WorldWideScience

Sample records for beef production systems

  1. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH3 ...

  2. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  3. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16......The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  4. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore, wa

  5. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Mustafa; Hüsnü Yusuf GÖKALP; YETİM, Hasan

    1997-01-01

    Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver) and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil) were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC) was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the ...

  6. Productivity and technical efficiency of suckler beef production systems: trends for the period 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Roulenc, M; Troquier, C; Bébin, D

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 23 years (1990 to 2012), French beef cattle farms have expanded in size and increased labour productivity by over 60%, chiefly, though not exclusively, through capital intensification (labour-capital substitution) and simplifying herd feeding practices (more concentrates used). The technical efficiency of beef sector production systems, as measured by the ratio of the volume value (in constant euros) of farm output excluding aids to volume of intermediate consumption, has fallen by nearly 20% while income per worker has held stable thanks to subsidies and the labour productivity gains made. This aggregate technical efficiency of beef cattle systems is positively correlated to feed self-sufficiency, which is in turn negatively correlated to farm and herd size. While volume of farm output per hectare of agricultural area has not changed, forage feed self-sufficiency decreased by 6 percentage points. The continual increase in farm size and labour productivity has come at a cost of lower production-system efficiency - a loss of technical efficiency that 20 years of genetic, technical, technological and knowledge-driven progress has barely managed to offset. PMID:26577645

  7. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  8. Benchmarking beef production systems across the world for improved production and resource use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The projected increase in global demand for animal-source food raises the question to what extent livestock production can be increased from the current levels. The aim of this research is to benchmark actual beef production against potential (i.e. the theoretical maximum) and feed-limited beef prod

  9. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  10. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  11. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ronchi; P. P. Danieli; U. Bernabucci; A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova) were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenol (ZEN)]. Total mixed rations (TMR) resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  12. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  13. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  14. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  15. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  16. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Beef production without mature cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G E; Whittier, J C

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients in animal feed get partitioned to growth, lactation, pregnancy, fat accretion, and/or maintenance. For mature beef cows, >80% of nutrients consumed annually go to unproductive maintenance. Integrated over the entire U.S. beef cattle production system, nearly one-half of the nutrients consumed go to maintenance of cow herds. This accounts for much of the inefficiency of beef production and can be minimized by the single-calf heifer system, in which heifers are fattened and slaughtered after having their first calf. We propose a modification, use of sexed semen, so that most heifers replace themselves with a heifer calf. This greatly decreases the size of the inherently inefficient cow herd required for beef production and greatly increases efficiency of beef production in terms of nutrients consumed and waste produced, such as methane, by increasing the ratio of nutrients used for growth to those used for maintenance. Additional management is required including AI, early weaning, and the attention required when calving 2-yr-old heifers. Low conception rates with sexed semen and less efficient growth of females than males also must be considered. However, these issues seem greatly outweighed by the benefits of increased efficiency from decreasing cow herd size while eliminating the need for breeding back lactating first-calf heifers, the need for castration, and health problems inherent in older cows such as mastitis and lameness. Moreover, the decreased generation interval can greatly accelerate genetic progress. PMID:26440323

  17. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: implications of beef heifer development systems and lifetime productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endecott, R L; Funston, R N; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J

