotics usage in Nigeria livestock industry. These could predispose meat consumers to the associated health risks of antibiotic residue. Regulatory ...

  5. Quality related principles of the South African beef classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the principles related to different grading and classification systems of the world with specific focus on beef quality related outcomes. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful as guidelines to those involved in the ...

  6. Comparative analysis of beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study isolated and discussed the factors driving beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Anambra State, Nigeria. Cross sectional data generated from 120 households randomly selected from five villages in Ekwusigo L.G.A was used. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis was ...

  7. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Keywords: Direct effects, heterosis, maternal effects, taurus, indicus, sanga. # Corresponding author: atheunissen@ncpg.gov.za. Introduction. Crossbreeding systems are employed mainly to improve the efficiency of beef production through the use of heritable difference among breeds and heterosis.

  8. Comparative determination of trimethylamine in fresh beef samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to determine the concentration of trimethylamine (TMA) in fresh samples of beef purchased from markets within Kaduna metropolis namely: Central Market, Sabo Market and Kawo Market. The analysis was carried out using spectrophotometry in which the levels of trimethylamine in 100 g of ...

  9. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average growth and body weight data, which comprised 745 400 weaning records and 14 990 Phase C growth records of young bulls of 16 breeds were obtained from the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize breeds for a variety of important traits.

  10. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  11. Variance component estimation on female fertility traits in beef cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The purpose of this review is to define possible breeding objectives for Southern African beef cattle farmers and to review ... records and weigh animals at birth, weaning, yearling age and 18 months of age. ..... calving ease between 2-year old dams and 3-year old dams with mature dams, were estimated to be 0.46 and.

  12. Beef-derived Mesoporous Carbon as Highly Efficient Support for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    incorporated into the graphene layer but also formed a variety of functional groups, which likely play an important role in the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and the electrocatalytic process. Figure 10b shows the Pt 4f XPS analysis of PtRuIr/C-Beef and. PtRuIr/C catalysts, respectively. The two intense XPS peaks represent ...

  13. AN APPRAISAL OF BEEF BREEDING IN THE REPUBLIC OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yet to doubt the general theory and its mathematics and a very sound foundation therefore is available from which to develop furhter. Defining Characteristics of Economic Importance and their Meas,rres. Sheets (1933) was probably first in modern times to consider beef characteristics of economic importance and how best ...

  14. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  15. Brazilian beef produced on pastures: sustainable and healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, J F P; Freitas, A K; Devincenzi, T; Cardoso, L L; Tarouco, J U; Vieira, R M; Dillenburg, D R; Castro, I

    2014-11-01

    With a herd of 209 million cattle, Brazilian beef production estimate for 2023 is 10,935 million tons, representing an increase of 28.9% and accounting for 20% of the world trade. Beef cattle production is constantly evolving; however, there are extremes, ranging from simple existing farm ranges to intensive forage systems, strategic supplementation, updated health and genetic improvement programs for the production of quality beef. This modern production is based on scientific research carried out at universities and other research institutions. A new generation of professionals with multidisciplinary knowledge and a holistic vision of the productive chain-proposed management practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the production of grass-fed beef cattle, whose meat has high omega-3 and CLA contents. Age at slaughter of steers and of heifers at first mating, significant increases in the ratio calves/100 cows, adequate traceability for pastoral systems with hundreds or thousands of animals per farm and a more intense transference of technology are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga ...

  17. Characterization of radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria in beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, A.B.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground beef contains numerous microorganisms of various types. The commonly recognized bacteria are associated with current problems of spoilage. Irradiation, however, contributes a new factor through selective destruction of the microflora. The residual microorganisms surviving a nonsterilizing dose are predominantly gram-negative coccobacilli. Various classifications have been given, e.g., Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, etc. For a more detailed study of these radiation-resistant bacteria occurring in ground beef, an enrichment procedure was used for isolation. By means of morphological and biochemical tests, most of the isolates were found to be Moraxella, based on current classifications. The range of growth temperatures was from 2 to 50 C. These bacteria were relatively heat sensitive, e.g., D 10 of 5.4 min at 70 0 C or less. The radiation resistance ranged from D 10 values of 273 to 2,039 krad. Thus, some were more resistant than any presently recognized spores. A reference culture of Moraxella osloensis was irradiated under conditions comparable to the enrichment procedure used with the ground beef. The only apparent changes were in morphology and penicillin sensitivity. However, after a few subcultures these bacteria reverted to the characteristics of the parent strain. Thus, it is apparent that these isolates are a part of the normal flora of ground beef and not aberrant forms arising from the irradiation procedure. The significance, if any, of these bacteria is not presently recognized. (auth)

  18. Beef Production on Rotationally Grazed F1 Pennisetum Hybrid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of elephant grass and the F1 hybrids between the 'maiwa' cultivar of millet (Pennisetum americanum) and elephant grass (P. purpureum) indicated a superiority in quality of the hybrids. To ascertain this potential superiority animal performance was measured by estimating beef production on F1 ...

  19. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene promoter in Brazilian beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2016-12-02

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.

  20. Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence of pen conditions on thyroid activity of Shorthoffi, ... 1971). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of penning on thyroxine concentrations of Shorthorn, ... intermediate (Bonsmara) types, were used in a switchback experimental design (Cochran & Cox, 1957).

  1. Assessment of beef microbial contamination at abattoir and retail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross section study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality to assess microbial contamination in beef production chain from abattoir to retail meat shops during February to May, 2012. Questionnaire on abattoir and meat shop hygiene was administered to 60 respondents. Meat, meat in-contact surface swab and water ...

  2. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traits influencing income and expense, derivation of economic values, choice of selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. The modelling methods to derive economic weights can be divided into simulation, dynamic programming and profit functions. Keywords: Beef cattle, Breeding objectives ...

  3. Bacteriological Quality of Dried Sliced Beef (Kilishi) Sold In Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological quality of dried sliced beef (kilishi) obtained from three selling points in. Ilorin metropolis was determined in order to ascertain its safety. The total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Staphylococcus aureus count and E.coli counts were used as index of bacteriological quality. Samples.

  4. Population structure and genetic trends for indigenous African beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate population structure and genetic trends based on pedigree and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger, Nguni and Tuli) in South Africa. Pedigree completeness over six generations was higher than 88.5% in the first ...

  5. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  6. Libido evaluation of virgin beef bulls | Crichton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Libido evaluation of virgin beef bulls. JS Crichton ...

  7. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 90 Household heads (15 from each of the six electoral wards of Sokoto metropolis) were randomly selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the relationship. Factors identified were; household size, educational level, occupation, expenditure on ...

  8. The development of a production system for beef animals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three years' results from a trial designed to develop a production system for a breeding herd of beef animals are presented. The trial, located in the northern Transvaal, comprised 30 ha of dryland Cenchrus ciliaris grazed by 30 cows and their calves. During the 1973/74, 1974/75 and 1975/76 seasons the pasture produced ...

  9. Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat From Slaughterhouses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty one beef (n=136) and camel (n=15) meat samples comprising mainly of adipose tissue were collected from animals slaughtered in 13 districts in Kenya for analysis of organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide residues. Gas chromatographic method (GLC) and ECD and FID was used for ...

  10. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  11. Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on Dohne sourveld. JA Erasmus, HH Barnard. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  12. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the. Highland Sourveld of Natal. A. van Niekerk* and R. Kernick. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science, University of Natal, P.O. ...

  13. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  14. Assessment of beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    around Mekelle. Accordingly, data was collected from all (N=108) beef cattle fatteners in the study ... straints, such as shortage of feed (100%), shortage of land (78.7%), market problem (75.9%), and diseases ..... height, good body condition and big and stand-high hump, in addition to coat color and sex. According to the ...

  15. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: Additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fitness is of paramount importance to efficient and profitable beef production. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic components of fitness traits measured in Afrikaner (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), Hereford (H) and Simmentaler (S). For this study, the fitness traits recorded were percentage of cows ...

  16. Effective extensive beef production as a prelude to feedlotting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should be used when mating replacement heifers. The bull. By far the majority of beef females in South Africa are bred by natural service. Accepting that bulls contribute 50!1Joof the genetic make-up of each calf crop, it is imperative to pay attention to performance records when selecting a sire, as they indicate the real ...

  17. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  18. Differentiation of pork from beef, chicken, mutton and chevon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...

  19. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  20. Water footprinting of pasture-based farms; beef and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; Curran, T P; Holden, N M; O'Brien, D; Upton, J

    2017-11-06

    In the context of water use for agricultural production, water footprints (WFs) have become an important sustainability indicator. To understand better the water demand for beef and sheep meat produced on pasture-based systems, a WF of individual farms is required. The main objective of this study was to determine the primary contributors to freshwater consumption up to the farm gate expressed as a volumetric WF and associated impacts for the production of 1 kg of beef and 1 kg of sheep meat from a selection of pasture-based farms for 2 consecutive years, 2014 and 2015. The WF included green water, from the consumption of soil moisture due to evapotranspiration, and blue water, from the consumption of ground and surface waters. The impact of freshwater consumption on global water stress from the production of beef and sheep meat in Ireland was also computed. The average WF of the beef farms was 8391 l/kg carcass weight (CW) of which 8222 l/kg CW was green water and 169 l/kg CW was blue water; water for the production of pasture (including silage and grass) contributed 88% to the WF, concentrate production - 10% and on-farm water use - 1%. The average stress-weighted WF of beef was 91 l H2O eq/kg CW, implying that each kg of beef produced in Ireland contributed to freshwater scarcity equivalent to the consumption of 91 l of freshwater by an average world citizen. The average WF of the sheep farms was 7672 l/kg CW of which 7635 l/kg CW was green water and 37 l/kg CW was blue water; water for the production of pasture contributed 87% to the WF, concentrate production - 12% and on-farm water use - 1%. The average stress-weighted WF was 2 l H2O eq/kg CW for sheep. This study also evaluated the sustainability of recent intensification initiatives in Ireland and found that increases in productivity were supported through an increase in green water use and higher grass yields per hectare on both beef and sheep farms.

  1. Market Impacts of Reducing the Prevalence of Bovine Respiratory Disease in United States Beef Cattle Feedlots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamina Keiko Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a common endemic disease among North American feedlot cattle. BRD can lead to significant economic losses for individual beef cattle feedlot producers through mortality and morbidity. With promising new management and technology research that could reduce BRD prevalence, this study evaluates the potential impacts of a reduction of BRD in the US beef cattle feedlot sector. Using a multi-market, multi-commodity partial equilibrium economic model of the US agricultural industry, we evaluate the market impacts of reduced BRD to producers from various livestock, meat, and feedstuffs industries. We find that as morbidity and mortality is reduced, beef cattle producers experience losses due to increased supplies (lower beef cattle prices and increased demand for feedstuff (higher feedstuff prices. Beef cattle processors see gains as the price of beef cattle is lower, whereas feedstuff producers gain from higher feedstuff prices. Producers in the allied industries (pork, lamb, poultry, and eggs see a small reduction in returns as consumers substitute with less expensive beef products. Consumers see gains in welfare as the increase in beef cattle supply results in lower beef prices. These lower beef prices more than offset the small increases in pork, lamb, poultry, and egg prices. Overall, the potential economic welfare change due to management and technologies that reduce BRD is a net gain for the US society as a whole.

  2. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase from beef liver: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Anderson, B M

    1987-04-01

    Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase (NR phosphorylase) from beef liver has been purified to apparent homogeneity at 300-fold purification with a 35% yield. Kinetic constants for the enzyme-catalyzed phosphorolysis were as follows Knicotinamide riboside, 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM; Kinorganic phosphate, 0.50 +/- 0.12 mM; Vmax, 410 +/- 30 X 10(-6) mol min-1 mg protein-1, respectively. The molecular weights of the native enzyme and subunit structure were determined to be 131,000 and 32,000, respectively, suggesting the beef liver NR phosphorylase to be tetrameric in structure and consistent with the presence of identical subunits. The amino acid composition was shown to be very similar to that reported for human erythrocyte purine-nucleoside phosphorylase but differing considerably from that found for rat liver purine-nucleoside phosphorylase. In addition to catalytic activity with nicotinamide riboside, the beef liver enzyme catalyzed a phosphorolytic reaction with inosine and guanosine exhibiting activity ratios, nicotinamide riboside:inosine: guanosine of 1.00:0.35:0.29, respectively. These ratios of activity remained constant throughout purification of the beef liver enzyme and no separation of these activities was detected. Phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside was inhibited competitively by inosine (Ki = 75 microM) and guanosine (Ki = 75 microM). Identical rates of thermal denaturation of the beef liver enzyme were observed when determined for the phosphorolysis of either nicotinamide riboside or inosine. These observations coupled with studies of pH and specific buffer effects indicate the phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside, inosine, and guanosine to be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  4. Effects of a DASH-like diet containing lean beef on vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussell, M A; Hill, A M; Gaugler, T L; West, S G; Ulbrecht, J S; Vanden Heuvel, J P; Gillies, P J; Kris-Etherton, P M

    2014-10-01

    A DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) dietary pattern rich in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products with increased dietary protein provided primarily from plant protein sources decreases blood pressure. No studies, however, have evaluated the effects of a DASH-like diet with increased dietary protein from lean beef on blood pressure and vascular health. The aim of this study was to study the effect of DASH-like diets that provided different amounts of protein from lean beef (DASH 28 g beef per day; beef in an optimal lean diet (BOLD) 113 g beef per day; beef in an optimal lean diet plus additional protein (BOLD+) 153 g beef per day) on blood pressure, endothelial function and vascular reactivity versus a healthy American diet (HAD). Using a randomized, crossover study design, 36 normotensive participants (systolic blood pressure (SBP), 116 ± 3.6 mm Hg) were fed four isocaloric diets,: HAD (33% total fat, 12% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 17% protein (PRO), 20 g beef per day), DASH (27% total fat, 6% SFA, 18% PRO, 28 g beef per day), BOLD (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 19% PRO, 113 g beef per day) and BOLD+ (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 27% PRO, 153 g beef per day), for 5 weeks. SBP decreased (Pdiet (111.4 ± 1.9 mm Hg) versus HAD (115.7 ± 1.9). There were no significant effects of the DASH and BOLD diets on SBP. Augmentation index (AI) was significantly reduced in participants on the BOLD diet (-4.1%). There were no significant effects of the dietary treatments on diastolic blood pressure or endothelial function (as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry). A moderate protein DASH-like diet including lean beef decreased SBP in normotensive individuals. The inclusion of lean beef in a heart healthy diet also reduced peripheral vascular constriction.

  5. Possibility of introducing Smallholder Beef Cattle Farmer’s Association as a starting point to develop the beef cattle chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candia, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the research is “Possibility of introducing smallholder Beef Cattle Farmers Association as a starting point to develop the beef chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda”. The study was carried out in two Sub Counties of Arua district, Uganda. The objective was to

  6. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The dynamics of beef trade between Brazil and Russia and their environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the production or consumption of agricultural commodities in one place can drastically affect land use and the environment elsewhere. We show how changes in beef production and consumption in Russia following the breakdown of the Soviet Union in 1991 contributed to the emergence...... of a beef trade linkage between Brazil and Russia. We argue that the decline of Russian beef production after 1991, the rebound of domestic consumption since the late 1990s, the global beef trade constellation of the early 2000s, and the booming Brazilian cattle sector during the same periods forged...... a strong and lasting telecoupling in the beef trade between Brazil and Russia. As a result, Russia became the largest importer of both CO2 and non-CO2 emissions embodied in Brazilian beef exports since the 2000s. Our review exemplifies how the combination of institutional and socioeconomic shocks along...

  8. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall

  9. Effect of microbial transglutaminase on the natural actomyosin cross-linking in chicken and beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahhmed, Abdulatef Mrghni; Nasu, Tetsuo; Huy, Dang Quang; Tomisaka, Yoshito; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the difference between chicken and beef in the interaction of actomyosin (myosin B) with microbial transglutaminase (MTG). The gel strength of myosin B was improved in both species and was significantly greater in beef than in chicken (Pactivity. SEMI also suggested that all MTG-dependent mega-structures of protein molecules generated in chicken and beef may vary greatly in size, configuration and complexity after treatment with MTG. We concluded that the optimal cross-links in myosin B induced by MTG are heterogeneous in chicken and beef.

  10. NUTRITION LEVEL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF BALI BEEF ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE OF CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Karang Agustina; I Made Ricky Dwi Cahya; Gusti Made Widyantara; Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita; Anak Agung Gde Oka Dharmayudha; Mas Djoko Rudyanto

    2017-01-01

    This research aims were to measure nutrition level and the physical quality of bali beef according to the age and sex of cattle. A total of 60 bali beef samples have been examined, consisting of 30 male and 30 female, in which they were divided into six age groups. The parameters of quality and nutritions of bali beef included: meat color, pH, water holding capacity, water content, crude protein, fat and ash content. The result showed that according to the sex and age of cattle, the beef qual...

  11. Carbon monoxide packaging shows the same color improvement for dark cutting beef as high oxygen packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Qin, Libo; Mao, Yanwei; Hopkins, David L; Han, Guangxing; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was used to increase redness (a*) and lightness (L*) values of dark cutting beef (ultimate pH (pHu)≥6.10), compared to normal pHu beef and intermediate pHu beef (pH: 5.40-5.79; pH: 5.80-6.09, respectively) during 20 d chilled storage. Compared with HiOx-MAP, CO-MAP exhibited similar color improvement effects (increased L*, a*, b* values) for all pHu beef groupings. The metmyoglobin (MetMb) content was lower under CO-MAP than that of HiOx-MAP in normal pHu beef, but opposite effects were observed in dark, high pH beef. This result could not be explained by MetMb reducing ability (MRA) and lipid oxidation, as both parameters were higher in CO-MAP beef than either normal or high pHu beef, compared with HiOx-MAP. In conclusion, CO-MAP was effective to maintain the cherry red color for dark cutting beef, but the color improvement mechanisms might be different with HiOx packaging methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  13. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  14. Irradiation of ground beef with the purpose of refrigerated storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, S.

    1977-01-01

    Ground beef packaged in polyethylene film was irradiated at different dose levels ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 Mrad and stored at 3+-1 0 C. Bacteriological and organoleptic evaluations were carried out immediately after irradiation and at weekly intervals thereafter. The red color of the meat was darker after irradiation and this darkening increased with radiation dose. This color change was limited to the surface of the samples. The results of the bacteriological and organoleptic examination indicate that irradiation at 0.25 Mrad permits refrigerated storage of ground beef for 3 weeks, 0,5 Mrad for 6 weeks. Coliforms were found only in non-irradiated samples [fr

  15. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS - Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, - Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Mendonca, Daniel R. [Escola Politecnica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Aristides Novis 2, 40.210-630, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA - Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador - BA (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  16. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Mendonca, Daniel R.; Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  17. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  18. Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C

    2017-06-01

    Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Al-Sanjary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

  20. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ronchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF, fumonisins (FB, ochratoxin A (OTA, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenol (ZEN]. Total mixed rations (TMR resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  1. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  2. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thanks the helpful assistance of Mr J.K. Arnott in as- sembling the data and the useful criticism of the paper and that of Mr B. Mappledoram who was responsible for the care of the field experiments reported in this paper. References. HARMN, G.O., 1974. Role of nutrition in beef cattle production.,F.S.S.,4. J.,2.21. HARWIN.

  3. Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a galician blond beef calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marta; Rigueira, Lucas; Suárez, María L; Carbajales, Paloma; Moure, Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis E; Failde, Daniel; Vázquez, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    A six-month-old female Galician Blond beef calf presented signs of apathy, anorexia and weight loss. The analysis of a blood sample confirmed renal failure. Bilateral nephrolithiasis was diagnosed at necropsy. Quantitative analysis revealed the nephroliths to be composed of 100 per cent xanthine. In cattle, xanthinuria has only been described in the Japanese Black breed, but never before in other breeds. Clinical history suggested a naturally occurring xanthinuria.

  4. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had 2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  5. Experimental verification of the possibility to estimate senzoric and quality parameters of beef with use of bioimpedance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, J.; Kadlec, R.; Vondra, Vlastimil; Bezdíček, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2009), s. 38-49 ISSN 0139-7265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : beef quality * biompedance * basic chemical composition of beef Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  6. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  7. Chilled boneless beef international trade: a cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigo Ramos Xavier Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure and classify the international beef trade. For this, data related to the international chilled boneless beef (CBB trade, the major and most important market, were analyzed. Producing countries were classified into groups according to their trade relations, and the main factors that influenced one country to prefer to import CBB from a specific exporting country were analyzed. The results revealed four markets related to client demands with regard to the sanitation and traceability of beef products. Furthermore, extrinsic characteristics of the product are discussed, such as a productive system that aims to minimize environmental impacts and to value animal welfare and respect for social demands. The markets that pay highest prices require sanitary quality of suppliers, demanding traceable and process-certified products. Brazil does not access these markets because it does not meet these requirements. To change this scenario it is necessary to eradicate FMD across the Brazilian territory, acquiring a status of a zone with minimal BSE risk, aligning the intrinsic value of the CBB with expectations of consumers and implementing a traceability program that is both feasible and acceptable for clients.