    2013-03-01

    Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has indicated that developing heifers to a lighter target BW at breeding (i.e., 50 to 57% of mature BW compared with 60 to 65% BW) reduced development costs and did not impair reproductive performance. Research published through the late 1980s demonstrated greater negative effects of limited postweaning growth on age at puberty and pregnancy rates whereas more recent studies demonstrate less of a negative impact of delayed puberty on pregnancy rate. A limitation of most research concerning influences of nutrition on heifer development and cow reproductive performance is little or limited consideration of long-term implications. Longevity has relatively low heritability; therefore, heifer development and other management strategies have a greater potential to impact cow retention. Establishing the impact of heifer development protocols on longevity is complex, requiring consideration of nutritional factors after the start of breeding and through subsequent calvings. Lower-input heifer development, where all heifers are managed together after the postweaning period, did not impair rebreeding, but continued subsequent restriction in the form of marginal winter supplementation resulted in decreased retention in the breeding herd. Therefore, the compensatory BW gain period for restricted-growth heifers may be important to longevity and lifetime productivity. Adequate growth and development to ensure minimal calving difficulty can be of critical importance for longevity; however, providing additional supplemental feed during postweaning development to accomplish this may be less efficient than later in development. Restricting gain during postweaning development by limiting DMI or developing heifers on dormant winter forage resulted

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from contrasting beef production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture has been reported to contribute a significant amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere among other anthropogenic activities. With still more than 870 million people in the world suffering from under-nutrition and a growing global food demand, it is relevant to study ways for mitigating the environmental impact of food production. The objective of this work was to identify gaps in the knowledge regarding the main factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions f...

  19. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. PMID:25376887

  20. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (pfermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  1. Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Increased animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. Little information exists, however, on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net decrease in emission from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California that use various management technologies to enhance animal performance. The IFSM is a farm process model that simulates crop growth, feed production, animal performance, and manure production and handling through time to predict the performance, economics, and environmental impacts of production systems. The simulated beef production systems compared were 1) Angus-natural, with no use of growth-enhancing technologies, 2) Angus-implant, with ionophore and growth-promoting implant (e.g., estrogen/trenbolone acetate-based) application, 3) Angus-ß2-adrenergic agonists (BAA; e.g., zilpaterol), with ionophore, growth-promoting implant, and BAA application, 4) Holstein-implant, with growth implant and ionophore application, and 5) Holstein-BAA, with ionophore, growth implant, and BAA use. During the feedlot phase, use of BAA decreased NH(3) emission by 4 to 9 g/kg HCW, resulting in a 7% decrease in NH(3) loss from the full production system. Combined use of ionophore, growth implant, and BAA treatments decreased NH(3) emission from the full production system by 14 g/kg HCW, or 13%. The C footprint of beef was decreased by 2.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e)/kg HCW using all the growth-promoting technologies, and the Holstein beef footprint was decreased by 0.5 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW using BAA. Over the full production systems, these decreases were relatively small at 9% and 5% for Angus and Holstein beef, respectively. The growth

  2. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Ren; Bo Zhou; Fengshua Shi; Xiangxue Xie; Qingxaing Meng

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental) and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan) cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71) were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two...

  3. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  4. Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture

    1999-07-01

    The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.

  5. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  6. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL–RL) to 6.9 kg (SP–FL) CO2 eq kg body weight−1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL–RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW−1 for SP–FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL–RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW−1 (SP–FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL–RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL–RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP–FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems. (letter)

  7. A farm survey on the presence of dioxins and dl-PCB in beef production systems in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess, HD.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, new maximum levels for the concentration of dioxins (PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB in food entered into force in the European Union [Regulation (EC No 199/2006]. The Swiss Confederation decided to adopt these values from the 1 January 2009 on (RS 817.021.23. A previous appraisal showed that beef from extensive production systems in Switzerland may exceed the new maximum level of 4.5 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. In order to identify the reasons of the presence of dioxins (PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in Swiss beef, a detailed survey was conducted on eight farms in 2008. Depending on the production system, on each farm several suckler cows and their calves or fattening bulls and heifers were selected and followed over several months. Samples of soil, milk, forages, concentrates and meat were taken and analyzed according to standard protocols. The sum of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs in soil averaged 1.4 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 dry matter (DM across all farms. The mean value found in feed samples was 0.25 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 feed (88% DM, which is considerably lower than the legal maximum level of 1.25 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 feed. The mean value of milk from suckler cows was 2.75 pg, and the one of milk from dairy cows was 2 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. Although two individual beef samples (out of 36 slightly exceeded the legal limit of 4.5 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat, the mean value of all beef samples was 2.3 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. The results did not allow to establish direct relationships between the presence of contaminants in feeds and milk or beef and they showed that variation in PCDD/F and dl-PCB contamination of meat within the same farm was very high. It can be concluded that the situation in Switzerland seems not to be alarming and that no particular measures have to be taken. Nevertheless farmers should be aware that extensive production coupled with absence of delay between weaning and slaughtering may induce some risk for producing non compliant beef.