  8. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  9. Genetic parameters of beef quality traits for Piemontese cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Carnier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability of beef quality traits in Piemontese cattle. A total of 804 young bulls, progeny of 109 AI sires, were sampled from 124 fattening farms (FF and slaughtered in different days at the same commercial abattoir. At slaughter, bulls were 523±73 d old and average carcasses weight (CW was 417±45 kg. Carcasses were scored for fleshiness (EUS and fatness. An individual beef sample was collected from Longissimus Thoracis 24 h after slaughter and held refrigerated at 4 °C for 8 d. Measured traits were pH at ageing (pH8d, beef colour (L*, a*, b*, Hue and Chroma, shear force (SF, drip (DL and cooking loss (CL. A REML linear animal model including the fixed effects of FF, slaughter age and CW class and the random effect of the bull was used. The estimated heritability for EUS, SF, DL, Hue, L* and a* was of intermediate magnitude (from 0.22 to 0.49 whereas heritabilities for all other traits were low (from 0.04 to 0.16.

  10. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jose; Piquerez, Martín; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong, Eileen; Fernández, Alicia; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. An algorithm based on curve evolution is implemented to calculate the rib eye area. The backfat thickness is estimated from the profile of distances between two curves that limit the steak and the rib eye, previously detected. A model base in Support Vector Regression (SVR) is trained to estimate the intramuscular fat percentage. A series of features extracted on a region of interest, previously detected in both ultrasound and color images, were proposed. In all cases, a complete evaluation was performed with different databases including: color and ultrasound images acquired by a beef industry expert, intramuscular fat estimation obtained by an expert using a commercial software, and chemical analysis. The proposed algorithms show good results to calculate the rib eye area and the backfat thickness measure and profile. They are also promising in predicting the percentage of intramuscular fat.

  11. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagea, Mihai I; Bateman, Kenneth G; van Dreumel, Tony; McEwen, Beverly J; Carman, Susy; Archambault, Marie; Shanahan, Rachel A; Caswell, Jeff L

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of fatty acids in foods. II. Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B A; Kinsella, J A; Watt, B K

    1975-07-01

    An estensive survey of the literature on lipids of beef covering the past fouteen years revealed that a number of factors, such as sex, age, and diet of animal, and analytical method, can affect the lipid content and fatty acid composition of beef. The feeding regimen of the animal was a factor considered in evaluating data for the food table. Extraction method was important in assessing information on lean tissue lipids. Statistical analysis showed that fatty acid patterns for the separable fat and separable lean of various meat cuts were not significantly different at the 5 per cent level. Cooking by dry or moist heat has little effect on relative fatty acid composition. Methods for converting methyl ester data into per cent composition of fatty acids in the meat cut are presented. A comprehensive table of fatty acids per 100 gm. separable lean, separable fet, and total edible portions of Choice grade cuts of beef is given, as well as a table acids per 100 gm. fat for lean and adipose tissues.

  13. Salmonella serovars along two beef chains in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiko, Adem; Irsigler, Herlinde; Ameni, Gobena; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard

    2016-11-24

    Salmonella has been reported from foods and the food production environment, with outbreaks occurring in the human population worldwide. A survey on Salmonella in two beef production lines (a beef abattoir line and a processing line) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was conducted, with a total of 668 various samples randomly collected from animal-related materials, the environment, and a beef product (mortadella). Overall, a 12.9% prevalence (26.3% from the abattoir line, 5.3% from the processing plant line) was observed. The prevalence in the abattoir line environment (36.6%) was higher than that in animal-related samples (14.7%); the reverse was true for the processing plant line. Out of 86 isolates, 10 serovars were identified, and 8 remained unidentified. The predominant serotypes were S. Saintpaul (32.5%), S. Muenchen (19.8%), and S. Larochelle (12.8%). S. Kastrup and S. London were isolated for the first time in Ethiopia. Data indicate open ports of entry for Salmonella, with possible transfer along the line. Further investigations from farm to fork are recommended in order to identify these positions of entry.

  14. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Moses, Rebekah; Sammons, Norman

    2017-01-01

    in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake...... occupation (70% and 79%, respectively), primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB) at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55–45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents), water......The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal...

  15. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  16. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  17. Joint Production of Safer, Cleaner and Animal Friendlier Beef: Do Consumers Join it Too? - Insights from Focus Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Ines; Santos, Jose Manuel Lima; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ motivations and behaviour towards food safety, animal welfare and the environment in beef production and beef products were discussed in several focus groups, within a broader research program aiming at determining Portuguese consumers’ willingness to pay for safer, cleaner and animal friendlier beef. Regarding the supply context, food safety, animal welfare and environmental protection are, to some extent, jointly produced within beef production systems. From the demand perspectiv...

  18. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Goldstein

    Full Text Available The food demands of the United States (US impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources. We find that relative to the mean US diet, vegetarian and vegan diets significantly reduce per-capita food-borne greenhouse gas emission (32% and 67%, respectively, blue water use (70% and 75%, respectively and land occupation (70% and 79%, respectively, primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55-45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents, water consumption (1.30-12.00 km3 and land occupation (22300-190100 km2. Despite PBB's elevated environmental pressures compared to other vegetal protein sources, we demonstrate that minimal risk exists for the disservices of PBB substitution in non-meat diets to outweigh the benefits of ground-beef substitution in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake of the product, this study demonstrates the potential for non-traditional protein substitutes to play a role in a transition towards more sustainable consumption

  19. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Farm gate environmental impacts of beef production in the Northern Plains and Midwest regions of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle-to-farm gate environmental impacts of beef production in two cattle producing regions were assessed as part of an on-going national sustainability study of the U.S. beef value chain launched by the Beef Checkoff. Region-specific data on common ranch and feedlot management practices were chara...

  1. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  2. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  3. What Brings People to Leadership Roles: A Phenomenological Study of Beef Industry Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, B. Lynn; Ellis, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership has been deeply studied in the literature; however, little research exists studying the role of volunteer peer leaders in non-formalized leadership roles in membership-based organizations. This phenomenological study was designed to explore the experience of beef industry leaders in leadership roles. Twelve active beef industry…

  4. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  5. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  6. Impact of "raised without antibiotics" beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in U.S. beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of “raised without antibiotics” (RWA) and 36 lots of “conventional” (CONV) beef c...

  7. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  8. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were

  9. Spatial variability in nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedyard pen surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots include enteric carbon dioxide and methane, and manure-derived methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. Enteric methane comprises the largest portion of the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle feedyards. For the manure component, methane is th...

  10. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  11. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture 2. Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For two weeks prior to the start of the breeding season, the sucklingbehaviour of beef calves, separated from their dams for 12 h out of ..... BARB., C.R.. 1986. Naloxone infusion increases pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in post partum beef cows. Dom. Anim. Endocrin. 3, 49. WILLIAMS. G.L., KOTWICA. 1., SLANGER ...

  12. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  13. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  14. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  15. 75 FR 81632 - Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic Certification System (eCERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Fisheries and with the approval of the United States Government. DATES: The use of the eCERT process for all Australian beef importations subject to within quantity restrictions will be effective for beef entered, or... by the Government of Australia is in effect for the goods. The existing tariff rate quotas and export...

  16. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10 -5 for home consumption and 1.74 × 10 -5 for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  17. Application of hyperspectral imaging for characterization of intramuscular fat distribution in beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a hyperspectral imaging system in the spectral region of 400–1000 nm was used for visualization and determination of intramuscular fat concentration in beef samples. Hyperspectral images were acquired for beef samples, and spectral information was then extracted from each single sampl...

  18. Fatty acid profile of zebu beef cattle from the Central African sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, based on the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) proportion, 13.9% of the total lipids and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, 1.95, consumption of beef from these breeds could be beneficial to human health. This is possibly owing to the pasture feeding and low fat content of the beef. Keywords: Intramuscular fat; fatty acid composition ...

  19. Grazing supplementation and crop diversification on beef farm simulations in southern Brazil: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economics and environmental footprints of beef cattle raised on natural pasture or combined with soybean in specific biomes are still not well evaluated. The objective of this research was to simulate and evaluate the economics of three common pastured beef grazing systems in southern Brazil along w...

  20. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  1. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune; De Smet, Stefaan; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-02-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n = 108) and Norway (n = 110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries and beef technologies. Information becomes either less relevant when the product is actually tasted, as indicated by the findings in Norway, or more relevant when information is confirmed by own experience during tasting, as indicated by the findings in Belgium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Beef consumer segment profiles based on information source usage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Jerzy; Cieszyńska, Katarzyna; Sajdakowska, Marta; Kosicka-Gębska, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify market segments based on consumers' usage of information sources about beef and to investigate whether the use of information sources was associated with the type of information consumers were searching for, factors guiding their decision processes to buy beef and motives related to beef consumption. Data were collected in 2014 through a self-administered survey of 501 regular beef consumers. Three distinct clusters were identified: Enthusiast (38.5%), Conservative (43.1%) and Ultra Conservative (18.4%). This study revealed that culinary and personal sources of information on beef were the most frequently used. Taste, perceived healthiness and suitability to prepare many dishes were reported as primary motives to eat beef. These results show that communication channels such as culinary programs and opportunities provided by the development of labelling systems to guarantee beef quality should be considered when developing policies and strategies to increase beef consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  4. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  5. Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total herd efficiency. P. du Toit and J. van ... Percentage differ- ences (minimum, point in between, maximum) in beef prices for the period 1984 to 1992 (RSA Livestock and Meat Statrs- ..... therefore replacement rate, as an economic trait (Hetzel &. Seifert, 1986 ...

  6. Consumer Food Safety Risk Perceptions and Attitudes: Impacts on Beef Consumption across Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Utilizing data from a total of 4,005 consumers in the United States, Canada,

  7. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  8. 77 FR 12752 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... industry-governed organizations existed with the requisite knowledge, skills, and experience related to the... possessing the requisite experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products that exist today while still requiring a minimum level of organizational experience so as not to...

  9. Consumption pattern of beef: A survey of selected meat retail shops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the pattern of beef consumption behavior among a sample of 179 consumers who patronize meat retail shops in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. The influences of various socio-economic factors on quantity of beef consumed per month by households were estimated using OLS. Level of education of ...

  10. Enterococcus on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with ...

  11. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  12. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir. Meat Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  13. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The price for each lot of each boxed beef sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant basis; (2) The quantity for each lot of each sale, quoted by number of pounds sold; and (3) The...) The cut of beef, referencing the most recent version of the Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications...

  14. Outbreak of Salmonellosis associated with beef jerky--New Mexico, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-27

    In February 1995, the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) was notified of cases of salmonellosis in two persons who had eaten beef jerky. An investigation by the New Mexico Environment Department determined that these cases were associated with beef jerky processed at a local plant. An investigation by NMDOH identified 91 additional cases. This report summarizes the investigation of this outbreak.

  15. 01 Nsoso - A survey of traditional beef cattle farmers....…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    The aims of this survey were to characterise traditional beef cattle farmers and evaluate the adoption of certain improved ... The survey was conducted from March 2002 to October 2002. Beef cattle farmers from fifty (50) .... The most important advantages of using AI in traditional farming in Botswana is that it would lead to ...

  16. Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Van Wezemael, Lynn; Chriki, Sghaier; Legrand, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Farmer, Linda; Scollan, Nigel D; Polkinghorne, Rod; Rødbotten, Rune; Allen, Paul; Pethick, David W

    2014-07-01

    Despite efforts by the industry to control the eating quality of beef, there remains a high level of variability in palatability, which is one reason for consumer dissatisfaction. In Europe, there is still no reliable on-line tool to predict beef quality and deliver consistent quality beef to consumers. Beef quality traits depend in part on the physical and chemical properties of the muscles. The determination of these properties (known as muscle profiling) will allow for more informed decisions to be made in the selection of individual muscles for the production of value-added products. Therefore, scientists and professional partners of the ProSafeBeef project have brought together all the data they have accumulated over 20 years. The resulting BIF-Beef (Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef) data warehouse contains available data of animal growth, carcass composition, muscle tissue characteristics and beef quality traits. This database is useful to determine the most important muscle characteristics associated with a high tenderness, a high flavour or generally a high quality. Another more consumer driven modelling tool was developed in Australia: the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme that predicts beef quality for each individual muscle×specific cooking method combination using various information on the corresponding animals and post-slaughter processing factors. This system has also the potential to detect variability in quality within muscles. The MSA system proved to be effective in predicting beef palatability not only in Australia but also in many other countries. The results of the work conducted in Europe within the ProSafeBeef project indicate that it would be possible to manage a grading system in Europe similar to the MSA system. The combination of the different modelling approaches (namely muscle biochemistry and a MSA-like meat grading system adapted to the European market) is a promising area of research to improve the prediction

  17. Failure of irradiated beef and ham to induce genetic aberrations of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittler, S.

    1979-01-01

    Ham that had been irradiated by electrons and beef which had been exposed to gamma rays from 60 Co were fed to Drosophila melanogaster to determine whether meat sterilized by these methods would induce genetic aberrations. The results showed that for yB/sc 8 y + Y males, fed on irradiated ham or beef, thermally preserved beef or frozen beef for their entire larval life, there was no significant increase in the loss of X or Y chromosomes or non-disjunction of these chromosomes; there was also no significant increase in any of the broods. Similarly for the Oregon R males, there was no significant increase in yield of sex-linked recessive lethals. Thus feeding of irradiated ham and beef to Drosophila males did not induce significant increases in genetic aberrations. The present findings are discussed in relation to the conflicting results of previous studies. (U.K.)

  18. NUTRITION LEVEL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF BALI BEEF ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Karang Agustina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims were to measure nutrition level and the physical quality of bali beef according to the age and sex of cattle. A total of 60 bali beef samples have been examined, consisting of 30 male and 30 female, in which they were divided into six age groups. The parameters of quality and nutritions of bali beef included: meat color, pH, water holding capacity, water content, crude protein, fat and ash content. The result showed that according to the sex and age of cattle, the beef quality and nutrition were not significantly different. This indicates that the bali beef have the similar qualities based on the different of sex and age.

  19. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle ( Muscle Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H group and low marbling (L group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein coding were detected in all samples, and 749 genes exhibited differential expression between the H and L groups based on fold change (>1.5-fold, p<0.05. Multiple gene ontology terms and biological pathways were found significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on marbling formation in beef cattle and may be applied to improve breeding programs for cattle and closely related mammals.

  20. Color stability of ground beef packaged in a low carbon monoxide atmosphere or vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Claus, James R

    2011-01-01

    Ground beef was either packaged in an atmosphere of 0.4% CO, 30% CO₂, and 69.6% N₂ (CO-MAP) or vacuum. After storage (48 h, 2-3°C), packages of CO-MAP and vacuum were opened and overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride. Other CO-MAP and vacuum packages were left intact. Packages were initially displayed for 7 days (2-3°C). Intact packages were further displayed up to 35 days before being opened and displayed (1 or 3 days). Intact CO-MAP packaged ground beef was always more red than intact vacuum-packaged ground beef. Color was relatively stable for both types of intact packages over 35 days of display. Upon opening CO-MAP packaged ground beef, the red color decreased slower than in ground beef from vacuum packages. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Relationship between colorimetric (instrumental) evaluation and consumer-defined beef colour acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between instrumental colorimetric values (L*, a*, b*, the ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm) and consumer perception of acceptable beef colour was evaluated using a web-based survey and standardised photographs of beef m. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics. Only L* and b* were found to relate to average consumer opinions of beef colour acceptability. Respondent nationality was also identified as a source of variation in beef colour acceptability score. Although this is a preliminary study with the findings necessitating additional investigation, these results suggest L* and b* as candidates for developing instrumental thresholds for consumer beef colour expectations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ground Beef Handling and Cooking Practices in Restaurants in Eight States†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, April K.; Fuller, Candace C.; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A.; Smith, Kirk E.

    2017-01-01

    Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMID:24290692

  3. Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, April K; Fuller, Candace C; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-12-01

    Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.

  4. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  5. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  6. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pighin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina’s actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  7. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  8. New data on the total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid composition of raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi

    OpenAIRE

    Bragagnolo, N; Rodriguez-Amaya, DB

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous analyses of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were carried out on raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi trimmed of external fat. Cholesterol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the fatty acids by gas chromatography. Mean total lipid (g/100 g) ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 for raw beef and 3.5 to 4.0 for grilled beef steaks. Cholesterol levels (mg/100 g) ranged from 40 to 43 for raw beef and 67 to 70 for grilled beef steaks. The main intramuscular fatty ...

  9. QUALITY INDICATORS OF BEEF FROM YOUNG BULLS OF VARIOUS DAIRY AND BEEF BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Miroshhikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It was established that studied meat raw material from young bulls of different breeds (Group I — red steppe, Group II — black-andwhite, Group III — Kalmyk, 15 animals per group was balanced by amino acid and fatty acid composition and by fatty acid ratio.In terms of safety, it corresponds to all parameters standardized in SanPiN  2.3.2.1078-01.The biological value of meat from beef bulls is higher compared to dairy bulls by 3.7% and 0.9%. In all groups, the essential amino acid content in meat proteins exceeds the values recommended by FAO/WHO for humans.Oleic acid had the highest concentration in the intramuscular fat (38.71, 39.02, 40.16% in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Palmitic acid content in the sample of  intramuscular fat from red steppe bulls was 26.40%, in black-and-white bulls — 25.86%, and in Kalmyk bulls — 25.07%. Stearic acid concentration was 21.09%, 21.95% and 20.41% in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Thus, the intramuscular fat of Kalmyk bulls is characterized by a lower content of saturated fatty acids compared to herdmates from Groups I and II: palmitic acid by 1.33% and 0.79%, stearic acid by 0.68% and 1, 54% and myristic acid by 0.37% and 0.15%, respectively. The content of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and myristic in intramuscular fat samples from Group I was higher than in Groups II and III, and the content of stearic acid was the lowest. Polyunsaturatedfatty acid (PUFA concentration in the intramuscular fat of all breeds is sufficiently high. Thus, total PUFA content in Group I was 5.64%, in Group II — 6.42% and in Group III — 7.18%. While differences in PUFA content were insignificant, animals in Group III had a higher PUFA level compared to Groups I and II by 1.54 and 0.76%, respectively.Ecologically pure food product has been obtained in the SouthernUrals with its increased anthropogenic burden on natural and agricultural ecosystems. In Group III, lead content is lower than in Groups I and

  10. Performance of beef heifers supplemented with sodium lasalocid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Everton Dezordi; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Moojen, Fernanda Gomes; Carvalho, Helena Robatini; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted on 78 13-month-old crossbred beef heifers that weighed 215 kg in Southern Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. We evaluated the performance of beef heifers that were reared in a pasture system that received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added sodium lasalocid (LAS). The heifers were randomly and uniformly divided into 2 groups, with 39 animals in each group. One group of animals received a mineral supplement energy-type protein without sodium lasalocid (CON), and the other group received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added LAS. The mean feed intake, the body weight (BW), the average daily gain (ADG), the body condition score (BCS), and ovarian cyclicity were recorded, and economic parameters were calculated. No differences in supplement intake were observed between the groups, which ensures adequate intake of the other components of the mineral mixture, which are part of the nutritional requirements for the production process. Similarly, no difference in the ADG was observed between treatments. We observed that the heifers in the LAS group had a higher BW gain (51 kg) that the CON heifers (40 kg; P heifers had a higher BCS (3.53) than CON heifers (3.38) at the end of the experiment (P heifers supplemented with LAS had a higher profitability than the CON heifers, even with the higher cost of the supplement containing LAS; this effect was due to the higher live BW at the end of the study. We concluded that the administration of a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added LAS has beneficial effects on beef heifers in terms of production and economic feasibility.

  11. Replacement Beef Cow Valuation under Data Availability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Hagerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Economists are often tasked with estimating the benefits or costs associated with livestock production losses; however, lack of available data or absence of consistent reporting can reduce the accuracy of these valuations. This work looks at three potential estimation techniques for determining the value for replacement beef cows with varying types of market data to proxy constrained data availability and discusses the potential margin of error for each technique. Oklahoma bred replacement cows are valued using hedonic pricing based on Oklahoma bred cow data—a best case scenario—vector error correction modeling (VECM based on national cow sales data and cost of production (COP based on just a representative enterprise budget and very limited sales data. Each method was then used to perform a within-sample forecast of 2016 January to December, and forecasts are compared with the 2016 monthly observed market prices in Oklahoma using the mean absolute percent error (MAPE. Hedonic pricing methods tend to overvalue for within-sample forecasting but performed best, as measured by MAPE for high quality cows. The VECM tended to undervalue cows but performed best for younger animals. COP performed well, compared with the more data intensive methods. Examining each method individually across eight representative replacement beef female types, the VECM forecast resulted in a MAPE under 10% for 33% of forecasted months, followed by hedonic pricing at 24% of the forecasted months and COP at 14% of the forecasted months for average quality beef females. For high quality females, the hedonic pricing method worked best producing a MAPE under 10% in 36% of the forecasted months followed by the COP method at 21% of months and the VECM at 14% of the forecasted months. These results suggested that livestock valuation method selection was not one-size-fits-all and may need to vary based not only on the data available but also on the characteristics (e

  12. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Demirhan, Burak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan; Abbasoglu, Ufuk

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in chicken and beef used in Ankara, Turkey. Total number of 127 chicken and 104 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local markets for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. One hundred eighteen of 231 (51.1%) examined chicken meat and beef samples were found to contain quinolone antibiotic residue. Among the chicken meat and beef samples, 58 (45.7%) of chicken meat samples and 60 (57.7%) of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones, respectively. The mean levels (±SE) of quinolones were found to be 30.81 ± 0.45 µg/kg and 6.64 ± 1.11 µg/kg in chicken and beef samples, respectively. This study indicated that some chicken and beef meat sold in Ankara contains residues of quinolone antibiotics.