  8. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    OpenAIRE

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  9. Farm-level Economic Evaluation of Net Feed Efficiency in Australia’s Southern Beef Cattle Production System: A Multi-period Linear Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Cacho, Oscar J.

    2003-01-01

    Selection of beef cattle for increased net feed efficiency is a current major focus for research. At present the trait seems to be more apparent in Australia’s southern beef production system which is dominated by mixed farming enterprises. Farm-level evaluation of net feed efficiency should take account of the farming system for which it is proposed along with the dynamic nature of genetic selection. Gross margin, linear programming and multi-period linear programming approaches to evaluatio...

  10. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  11. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus Okine; Karen Haugen-Kozyra; Óscar López-Campos; John Basarab; Jennifer Aalhus; Vern Baron

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary A spring calving herd (~350 beef cows) over two production cycles was used to compare the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems, with and without growth implants. Farm GHG emissions initially included enteric CH4, manure CH4 and N2O, cropping N2O, and energy use CO2. The carbon footprint ranged from 19.9–22.5 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Including soil organic carbon loss from annual cropping and carbon sequestration from...

  13. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  14. Nutritional Quality of Beef Produced in Chile from Different Production Systems Calidad Nutricional de Carne obtenida de Diferentes Sistemas Productivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beef industry has improved production processes to ensure quality and certification for overseas meat markets. However, there is limited scientific information about the nutritional quality of beef from Chile. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of beef produced in Chile from different production systems classified according to the type of finishing diet. Two-hundred and five animals from 13 livestock farms were used, 80 steers were finished on grazing pasture, 79 on pasture supplemented with grain or concentrate and 46 steers were finished on a typical feedlot system in the central zone of Chile. Longissimus thoracis intramuscular fat, fatty acid composition and cholesterol content were determined. Beef from pasture-fed animals showed higher content of vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11 rumenic acid (CLA cis-9 trans-11 and n-3 fatty acids, and lower n-6:n-3 ratio than beef from feedlot animals. However, Chilean beef from the three production systems showed similar intramuscular fat percentages and a n-6:n-3 ratio lower than 4.0. Results indicate that the Longissimus muscle from Chilean beef could be recommended as a source of red meat for a healthy diet.En los últimos anos, el sector de carne bovina en Chile ha desarrollado un notable avance a nivel de mejoramiento de procesos de producción, aseguramiento de calidad, y certificación exportadora. Sin embargo, existe poca información disponible sobre la calidad nutricional de la carne producida en Chile. En el presente estudio se evaluó la calidad nutricional de la carne producida en Chile en diferentes sistemas de producción clasificados de acuerdo con el tipo de acabado. Se evaluó la carne de 205 animales de 13 predios: 80 novillos se finalizaron a pastoreo, 79 fueron finalizados a pastoreo más suplementación, mientras que 46 se terminaron en un típico feedlot de la zona central de Chile. En el músculo Longuissimus thoracis se determin

  15. Organic Beef Production - Sire Breed Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Leavy, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The results to date, from this sire breed comparison study indicate that with the contrasting Aberdeen Angus and Charolais sire breeds that is possible to achieve animal performance data comparable to well managed conventional suckler calf to beef systems (300 kg carcass for heifers in Nov and 400 kg carcass for steers in March). Similarly the responses to sire breed type, sex and date of slaughter for the organic beef animals are biologically compatible. Organic beef is produced under organi...