  13. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-03-22

    The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  14. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Maia de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  15. A unique method for detecting beef tenderness based on viscoelasticity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Wang, Wenjuan; Peng, Yankun; Dong, Xiaoguang; Kang, Xilong; Li, Yongyu

    2017-10-01

    Tenderness is an important parameter for evaluating textural properties of beef. Viscoelasticity is a comprehensive property of viscosity and elasticity. Detection of beef tenderness based on beef viscoelasticity could avoid sample destruction inherent to the traditional evaluation method. This study has built a novel detection system using an air flow supply and laser displacement sensor to evaluate beef viscoelasticity, collecting measurements of beef sample deformation from the air flow, and of the subsequent recovery occurring during a 12-second time period. Compression curves and recovery curves were fitted by exponential function. The maximum compression deformation, d1, the recovery deformation, d2, and the total deformation, d3, were calculated. Instantaneous deformations of L1 and L2 were evaluated, including deformation areas of S1 and S2, respectively. The deformations for the period from 8 to 12 s were fitted by linear regression. Principal component analysis was used to find optimal principal components. Partial least squares regression method was used to build a model to predict the validation set. The optimal model was obtained using 12 principal components. Correlation coefficient and root mean square error of calibration set were 0.8541and 5.9727, respectively. Similarly, correlation coefficient and root means square error of validation set were 0.8357, respectively. The results showed that beef tenderness detection based on viscoelasticity can be of great value for practical application. This research provides a unique method for nondestructive and quantitative detection of meat and poultry. Tenderness is of great importance while evaluating the quality of beef. However, there is a lack of effective nondestructive methods to measure beef tenderness. A new method was developed to evaluate beef tenderness by applying air flow pressure on a beef sample surface and using a laser displacement sensor to measure the associated surface deformation as

  16. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  18. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  19. Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Cunha, Michele Espinosa; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Moraes, Maria Silvana Aranda; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Almeida, Suelen Rodrigues; Caramao, Elina Bastos [Chemistry Institute/Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul/UFRGS - Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Jacques, Rosangela Assis [Federal University of Pelotas/Federal University of Pampa (UFPel/UNIPAMPA-Bage) (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves [Department of Organic Chemistry (DQO), Chemistry Institute (IQ), Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitario, s/n - Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas/RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In the present work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant has been studied using beef tallow as raw materials with methanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The biodiesel quality is regulated by Brazilian specifications (Resolution 42) by the National Agency of Petroleum (ANP). The alkaline transesterification of animal fat with methanol produces a biodiesel with high quality and also with a good conversion rate. The process is possible but the economical viability must be improved by recovering methanol and glycerin. The obtained results have been used for industrial scale up of the process. (author)

  20. Effect of sonication on technological properties of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Dolatowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment during rigor mortis period led to an acceleration of aging processes. No significant influence of sonication on acidity during ageing was observed. Ultrasound treatment did not influence the lightness, but according to the shear force measurements, improve meat tenderness. Differentiated technological properties of examined samples may result from influence of ultrasound on protein structures of meat. As a result of ultrasound treatment an increase of free calcium ions concentration occurred. Obtained results pointed out that sonication may be an effective method of formation of technological properties of beef during ageing.

  1. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Karin; English, Patti; Vera, Raúl R.; Briones, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at rand...

  2. The Beef Jerky Blues: Methemoglobinemia From Home Cured Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Jillian L; Spoelhof, Rachel; Pallasch, Erin M; Mycyk, Mark B

    2016-09-30

    Methemoglobinemia can result from ingestion of nitrite- or nitrate-containing foods. Here, we report a case where an adolescent girl and her father developed clinically significant methemoglobinemia after ingestion of "homemade" beef jerky prepared with sodium nitrate salt purchased at a local grocery store. Both had palpitations, dyspnea, and visible mucosal cyanosis. The daughter had a methemoglobin level of 44.2% and the father's methemoglobin level was 34.2%. Prompt recognition of methemoglobinemia is important for initiating antidotal therapy with methylene blue.

  3. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  4. Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulira, G L; Saunders, J R; Barth, A D

    1992-01-01

    We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X(2)) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.

  5. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  6. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  7. Consumer preferences for beef color and packaging did not affect eating satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C E; Cornforth, D P; Whittier, D

    2001-04-01

    We investigated whether consumer preferences for beef colors (red, purple, and brown) or for beef packaging systems (modified atmosphere, MAP; vacuum skin pack, VSP; or overwrap with polyvinyl chloride, PVC) influenced taste scores of beef steaks and patties. To test beef color effects, boneless beef top loin steaks (choice) and ground beef patties (20% fat) were packaged in different atmospheres to promote development of red, purple, and brown color. To test effects of package type, steaks and patties were pre-treated with carbon monoxide in MAP to promote development of red color, and some meat was repackaged using VSP or PVC overwrap. The differently colored and packaged meats were separately displayed for members of four consumer panels who evaluated appearance and indicated their likelihood to purchase similar meat. Next, the panelists tasted meat samples from what they had been told were the packaging treatments just observed. However, the meat samples actually served were from a single untreated steak or patty. Thus, any difference in taste scores should reflect expectations established during the visual evaluation. The same ballot and sample coding were used for both the visual and taste evaluations. Color and packaging influenced (Pred>purple >brown and PVC >VSP>MAP. Appearance scores and likelihood to purchase were correlated (r=0.9). However, color or packaging did not affect (P>0.5) taste scores. Thus, consumer preferences for beef color and packaging influenced likelihood to purchase, but did not bias eating satisfaction.

  8. Using instrumental (CIE and reflectance) measures to predict consumers' acceptance of beef colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; Hopkins, David L

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beef Quality Identification Using Thresholding Method and Decision Tree Classification Based on Android Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusworo Adi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the animal food products that have high nutrition because it contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, the quality of beef should be maintained so that consumers get good beef quality. Determination of beef quality is commonly conducted visually by comparing the actual beef and reference pictures of each beef class. This process presents weaknesses, as it is subjective in nature and takes a considerable amount of time. Therefore, an automated system based on image processing that is capable of determining beef quality is required. This research aims to develop an image segmentation method by processing digital images. The system designed consists of image acquisition processes with varied distance, resolution, and angle. Image segmentation is done to separate the images of fat and meat using the Otsu thresholding method. Classification was carried out using the decision tree algorithm and the best accuracies were obtained at 90% for training and 84% for testing. Once developed, this system is then embedded into the android programming. Results show that the image processing technique is capable of proper marbling score identification.

  10. Comparison of feeding systems: feed cost, palatability and environmental impact among hay-fattened beef, consistent grass-only-fed beef and conventional marbled beef in Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithyphone, Khounsaknalath; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Horita, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Keisuke; Fumita, Tomiko; Shiotsuka, Yuji; Etoh, Tetsuji; Ebara, Fumio; Samadmanivong, Olavanh; Wegner, Jochen; Gotoh, Takafumi

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this article is to compare feed cost, palatability and environmental impacts among feeding systems of high concentrate (HC), high hay (HH) and grass-only-fed (Gof) groups. Feed cost was the sum of costs paid for feed intake times the price of feed per kilogram. Palatability was measured by a panel taste test using HH and Gof beef and analyzed for differences. Environmental impacts were calculated based on 1 kg of Japanese beef yield of CO(2) equivalents (eq) and animal end weights at each feeding stage. Results showed that the HH and Gof feeding systems could significantly reduce feed costs by approximately 60% and 78%, respectively, from the HC. In the panel taste test, 50% and 47.50% of panelists indicated that HH beef was 'extremely delicious' and 'acceptable,' respectively, while 15% indicated that Gof beef was 'extremely delicious'; 62.50% indicated that Gof beef was 'acceptable.' Environmental impacts of each feeding system in terms of CO(2) equivalents (eq) were 9.32, 6.10 and 2.04 tonnes of eq for the HC, HH and Gof, respectively. The HH was an economical system that produced moderate impacts on the environment and had impressive taste. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable. PMID:19948052

  12. Identification and dose evaluation of irradiated beef containing bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiacotti, M.; Alberti, A.; Fuochi, P.G.; Chiesa, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Food irradiation is a well-established technique to extend the food shelf life and to reduce the food-related health hazards caused by pathogenic micro-organisms. At present, radiation treatment is permitted for various categories of food and food ingredients in many countries. At the European level, irradiation of food is regulated by the European Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC. Community legislation states that any food or food ingredients, authorised in the European Union, must be labelled with the word 'irradiated' and that every year each Member State has to carry out checks at the product marketing stage to enforce correct labelling. The present work aimed at identifying irradiated beef meat by using a reliable and sensitive detection of DNA comets as screening biological method and performing an Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry as confirmatory qualitative standard. The influence of storage conditions and time after irradiation on DNA degradation was also investigated. Furthermore the application of ESR technique as a quantitative method was successfully applied to beef bones, using the approach of calibration curve. Results, although the limited statistics, proved for reliability of the dose reconstruction method and blind tests were carried out resulting in very satisfactory difference between actual treatment dose and reconstructed dose.

  13. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Preference of Farmer Beef Cattle Smallholder in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, H.; Fitriani, A.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle farm is an economic activity that its correlation relatively high with ecology condition, ever more its activity be dominated by smallholder with farm scale of 1—3 head beef cattle, so the capital of feeder cattle are component production costs relatively large. By doing so, lose one head of cattle means losing some of the capital that had been invested in its farm. This condition has implications for the behavior of farmers in managing its farm. The farmers in the decision-making act reluctant to risk so there is a bit of a program or package of new technologies to improve the performance of farm rejected. Therefore, this study analyzed the preferences of farmers against risks, and find out the socio-economic conditions that be the deciding factor on farmer preference for risk.The method used was a survey with multistage random sampling. The numbers of samples in this study were 150 people from three different areas, namely: District of Bandung, Subang, and Pangandaran (South Ciamis). Data analysis model used in relation to this research problem was the model’s utility function and Component Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed that the overall breeders had a reluctant attitude to risk (risk averter). This is indicated by the value of x3, namely -63,692.693 education, and experience for farm management; while the business scale factor, number of dependents, and ownership determine the size of the gross margin.

  15. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Thompson, L D; Howe, J C; Hentges, E; Boyce, J; Brooks, J C; Shriver, B; Hoover, L; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of grass-fed beef in the United States for inclusion in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, and to compare the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed (control) beef. Ground beef (GB) and strip steaks (SS) were collected on 3 separate occasions from 15 grass-fed beef producers that represented 13 different states, whereas control beef samples were collected from 3 regions (Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas) of the United States on 3 separate occasions. Concentrations of minerals, choline, vitamin B(12), and thiamine were determined for grass-fed beef samples. Grass-fed GB samples had less Mg, P, and K (P < 0.05), and more Na, Zn, and vitamin B(12) (P < 0.05) than SS samples. Fat color, marbling, and pH were assessed for grass-fed and control SS. Subjective evaluation of the SS indicated that grass-fed beef had fat that was more yellow in color than control beef. Percentages of total fat, total cholesterol, and fatty acids along with trans fatty acids and CLA were determined for grass-fed and control SS and GB. Grass-fed SS had less total fat than control SS (P = 0.001), but both grass-fed and control SS were considered lean, because their total fat content was 4.3% or less. For both GB and SS, grass-fed beef had significantly less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively) content of MUFA and a greater content of SFA, n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and trans-vaccenic acid than did the control samples. Concentrations of PUFA, trans fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and cholesterol did not differ between grass-fed and control ground beef. Trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) made up the greatest concentration of the total trans fats in grass-fed beef, whereas CLA accounted for approximately 15% of the total trans fats. Although the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed beef was different, conclusions on the possible effects of these differences on human

  16. THE EFFECT OF LOST EXPORTS ON U.S. BEEF PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Jin, Hyun Joung; Koo, Won W.

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States in December 2003, U.S. beef exports have declined approximately 85 percent. A number of countries, including Japan and Korea (the top export markets for U.S. beef), have banned imports of beef from the United States, while U.S. exports to other important markets, such as Mexico and Canada, have been well below previous levels. Domestic demand in the United States was not significantly affected by the BSE discov...

  17. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N.; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary To better address consumer concerns, the beef sector is working on strategies to enhance the sustainability of all aspects of the beef supply chain. Among these strategies are (1) the development of science-based frameworks and indicators capable of measuring progress at all stages of beef production; (2) the engagement of different stakeholders along the beef supply chain at regional and global levels; and (3) the improvement of communication among stakeholders and transparency towards consumers. Progress on these three fronts was presented during the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef, hosted by the Global and Canadian Roundtables for Sustainable Beef. During the event, there was a clear understanding that the beef industry is substantially advancing efforts to continuously improve its sustainability, both at regional and global levels, by developing assessment frameworks and indicators to measure progress. However, it is also clear that the beef sector has a need to more clearly define the concept of beef sustainability, strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among national roundtables for sustainable beef, as well as improve the flow of information along the supply chain. An improved transparency in the beef sector will help consumers make more informed decisions about food products. Abstract The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various

  18. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  19. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimising protein oxidation in retail-packed minced beef using three-gas MA-packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Baussa Cano, Laura; Baron, Caroline P.

    beef. To establish whether three-gas MAP (O2, CO2 and N2), instead of two-gas MAP (O2 and CO2), would affect sensory attributes, shelf life, protein and lipid oxidation, minced beef was packed in MAP with either 40%, 50% or 80% O2 and 20% or 40% CO2 with N2 as filler gas. When comparing traditional MA......Minced beef is usually packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with a gas mixture consisting of 70-80% oxygen (O2) and 20-30% carbon dioxide (CO2). Unfortunately, this results in rubbery and less juicy beef patties with a more rancid flavour compared with fresh or nonoxygen packed...

  1. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Perception Levels of Prime Beef Training and Readiness Task Confidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, D

    1997-01-01

    ... inferred that training perception ultimately affects task performance. Surveys were sent to the target population to gather demographic data, perceptions of Prime BEEF readiness training and task confidence in both self and unit...

  2. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processing facility. Longissimus lumborum (LM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), adductor (AD), semitendinosus (ST), infraspinatus (IS), teres ma...

  3. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiengcharoen, Jitbanjong; Nakthong, Chowalit; Mitchaothai, Jumlong; Udonsom, Ruenruthai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-09-01

    Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle, including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.

  4. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  5. A PVC/polypyrrole sensor designed for beef taste detection using electrochemical methods and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingtao; Wang, Xiaodan; Han, Yunxiu; Cai, Yingming; Jin, Jiahui; Wang, Hongmei; Xu, Liping; Wu, Ruijia

    2018-03-01

    An electrochemical sensor for detection of beef taste was designed in this study. This sensor was based on the structure of polyvinyl chloride/polypyrrole (PVC/PPy), which was polymerized onto the surface of a platinum (Pt) electrode to form a Pt-PPy-PVC film. Detecting by electrochemical methods, the sensor was well characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensor was applied to detect 10 rib-eye beef samples and the accuracy of the new sensor was validated by sensory evaluation and ion sensor detection. Several cluster analysis methods were used in the study to distinguish the beef samples. According to the obtained results, the designed sensor showed a high degree of association of electrochemical detection and sensory evaluation, which proved a fast and precise sensor for beef taste detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential effects of negative publicity on beef consumption according to household characteristics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyungho; Lim, Byung In; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines how South Korean households responded to an unprecedented boycott campaign against US beef from spring to summer of 2008, and investigates differential responses in relation to households' characteristics. It was found that beef consumption reduced by 4.8% immediately after the so-called candle-light demonstration. Instead, pork and chicken consumption increased by 17.2% and 16.6%, respectively. This confirms a substitution effect due to the negative publicity concerning US beef. It was also found that the negative publicity effect was transitory and the reactions of consumers were not uniform; they differed depending on their socio-economic characteristics. The econometric model revealed that younger, less-educated, and/or lower-income households were more susceptible to the negative publicity, and reduced their beef consumption more than other households. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect Of Gelatin Coating And Irradiation On The Quality Of Beef Patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANWAR, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life and keeping quality of beef patties for consumption during cold storage by using gelatin coating and gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation had no effect on chemical composition and some physical properties of beef patties coated with gelatin. The pH values of all irradiated samples were slightly decreased with increasing radiation doses. Irradiation at the highest dose 8 kGy slightly increased total volatile nitrogen (TVN) of beef patties. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of irradiated samples was tended to increase with increasing irradiation dose directly after irradiation. During cold storage, the TVN and TBA values of all beef patties samples coated with gelatin either non-irradiated or irradiated were progressively increased as the time of cold storage increased. Irradiation of beef patties coated with gelatin with 4 kGy reduced the counts of total bacteria, Coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds counts as well as eliminating Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. Irradiation at dose 8 kGy eliminated completely Coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus. Beef patties coated with gelatin had low cooking loss percent than the uncoated sample and irradiation has slight effect on cooking loss percentage. Also, beef patties coated with gelatin showed less decrease weight loss percentage than the uncoated sample and irradiation had slight effect on weight loss. During cold storage, cooking loss percentage and weight loss percentage were increased by increasing the time of cold storage. The overall acceptability scores of beef patties coated with gelatin and irradiated at doses 4 and 8 kGy showed slight decrease. After 4 days of cold storage, beef patties coated with gelatin and irradiated had higher overall acceptability scores than the sample uncoated and non-irradiated. From these results, it could be noticed that edible film gelatin and irradiation at doses 4 and 8 kGy of

  8. Optimal Stochastic Advertising Strategies for the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kun C. Lee; Stanley Schraufnagel; Earl O. Heady

    1982-01-01

    An important decision variable in the promotional strategy for the beef sector is the optimal level of advertising expenditures over time. Optimal stochastic and deterministic advertising expenditures are derived for the U.S. beef industry for the period `1966 through 1980. They are compared with historical levels and gains realized by optimal advertising strategies are measured. Finally, the optimal advertising expenditures in the future are forecasted.

  9. Information Transmission in Cattle Markets: A Case Study of the Chariton Valley Beef Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Hueth, Brent; Lawrence, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The declining share of beef in total U.S. meat consumption has motivated industry-wide efforts to improve average beef quality through more effective coordination among the various market participants. Increased use of explicit "grid" pricing mechanisms over the last decade represent initial efforts at improved coordination. More recent efforts include animal-specific carcass data collection, with subsequent transmission to feeders and the relevant cow/calf operations, and improved "source ve...

  10. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Beef Steak. Thesis. Kansas State University. This research led FSIS to recommend on its Web site that.... Tatum, J.W. Wise, J.F. Taylor, M.J. Buyck, J.O. Reagan, and J.W. Savell. 1999. Beef Customer...-644. \\28\\ Savell, J.W., Lorenzen, C.L., Neely, T.R., Miller, R.K., Tatum, J.D., Wise, J.W., Taylor, J...

  11. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Colazo, Marcos G.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all ...

  12. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  13. Returns on investment in wild dog management-beef production in the South Australian Arid Lands

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Allen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Beef cattle producers in Australia have reported an increase in calf losses as a result of wild dog attacks in recent years. However, while control measures may reduce calf losses from wild dog attacks, they may also reduce attacks on kangaroos. Thus, wild dog control measures may inadvertently increase kangaroo competition with cattle for grazing vegetation, which is potentially costly for graziers. In this study the net returns to beef production from investments in wild dog controls in a c...

  14. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  15. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros; María Salud Rubio-Lozano; Enrique Delgado-Suárez; Danilo Méndez-Medina; Diego Braña-Varela; Oscar Rodas-Suárez

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp). The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains o...

  16. Influence of sanitary conditions of production environment on beef compliance to applicable microbiological criteria of hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Вікторівна Касянчук

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is defined an influence of hygiene and sanitation parameters on microbiological parameters of raw beef for export for the purpose of improving veterinary control during primary processing of beef carcasses. It is established that the contamination levels of bacterial total count and Enterobacteriaceae on the inner surfaces of the abdominal wall were significantly higher than in other parts of the carcass. These data rates reach the upper regulatory limit at observance of sanitary and hygienic requirements in the enterprise

  17. Willingness to Pay for Imported Beef and Risk Perception: An application of Individual-Level Parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kar Ho; Hu, Wuyang; Maynard, Leigh J.; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2012-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the Mandatory Country-of-Origin Labeling (COOL) has attracted research attentions. A number of studies have reported consumers are willing to pay more for beef labeled with U.S. origin versus beef from unknown or other origins. Despite that, relatively little is known about what motivates consumers’ preference for origin-labeled food products (Lusk et al 2006). Using Individual-Level Parameters following a mixed logit model, we found that U.S. consumers were willin...

  18. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR CO-ORDINATION AND RISK SHARING WITHIN THE CANADIAN BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.

    2000-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Canadian beef industry has stated objectives of improving beef quality and consumer satisfaction while reducing unit costs of production. Suggested methods for achieving these goals include working towards value based marketing and improved information flows between different market levels through systems such as a birth to plate information system. These initiatives are designed to provide a more direct link between consumer product needs and breeding and management dec...

  19. Assessment of meat quality properties and development of a palatability prediction model for Korean Hanwoo steer beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S H; Kim, J; Park, B Y; Seong, P N; Kang, G H; Kim, J H; Jung, S G; Im, S K; Kim, D H

    2010-09-01

    Effects of the Korean carcass-grading system on carcass traits and meat quality parameters for the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were investigated for Hanwoo steer beef. High quality grade beef cuts had significantly higher intramuscular fat content than those of low quality grade beef cuts. To establish a guaranteed system of eating quality for Hanwoo steer beef, a palatability prediction model was developed. The model development approach used canonical discriminant analysis and multivariate regression to assess effects of muscle type, cooking method, and aging treatment on Hanwoo beef quality grade. The palatability prediction model can provide Korean consumers with detailed information about expected eating quality for an individual cut, as well as provide critical information to the industry for maintaining high-quality beef production. The model is a significant advance in grading compared with the traditional carcass grading system, which applies a single quality grade to an entire carcass.

  20. Ohmic cooking of whole beef muscle - Optimisation of meat preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Markus; Lyng, James G; Cronin, Denis A; Morgan, Desmond J

    2009-04-01

    Uniform ohmic heating of solid foods primarily depends on the uniformity of electrolyte distribution within the product. Different preparation techniques were tested in an attempt to ensure an even salt dispersion within a full beef muscle (biceps femoris). Meat pieces were soaked, injected and tumbled using a range of procedures before ohmic cooking at pasteurization temperatures. A final preparation method (multi-injection (five points) with a 3% salt solution followed by 16h tumbling) was validated. Selected quality parameters of the ohmically cooked products were compared to steam cooked products. Ohmically heated meat had a significantly (P<0.05) uniform lighter and less red colour. Cook loss was significantly lower (P<0.05) in ohmic samples and in relation to tenderness ohmic heated samples were tougher (P<0.05) though the difference was only 5.08N. Comparable cook values were attained in the ohmic and conventionally cooked products.

  1. Brazilian ground beef authentication by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Carlos do Sacramento de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy ofmultiplex PCR in detecting the adulterationof commercially available ground beefvia addition and/orsubstitution ofground buffalo meat. Experimentally adulterated ground beefsamples were prepared in triplicate, and dilutions of DNA from Bos taurus and Bubalusbubalis were prepared to determine the detection limit of the method. Concurrently, 91 ground meatsamples sold as “ground beef” were collected from differentstores in northern Brazil andanalyzed bymultiplex PCR. Buffalo DNA was detected in 17.5% of the collected ground meat samples.Our results showed that multiplex PCR is an efficient method for detectingthe incorporation of groundbuffalo meatatpercentages ranging from 10 to 100% and the incorporation of beef at percentages ranging from0.1 to 100% intoground meat samples.

  2. Radiographical evaluation of bone maturation in Japanese black beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, A.; Hamada, S.; Sakamoto, H.; Kamiya, S.; Yanagida, K.; Kubota, C.; Watanabe, Y.; Shimizu, R.

    1996-01-01

    Epiphyseal ossification in the radius, ulna, metacarpus, proximal phalanx and tuber calcaneous was examined radiographically in Japanese Black beef cattle. The grade of standard ossification was assessed monthly for each epiphysis. Bone maturations could be divided into 8 grades for the distal radius and distal ulna, 7 grades for the distal metacarpus, 5 grades for the proximal phalanx, and 8 grades for the tuber calcaneous, respectively. The closure of the epiphyseal line completed at the earliest on the proximal phalanx, and at the latest on the distal ulna. Changes in gradings were steep at 0 to 5 months of age but became almost constant after 10 months of age in all the epiphysis. There were no significant differences in bone maturation between the cattle with different sex and breeding conditions

  3. An Abattoir Survey of Reproductive Organ Abnormalities in Beef Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenda, Drago

    1987-01-01

    During the period from April 1984 to March 1985, a survey of abnormalities in beef heifer reproductive tracts was performed in an Ontario abattoir. Data concerning both pregnancy and gross pathology were collected on 5800 heifers. Pregnancy was found in 382 (6.6%) of the heifers examined. Various abnormalities were detected in 1499 (27.7%) of the remaining 5418 heifers. Cystic ovaries were found in 807 nonpregnant heifers (14.9%) and ovarian bursal adhesions and mucometra affected 5.4% and 5.0% of heifers, respectively. The prevalence of cystic ovaries and mucometrs was higher (p<0.05) in heifers exposed to melengestrol acetate. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422881

  4. Estimation of demand and supply relationships for beef cattle in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase in per capita income is followed by an increased demand in number and quality of meat . The purpose of the study was to identify and qualifying factors that influence the demand and supply of beef, and to determine the magnitude of response related to the increase in per capita income. In this study, the time series data from 1970 through 1993 was used and collected from the Directorate General for Livestock Services and Central Bureau of Statistics for the province ofLampung. The parameters observed were production and consumption of beef, retail price, population, per capita income and input price of beef production . A 2SLS method was used to perform the analysis . The results of this study showed that estimated demand and supply relationships using the simultaneous model of2SLS method is appropriate for beef cattle . The results indicated that retail price of beef is determined simultaneously by demand and supply linkages (P<0.01 . In addition, people in Lampung were responsive enough to anticipate changes on per capita income and lead to the potential for developing Lampung as a strategic beef industry area in Indonesia.

  5. Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rangel Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fernandes H.R., Oliveira L.C., Ribeiro S.C.A. & Lourenço L.F.H. [Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu.] Características físicas e microscópicas da carne maturada de caititu (Tayassu tajacu. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:167-172, 2015. Universidade do Estado do Pará, Travessa Enéas Pinheiro, 2626, Marco, Belém, PA 66113-200, Brasil. Email: suziar@yahoo.com The objective of this article was to analyze the physical and microscopic matured beef peccary. Were performed analyses of shear force, water holding capacity, weight loss by cooking and scanning electron microscopy in matured beef. The matured beef presented values of shear force between 3.76 and 5.26 %, water activity between 0,96 to 0,98 and weight loss by cooking between 19,46 and 21,17%. Therefore, it was found that the matured beef peccary, were considered soft according to analysis of shear force. The matured beef at 0ºC for 12 days was considered the best product for having less weight loss by cooking and softness according to analysis of shear force and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Prasetiyono, Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko

    2018-02-01

    Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1) to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2) to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3) to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4) to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  7. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Budi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1 to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2 to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3 to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4 to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  8. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  9. Sensor-array-based evaluation and grading of beef taste quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunxiu; Wang, Xiaodan; Cai, Yaoxuan; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Jin, Jiahui; Cai, Yingming; Xu, Liping; Zhu, Lingtao

    2017-07-01

    A sensor array composed of ion electrodes including 2 glass electrodes, 3 liquid-membrane electrodes and 7 insoluble salt electrodes was built. Before detection, the working electrodes were activated as required in activate fluids, and the stability states of sensors were analyzed in deionized water. Beef samples were evaluated after all working electrodes stabilized. The response signals from the samples were recorded by an electrochemical workstation and used as the evaluation results. A beef taste sensory evaluation criterion was built and used into sensory evaluation of beef samples. The samples were scored with quality grades according to this criterion, and the results were compared with the results of the sensor array in evaluation of beef broth samples. The evaluation results were processed by principal component analysis and used to build a beef taste quality evaluation model based on artificial neural networks. Tests show this model has an accuracy of 90% in classification of beef taste quality grades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  11. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  12. Validation of a Dot-Blot quantitative technique for large scale analysis of beef tenderness biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, N; Meunier, B; Jurie, C; Cassar-Malek, I; Hocquette, J-F; Leveziel, H; Picard, B

    2009-10-01

    Beef tenderness is a very complex and multifactorial sensorial meat quality trait, which depends partly on muscle characteristics. This tissue is very variable according to animal type (age, breed and sex) and rearing conditions. Consequently, beef tenderness exhibits a great variability. Different research programs have revealed several genes or proteins which could be good markers of beef tenderness. In order to validate the relation of these markers with beef tenderness on a large population of bovines, it is necessary to have a large-scale and trusty technique which can access different quantities of proteins related to tenderness. In this study we firstly compared Western-Blot and Dot-Blot. Secondly, we evaluated Dot-Blot technical and biological capabilities for the quantification of protein biomarkers. The results demonstrated that the Dot-Blot technique with fluorescence detection presents numerous interests. This technique allows a good reproducibility and permits the simultaneous analysis of a large number of samples. The Dot-Blot technique defined and validated in this study can be used for protein biomarkers analyses, notably to predict beef tenderness. Another major result of this study is that about 5 to 10 animals per group are required to detect large differences (>1.5) in biomarker expression between tender and tough beef, whereas much larger numbers of animals (10 to 30) are required to detect smaller differences (about 1.2 to 1.3) taking into account the biological variability of these markers.

  13. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Diagnosis and management of venereal campylobacteriosis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truyers, Isabelle; Luke, Tim; Wilson, David; Sargison, Neil

    2014-11-27

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and its glycerine-tolerant variant Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovars intermedius. The disease can be economically important when present in cattle herds, causing poor reproductive performance, embryo mortality and abortion. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are required in the diagnosis of infection and to inform and monitor disease control. Current tests include bacterial culture and fluorescent antibody testing of preputial sheath washings and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an agglutination test on vaginal mucus, although the predictive values of these tests can be inadequate in field investigations. Artificial insemination is often considered as a simple control method for bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, but is impractical for many beef suckler herds where breeding takes place at pasture. Commercial vaccines are unavailable in the UK, while the efficacy of autogenous vaccines using a bacterial isolate from infected animals on a specific farm is at best unproven. Hence, for some infected herds, the development of an alternative control strategy based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with culling or treatment would be desirable. This approach requires meticulous records and herd health management. In this paper we highlight difficulties in diagnosing bovine venereal campylobacteriosis and demonstrate the benefits of good record keeping when investigating poor reproductive performance in a beef suckler herd and establishing a herd-specific approach to bio-containment of the infectious cause. Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is an economically important disease that should be considered in investigations of suckler herd subfertility problems. Control of the disease based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with extensive culling can be achieved without the use of

  15. The Implementation of Indonesia’s Beef Self-Sufficiency Programme (BSSP) as Seen from a Farmer-Family Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Since around 1990, Indonesia had been importing about 40% of its entire beef consumption. To reduce its reliance on imports, Indonesia launched the beef selfsufficiency programme (BSSP), which operated between 2005 and 2014, with the aim being to reduce imports of beef cattle to 10% of national...... focus on the way in which the programme was implemented. The present study is based on the findings from 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews carried out with smallholder beef-cattle farmers from the Central Java Province in Indonesia. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze...

  16. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Impact of mineral and vitamin status on beef cattle immune function and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, E B; Ball, J J; Beck, P A

    2016-12-01

    The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses. Dietary mineral concentrations often considered adequate for maximum growth, reproductive performance, or optimal immune function have been found to be insufficient at times of physiological stress (weaning, transport, comingling, etc.), when feed intake is reduced. The impacts of these deficiencies on beef cattle health are not apparent until calves have been subjected to these stressors. Health problems that are exacerbated by mineral or vitamin deficiencies include bovine respiratory disease, footrot, retained placenta, metritis, and mastitis. Many micronutrients have antioxidant properties through being components of enzymes and proteins that benefit animal health. In dairy cattle, high levels of supplemental Zn are generally associated with reduced somatic cell counts and improved foot health, possibly reflecting the importance of Zn in maintaining effective epithelial barriers. Neutrophils isolated from ruminants deficient in Cu or Se have reduced ability to kill ingested bacteria in vitro. Supplemental vitamin E, in its role as an intracellular antioxidant has been shown to decrease morbidity in stressed calves. There is more understanding of the important biological role that these nutrients play in the functioning of the complex and multifaceted immune system. However, there is still much to be learned about determining the micronutrient status of herds (and hence

  17. A nationwide survey on seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañales, Pedro; Fernandez, Leandro; Repiso, María V; Gil, Andres; Dargatz, David A; Osawa, Takeshi

    2006-06-30

    Bovine abortions due to Neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. Uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in South America. However, no data on the prevalence of N. caninum infection have been available in this country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of N. caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay through a nationwide survey. A two stage sampling design was used with farms being selected in stage one and animals being selected in stage two. A brief questionnaire was administered on each farm. Seroprevalence of N. caninum in 4444 beef cattle from 229 farms in all the counties, except Montevideo, of Uruguay was determined by an ELISA. The data were then analyzed to identify associations between infection and variables such as type of animal (cow or heifer), herd size, use of veterinary advice, productivity of the soil in relation to the national average, use of improved grass, use of mineral salts, use of supplemental feed, and presence of a dog(s) on the farm. The estimated proportion of positive farms for all the beef cattle operations was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.7-84.7). The overall cattle seroprevalence was estimated as 13.9% (95% CI, 11.6-16.3). The prevalence estimation by animal category was 14.3% (95% CI, 11.4-17.2) for beef cows and 12.9% (95% CI, 10.0-15.8) for beef heifers. There was no significant difference in the estimated prevalence between the two animal types. There was no significant difference in the animal level prevalence of N. caninum infection among different herd sizes. None of the herd demographic or management variables was significantly associated with the seropositivity to N. caninum infection. In conclusion, these results show that N. caninum infection is common among beef herds across Uruguay. Since the beef industry is one of the key industries in Uruguay, the

  18. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  19. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasant, J.C.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M; Killough, G.G.

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME

  20. The study of heavy metals and microbial content in beef bowel and red meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Darsono

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia's population has increased every year so the need for food increased, especially the availability of nutritious foods such as red meat. Red meat is one of the foods that contain sufficient elements of protein, but it was likely to contain heavy metals and bacterial contamination that has met the threshold standards. On the otherhand, beef bowels are very popular among Indonesian consumers, but many heavy metlas could accumulated into the bowels. The purpose of this research are to study the content of heavy metals and bacterial contamination on beef bowel from some places of slaughtering houses and some red meats from the market in Jakarta. The beef bowels are lung, tripe, intestine and liver while the red meats were veal and tender loin. Parameter of heavy metals measured are As, Cd and Hg, while for the initial bacterial contamination are total number of aerobic bacteria, total amount of coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp and Salmonella contamination. The heavy metals were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis, and for the total number of bacteria is using Total Plate Count. Result of research shows the As content in lung and tripe as well as the mercuric content in bowel has exceeded in the normal level such as 1.0 and 0.03 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, no heavy metals were detected in all red meats. The total microbes in beef bowel have exceeded allowable limit (1.0 x 10 6 cfu/g). No Salmonella was detected in all beef bowels and red meats observed. Nuclear technique are very helpful analysis of the heavy metas content in bowel dan red meats beef. The cleanliness slaughtering house of animals are remarkably ascertaining the quality of the beef bowel and red meats who will be sent. (author)

  1. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle at slaughter and beef carcasses at retail shops in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is paucity of information regarding the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli O157: H7 associated with beef cattle at processing plants and at retail shops in Ethiopia. Methods: Various samples we...

  2. Response surface modeling to predict fluid loss from beef strip loins and steaks injected with salt and phosphate with or without a dehydrated beef protein water binding adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Austin C; Goad, Carla L; Lou, Xingqiu; Morgan, J Brad; Koh, Chern Lin; Deakins, Alisha Parsons; Mireles DeWitt, Christina A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted using response surface methodology to predict fluid loss from injected beef strip steaks as influenced by levels of salt and sodium phosphates (SP) in the injection brine. Also, a beef-based dehydrated beef protein (DBP) water binding ingredient was evaluated. Paired U.S. select beef strip loins were quartered before being injected with 110% of initial weight with brines containing various concentrations of salt and SP (CON) or salt, SP and 5% DBP. Steaks were sliced, overwrapped and stored in the dark for 4d. Purge values ranged from 0.6% to 4.6% for CON and 0.3% to 2.1% for DBP. Fluid losses when accounting for the fluid lost from injection to slicing were as high as 6.8% for CON brines, but only 2.8% for DBP brines. The equations generated here and the DBP product could help producers achieve acceptable purge while reducing sodium use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  4. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  5. De relatieve duurzaamheid van de Nederlandse roodvleessector: een kwalitatieve vergelijking = A comparative study on the sustainability of the Dutch beef cattle production sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sustainability of Dutch specialized beef production is compared qualitatively with two other Dutch animal production systems (porc and broilers), and with beef production in Ireland and Brazil, the most prominent exporters of beef to the Dutch market with which the Dutch sector

  6. Flavor relationships among muscles from the beef chuck and round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, J L; James, J M; Calkins, C R

    2006-10-01

    This research compared off-flavor notes and the relationship of pH and heme-iron content to off-flavor for different beef muscles. After grading, knuckles and shoulder clods were removed from 16 USDA Choice and 14 USDA Select beef carcasses, vacuum-packaged, and aged for 7 d. The rectus femoris (REC), vastus medalis (VAM), vastus lateralis (VAL), teres major (TER), infraspinatus (INF), and triceps brachii-long head (TRI) were separated, cut into steaks, and frozen (-16 degrees C). Sensory analysis was conducted using a trained taste panel, with steaks grilled to an internal temperature of 65 degrees C. Heme-iron concentration and pH were determined. The INF had lower (P muscles, and the VAL had the most intense (P muscle type. Heme-iron concentration did not differ among muscles. Three USDA Select carcasses had intense off-flavor in the muscles. Liver-like flavor was highly negatively correlated with off-flavor intensity for each of the muscles tested. Muscles rated a 5 or below (on an 8-point rating scale, where 1 = extremely intense off-flavor and 8 = no off-flavor) in off-flavor intensity and identified as liver-like by 30% or more of the panelists were grouped together and compared to normal muscles. Those in the liver-flavored group were less frequently identified as charred, probably because the liver-like flavor was so intense. There were no differences between the 2 groups for sour, metallic, bloody, oxidized, or fatty off-flavor notes. Regression equations containing the linear and quadratic functions of heme-iron concentration, muscle pH, and their interaction were established for the frequency of off-flavor notes within each muscle. The REC, TER, VAL, and VAM showed a relationship between pH, heme iron, and off-flavor intensity (P muscles tested. These data suggest that liver-like off-flavors are specific to individual animals, and that pH and heme iron are not strongly related to off-flavor notes.

  7. Causes of rejection of beef bulls in breeding soundness evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Renato Oliveira Menegassi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the rates of rejection in the different steps of the breeding soundness evaluation of beef bulls in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The breeding soundness of 22,113 young and mature bulls of 14 beef breeds, participating in the Program of Reproductive Evaluation (PARTO was evaluated in the experiment. Data concerning to the causes of rejection in the four steps of the breeding soundness evaluation (general physical examination, genital tract examination, semen evaluation and sexual behavior assessment were analyzed by the Chi-square test and univariate regression analysis. According to year, general physical examination, genital tract examination and semen evaluation determined the rejection of 0.9% to 2.5%, 5.1% to 7.7%, 1.8% to 5.3%; and 4.2% to 6.7%, 7.3 to 9.3%, and 2.5% to 5.5% of young and mature bulls, respectively. Mature bulls presented higher chances of rejection than young bulls in the general physical examination in every year evaluated; as to the genital tract examination, their chances of rejection were higher in years I and II, but not in year III. In the semen evaluation, there was no difference between the ages assessed in any of the three years evaluated. Sexual behavior assessment accounted for the rejection of 1.9 to 6.0% of the young bulls and 2.9% to 3.9% of mature bulls, in accordance with the years evaluated; in years I and II, mature bulls presented higher rejection rates than young bulls. These results confirm the importance of performing all steps of the breeding soundness evaluation, including the sexual behavior assessment as a work routine, rather than an additional, optional stage of the evaluation, which should be carried out before the breeding season. The results indicate the relationship between bull age and rejection rate in the breeding soundness evaluation.