  16. Meat Standards Australia as an Innovation in the Australian Beef Production and Marketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Garry R.; Thompson, John M.; Polkinghorne, Rod; Gunner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Variable eating quality was identified as a major contributor to declining Australian beef consumption in the early 1990s. The primary issue was the inability to predict the eating quality of cooked beef before consumption. A R&D program funded by industry and Meat and Livestock Australia investigated the relationships between critical control points along the supply chain, cooking methods and beef palatability. These relationships were underpinned by extensive consumer taste panels. Out of t...

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  18. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents. PMID:27095377

  19. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Eckard, Richard J.; Cullen, Brendan R.; Bell, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock production systems and the agricultural industries in general face challenges to meet the global demand for food, whilst also minimizing their environmental impact through the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Livestock grazing systems in southern Australia are low input and reliant on pasture as a low-cost source of feed. The balance between productivity and GHG emission intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems was studied at sites chosen to represent a...

  20. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Beef heifer development and lifetime productivity in rangeland-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A J; Funston, R N; Grings, E E; Petersen, M K

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional and environmental factors have been shown to cause epigenetic changes that influence characteristics of the offspring throughout life. In livestock, small differences in nutrition during gestation may alter lifetime production efficiency of offspring. Therefore, the potential for fetal programing should be considered when determining supplemental feeding strategies during gestation. For example, female offspring born to cows grazing dormant winter pasture supplemented with 1.1 kg/d of alfalfa hay during the last third of gestation were 10 kg heavier and had greater BCS at 5 yr of age than those from dams supplemented with 1.8 kg/d of alfalfa hay. These differences were beneficial for maintaining reproductive performance in offspring managed with fewer harvested feed inputs. Evaluation of female offspring from cows wintered on either low-quality or high-quality pasture for 30 to 45 d during the fifth to sixth month of gestation indicated a trend for longer duration of productivity in daughters from cows wintered on improved pasture. In recent studies comparing offspring from cows with or without protein supplementation while grazing dormant winter range during late gestation, heifers from protein-supplemented dams had greater BW at weaning. This BW increase persisted throughout pregnancy and to subsequent calving, and pregnancy rates were greater in heifers from protein-supplemented dams. Heifers from protein-supplemented dams had lower G:F compared with heifers from unsupplemented dams. Therefore, in utero exposure to nutritionally limited environments (nonsupplemented dams) may promote greater feed efficiency in the heifer offspring later in life. Nutrition during postweaning development may also affect lifetime productivity. Heifers developed on low-quality native range with RUP supplementation had greater retention beyond 3 yr of age than cohorts developed in a feedlot with higher quality feed and greater ADG. Collectively, these examples show

  1. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  2. The relevance of methane emissions from beef production and the challenges of the Argentinean beef production platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearte, D H; Pordomingo, A J

    2014-11-01

    The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems. In Argentina, the livestock area was reduced in favor of increasing the grain cropping area, which took place in the last two decades. Production systems were intensified to maintain cattle stock. Cattle programs changed from 100% pasture to pasture supplemented with cereal grains and conserved forages, and confinement on grain feeding for fattening was incorporated. Due to land sharing competition with cash crops, no increment of cattle stock is expected therefore improving production efficiency appears as the only way to increase beef production while reducing methane emissions intensity. Beef produced on intensive grazing systems on supplemented pastures maintained organoleptic, nutritional and lipid profile than that of beef produced on pure grazing systems. PMID:25027797

  3. Beef production in balance: considerations for life cycle analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Sara E; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2012-11-01

    Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) are useful tools to analyze a product's "carbon footprint" (e.g., the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions expressed as standardized carbon dioxide equivalents per unit of product) considering all phases of the production chain. For beef, an LCA would include the GHG emissions from feed production, from the enteric fermentation of the cattle, from the cattle's waste, and from processing and transportation. Identifying the scope and scale of the LCA is critical and key to preventing inappropriate applications of the analysis (e.g., applying a global LCA for beef to the regional or national scale). Ideally, a LCA can integrate the complex biogeochemical processes responsible for GHG emissions and the disparate animal and agricultural management techniques used be different phases of the beef production chain (e.g., feedlot vs. cow-calf) and different production systems (e.g., conventional vs. organic). PMID:22551868

  4. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (psilage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  5. Eating quality of beef, from different production systems, assessed by German, Spanish and British consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M A; Nute, G R; Font I Furnols, M; San Julián, R; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Cañeque, V; Guerrero, L; Alvarez, I; Díaz, M T; Branscheid, W; Wicke, M; Montossi, F

    2006-11-01

    The acceptability of beef from Uruguay (UY), based on eating quality, was compared with beef produced in different European countries (Germany, DE, Spain, ES and United Kingdom, UK). Consumer tests were conducted in DE, ES and UK (each comprising 200 consumers) using 'Hall Tests'. In each country four samples were evaluated, two from Hereford steers from UY (finished at 2 and 3 years) and two from local meat (the same meat sample aged 7 or 20d). Consumers evaluated tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability using 8-point category scales. Hierarchical cluster analysis, highlighted the existence of different clusters of consumers. Two main clusters were identified in DE and UK. The main cluster identified in DE, was labelled as Prefer foreign-imported beef (n=128). These consumers preferred (Pmarket segmentation being based on taste preferences. It would appear that Uruguayan beef would be very acceptable in Germany and to a lesser extent in Britain and Spain, although further studies are required that include labelling information. PMID:22063047

  6. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models. PMID:24398839

  7. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions

  8. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  9. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  10. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( color ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem

  11. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  12. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  13. A TARGET CONSUMER PROFILE AND POSITIONING FOR PROMOTION OF A NEW LOCALLY BRANDED BEEF PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Thulin, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the consumer profile and positioning for a new locally branded beef product. The research involves 413 beef consumers in California. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are approximately one-third of beef consumers in the local area. They are older, married, and from higher dual-income households. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are likely to have purchased other branded beef products. Approximately one-half of the...

  14. The source and market development of a premium product - Beef from the Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champredonde, M

    2008-07-01

    The two main features of beef from the Argentine Pampas are its quality and geographical origin. In addition to the normal aspects of meat quality detected by sensory panels or measured by scientific instruments, the quality of Pampean beef includes the powerful symbolic quality of pampas life - the immensity of the green grasslands and the culture of the gaucho, living on horseback or sipping mate while making an asado (barbecue). This review defines the qualities and geographical origin of Pampean beef, and explains their interrelationships in terms of animal breed, nutrition and production systems. The objective is to help secure Pampean beef against unfair encroachment from competing products which lack the true authenticity of beef from the Argentine Pampas. PMID:22062914

  15. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART V: QUALITY ASSURANCE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with USDA:APHIS:VS to select a producer sample that was statistically designed to pr...

  16. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  17. Beef cattle on semi-natural grasslands - production of meat and nature conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hessle, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Beef production is performed in varying systems, with or without grazing, but the common goal is to obtain high-quality carcasses. Semi-natural grasslands are characterized by specific flora and fauna and they are dependent on grazing management to be maintained. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate factors influencing nature conservation, animal performance and meat quality in beef production using semi-natural grasslands in summer. In a first study, effects of breed and season on foraging...