  8. Effect of ageing time on consumer-perceived quality of Italian Simmental beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to provide an objective indication on the optimal ageing time of meat from ItalianSimmental (IS young bulls, the most important commercial category of the breed. The research was carried out on 10young bulls slaughtered at the average weight of 688 kg (SE: 7.3 kg. The right side of each carcass was stored for 7days and the left one for further 7 days, at normal refrigeration temperatures. At the end of the ageing period, the sideswere sampled at the loin for meat pH, color, cooking loss and shear force measurement. A central location, affective testinvolving 74 consumers was carried out to measure the degree of liking for grilled beef aged 7 or 14 days.The pH and color parameters were not significantly affected by the duration of post-mortem storage, while cooking lossincreased (31.4 vs 32.6 %; Pincreased from 7 to 14 days. The degree of liking by the untrained respondents for the two types of cooked meat wasdifferent, considering that consumers gave the highest hedonistic scores to beef aged 14 days. Tenderness was the sensoryattribute that allowed the best discrimination between beef stored for periods of different length. In fact, while thedifference between 14-day-aged and 7-day-aged beef for flavour ratings (7.0 vs 6.9 did not reach the threshold of significance,the former meat was perceived as significantly finer than the latter regarding tenderness (6.5 vs 5.6; P= 0.01and marginally preferred in overall terms (6.9 vs 6.5; P= 0.07. The classification test, carried out at the end of the quantitativetest by asking consumers to select from a list the most appropriate attributes describing the stimuli associatedwith meat consumption, confirmed the effectiveness of texture attributes in ranking different-aged beef acceptability. Infact, the number of ticks reported for chewiness and juiciness descriptors were different for the two types of meat: the14-day-aged beef was perceived as easier to chew (57 vs 34 ticks

  9. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  10. Effect of Novel Quick Freezing Techniques Combined with Different Thawing Processes on Beef Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Jang, Min-Young; Jung, You-Kyoung; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Sim, Jun-Bo; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Seon-Mi; Han, Gui-Jung; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality of beef. Meat samples were frozen using natural convection freezing (NF), individual quick freezing (IQF), or cryogenic freezing (CF) techniques, followed by natural convection thawing (NCT) or running water thawing (RT). The meat was frozen until the core temperature reached -12℃ and then stored at -24℃, followed by thawing until the temperature reached 5℃. Quality parameters, such as the pH, water binding properties, CIE color, shear force, and microstructure of the beef were elucidated. Although the freezing and thawing combinations did not cause remarkable changes in the quality parameters, rapid freezing, in the order of CF, IQF, and NF, was found to minimize the quality deterioration. In the case of thawing methods, NCT was better than RT and the meat quality was influence on the thawing temperature rather than the thawing rate. Although the microstructure of the frozen beef exhibited an excessive loss of integrity after the freezing and thawing, it did not cause any remarkable change in the beef quality. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CF and NCT form the best combination for beef processing; however, IQF and NCT may have practical applications in the frozen food industry.

  11. Effect of ultraviolet light, organic acids, and bacteriophage on Salmonella populations in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y; de Moura, F H; Van Den Broek, K; de Mello, A S

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated individual and combined effects of organic acids, bacteriophages, and ultraviolet light interventions on Salmonella populations in ground beef. Beef trim was inoculated with four Salmonella strains to result in a contamination level of 3.5 log CFU/g after grinding. Lactic (LA) and peroxyacetic (PAA) acids, bacteriophages (S16 and FO1a) (BA), and ultraviolet light (UV) were applied on fresh trim prior to grinding. Applications of individual or combined organic acids did not significantly decrease Salmonella populations in ground beef. Individual applications of BA and UV light decreased approximately 1 log CFU/g (P<0.05). Combined applications of BA and UV provided an optimal decrease of 2 log CFU/g (P<0.05). Organic acid applications do not reduce Salmonella populations in ground beef when applied on trim prior to grinding. Combined applications of UV and BA may be used in industry settings to improve Salmonella control in ground beef. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  13. Use of a Titrimetric Method to Assess the Bacterial Spoilage of Fresh Beef 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Leora A.; Jay, James M.

    1970-01-01

    A new method of determining bacterial spoilage in fresh beef is presented. The technique is based upon the fact that as beef undergoes refrigerator spoilage, there is a gradual increase in the production of alkaline substances by the spoilage flora. The level of these substances was measured by titrating meat homogenates to a pH 5.00 end point, employing 0.02 n HCl and an autotitrator. When 23 samples of ground beef from retail stores were tested, an average of 1.32 ml of acid was required for titration of 1 g of fresh beef to pH 5.00, whereas 2.58 ml was required for the same meat at the onset of spoilage. Preliminary data indicate that beef which requires more than 2 ml of 0.02 n HCl/g to lower its pH to 5.00 under the conditions of the test is in some state of incipient spoilage. The statistical correlation between titration values, log bacterial numbers, and extract-release volume was high (P < 0.001). The technique is simple to execute and is highly reproducible, and duplicate samples can be run within 15 min. PMID:4917189

  14. Beef customer satisfaction: USDA quality grade and marination effects on consumer evaluations of top round steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, J M; Goodson, K J; Koohmaraie, M; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-03-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of top round steaks (semimembranosus) as influenced by USDA quality grade (top Choice or high Select), city (Chicago or Philadelphia), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef; budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and marination. Consumers evaluated each steak for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales (1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and none at all to 10 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor, respectively). Quality grade affected several consumer sensory traits, with top Choice receiving higher (P Consumers in Chicago rated steaks cooked "medium and less" higher for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount than those in Philadelphia (city x degree of doneness; P customers in Philadelphia received among the highest scores for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount compared with any cooking method used by customers in Chicago (cooking method x city; P customers' satisfaction with top round steaks, and was the sensory trait most highly correlated to overall like, followed by tenderness, flavor amount, and juiciness. Preparation of top round steaks was crucial in consumers' likes and dislikes, and by improving flavor, higher consumer satisfaction may be achieved.

  15. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  16. Chemometric analysis for near-infrared spectral detection of beef in fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Garrido-Novell, Cristóbal; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Guerrero-Ginel, José E.; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports the chemometric analysis of near-infrared spectra drawn from hyperspectral images to develop, evaluate, and compare statistical models for the detection of beef in fish meal. There were 40 pure-fish meal samples, 15 pure-beef meal samples, and 127 fish/beef mixture meal samples prepared for hyperspectral line-scan imaging by a machine vision system. Spectral data for 3600 pixels per sample, in which individual spectra was obtain, were retrieved from the region of interest (ROI) in every sample image. The spectral data spanning 969 nm to 1551 nm (across 176 spectral bands) were analyzed. Statistical models were built using the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares regression (PLSR) methods. The models were created and developed using the spectral data from the purefish meal and pure-beef meal samples, and were tested and evaluated using the data from the ROI in the mixture meal samples. The results showed that, with a ROI as large as 3600 pixels to cover sufficient area of a mixture meal sample, the success detection rate of beef in fish meal could be satisfactory 99.2% by PCA and 98.4% by PLSR.

  17. Serotypes and Pulsotypes diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in a beef-processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Vallim, Deyse Christina; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Hofer, Ernesto; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Utensils and equipment from meat-processing facilities are considered relevant cross-contamination points of Listeria monocytogenes to foods, demanding tracking studies to identify their specific origins, and predict proper control. The present study aimed to detect L. monocytogenes in a beef-processing facility, investigating the diversity of serotypes and pulsotypes in order to identify the possible contamination routes. Surface samples from knives (n=26), tables (n=78), and employees hands (n=74) were collected before and during the procedures from a beef-processing facility, in addition to surface samples of end cuts: round (n=32), loin (n=30), and chuck (n=32). All samples were subjected to L. monocytogenes screening according ISO 11.290-1, and the obtained isolates were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Listeria spp. were identified in all processing steps, in 61 samples, and L. monocytogenes was detected in 17 samples, not being found only in knives. Eighty-five isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes, from serotypes 1/2c (n=65), 4b (n=13), and 1/2b (n=7), being grouped in 19 pulsotypes. Considering these results, cross-contamination among hands, tables, and beef cuts could be identified. The obtained data indicated the relevance of cross-contamination in the beef-processing facility, and the occurrence of serotypes 1/2b and 4b in beef cuts distributed for retail sale is a public health concern.

  18. Effect of comminution method and raw binder system in restructured beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Shand, P J

    1998-07-01

    The effect of particle size, method of particle size reduction (grinding, flaking, slicing) and alginate or Fibrimex(™) binding systems on processing properties of restructured beef were investigated. The size of semimembranosus muscles was reduced with a meat slicer, grinder or flaker (Comitrol) through machine openings that were 2, 4 and 8 mm in size. Bind of meat pieces in raw and cooked beef steakettes were measured. Sensory evaluation to determine the effect of method of size reduction on texture of beef steakettes was done only on steakettes manufactured with alginate. Beef steakettes manufactured with the alginate binding system had significantly (p meat for the manufacture of restructured beef steakettes resulted in a higher raw bind than did either grinding or flaking the meat. Significant (p meat was sliced than when it was ground or flaked. However, when Fibrimex was used, bind was stronger when sliced meat was used. The alginate system resulted in higher binds for cooked product when particle size was smaller but with the Fibrimex system bind was higher when particle sizes were larger. A consumer panel on alginate restructured steakettes showed no preference for the texture produced by the different methods of particle size reduction.

  19. Prevalence of Listeria Species in Ground Beef and Chicken Meat Sold in Eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kalender*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef and chicken samples put into the market during the period of April to September 2011 in the eastern part of Turkey. A total of 360 food samples consisting of 180 ground beef and 180 chicken meat samples were examined in terms of the presence of Listeria species. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 7.2 % ground beef samples and 17.8 % of chicken meat samples. While in 15.5% of the ground beef samples L. innocua was detected, L. welshimeri was detected in 6.1% of them. As for chicken meat samples, L. innocua was detected in 36.7% of them while L. welshimeri was detected in 5.5%, L. seeligeri was detected in 4.4% and L. murrayi was detected in 1.1% of them. Out of 45 L. monocytogenes isolates, 28 were type 1, while 17 of them were type 4. These results indicated that L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species are widely distributed in the ground beef and chicken meat samples in the eastern part of Turkey. Thus, meat products may be a potential food safety concern in Turkey.

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the microbial growth and quality of beef jerky during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chun, Ho-Hyun; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2010-11-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to improve the microbial safety of beef jerky during storage. Beef jerky samples were irradiated at doses of 1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy and stored at 20 °C for 60 d. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria significantly decreased with increasing irradiation dosage. In particular, the populations of total aerobic bacteria were significantly decreased by 1.76 log CFU/g at 10 kJ/m 2, compared to the control. Color measurements showed reduced Hunter L and a values of beef jerky for all the treatments during storage, and the Hunter L, a, and b values of beef jerky were not significantly different among the treatments. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect sensory scores in overall during storage. Therefore, the results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful in improving the microbial safety without impairing the quality of beef jerky during storage.

  1. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the microbial growth and quality of beef jerky during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chun, Ho-Hyun; Song, Hyeon-Jeong [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin, E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.k [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to improve the microbial safety of beef jerky during storage. Beef jerky samples were irradiated at doses of 1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy and stored at 20 {sup o}C for 60 d. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria significantly decreased with increasing irradiation dosage. In particular, the populations of total aerobic bacteria were significantly decreased by 1.76 log CFU/g at 10 kJ/m{sup 2}, compared to the control. Color measurements showed reduced Hunter L and a values of beef jerky for all the treatments during storage, and the Hunter L, a, and b values of beef jerky were not significantly different among the treatments. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect sensory scores in overall during storage. Therefore, the results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful in improving the microbial safety without impairing the quality of beef jerky during storage.

  2. Review: The variability of the eating quality of beef can be reduced by predicting consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2018-04-02

    The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each 'cut×cooking method combination' from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Beef Jerky Cured with Salted-fermented Anchovy and Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gap-Don; Go, Gwang-Woong; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Eun-Young; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the availability of salted and fermented fish (SFF) including salted and fermented anchovy (SFA) and shrimp (SFS) as a marinade of beef jerky. In curing solutions, half (SFA 1 and SFS 1) or whole (SFA 2 and SFS 2) salt-water was replaced with SFF juices. Higher water activity (aw) was found in the beef jerky cured with SFFs than the control (C) (p< 0.05). The SFFs had the effect of causing a decrease in hardness and an increase in cohesiveness (p<0.05). Among the treatment samples, springiness was the highest in SFA2 and SFS2 (p<0.05) and the lowest values of Warner-Bratzler shear force were found in SFA1 and SFA2 (p<0.05). The SFFs also had the effect of increasing the flavor of the sensory properties; however, color measurements from both the instrumental surface color (L*, a*, b*, chroma, and hue angle) and color of sensory evaluation were decreased by addition of SFFs (p<0.05). Therefore, we conclude the SFFs can improve the texture and sensory properties of the beef jerky. In particular, the SFS is a good ingredient for the curing solution. However, studies are still needed on improving the aw, pH, and surface color of the beef jerky to apply the SFFs for making beef jerky.

  4. 78 FR 31367 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...] RIN 0581-AD29 Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and... (including veal), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and... processing and slaughtering firms, 38 chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms...

  5. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... chicken processing firms, and 4,335 retailers. This totals 7,181 firms that [[Page 15646

  6. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  7. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  8. Simulating Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission to assess effectiveness of interventions in Dutch dairy-beef slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosough Ahmadi, B.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Hogeveen, H.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Beef contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) is an important food-safety issue. To investigate the effectiveness of interventions against VTEC in Dutch beef industrial slaughterhouses that slaughter 500 dairy cattle per day, a Monte Carlo simulation model was built. We examined seven

  9. Effects of carbon monoxide-modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation on E. coli K12 survival and raw beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, L; Toshkov, S; Brewer, M S

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of irradiation and carbon monoxide in modified atmosphere packaging (CO-MAP) on total plate counts, Escherichia coli K12, color, and odor of fresh beef during refrigerated storage. Beef was packaged aerobically or in CO-MAP, and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0kGy then held at 4°C for 28days. Raw beef odor decreased and acid/sour, rancid and grassy odors increased starting on day 14. Initially, no difference existed for visual green color scores due to gas atmosphere. After 14days of storage, aerobically packaged beef was greener and less red than CO-MAP packaged beef. The a∗ value of CO-MAP packaged beef was higher than that of aerobically packaged beef. Red color of CO-MAP packaged samples decreased slightly in some irradiated samples after 14days of storage. On day 0 and thereafter, no coliforms were detect after irradiation at 1.5 or 2.0kGy regardless of packaging format. These findings suggest that CO-MAP could be used to preserve beef color irradiated at doses sufficient to reduce microbial loads to safe levels during 28days of storage.

  10. Application of a novel antimicrobial coating on roast beef for inactivation and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antilisterial efficacy of novel coating solutions made with organic acids, lauric arginate ester, and chitosan was evaluated in a three-stage study on inoculated roast beef for the first time. Ready-to-eat roast beef was specially ordered from the manufacturer. The meat surface was inoculated wi...

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...

  12. 76 FR 30987 - Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef Hormones Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Connection With the EC-Beef Hormones Dispute AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... Hormones dispute. In January 2009, the Trade Representative announced a determination to modify the list of...) in the EC-Beef Hormones dispute. The MOU provides for the EU to make phased increases in market...

  13. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; Sutanto, H.; Purwanti, Y.; Martanti; Agus, A.; Utomo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  14. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  15. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  16. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.

  17. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  18. Studies on post-partum anoestrus in Alentejano beef cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta, A.E.M.; Vasques, M.I.; Leitao, R.M.; Robalo Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    Post-partum ovarian activity in Alentejano beef cows maintained on natural pastures was monitored by measuring plasma progesterone levels using the radioimmunoassay method. Post-partum anoestrus was compared in cows calving in two different seasons (winter and summer). Differences between primiparous and multiparous cows, the effect of short term nursing interruption (72 hours by the 20th day post-partum) and the dam's body weight at calving (BWC) were also considered with respect to their influence on the onset of post-partum ovarian activity. Fertility after two breeding seasons of natural mating (April-May) and November-December) was also studied. Post-partum anoestrus was significantly longer in winter calving cows than in those calving in summer, in both multiparous and primiparous cows (73.9 versus 33.1 and 111.1 versus 35.6 days, respectively; P 2 =0.41; P<0.03). Because of a longer post-partum anoestrus, fertility was reduced in cows calving during the winter season compared with those calving in summer in all three years of the study (63.9 versus 76.9%, 57.8 versus 62.9% and 36.5 versus 60.6%, for 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively). The results presented show that the winter period in Portugal impairs the return to ovarian activity post-partum in this breed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  20. Multiple supplements for beef heifers on pasture in dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate levels of multiple supplement for beef heifers in restricted grazing on average daily gain (ADG, economic analysis and intakes of total dry matter (TDMI, forage dry matter (FDMI, crude protein (CPI and total digestible nutrients (TDNI. For evaluation of performance and economic analysis, twenty Nellore heifers (328.45 kg were used. The following supplements were evaluated as fed to the animals: control (mineral supplement and supplementation levels of 2, 4 and 6 kg/animal/day, composing the following percentages of average body weight (ABW: 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66%, respectively. To evaluate the nutrient intake, additional five Nellore heifers with 344 kg, were used, which were submitted to same supplements previously mentioned, in addition to the level of 2.22% of ABW (8 kg/animal/day. Average daily gain showed quadratic behavior; TDMI, CPI and TDNI had increasing linear behavior; and FDMI showed decreasing linear behavior in function of the supplementation levels. The strategy of supplying 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66% of the ABW to heifers on restricted grazing provides additional weight gains of 608, 762 and 943 g/day, respectively, which are effective in promoting similar productive and economic performance to those obtained in grazing systems in the rainy period.

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING ORGANIC CATTLE BEEF TRANSPORTATION AND SLAUTHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrescu Daniela Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors should be considered when selecting the mode of transport. Cost is always important, but must bemeasured against the quality of, and potential losses incurred in, transport. Quality assurance during transportationalso plays a critical role in the health and welfare of beef cattle, as proper handling and transport of cattle can reducesickness in calves, prevent bruises, and improve the quality of the meat from these animals. Provide transportation thatavoids undue stress as appropriate to each species. Transportation, as a whole, is a stress factor that generatesnervousness and anxiety. Any animal reacts with alarm before a new situation such as transportation and this isaggravated when the loading and unloading conditions are not the most favourable. We must always prevent the animalfrom suffering unnecessarily. Once some of the animals from the fattening lot have reached a considerable size and inline with market demand for this type of meat, slaughtering beings. They are slaughtered according to consumer ortrade demand. Animal slaughtering consists of two phases: stunning and bleeding.

  2. Influence of Skin Packaging on Raw Beef Quality: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed revision of several aspects related to the application of skin packaging to raw beef was considered. Skin packaging, a relatively new technique derived from vacuum packaging, was developed with the aim of retailing small portions of fresh meat, minced meat, or meat preparations. Above all, the influence of this typology of packaging on the microbial population of raw meat was studied, with particular attention to total viable count, aerobic spoilage bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, the effect on acidification by LAB was also deepened. As colour is the main characteristic influencing purchase decisions at the point of sale, the effect of skin packaging on this parameter was evaluated for raw meat but also for cooked meat. Tenderness, juiciness, and the ability to hold liquid of raw meat when packed in skin conditions were also considered. Furthermore, odour and flavour were considered as sensorial parameters possibly affected by skin packaging. Finally, acceptability by consumer was also investigated. In the studies considered, results showed that skin packaging is advantageous in terms of maintenance of meat quality and for prolonging shelf-life, improving the stability of the products.

  3. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  4. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  5. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  6. Comparative study of mineral composition of beef steak and pork chops depending on the thermal preparation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Gheorghe Valentin; Tudoreanu, Liliana; Rotaru, Elena; Crivineanu, Victor

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the effects of three different thermal preparation methods (roasting, boiling, and microwave cooking) on the mineral concentrations of beef and pork, as well as on the comparison of mineral levels between these two types of meat. In this study, raw and cooked beef and pork samples were selected and analyzed by ICP-OES in order to determine mineral concentrations. In general, thermal preparation clearly increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw meat. The highest mineral concentration was identified in the roasted samples. Trace element concentrations in beef were significantly higher compared to pork. In pork, Na concentration decreased in all samples, suggesting that Na is lost with water. Zn mean content in cooked beef samples registered significant differences compared to pork cooked samples. The percentage of water loss during the microwave thermal preparation for beef samples was higher than the other two treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the effects of gamma ray and e-beam irradiation on the quality of minced beef during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Kim, Wang Geun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Byun, Myung Woo; Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Gyu [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to compare the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of minced beef irradiated with gamma ray of e-beam at the absorbed doses from 5 to 20 kGy. The total bacterial counts of minced beef were decreased depending upon the irradiation doses, but sterilizing effect of gamma irradiation was higher than that of e-beam irradiation. The contents of malondialdegyde of minced beef were increased depending upon irradiation doses as well as storage periods (p< 0.05). Volatile basic nitrogen in minced beef was constantly increased during storage, but the increasing rate were retarded by irradiation. The hunter's color values(L*, a* and b*) of gamma or e-beam irradiated minced beef were decreased as irradiation dose increasing. Meanwhile, the quality changes of gamma irradiated samples were faster than e-beam irradiated samples.