  18. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  19. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  20. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  2. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  3. Southern Section Interdisciplinary Beef Cattle Symposium: Forage and co-product systems for stockers in the South: have fundamental shifts in markets changed the optimal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D L; Prevatt, J W

    2013-01-01

    Stockering calves in the southern United States has been an economically viable enterprise for decades. Historically, the system that yielded the best opportunity for profitability was to purchase lightweight calves (130 kg to 220 kg) in autumn, add 100 to 200 kg of BW gain, and sell them in the spring. In most years, the value of the BW gain was worth more than the cost of BW gain in this system. With the exponential price increases in feed, fuel, and fertilizer during 2008 and the significant increase in cattle prices, it is prudent to assess the potential for continued profitability in this segment of the beef industry. Evaluation of 37 grazing experiments indicated that the forage systems most likely to result in inexpensive costs of BW gain for stocker calves involve tall fescue with legumes or ryegrass with small grains. Even with increased input prices, these systems still yield economical BW gain for stocker calves. Likewise, many diets can be blended to produce ADG of 1 kg using co-products that are abundant across the South. With many of these co-products, the most important performance factor in determining their value is G:F. In several experiments, DMI has exceeded 3% of BW in stocker calves, and the resulting G:F has been less than desirable. Several experiments have reported G:F of 0.13 to 0.16, resulting in economical BW gain, whereas some experiments have reported G:F as low as 0.09, which could result in BW gain that costs more to produce than it is worth. From 1979, the value of BW gain for stocker calves in Alabama has averaged US$1.05/kg. However, in the last 3 yr, the value of BW gain has risen to $2.32/kg. Fundamental shifts in feed, fuel, and fertilizer prices experienced in the United States between 2005 and 2010 have markedly changed the amount of capital needed to purchase several hundred stocker calves and to provide adequate feedstuffs for BW gain. However, the value of BW gain associated with producing feeder calves from those stockers

  4. The suitability for organic cattle beef production of mixed farming systems in the highlands of north east Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Jaime; Rodrigues, M. A.; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Bernardo, Adelino; Pires, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Resendes, Hugo; Ferreira, Maria; Silva, Infância; Moreira, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Two beef cattle farms (Farm 1 – “Barrosã” breed – Montalegre and Farm 2 – “Mirandesa” breed – Vinhais) were monitored for a year (autumn 2002-03) – Farm activities, inputs, outputs, yields components and flows were recorde

  5. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  6. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for beef tenderness: consumer assessments of eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Greenwood, P L

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of calpain-system genetic markers on consumer beef quality ratings, including interactions of marker effects with hormonal growth promotant (HGP) use and tenderstretch hanging. Brahman cattle in New South Wales (NSW; n = 164) and Western Australia (WA; n = 141) were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds to achieve balance and divergence in calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene marker status. Genotypes for μ-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined. Angus cattle (49 in NSW, 17 in WA) with favorable CAST and CAPN3 alleles, balanced for CAPN1-316 status, were also studied. Half the cattle at each site had HGP (Revalor-H, containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg 17β-estradiol) implants during grain finishing. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis [tenderstretch (TS)]. Meat Standards Australia consumer panels scored 7-d aged striploin steaks from both AT and TS sides, and 7-d aged rump and oyster blade steaks from the AT side of each carcass. Two favorable CAST alleles increased tenderness ratings of AT-striploin, TS-striploin, rump, and oyster blade steaks by, respectively, 6.1, 4.2, 4.2, and 3.1 units, and overall liking by 4.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.7 (all P Brahman steaks from the same location with the same marker alleles had similar scores. In contrast, NSW Angus striploin steaks scored about 15 units greater for tenderness and overall liking (P quality, consistent with our previous findings for objective meat quality. PMID:22367069

  7. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Eckard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq. intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively, whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively. Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  8. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. PMID:26952213

  9. Demand System Analysis of the South Korean Beef Market with the Free Trade Demand Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    In this study a demand system analysis for beef in South Korea is constructed. A free trade demand system was used in which the economic welfare of market participants are maximized. Recognizing implicit discrimination about non-locally sourced beef products, this study deduces market demand equations with respect to consumer preference in order to identify the marginal effect of change consumer preference has on market demand.

  10. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context. PMID:26117397

  11. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (d) Fabricated steak. Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef..., Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped—Molded—Cubed—Frozen, Hydrolyzed...

  12. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  13. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E

    2013-04-01

    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P0.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem). PMID:23305833

  14. Environmental footprints of beef production at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska were determined to quantify improvements achieved over the past 40 years. Relevant information for MARC operations was gathered and used to represent their production system with the...

  15. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  16. Alternatives for large-scale production of cultured beef:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matilda S M Moritz; Sanne E L Verbruggen; Mark J Post

    2015-01-01

    Cultured beef is a method where stem cel s from skeletal muscle of cows are cultured in vitro to gain edible muscle tissue. For large-scale production of cultured beef, the culture technique needs to become more efifcient than today’s 2-dimensional (2D) standard technique that was used to make the ifrst cultured hamburger. Options for efifcient large-scale production of stem cel s are to culture cel s on microcarriers, either in suspension or in a packed bed bioreactor, or to culture aggregated cel s in suspension. We discuss the pros and cons of these systems as wel as the possibilities to use the systems for tissue culture. Either of the production systems needs to be optimized to achieve an efifcient production of cultured beef. It is anticipated that the optimization of large-scale cel culture as performed for other stem cel s can be translated into successful protocols for bovine satel ite cel s resulting in resource and cost efifcient cultured beef.

  17. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork and poultry products during chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of C. perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in ten commercially prepared acidified beef, pork and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted using organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commer...

  18. Economic Analysis of Pharmaceutical Technologies in Modern Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, John D.; Ibarburu, Maro A.

    2007-01-01

    Cattle production is the largest single agricultural sector in the U.S. with cash receipts of $49.2 billion in 2005. Like the rest of agriculture cattle producers have adopted efficiency and quality improving technology to meet consumer demands for a safe, wholesome, and affordable food supply. This research uses meta analysis to combine over 170 research trials evaluating pharmaceutical technologies in the cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot segments of beef production. These results were used to...

  19. Technology of production of beef of special quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski Zlatica; Aleksić Stevica; Cmiljanić Ratimir; Škrbić Zdenka; Lukić Miloš; Stojanović Ljiljana

    2004-01-01

    By applying the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances with French fattening/meat breeds (Charolais and Limousine) young cattle is obtained with better fattening traits as well as traits of carcass and meat quality. Application of the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances, beside significant increase of the quantity of high quality beef meat, would also have positive effect on the economical...

  20. Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. However, little information exists on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net...

  1. Organic beef and sheep production (OF0147)

    OpenAIRE

    Keatinge, Ray

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report from Defra project OF0147 To study the potential of organic farming in the hills and uplands, a comparison of organic and conventional production systems at similar stocking rates was made at ADAS Redesdale. This was supported by additional assessments in two further organic flocks, managed at reduced stocking rates, and by data collection on 10 commercial organic farms. Data were provided on physical and financial performance, animal health and welfare, and change...

  2. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  3. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING CONSUMERS' FRESH BEEF CUT PURCHASING DECISIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, JAPAN, AND AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, Glade R.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; SHI, HONGQI

    1998-01-01

    The effects of product and economic characteristics on consumers who purchase six cuts of fresh beef (blocks/parts, steak, thinly sliced, diced, chopped, and ground) in urban areas of the United States, Japan, and Australia will be examined in this paper. Certain product characteristics (such as product freshness and display case cleanliness) were important to consumers of beef in all three countries while other product characteristics (such as price considerations for ground beef consumers) ...

  4. The water footprint of English beef and lamb production

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterton, Julia C.; Hess, Tim M.; Williams, Adrian G

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports highlighting large quantities of water required to produce a kilo of meat have attracted media attention, leading to debates over the role of meat in a sustainable diet. Such reports frequently quote figures based on global averages and therefore conceal significant regional variation, ignoring the source of the water required and local climatic conditions. This report attempts to quantify the water footprint of English beef and lamb production, combining the water simulation m...