  8. Determination of the myoglobin states in ground beef using non-invasive reflectance spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanovic, Milena; Sørheim, Oddvin; Slinde, Erik; Puolanne, Eero; Isaksson, Tomas; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2013-11-01

    Seventy-two samples of ground beef from M. semimembranosus of two 5 and two 1.5year old animals were prepared. Two types of fat tissues from either beef or pork were added to the ground beef. The samples were prepared to contain predominantly deoxymyoglobin (DMb), oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb) states on surfaces using selected methods based on chemical treatment (for MMb) and oxygen pressure packaging to induce the two other states. Reflectance spectra were measured on ground beef after three storage times. Partial least regression analysis was used to make calibration models of the desired myoglobin states. Validated models using leave-one-sample out cross validation gave, after correction and normalization, prediction errors of about 5%. Long term storage of ground beef was unsuitable for preparing pure MMb states due to gradual reduction of the pigment to DMb, presumably by bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayarit-Ballesteros, Nova; Rubio-Lozano, María Salud; Delgado-Suárez, Enrique; Méndez-Medina, Danilo; Braña-Varela, Diego; Rodas-Suárez, Oscar

    2016-06-01

    To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp).The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. We isolated a total of 19 strains of Lomita (6), Derby (4), Senftenberg (2), Javiana and Cannsttat (1) and undetermined (5) serotypes. The strains showed a high resistance rate to ampicillin (18/19), carbenicillin (16/19), tetracyclin (13/19), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13/19). Multidrug resistance was observed in 14 isolates. Several Salmonella spp. serotypes of public health significance are circulating in ground beef sold in the major Mexican city. Some of these strains are multi-drug resistance.

  10. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    , Spain and the UK. Q-PorkChains conducted a large-scale, web-based, consumer survey in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland. The first project provides a set of qualitative data from a small cohort of focus groups and the second a set of quantitative data from a larger consumer......This paper presents the combined mid-term findings of the consumer research components of two EU Sixth Framework Programme integrated projects concerning meat, ProSafeBeef and Q-PorkChains. The consumer pillar of ProSafeBeef carried out eight focus group discussions in May 2008, in France, Germany...... sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers...

  11. Response surface methodology for predicting quality characteristics of beef patties added with flaxseed and tomato paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Melendres, M; Camou, J P; Torrentera Olivera, N G; Alvarez Almora, E; González Mendoza, D; Avendaño Reyes, L; González Ríos, H

    2014-05-01

    Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of flaxseed flour (FS) and tomato paste (TP) addition, from 0 to 10% and 0 to 20% respectively, on beef patty quality characteristics. The assessed quality characteristics were color (L, a, and b), pH and texture profile analysis (TPA). Also, sensory analysis was performed for the assessment of color, juiciness, firmness, and general acceptance. FS addition reduced L and a values and decreased weight loss of cooked products (Pparameters decreased when percentages of FS and TP were increased in the formulation of beef patties. Furthermore, FS and TP addition adversely affected the sensory characteristics of the cooked product (P5.6). Thus FS and TP are ingredients that can be used in beef patty preparation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamma irradiation effects on thiamin and riboflavin in beef, lamb, pork, and turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Hampson, J.; Richardson, R.; Ward, K.; Thayer, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made of the loss of thiamin and riboflavin due to gamma irradiation of beef, lamb and pork longissimus dorsi, turkey breast and leg muscles. Thiamin losses averaged 11%/kiloGray (kGy) and riboflavin losses 2.5%/kGy above three kGy. The rate of loss of thiamin in beef was higher than that in lamb, pork and turkey leg, but not turkey breast, with losses of 16%/kGy in beef and 8%/kGy in lamb. The rate of thiamin loss was not related to sulfhydryl, protein, moisture, fat or water content, pH or reducing capacity by redox titration. Loss of riboflavin was not different among species. Any detriment from such slight losses would seem to be more than compensated by the advantage of controlling bacteriological contamination by irradiation processing

  13. Detection of irradiated beef by nuclear magnetic resonance lipid profiling combined with chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Emanuela; Caligiani, Augusta; Padovani, Enrico; Mariani, Mario; Ghidini, Sergio; Palla, Gerardo; Ianieri, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    The combination of (1)H NMR lipid profiling with multivariate analysis was applied to differentiate irradiated and non-irradiated beef. Two pattern recognition chemometric procedures, stepwise linear discriminant analysis (sLDA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), provided a successful discrimination between the groups investigated. sLDA allowed the classification of 100% of the samples into irradiated or non-irradiated beef groups; the same result was obtained by ANNs using the 1 kGy irradiation dose as discriminant value suggested by the network. Furthermore, sLDA allowed the classification of 81.9% of the beef samples according to the irradiation dose (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 8 kGy). (1)H NMR lipid profiling, coupled with multivariate analysis may be considered a suitable and promising screening tool for the rapid detection of irradiated meat in official control of food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Historical Overview of the Effect of -Adrenergic Agonists on Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal muscle hypertrophy of beef cattle is the result of enhanced myofibrillar protein synthesis and reduced protein turnover. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been studied in cattle fed β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA, which are receptor-mediated enhancers of protein synthesis and inhibitors of protein degradation. Feeding β-AA to beef cattle increases longissimus muscle cross-sectional area 6% to 40% compared to non-treated cattle. The β-AA have been reported to improve live animal performance, including average daily gain, feed efficiency, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage. Treatment with β-AA increased mRNA concentration of the β2 or β1-adrenergic receptor and myosin heavy chain IIX in bovine skeletal muscle tissue. This review will examine the effects of skeletal muscle and adipose development with β-AA, and will interpret how the use of β-AA affects performance, body composition, and growth in beef cattle.

  15. Monitoring and radioecological characteristics of radiocesium in Japanese beef after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, Georg

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, beef proved to be a problematic food item with several exceedances entering the market. The reason was contaminated rice straw that was fed to cattle. Japanese authorities responded quickly to the exceedances and made beef one of the most-monitored food items after the Fukushima accident with more than a million samples within 5 years. Activity levels dropped quickly and are now considerably below the regulatory limit. No exceedance of the regulatory limit was observed after October 2012. The monitoring campaign focuses on the pre-market to catch any exceedances before they reach the consumer. The analysis also showed that some late beef samples exhibited an unusually high 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio. The reason for this is unknown. (author)

  16. A time series analysis of Danish markets for pork, chicken, and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lill; Babula, Ronald; Hartmann, Helene

    2007-01-01

    We offer a first-time empirical depiction of Danish dynamic meat price/quantity transmissions by formulating, estimating, and testing a VAR model of market-clearing quantities and prices of the Danish pork, chicken, and beef markets. The analysis illuminates how these markets dynamically handle...... shocks, and it is demonstrated that: (i) The three meats are close substitutes; (ii) chicken and pork market shocks have own-market and cross-market effects that occur rapidly and swiftly, while beef market shocks have more enduring impacts on pork and chicken markets; (iii) prices are in general more...... endogenous than quantities, and (iv) the price of chicken is much more endogenous than the prices of pork and beef....

  17. The diversity of beef safety: A global reason to strengthen our current systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Mindy M; Chaves, Byron D

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a more integrated and more aggressive system approach to food safety rather than focusing on one segment of the industry, or on one approach as described by or constrained by one set of regulations. We focus on the prevalence and control measures for Salmonella and pathogenic Escherichia coli, particularly, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in live cattle on the farm and in the final raw beef product at retail. We describe the antimicrobial and process control strategies most commonly used during slaughter and processing to prevent and reduce the frequency and concentration of these pathogens in the final product, and we propose points along the food chain where more interventions can be applied to ultimately reduce the prevalence of foodborne pathogens associated with beef and beef products, and to protect public health as well the global food supply. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains of Lomita (6, Derby (4, Senftenberg (2, Javiana and Cannsttat (1 and undeter- mined (5 serotypes. The strains showed a high resistance rate to ampicillin (18/19, carbenicillin (16/19, tetracyclin (13/19, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13/19. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14 isolates. Conclusions. Several Salmonella spp. serotypes of public health significance are circulating in ground beef sold in the major Mexican city. Some of these strains are multi-drug resistance.

  19. The MAGTAG-system and market-oriented quality control: Possibilities in the Danish beef sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    1995-01-01

    and quality grades in the retail market for beef. * The advantage of using the MAGTAG-system for developing new credence characteristics depends on consumer preferences for such attributes and on the retailers' ability to standardize the quality of ordinary as well as ecological or 'ethical' meat. Retailers......Executive summary * This working paper provides arguments which may support or invalidate the thesis that the MAGTAG-system will form a standard for quality control systems. The arguments presented here are only valid with respect to the Danish beef industry. * The MAGTAG-system is a system of data...... contains information about the farm, the genealogical table, reproduction, veterinary status, yield (milk), status on slaughter weight and classification in the EUROP quality standard for beef. The database may be extended with information on place of birth, stables, feeding, livestock of each stable...

  20. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2014-11-01

    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Minerals Concentration and Textural Properties of Romanian Beef Row and Cooked Meat and Offal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Tudoreanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumers preferences for solid food are, for the majority of foods groups, influenced by their textural properties. Romanian traditional cuisine is rich in meat foods and therefore this food group has an important contribution to the total mineral intake as well as the ingestion of potentially toxic metals such as Cd and Pb. Although beef liver is an important source of minerals for human consumption, its concentrations in Cd and Pb and heterogeneous textural properties may hinder its acceptability. Aims: The purpose of the work was to estimate raw and cooked beef meat and offal mineral quality including Cd and Pb concentrations and their contribution to a balanced human diet and health  as well as the influenced of thermal preparation on their mineral and textural properties. Materials and methods:  Beef liver, kidney and longissimus dorsi muscle were bought from local markets. Thermal preparation was conducted by microwave and boiling with no water contact. Texture profile analyses was conducted for quantifying textural properties such as  Hardness, Cohesiveness, Springiness, Springiness Index, Chewiness, Adhesiveness and Stiffness. The mineral concentrations of the raw and cooked samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Conclusion: The offal textural parameters variability was very large within the same organ and compared to the muscle textural parameters variability too. Muscle and offal thermal preparation strongly influenced their minerals’ concentrations as well as their textural properties. Thermal preparation significantly decreased beef liver and kidney samples’ total K and Na concentrations. It is suggested that for improving beef liver acceptability, the consumer has to be advised on the influence of the thermal preparation on beef liver parts’ textural properties as well as minerals concentrations.

  2. Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Van Ba

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 μg/g, 60 (15.75 μg/g, 49 (107.61 μg/ml and 50 (7.20 μg/g volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05. Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature. This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef.

  3. Epidemiology of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in beef cattle herds in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J W A; Webb Ware, J K; Kluver, P

    2012-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in beef herds in Australia. Retrospective survey of beef herds detected with BJD between 1991 and 2006. Information about the management and physical characteristics of affected herds, index and clinical cases, testing and control programs, and attitudes to BJD were collated from existing data and personal interviews of herd owners or managers. Herds were excluded if they contained fewer than 30 breeding cows or operated as a dairy farm. Records from 109 herds demonstrated the first detected ('index') case was 3.4-fold more likely to be a beef rather than dairy breed. However, further analysis revealed association with dairy cattle was an important risk factor for introducing BJD. Index cases were most likely detected by veterinarians investigating clinical cases of scouring or ill-thrifty animals during winter, particularly bulls or aged cows. Most herds with clinical BJD had only a single case, with only one high prevalence herd detected in the survey group. Over the period of observation, test and cull programs did not eradicate BJD unless combined with culling of known high-risk animals, but removal of high-risk cattle by partial or total destocking generally restored the trading status of affected herds. Excluding cattle with dairy contact from beef herds, ensuring more effective farm biosecurity, promptly seeking veterinary advice regarding scouring cattle and sourcing replacement cattle from demonstrably low-risk herds, such as CattleMAP and 'Beef Only' herds, are simple strategies that should reduce the risk of introducing BJD infection into beef herds. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Factors Influencing Demand for a Producer-Owned Beef Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Cevallos, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    As the farm-to-retail price spread continues to grow, come cattle producers a beginning to consider integrating into the retail sector. Such a venture would require large investments in capital with uncertain return. This study seeks to determine the potential success of a stand-alone retail outlet selling “all natural†beef in an affluent area of Jackson, MS. Using choice-based conjoint analysis, demand for the new retail outlet is modeled as a function of the beef price at the store, dis...

  5. Risk of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection linked to the consumption of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premarathne, J.M.K.J.K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food-borne pathogen that has resulted in numerous outbreaks around the world. Widespread distribution of the organism in various ecological niches impedes the control measures. This study aimed to detect and quantify E. coli O157:H7 in beef sold in wet markets and hypermarkets in Malaysia and to determine the risk of E. coli O157:H7 infection linked to consumption of beef. The rfbO157 and flicH7 primers targeted on somatic antigen (O157 and flagellar antigen (H7 respectively of E. coli O157:H7 was used for the MPN-PCR method. A total of 99 beef samples were collected from local wet markets and hypermarkets. The highest E. coli O157:H7 contamination rate was observed in beef samples collected from wet markets (89.50%, whereas the contamination rate in hyper market A and B were compratively low (35.35 and 20% respectively. However, the microbial load was highest in the beef samples from hypermarket A (1100 MPN/g while E. coli O157:H7 bacterial load in beef samples from hypermarket B and wet market ranged from 3 to 93 MPN/g and 3 to 240 MPN/g, respectively. Using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA approach the risk was estimated incorporating the findings of the prevalence study and predictions based on home storage, cooking and consumption patterns. Three different exposure pathways were investigated to estimate the risk associated with contaminated beef and Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the level of uncertainty. The developed model predicated that consumption of contaminated beef can be accountable for 1.83E+06 E. coli O157:H7 cases per year in Malaysia. The reliability of the model, data gaps and further research needs, is discussed. Through continuous improvement Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment provides valuable insight into controlling and prevention strategies.

  6. Grazing Adaptability of Beef Cattle on the Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum Purpureum Schumach) Pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ako, A

    2007-01-01

    Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on dwarf variety of late-heading type (DL) napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) pasture was examined in summer season at Miyazaki, Japan in 2005. Five paddocks of DL napiergrass pasture with an area 2500 m2, (500 m2, per paddock) were established since May 2002. Three heads of raising beef cows (Japanese-Black) were rotationally grazed in a week with 4-weeks rest period from June to October. Forage dry yield at pre- and post-grazing averaged 238.6 – ...

  7. Bacteriological status of beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir before and after slaughterline improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.; Roberts, T. A.; Whelehan, O. P.

    1987-01-01

    The bacteriological status of beef carcasses was monitored at a commercial abattoir before and after two stages of modernization to the beef slaughterline which included changing from cradle dressing to dressing on an overhead rail, and the introduction of hot water spray cleaning of carcasses. Although small significant (P less than 0.05) differences in bacterial count occurred among carcass sites within modernization stages, significant visit within stage variation and stage X site interactions prevented any significant change in overall count being observed among stages and carcass sites. Principal components analysis revealed small changes in the distribution of bacterial numbers on the sites sampled. PMID:3556439

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics of Beef Jerky Cured with Salted-fermented Anchovy and Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gap-Don; Go, Gwang-woong; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Eun-Young; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the availability of salted and fermented fish (SFF) including salted and fermented anchovy (SFA) and shrimp (SFS) as a marinade of beef jerky. In curing solutions, half (SFA 1 and SFS 1) or whole (SFA 2 and SFS 2) salt-water was replaced with SFF juices. Higher water activity (aw) was found in the beef jerky cured with SFFs than the control (C) (p< 0.05). The SFFs had the effect of causing a decrease in hardness and an increase in cohesiveness (p

  9. Beta-adrenergic agonists as additive in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vedovatto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agonists receptor beta-adrenergic (β-AA are present in virtually all types of mammalian cells and are stimulated by catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the organism itself. The β-AA agonists are synthetic substances with similar structure to these amines. When provided in the diet they alter the body composition of animals, affecting the distribution of nutrients toward to protein deposition, and decreasing lipogenesis. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, these may cause morphological and physiological changes such as increased blood flow decrease in plasma insulin, decreased lipogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy mainly in type II fibers. We also observed changes in motility and secretions grastointestinal tract, beyond the direct influence on the rumen bacteria, altering the digestibility of the diet. The β-AA agonists released in some countries for use in beef cattle are ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride. According to literature data, the inclusion of these additives in the diet of feedlot cattle has been associated with an increase infeed efficiency with the increase in daily weight gain and with equal or lower feed intake. Carcass characteristics improvement was verified in carcass weight, and increased loin eye area, but with the possibility to decrease the subcutaneous fat thickness and marbling. Reviews in sensory panel of meat from animals consuming β-AA agonists showed decreased tenderness and juiciness. Thus β-AA improve performance and carcass characteristics, but more studies are needed to confirm whether they have negative influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  10. Supplementation of grazing suckling beef calves receiving different energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilaine Aparecida da Costa Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different energy sources - corn, sorghum, and wheat bran - on performance, intake, digestibility, and nitrogen utilization efficiency of beef calves subjected to creep feeding. Thirty-four calves (12 males and 22 females with initial age and weight of four months and 108±3.9 kg, respectively, were used in a randomized-block experimental design with four treatments and two blocks (males and females. Treatments were control (MM, a mineral mixture ad libitum; corn (C; corn + sorghum (C+S; and corn + sorghum + wheat bran (C+S+WB. Supplements contained approximately 20% crude protein (CP, and were fed in the amount of 0.5% of body weight. Supplemented animals had higher performance (P < 0.05 when compared with those on treatment MM. Supplementation increased (P < 0.05 the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digestible neutral detergent fiber (dNDF, and digestible organic matter (dOM. The digestibility of NFC was higher (P < 0.05 in the supplemented treatments. The C+S and C+S+WB treatments provided increased digestibility (P < 0.05 of OM, CP, and NDFap. The synthesis of nitrogen compounds was higher (P < 0.05 in animals on treatment C as compared with those on the other supplemented treatments. Animals on treatments C+S and C+S+WB had higher (P < 0.05 nitrogen utilization efficiency compared with those on the other treatments. Concentrate supplementation improved the animal performance. The use of other energy sources (sorghum or wheat bran in association with corn is recommended for suckling calves.

  11. Temperature Effects on Free Radicals in Gamma-sterilized Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, S. I.; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Gamma irradiation has become the method of choice for sterilizing frozen meat and their products to reduce levels of food-borne pathogens and to extend shelf life. In this report we have employed ESR technique for detection of free radicals in sterilized and non-sterilized dry beef without bone. We have also determined the heating effects on free radicals at temperatures 176^°C and 250^°C. Meat samples were dried in a food dehydrator at 60^°C and were packaged in dry N_2. They were then sterilized by γ-irradiation (2.5 MRad), ground into powder, and placed in ESR sample tubes. Non-sterilized powder samples were used as control. While all powder samples, sterilized or not, produced a broad single line in the ESR spectra with (Δ H_pp ~ 9 G) and g = 2.013, the radical concentration in the sterilized samples increased by a factor of five. Heat treatment at 176^°C produced similar radicals. But, when samples were heated 250^°C different radical species were formed which are characterized by narrow width (Δ H_pp ~ 6 G) and lower g-value (g =2.010). In contrast with previous work, where free radicals in chicken bones were reduced by heating [1], we observed an increase in concentration. Results of structural analyses of the radicals will be presented. Ref.[1]: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 49, 477-481, 1997. Work supported by Grants from the University of Memphis

  12. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and quality changes after irradiation of beef steaks and ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, A.H.; Sebranek, J.G.; Murano, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Beef steaks and ground beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were packaged in air or under vacuum and irradiated at low (0.60 to 0.80 kGy) or medium (1.5 to 2.0 kGy) doses, with each dose delivered at either a low (2.8 M/min conveyor speed) or high (6.9 M/min) dose rate. Medium-dose irradiation accompanied by 7 degrees C storage resulted in no Y. enterocolitica or E. coli O157:H7 survivors being detected. There was no effect on survival of the pathogens by dose rate or storage atmosphere. No difference (P0.05) was observed in meat pH or color, but TBA values increased after 7 days storage

  13. Survey of quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: I. Incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify incidence of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls selling at auction during 2 seasons in 2008. Twenty-three BQA-related traits were evaluated by 9 trained personnel during sales at 10 livestock auction markets in Idaho (n = 5; beef and dairy), California, (n = 4; dairy only), and Utah (n = 1; beef and dairy). Overall, 18,949 unique lots (8,213 beef cows, 1,036 beef bulls, 9,177 dairy cows, and 523 dairy bulls,) consisting of 23,479 animals (9,299 beef cows, 1,091 beef bulls, 12,429 dairy cows, and 660 dairy bulls) were evaluated during 125 sales (64 spring, 61 fall) for dairy and 79 sales (40 spring, 39 fall) for beef. The majority of market beef cows and bulls (60.9 and 71.3%, respectively) were predominantly black-hided, and the Holstein hide pattern was observed in 95.4 and 93.6% of market dairy cows and bulls, respectively. Market cattle weighed 548 ± 103.6 kg (beef cows), 751 ± 176.1 kg (beef bulls), 658 ± 129.7 kg (dairy cows), and 731 ± 150.8 kg (dairy bulls). Most beef cows (79.6%) weighed 455 to 726 kg, and most beef bulls (73.8%) weighed 545 to 954 kg, respectively. Among market beef cattle, 16.0% of cows and 14.5% of bulls weighed less than 455 and 545 kg, respectively, and 63.7% of dairy cows and 81.5% of dairy bulls weighed 545 to 817 kg or 545 to 954 kg, respectively. However, 19.5% of dairy cows and 13.1% of dairy bulls weighed less than 545 kg. Mean BCS for beef cattle (9-point scale) was 4.7 ± 1.2 (cows) and 5.3 ± 0.9 (bulls), and for dairy cattle (5-point scale) was 2.6 ± 0.8 (cows) and 2.9 ± 0.6 (bulls). Some 16.5% of beef cows and 4.1% of beef bulls had a BCS of 1 to 3, whereas 34.8% of dairy cows and 10.4% of dairy bulls had a BCS of 2 or less. Emaciation (beef BCS = 1, dairy BCS = 1.0) or near-emaciation (beef BCS = 2, dairy BCS = 1.5) was observed in 13.3% of dairy cows and 3.9% of beef cows. Among beef cattle, 15.1% of cows and 15.4% of bulls were

  14. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  15. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  16. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the

  18. Intensification of the beef-cow herd | Harwin | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Intensification of the beef-cow herd. G.O. Harwin ...

  19. Rainfall Driven Sorting of Soils and Manure in Beef Feedlot Pens, Implications for Steroid Hormone Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, R.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has documented elevated estrogenic and androgenic activity in surface waters receiving cattle feedlot effluent, while current research shows that significant concentrations of hydrophobic steroid hormones are transported in the solid phase of feedlot pen surface runoff. Accumulated manure in beef feedlot pens includes organic matter ranging from colloidal particles to partially digested feed, forming a complex soil-manure conglomerate at the pen surface. We hypothesized that the transport of solid phase particles in rainfall runoff on beef feedlots would be influenced but not limited by shield layer development. Soils and manure at a beef feedlot were evaluated before and after rainfall-runoff events to determine changes in soil composition and structure. Runoff samples were also collected during an hour of runoff and analyzed for suspended solids. Results indicate that rainfall actively sorts the soil and manure components through raindrop impact, depression storage and runoff. However, transport of solid phase constituents was found to be elevated throughout the hydrograph. This suggests that the surface shield layer conceptualization applied to other soils should be modified before application to the soil-manure conglomerate found in beef feedlot pens.

  20. Effects on roughage inclusion and particle size on digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughage is fed to cattle to promote ruminal health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a means to standardize roughage in beef cattle finishing diets, and increasing particle size of roughage could ...

  1. Effect of Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Training on Dairy Worker Knowledge and Welfare-Related Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ashley E.; Ahola, Jason K.; Chahine, Mireille; Roman-Muniz, I. Noa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether on-farm dairy beef quality assurance (BQA) training affected dairy worker knowledge of BQA and welfare-related practices. Dairy personnel who participated in the BQA training were administered an exam before and after the training to gauge the amount of knowledge gained. The average exam score was 21.0…

  2. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  3. The effects of river flooding on dioxin and PCBs in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Iain R; Foxall, Christopher D; Fernandes, Alwyn; Lewis, Mervyn; White, Oliver; Mortimer, David; Dowding, Alan; Rose, Martin

    2014-09-01

    In 2008-2010, samples of meat from 40 beef cattle, along with grass, soil and commercial feed, taken from ten matched pairs of flood-prone and control farms, were analysed for PCDD/Fs and PCBs. Concentrations were higher in soil and grass from flood-prone farms. The beef samples from flood-prone farms had total TEQ levels about 20% higher than on control farms. A majority of flood-prone farms (7/10) had higher median levels in beef than on the corresponding control farm. This first controlled investigation into PCDD/F and PCB contamination in beef produced on flood-prone land, presents robust evidence that flooding is a contaminant transfer mechanism to cattle raised on river catchments with a history of urbanisation and industrialisation. PCDD/F and PCB sources in these river systems are likely to be a result of the legacy of contamination from previous industrialisation, as well as more recent combustion activity or pollution events. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA.

  5. THE BREEDING OF BEEF CATTLE IN soUTH AFRICA: PAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock industry. The progress achieved was the result of the enthusiasm of individual farmers and civil servants. During the early years of the cattle industry the mul- tiplication ol' numbers ... outside and inside of the beef industry that led to changes in breeding policies. ..... tions in wrong areas but to be in fashion. Through ...

  6. a strategy for beef production in natal and eastern cape aw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used mainly as a protein supplement in sourveld areas. In beef fattening rations it can be successfully used at levels up to 20%. Future developnrents. Sugar cane and maize are the most efficient agricultural products capable of converting solar energy into plant energy for eventual ethanol production. Van Niekerk (1979) is ...

  7. Temporal nitrous oxide emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure following a simulated rainfall event

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale, recirculating-flow-through, non-steady-state (RFT-NSS) chamber system was designed for quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from simulated open-lot beef cattle feedlot pens. The system employed five 1 square meter steel pans. A lid was placed systematically on each pan and heads...

  8. Effect of palm oil and beef liver on diesel-induced haematotoxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of palm oil and beef liver on some haematological parameters of rats fed with diesel-contaminated diets. Thirty wistar albino rats were equally divided into six groups with group1 as the control. Rats in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were fed with diesel-contaminated diets only, ...

  9. Possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver on the kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of eight weeks of a diesel-contaminated diet on liver and kidney of Wistar Albino rats, as well as the possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver. There was a significant increase in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of rats fed with ...

  10. Modelling in support of decision-making for South African extensive beef farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Meyer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study it is shown that it is possible to build a decision support system for the use of South African extensive beef farmers. Initially models for the key variables which affect extensive beef farmers are developed. These key variables include rainfall, beef, veal and weaner prices and the condition of the veld. This last key variable is monitored using the voluntary lick intake of the cattle and is modelled in terms of rainfall and stocking intensity. Particular attention is paid to the interrelationships between the key variables and to the distribution of modelling errors. The next stage of the study concerns the use of these models as a decision-support tool for extensive beef farmers. It is shown that Monte Carlo simulations and dynamic programming analyses can use these models to suggest how gross margins can be increased. At the same time these methods can be used to monitor the effect of management decisions on mean lick intake and, hence, the effect of these decisions on the condition of the veld. In particular the decisions of "what stocking intensity", "what cattle system", "when to sell" and "when to make a change" are addressed.

  11. Public opinion towards castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Teixeira, Dayane; Larraín, Rafael; Melo, Oscar; Hötzel, María José

    2018-01-01

    Recent publications have shown that citizens in developing nations are gaining interest in farm animal welfare. The aims of this study were to assess the opinion of Chilean citizens about surgical castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production, to investigate how involvement in livestock production influences opinions, and to evaluate if different types of information would affect their opinion towards these management practices. The study was carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, and consisted of two surveys with 400 participants in each study. The first one used an online, self-administered questionnaire and the second one used a face to face questionnaire. The second questionnaire had four information treatments assigned randomly to survey participants (no information; negative information; negative and positive information; positive information). Most participants were aware that the two management practices are common in beef production systems and were opposed to them. Involvement in animal production was associated with greater acceptance of both management practices and participants that had visited a beef production farm before the study were more likely to support castration without anaesthesia in Survey 1. Belonging to any socioeconomic group and providing negative or positive information had no impact on participants' opinion. The results show a disconnection between the views of participants recruited for this study and beef production systems that do not provide pain control for male cattle surgical castration or provide little or no access to pasture.

  12. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  13. In general the dairy or beef farmer is not conscious of the economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle with higher carcass grades. In general the dairy or beef farmer is not conscious of the economic and industrial importance of his cattle hides. Therefore only limited consideration is given to protecting the hides on the live animal from physical de- fects such as brand marks, barbed wire scratches, whip marks, tick bites ...

  14. stress and adaptation in beef heifers: 1. effect of pen conditions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonsmaraverse veroorsaak nie. Daarenteen het ingekraalde Korthoringverse veral gedurende die laaste 2 weke, hoer waardes as verse op die veld getoon. SUMMARY.. L:ighteen beef heifers, representing the Bos taurus (Shorthorn), Bos indicus (Afrikaner) and intermediate (Bonsmara) types, were con- t'ined to a pen with ...

  15. A supply chain model to improve the beef quality distribution using investment analysis: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupita, Alessandra; Rangkuti, Sabrina Heriza; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Hisjam, Muh.

    2017-11-01

    There are significant differences related to the quality and price of the beef commodity in traditional market and modern market in Indonesia. Those are caused by very different treatments of the commodity. The different treatments are in the slaughter lines, the transportation from the abattoir to the outlet, the display system, and the control system. If the problem is not solved by the Government, the gap will result a great loss of the consumer regarding to the quality and sustainability of traditional traders business because of the declining interest in purchasing beef in the traditional markets. This article aims to improve the quality of beef in traditional markets. This study proposed A Supply Chain Model that involves the schemes of investment and government incentive for improving the distribution system. The supply chain model is can be formulated using the Mix Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and solved using the IBM®ILOG®CPLEX software. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the priority of programs for improving the quality and sustainability business of traditional beef merchants. By using the models, The Government can make a decision to consider incentives for improving the condition.

  16. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production is limited by the necessity to monitor estrus and handle animals twice daily for several weeks. Protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI) would facilitate the use of AI. Obje...

  17. IMPACTS OF THE 2005 FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON BRAZILIAN BEEF EXPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cortes Carvalho Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD can lead to sanitary barriers to international trade and involves high investments for control and great losses in the event of an outbreak. This study investigated the impacts caused by FMD on the exports of fresh beef from Brazil after the 2005 outbreak and the observance of the regionalization principle of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS by countries member of the WTO that were listed as the top 10 beef importing countries in 2004. The FMD outbreak that began in 2005 did not limit the increase in exports of fresh beef from Brazil, but impacted negatively on exports from Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States. The disease did not impact exports to the United States, Japan or Mexico, since these markets were closed to Brazil. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Iran were not members of the WTO in October 2005 and therefore had no obligation to respect the principle of regionalization, though Russia respected it. Among the other major importers of 2004, the Netherlands, Egypt, Italy, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Spain respected the principle of regionalization of the SPS Agreement. Chile did not respect the principle and the occurrence of the disease closed the market to Brazilian fresh beef.

  18. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, D.; Ruth, van S.M.; Posthumus, M.A.; Istasse, L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatile flavour compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats (labelled as conventional and organic) were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds were isolated in a model mouth system. Gas

  19. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Texas A&M University (TAMU) Beef Cattle Production model was expanded to include basic concepts of quantitative genetics. The traits simulated were birth weight, yearling weight, mature weight and milk production. The progeny inherited attributes from both the sire and the dam. The incorporation of genetic concepts ...

  20. tant sorghum grain as energy source in fattening diets for beef steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORD, J.E., 1977. Availability of methionine and lysine in sorghum grain in relation to the tannin content. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36, 124A. HALE, W.H. & PROUTY, F.L., 1980.Current status of grain process- ing: Efficiency of processing systems. Proc. 8th Annual Texas Beef. Conj., Amarillo, Texas. HALE, W.H., TAYLOR, B., SABA, ...

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF METABOLITES OF TRENBOLONE ACETATE IN ANDROGENIC RUNOFF FROM A BEEF FEEDLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known concerning the potential ecological effects of hormonally-active substances associated with discharges from animal feeding operations. Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic anabolic steroid that is widely used in beef production to promote growth in the US. - - -The p...

  2. Effect of microbial inoculants on the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarloiy, M; Yansari, A Teimouri

    2008-04-15

    This study investigated the effect of a new microbial inoculant product on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage in big silo over one year that used beef cattle. Six Holstein beef steer (BW = 225 +/- 17) were allotted to 2 x 2 repeated Latin square design at two 21 days periods (adaptation, 14 days and sample collection, 7 days) for evaluation the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. Two treatments, forages were untreated or treated at ensiling with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici silage inoculants. After 45 days from ensiling, the ration that contained 94.5 and 5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1% of DM silage and ground barely, mineral-vitamin, dicalcium phosphate, salt, respectively, were offered for free choice consumption. Treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici inoculant increased daily dry matter intake and subsequently NDF, ether extract, crude protein and ash. Apparent digestibility of DM and nutrients were significantly increased by microbial inoculation. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

  3. Potentially hazardous sulfur conditions on beef cattle ranches in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel H; Dargatz, David A; Garry, Franklyn B; Hamar, Dwayne W; Ross, Paul F

    2002-09-01

    To analyze the sulfur content of water and forage samples from a geographically diverse sample of beef cow-calf operations in the United States and to estimate frequency and distribution of premises where forage and water resources could result in consumption of hazardous amounts of sulfur by cattle. Cross-sectional study. 709 forage samples from 678 beef cow-calf operations and individual water samples from 498 operations in 23 states. Sulfur content of forage samples and sulfate concentration of water samples were measured. Total sulfur intake was estimated for pairs of forage and water samples. Total sulfur intake was estimated for 454 pairs of forage and water samples. In general, highest forage sulfur contents did not coincide with highest water sulfate concentrations. Overall, 52 of the 454 (11.5%) sample pairs were estimated to yield total sulfur intake (as a percentage of dry matter) > or = 0.4%, assuming water intake during conditions of high ambient temperature. Most of these premises were in north-central (n = 19) or western (19) states. Results suggest that on numerous beef cow-calf operations throughout the United States, consumption of forage and water could result in excessively high sulfur intake. All water sources and dietary components should be evaluated when assessing total sulfur intake. Knowledge of total sulfur intake may be useful in reducing the risk of sulfur-associated health and performance problems in beef cattle.

  4. Designing sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply chains in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dondè, Giulia; Trienekens, Jacques; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Due to the intensive use of natural resources in food production in Brazil and the consequent air and water pollution, sustainable production is high on the agenda of businesses and policy makers. This paper designs sustainable production and distribution scenarios for the beef and pork supply

  5. Sources of variation in quality of South African beef: Case studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African classification system describes beef carcasses in regard to visual fat cover, conformation and age by dentition. Animal age provides a fairly accurate description of expected eating quality in regard to tenderness in an industry where other sources of variation in tenderness are limited. Since deregulation in ...

  6. Will intensification of beef production deliver conservation outcomes in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Merry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of beef production has become a conservation target based on the idea of land sparing and the assumption that in order to contain deforestation and meet increasing beef demand we must increase productivity. There is also increasing attention and conservation credit being given to supply chain management in beef production. Based on a historical comparison between the US, a fully intensive system, and Brazil, one moving in that direction, we suggest that cattle ranching will intensify as a result of conservation investments (reductions in capital and land subsidies rather than intensifying in order to produce conservation results. If the comparison holds, the new intensive system, however, will continue to require large natural resource inputs, government subsidies, and be plagued by social and conservation problems. It will also be held in thrall by a few large processing companies, which exert undue influence over both producers and consumers. Therefore, we suggest that closer attention be paid to attribution in the claim of conservation outcomes from intensive beef production.

  7. The emergent demand chain management: key features and illustration from the beef business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canever, M.D.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Beers, G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose - The paper seeks to delineate the emergence of demand chain management (DCM) from a theoretical perspective and to illustrate its occurrence in practice. Design/methodology/approach ¿ The DCM concept is examined empirically through a case study with retailers involved in the beef

  8. Effect of irradiation on quality of vacuum packed spicy beef chops

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop an alternative pasteurization process for the spicy beef jerky (SBJ), SBJ was treated with irradiation doses of 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kGy and the sensory attributes, texture properties, drip loss and the protein biological efficiency were studied. The results showed that lightness, d...

  9. Delipidation of the phosphatidylcholine exchange protein from beef liver by detergents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, H.H.; Wirtz, K.W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1975-01-01

    1. 1. A method is described to introduce [14C]phosphatidylcholine into the phosphatidylcholine exchange protein from beef liver. The effects of various detergents on this 14C-labelled phospholipid · protein complex are considered. 2. 2. As shown by spectrophotometric and radioactivity analysis of

  10. 4. The development of a production system for beef animals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained in the first season of a five-year project to develop a production system for a breeding herd of beef animals, are presented. The trial areas consisted of 30 ha of Cenchrus ciliaris pasture growing under dryland conditions in the Northern Transvaal. The pasture provided 8 500 grazing days for 30 cows ...

  11. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  12. The effect of follicle age on conception rate in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef heifers. Ovulation was synchronized with the 5 d CO-Synch + CIDR program in heifers in Montana (n = 162, Hereford and Angus Crossbred; MT) and Ohio (n = 170, Angus Crossbred; OH). All heifer...

  13. Decarboxylase gene expression and cadaverine and putrescine production by Serratia proteamaculans in vitro and in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pennacchia, Carmela; Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the molecular basis of microbial metabolic activities that are important for the changes in food quality are valuable in order to help in understanding the behavior of spoiling bacteria in food. The growth of a psychrotrophic Serratia proteamaculans strain was monitored in vitro and in artificially inoculated raw beef. Two growth temperatures (25°C and 4°C) were tested in vitro, while growth at 15°C and 4°C was monitored in beef. During growth, the expression of inducible lysine and ornithine-decarboxylase genes was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), while the presence of cadaverine and putrescine was quantified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The expression of the decarboxylase genes, and the consequent production of cadaverine and putrescine were shown to be influenced by the temperature, as well as by the complexity of the growth medium. Generally, the maximum gene expression and amine production took place during the exponential and early stationary phase, respectively. In addition, lower temperatures caused slower growth and gene downregulation. Higher amounts of cadaverine compared to putrescine were found during growth in beef with the highest concentrations corresponding to microbial loads of ca. 9CFU/g. The differences found in gene expression evaluated in vitro and in beef suggested that such activities are more reliably investigated in situ in specific food matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling behaviour lona B. Stewart. and B.P. Louw. Department of Agricultural Development: Natal Region, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg,. 3200 Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science and Poultry Science, University ol Natal, ...

  15. Determinants of the Use of Cell phones in Access to Beef Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell phone is said to be an innovative communication device which allows consumers, traders and farmers to search market appropriate information for timely decision-making to save time and travelling costs. However, determinants of using this technology in beef cattle market information seeking for smallholders in ...

  16. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, P.; Sanjuán-López, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213). Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22%) to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%). Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP), while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP. (Author)

  17. Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of replacement rate (R), price (c/kg carcass weight) and two production systems on total herd efficiency was investigated. R was assumed to be either 15% (minimum),l9%o (point in between) or 23Vo (maximum). Percentage differences (minimum, point in between, maximum) in beef prices for the period 1984 ...

  18. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW and Willingness to Pay (WTP for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213. Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22% to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%. Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP, while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef feedlot surface materials as affected by diet, moisture, temperature, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to measure the effects of diet, moisture, temperature, and time on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from feedlot surface materials (FSM). The FSM were collected from open lot, pens where beef cattle were fed either a dry-rolled corn (DRC) diet containing no wet distil...

  20. the conductivity of c'ervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE CONDUCTIVITY OF C'ERVICAL MUCUS AS A PREDICTOR OF OVULATION. IN BEEF COWS SYNCHRONISED WITH CLOPROSTENOL. Receipt of MS 1646-1980. C.T. McCabe, G.W. Sprowson and D.H. Holness. Henderson Research Smrion, P. Bag 222A, Salisbury, Zimbabwe. (Key words: Cervical ntucus, oestrus ...

  1. RESEARCH OF MICROWAVE'S INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF DELICIOUS PRODUCTS FROM BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kozlova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.

  2. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  3. Effect of heat stress on six beef breeds in the Zastron district: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of heat stress on six beef breeds in the Zastron district: The significance of breed, coat colour and coat type. L.A Foster, P.J Fourie, F.W.C Neser. Abstract. A study was done to determine which factors had the greatest influence on a heifer's susceptibility to heat stress. Parameters tested were breed, coat colour, coat ...

  4. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in the beef jerky production line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda Pereira; Voloski, Flávia Liége Schütz; Ramires, Tassiana; Haubert, Louise; Reta, Giulia Giugliani; Mondadori, Rafael Gianella; Silva, Wladimir Padilha da; Conceição, Rita de Cássia Dos Santos da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal

    2017-05-01

    Intense manipulation during beef jerky production increases the possibility of contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This study evaluated the contamination by thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., on processing surfaces and raw materials during beef jerky production, as well as in the final product. Thermotolerant coliforms were found on all surfaces tested and in the raw material. Escherichia coli was identified in 6.7% of the surface samples, while Salmonella spp. was found in 3.3% of the surface samples and 8.6% of raw material samples. Virulence genes were detected in Salmonella spp. isolates. One Salmonella spp. isolate was resistant to sulfonamide, while one E. coli isolate was multiresistant, including the presence of resistance genes sul2, strA, strB, tetA and tetB. The presence of coliforms demonstrates failings in hygienic-sanitary procedures. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms causing foodborne diseases in the production line indicates persistent contamination in the production plant. Although the drying process applied to beef jerky should guarantee the safety of the final product, the presence of multiresistant pathogenic microorganisms, presenting virulence genes, should be a matter of concern. Because beef jerky is a ready-to-eat product, a failure in the production process may cause such microorganisms to pose a public health risk. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Consumer Acceptance and Steak Cutting Yields of Beef Top Sirloin and Knuckle Subprimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef knuckles (n = 150) and center-cut top sirloin butts (n = 150) were used to determine the portion-controlled steak cutting yields, palatability characteristics, and consumer acceptance of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) steaks compared to gluteus medius (GM) steaks. Yields were hi...

  6. Designing Sustainable Production and Distribution Scenarios for the Beef and Pork Supply Chains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Dondè

    2016-08-01

    The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.

  7. Mitochondrial abundance and efficiency contribute to lean color of dark cutting beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef carcasses exhibiting four levels of dark cutting severity (DCS): Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Shady were compared to Control carcasses to investigate biochemical traits contributing to the dark cutting condition. Color attributes of Longissimus lumborum (LL) were measured after grading and duri...

  8. Consumer perception of the quality of beef resulting from various fattening regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    with beef will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced at home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers...

  9. Effects of supplementary selenium source on the blood parameters in beef cows and their nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 2 years, 32 beef cows nursing calves were randomly selected from a herd of 120 that were managed in 6 groups and were assigned to six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures. Treatments were assigned to pastures (2 pastures/treatment) and cows had ad libitum access to 1 of 3...

  10. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  11. Stocking rate and fuels reduction effects on beef cattle diet composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Clark; Tim DelCurto; Martin Vavra; Brian L. Dick

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of forest fuels reduction on diet quality, botanical composition, relative preference, and foraging efficiency of beef cattle grazing at different stocking rates. A split plot factorial design was used, with whole plots (3 ha) being fuel reduced or no treatment (control), and split plots (1 ha) within whole plots...

  12. Action of phospholipases on the phosphatidylcholine exchange protein from beef liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, H.H.; Sprengers, E.D.; Westerman, J.; Wirtz, K.W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1975-01-01

    Abstract The phospholipases A2, C and D have been used to investigate the localization of phosphatidylcholine in the phosphatidylcholine exchange protein from beef liver. The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein-bound phosphatidylcholine was found to be very low. Addition of deoxycholate,

  13. Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence of pen conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence of pen conditions on thyroid activity of Shorthorn, Afrikaner and Bonsmara heifers. J.A. Erasmus, J.B. Krause. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  14. Stress and adaptation in beef heifers: I. Effect of pen conditions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress and adaptation in beef heifers: I. Effect of pen conditions on adrenal cortex activity of shorthorn. Afrikaner and Bonsmara heifers. JA Erasmus, JB Krause. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  15. Effect of abattoir and cut on variations in microbial communities of vacuum-packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Porteus, Bianca; Dann, Alison L; Tamplin, Mark

    2017-09-01

    This report builds on the earlier studies of the shelf-life of chilled Australian vacuum packaged (VP) beef primals (striploin and cube roll), products distinguished in the global marketplace for unusually long shelf-life. Notable findings in those studies were a shelf-life of at least 26weeks at -0.5°C, low microbial counts, and relatively high sensory scores. However, growth rates for total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) varied among the different abattoirs. The present study adds to these findings, by providing greater definition about temporal changes in bacterial communities using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and clone library analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene, and measuring statistical associations among abattoir, beef cut, storage time and sensory attributes. Bacterial communities changed over time, with Carnobacterium spp. typically predominating (29-97%) at the end of storage. Variation in TRFLP profiles showed that different Carnobacterium strains predominated in different abattoirs, and that additional variation was due to the presence of other taxa typical of VP meat microbiomes. TRFLP-based community structure correlated significantly (P≤0.01) with sensorial characteristics, such as vacuum integrity, confinement odour, and intact pack appearance of beef. This study shows that Carnobacterium spp. predominate on extended shelf-life VP beef primals, while other taxa may produce subtle effects on shelf-life duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  17. Methods for detecting pathogens in the beef food chain: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main food-borne pathogens of concern in the beef chain are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella. Other pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. may also be present and pose contamination concerns in both the cattle production environment and bee...

  18. Methods for detecting pathogens in the beef food chain: detecting particular pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main food-borne pathogens of concern in the beef food chain are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella spp.; however, the presence of other pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium spp., Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. par...

  19. Seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum in a population of beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loobuyck, M.; Frössling, J.; Lindberg, A.; Björkman, C.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey for Neospora caninum was carried out in Swedish beef cattle in order to estimate the seroprevalence and investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. Blood samples were collected from 2754 animals in 2130 herds and analysed for presence of antibodies to

  20. The Effect of Social Media on University Students' Perceptions of the Beef Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Stephens, Carrie A.; Stripling, Christopher T.; Brawner, Shelby; Loveday, H. Dwight

    2017-01-01

    Social media is known for having the ability to rapidly disseminate information and university students now receive the majority of information about agriculture through social media platforms rather than through first-hand experience. In order to understand the impact of social media on university students related to the beef industry, a study of…

  1. The beef value chain in Kilosa and Gairo districts: Features and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers in Kilosa and Gairo are feeding into within the district, region, Dar es Salaam; and the export market. There are relatively few female actors along the beef value chain, mostly in processing and retail offal business, input supply and one case in Dar es Salaam where three women are operating a slaughter slab ...

  2. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated

  3. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2015-10-09

    Oct 9, 2015 ... BHP composition of beef products should therefore include feeding designer diets and exploiting fat depot ..... performance and meat quality may therefore include feeding SS and 15% DDGS in forage-based diets and ... Eds: Hobson, P.N. & Stewart, C.S., Academic and Professional, London, UK. pp.

  4. Consumers Valuations and choice Processes of Food Safety Enhancement Attributes: An International Study of Beef Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. Here we examine consumer preferences for various beef food safety assurances. In particular, we evaluate the extent to which such preferences are heterogeneous within and across

  5. A Pilot Microbial Assessment Of Beef Sold In The Ashaiman Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety is a matter of great public health concern worldwide and particularly crucial if the environment in which the food is handled is heavily contaminated. Most fresh foods particularly that of animal origin like beef is highly susceptible to microbial invasion and food poisoning. In poorly managed market environment

  6. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production systems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef production is recognized as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emission from production systems. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate whole-farm GHG emissions from representa...

  7. The conductivity of cervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conductivity of cervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef cows synchronised with cloprostenol. C.T. McCabe, G.W. Sprowson, D.H. Holness. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Drying behavior and quality parameters of dried beef (biltong) subjected to different pre-treatments and maturation stages

    OpenAIRE

    von Gersdorff, Gardis J.E.; Porley, Victoria E.; Retz, Stefanie K.; Hensel, Oliver; Crichton, Stuart.O.J.; Sturm, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The drying behavior of fresh, matured, and frozen beef, marinated with 0.5% salt, 1% salt, salt and vinegar, and blind samples, dried at 70°C, was investigated. Weight and color (CIELAB) were measured and images of the samples were created with a hyperspectral imaging camera. Results show that the marinade and the type of beef influences the drying behavior of beef, but not the final color. Results from the hyperspectral imaging show that it is possible to build good fitting prediction models...

  9. Industry benefits from recent genetic progress in sheep and beef populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Nieuwhof, G J; Pollott, G E; Roughsedge, T; Conington, J; Simm, G

    2007-11-01

    An analytical model that evaluates the benefits from 10 years of genetic improvement over a 20-year time frame was specified. Estimates of recent genetic trends in recorded traits, industry statistics and published estimates of the economic values of trait changes were used to parameterise the model for the UK sheep and beef industries. Despite rates of genetic change in the relevant performance-recorded breeding populations being substantially less than theoretical predictions, the financial benefits of genetic change were substantial. Over 20 years, the benefits from 10 years of genetic progress at recently achieved rates in recorded hill sheep, sheep crossing sire and sheep terminal sire breeding programmes was estimated to be £5.3, £1.0 and £11.5 million, respectively. If dissemination of genetic material is such that these rates of change are also realised across the entire ram breeding industry, the combined benefits would be £110.8 million. For beef cattle, genetic evaluation systems have been operating within all the major breeds for some years with quite widespread use of performance recording, and so genetic trends within the beef breeds were used as predictors of industry genetic change. Benefits from 10 years of genetic progress at recent rates of change, considering a 20-year time frame, in terminal sire beef breeds are expected to be £4.9 million. Benefits from genetic progress for growth and carcass characters in dual-purpose beef breeds were £18.2 million after subtraction of costs associated with a deterioration in calving traits. These benefits may be further offset by unfavourable associated changes in maternal traits. Additional benefits from identification and use of the best animals available from the breeding sector for commercial matings through performance recording and genetic evaluation could not be quantified. When benefits of genetic improvement were expressed on an annual present value basis and compared with lagged annual

  10. Initial contamination and decontamination of some pathogenic bacteria on beef bowel by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Irawati Z

    2011-01-01

    An experiment has been conducted to study the initial bacterial contamination and decontamination of pathogenic bacteria on beef bowel such as beef liver, tripe and lung by gamma irradiation. The measured parameter were the amount of total aerobe bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. and identification of Salmonella. Another experiment has been conducted to study the effect of irradiation on some pathogenic bacteria which was inoculated on beef bowel. The bacteria included Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli 0157, E. coli polyvalent and Vibrio cholera were inoculated on beef bowel, respectively. Irradiation was done with dose of 0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4 kGy. The irradiation was done at a Multipurpose Panoramic Batch Irradiator (IRPASENA) with a dose rate of 1.149 kGy/h. The results showed no Salmonella was detected in all samples observed. On the other hand, E. coli was found in all samples. The initial contamination of aerobe bacteria were varied from 8.85 x 10 5 to 1.08 x 10 8 cfu/g while coliform were varied from 2.70 x 10 6 to 3.23 x 10 7 cfu/g. The total E. coli were varied from 8.55 x 10 5 to 2.60 x 10 7 cfu/g, while the total Staphylococcus spp were varied from 1.6 x 10 5 to 4.10 x 10 7 cfu/g. E. coli 0157 was the most radiosensitive bacteria in beef bowel among others, likewise V. cholera was the most radioresistant bacteria among the others. (author)

  11. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Y. Chulayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu, colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT and meat temperature (Tm (p"less than"0.01; lairage duration (LDhr and lightness of colour (L* (p"less than"0.01; ambient temperature (Ta and L* (p"less than"0.05 and LDhr and yellowness (b* (p"less than"0.05 of beef from Bonsmara cattle. Positive linear relationships were observed between DT and Tm (p"less than"0.05 and DT and L* (p"less than"0.01 of the non-descript cattle. There were no significant relationships between pre-slaughter stress and other beef quality parameters (pHu, Warner– Bratzler shear force [WBSF], redness [a*] and b* of Bonsmara, Nguni and non-descript cattle. Muscle fibres differed among class and genotype and had an effect on meat quality. The Bonsmara, non-descript and Nguni cows and heifers had visible skeletal muscle fibres which were thin and long, promising improved tenderness of beef. Genotype and class had significant effects on meat quality parameters (Tm, pHu, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. The first important principal components as they appeared from the analysis were pHu, Tm, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. Therefore, animal class did not affect the nanostructure of beef; instead, meat tenderness was enhanced by the longer and visible muscle fibres. Nguni cattle produced meat of superior quality to that of the Bonsmara and the non-descript cattle.

  12. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J A; Barcellos, Marcia D de; Krystallis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the combined mid-term findings of the consumer research components of two EU Sixth Framework Programme integrated projects concerning meat, ProSafeBeef and Q-PorkChains. The consumer pillar of ProSafeBeef carried out eight focus group discussions in May 2008, in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. Q-PorkChains conducted a large-scale, web-based, consumer survey in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland. The first project provides a set of qualitative data from a small cohort of focus groups and the second a set of quantitative data from a larger consumer sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers support the development of technologies that can improve the health attributes of meat products and guarantee eating quality, but they have a negative view of what they see to be excessive manipulation and lack of naturalness in the production and processing of beef products. In the Q-PorkChains study consumer and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens and their behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers' acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer trust and invigorating the European beef and pork industries.

  13. The Influence of Aging Period, Freezing Temperature and Packaging Material on Frozen Beef Chemical Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sri Widati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the influences of aging period, freezing temperature and packaging material on the frozen beef chemical quality. The material of the study was 2-3 years old Ongole grade beef of the Longissimus dorsi part,  and was then classified into 3 treat­ments, namely A (aging periode; 0, 12 and 24 hours, B (freezing temperature; -10°C and -20°C and C (packaging material; aluminum foil (Al, polyprophylene (PP, poly­ethylene (PE and without packaging material. The ob­served variables were water content, crude protein, fat, ash content. The data were analyzed by the Completely Randomized Design (CRD in the Factorial (3x2x4 pattern. The results indicated that the aging periode de­creased the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, and decreased the crude protein but increased the fat content insignificantly. The lower freezing temperature prevented the decreases of the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, but prevented the decrease of crude protein, fat content insignificantly. The packaging material could prevent the decreases of water content, ash content sig­nificantly (P<0.05, but prevent the decreases of protein, and fat content insignificantly. A significant interaction (P<0.05 occured between the freezing temperature and packaging material factors on ash content of the frozen beef. The conclusion was the frozen beef without aging has a high of water content, protein, and ash, but has a low fat content.Temperature at -200C and using aluminium foil packaging can prevent decreasing quality of frozen beef. Keywords : Aging period, freezing temperature,  packaging material

  14. Prevalence of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from raw beef in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Gaia; Franconieri, Ilenia; La Bella, Gianfranco; Basanisi, Maria Grazia; La Salandra, Giovanna

    2017-09-18

    Verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a significant foodborne public health hazard, where most human infections are associated with six serogroups (O157, O26, O103, O145, O111 and O104). VTEC was the fourth most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU in 2015, with 5901 confirmed human cases. Ruminant animals, including cattle, are a major reservoir of VTEC. The consumption of VTEC-contaminated animal-derived foodstuffs, especially undercooked ground beef, is an important transmission route. To the best of our knowledge, there are few data available on the contamination of VTEC in meat products in Italy. During 2015 and 2016, 250 raw meat samples were collected from retail markets in southern Italy (Apulia) and analysed for the occurrence of vtx genes (vtx1/vtx2) at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata (IZS PB, Italy). In addition, the isolates were characterized by determining the presence of VTEC main virulence factors, the antimicrobial resistance profiles and the genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results have shown that 8.4% (21/250) of the samples were positive for vtx genes in the preliminary screening step but VTEC strains were isolated from only 2% (5/250) of overall meat analysed samples, including raw ground beef, beef hamburger and beef carpaccio. 5 isolates displayed a multi-drug resistance phenotype. All VTEC strains were analysed by XbaI-PFGE and dendrogram revealed 5 distinct restriction profiles, indicating their relatively high genetic diversity. Although this study demonstrates a low prevalence of VTEC in raw beef marketed in southern Italy, the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains points to the need for proper hygiene during meat production to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms via foods to humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical Efficiency of Beef Cattle Breeding Business in East Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kalangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to compare technical efficiency of beef cattle business operating in lowland and upland areas of East Java and to identify and analyze factors affecting the technical efficiency as well as inefficiency of that business. A survey was conducted to 89 farmers in the lowland area of Probolinggo District and 97 farmers in the upland areas of Malang Districts during the period of February-March 2013. Results of stochastic frontier production function with MLE method showed that the average technical efficiency in lowland area was higher (80% compared to that in upland area (64%. The results indicated that beef cattle production was highly significant and positively influenced by total of grasses and forages, rice straw, feed supplements, stock of cattle, labor time allocation and service per conception. However, location of the business, whether in lowland and upland areas was a significant factor that could increase the efficiency. Some factors that could significantly reduce the technical inefficiency of beef cattle business were: labor force in family, education level, proportion of beef cattle income to total household income, age of cattle sold, cattle health examination, ownership status of the cattle, and gender. Therefore, (1 the existing farmers group should be improved their role to facilitate trading of cattle feed, and (2 the government should facilitate the farmers in the provision of funding tu buy beef cattle with a subsidized interest rate, so the farmers will be more enthusiast in taking care of their cattle, thus could improve their production efficiency.

  16. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  17. Addition of various carbohydrates to beef burgers affects the formation of heterocyclic amines during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Elna; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Nyman, Margareta; Skog, Kerstin

    2004-12-15

    The influence of the addition of carbohydrates with different physicochemical properties on weight loss and formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) during the frying of beef burgers was examined. Furthermore, the capability of carbohydrates to bind HAs was tested. Beef burgers containing 1.5% NaCl and 0.3% tripolyphosphate (reference), with the addition of 1.5% carbohydrate, were fried for 5 min at 200 degrees C in a double-sided pan fryer. The beef burgers were analyzed for HAs with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) were detected in all of the beef burgers. The addition of carbohydrates affected both the weight loss and the formation of HAs during cooking. The formation of HAs could be correlated to depend on both the weight loss and the type of the added carbohydrate. Of the 11 different carbohydrates tested, raw potato starch was most capable of inhibiting the formation of HAs, while potato fiber gave the lowest weight loss and a comparably low amount of PhIP. Wheat bran and potato fiber were found to reversibly bind HAs. It is concluded that adding small amounts of certain carbohydrates may be a simple and effective way of reducing the amount of HAs and can easily be applied in households and commercial preparations of beef burgers.

  18. Factor affecting the whole beef prices in eight provinces in Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, D.; Harahap, A. A.; Syaputra, M. A.; Mulianda, R.; Adha, T. J.; Harahap, A. S.; Rusdhi, A.; Ibarahim, M. S.; Siregar, A. R.; Purwadi, B.; Ginting, S. P.; Hasnudi; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    A survey has been conducted to study the fluctuation of whole beef prices in eight provinces in Sumatera, namely Lampung. South Sumatera. Jambi. Bengkulu. West Sumatera. Riau. North Sumatera. and NAD with the average cattle weight were 486kg. 492kg. 448kg. 464kg. 500kg. 480kg. 500kg. and 480kg. respectively. Their average prices and total price in these cities were IDR4.1000 & IDR19.926.000; IDR41.500 & IDR20.418.000; IDR43.000 & 19.264.000; IDR42.500 & IDR19.720.000; IDR43.000 & IDR21.500.000; IDR43.000 & IDR20.640.000; IDR42.500 & IDR21.250.000; IDR44.000 & IDR21.120.000.respectively. People West Sumatera, Riau and North Sumatra provinces prefer the final results of processed by products of beef which caused the high price of processed by products from cattle. Whereas, in NAD province. the meat selling price is very high compared to other provinces, while the selling price of processed beef by-products is much cheaper than the people outside NAD province. The selling price of processed beef by-product can not help to reduce the selling price of meat. Average carcass in Sumatera ranged from 49.00% (North Sumatera) – 51.00% (Jambi). Among the eigth provinces, the price of beef in Aceh is more expensive than other provinces not only in Sumatera. but also other provinces in Indonesia.

  19. Embryo-transfer twinning and performance efficiency in beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Martinez, P; Dickerson, G E; Anderson, G B; Green, R D

    1990-12-01

    Effects of twinning on efficiency of beef production were estimated from results of bilateral transfer of two Angus x Hereford (AxH) embryos into each of 241 heifers and 84 cows (H, A, HxA or Holstein x H) over 4 yr. Calves were weaned at 180 d and fed either 220 d in a feedlot (1977) or 170 d on forage and 140 d in a feedlot (1978 to 1980). Effects of parity, twinning and sex of calf were estimated as covariates within year-breed of dam. Pregnancy at 45 to 60 d of gestation was 68% in heifers (H) and 74% in cows (C), with 40% single (S) and 60% twin (T) births. Dystocia was 28% in H vs 10% in C (P less than .05), and tended to be less (P greater than .05) for T than S in H. More placentas were retained (P less than .05) for T than for S in both H (35 vs 12%) and C (24 vs 4%). Twin gestations averaged 3 d shorter and subsequent calving intervals 13 d longer (P less than .05), but total calf mortality was slightly higher (P greater than .05). Abortions were 4% in H only. Twinning females lost maternal weight during late gestation (P less than .05) when crowding limited voluntary feed intake, while fetal requirements were 60% higher (P less than .01). Twins increased milk output 25% (P less than .05), but 11% higher feed intake maintained cow weight during lactation. Twinning reduced birth weight 13% and weaning weight 17% (P less than .05), but 400-d feedlot weight only 9% because of compensating feedlot gain. Twins gained 18% faster than S during postweaning 170-d forage feeding, but 5% slower in feedlot to 8% lighter 490-d weight (P less than .05). Assuming 40% higher veterinary and labor costs for twins, estimated integrated herd costs per unit of age-constant output value would be lower for T than for S production by about 24% for marketing either at weaning or at 400 d.

  20. Study of the utilization of propolis local propolis from Konawe, Southeast Sulawesi, as preservative natural preservative for beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsir, Muh.; Kurniawati, Desy; kurniasih, Yeti

    2017-03-01

    The utilization of Propolis Trigona spp from Konawe, Southeast Sulawesi as a preservative naturally in beef has been done. The purpose of this research is to determine the ability of Propolis Trigona spp as a preservative. This study includes three stages, extraction of Propolis and analysis of phytochemicals, preserving a beef by soaking, as well as the microbes test. The rendemen extracts ethanol propolis be obtained in 19,15%. Based on analysis of phytochemicals it extracts Propolis of the class of compounds alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoid, tannins, saponins and essential oil. The best Curing of the beef can be obtained in the treatment Propolis 2.5 %. The result shows that Propolis Trigona spp from Konawe can be used as an alternative natural preservatives for the beef.