  5. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Ki Hong; Hwang, Yoon Seon; Kim, Young Boong; Kim, Eun Mi; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP...

  6. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  7. Climate impact of beef: an analysis considering multiple time scales and production methods without use of global warming potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Eshel, G.

    2015-08-01

    An analysis of the climate impact of various forms of beef production is carried out, with a particular eye to the comparison between systems relying primarily on grasses grown in pasture (‘grass-fed’ or ‘pastured’ beef) and systems involving substantial use of manufactured feed requiring significant external inputs in the form of synthetic fertilizer and mechanized agriculture (‘feedlot’ beef). The climate impact is evaluated without employing metrics such as {{CO}}2{{e}} or global warming potentials. The analysis evaluates the impact at all time scales out to 1000 years. It is concluded that certain forms of pastured beef production have substantially lower climate impact than feedlot systems. However, pastured systems that require significant synthetic fertilization, inputs from supplemental feed, or deforestation to create pasture, have substantially greater climate impact at all time scales than the feedlot and dairy-associated systems analyzed. Even the best pastured system analyzed has enough climate impact to justify efforts to limit future growth of beef production, which in any event would be necessary if climate and other ecological concerns were met by a transition to primarily pasture-based systems. Alternate mitigation options are discussed, but barring unforseen technological breakthroughs worldwide consumption at current North American per capita rates appears incompatible with a 2 °C warming target.

  8. ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF CHANGING FEED-BEEF PRICE RELATIONSHIPS ON BEEF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN HAWAII: A DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    van Poollen, H. Walter; Leung, PingSun

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic programming approach was used to evaluate the effect of changing the feed input to product price relationship on the beef production management decision process. The dynamic programming model consists of nine submodels describing and analyzing the time-dependent beef production management decision process. The model incorporates biological functions and economic principles. Results clearly showed the importance of the feed-beef price relationships in management decision making. Opti...

  9. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  10. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, R.A.; Catrileo, A.; Larraín, R.; Vera, R.; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which uti

  11. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  12. Beef HACCP: intervention and non-intervention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J

    2001-05-21

    While there are several generic beef HACCP documents available to the beef industry, these lack sufficient detail to be of any use other than as a general guide to HACCP. A document which clearly identifies and provides a sound scientific basis for potential critical control points (CCPs') and details critical limits, monitoring and corrective actions is clearly required. The objective of this paper is to provide such information. A detailed description of CCPs' for two different HACCP systems (an intervention and a non-intervention system) are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Individual beef plants may then make an informed choice as to which HACCP system is most suitable for them and have all the specific information required for effective implementation. PMID:11407541

  13. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  14. Comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment is being conducted by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, a contractor to the beef checkoff, to develop better scientific understanding of the sustainability of beef. This includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions along with other environmental, ...

  15. Fast biodiesel production from beef tallow with radio frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States); Oh, Jun-Hyun [Department of Plant Science and Technology, Sangmyung University (Korea, Republic of); Herring, Josh L. [Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Efficient biodiesel production from beef tallow was achieved with radio frequency (RF) heating. A conversion rate of 96.3 {+-} 0.5% was obtained with a NaOH concentration of 0.6% (based on tallow), an RF heating for 5 min, and a methanol/tallow molar ratio of 9:1. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the influence of NaOH dose, RF heating time, and methanol/tallow ratio. The alkaline concentration showed the largest positive impact on the conversion rate. Similar fast conversion from canola oil to biodiesel was achieved in our previous work, indicating that RF heating, as an accelerating technique for biodiesel production, had a large applying area. Viscosities of biodiesel products from beef tallow and canola oil were measured as 5.23 {+-} 0.01 and 4.86 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, both meeting the specification in ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). (author)

  16. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... intact products, household consumers, hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions may incorrectly... notice, HACCP Plan Reassessment for Mechanically Tenderized Beef Products (May 26, 2005; 70 FR 30331... product is mechanically tenderized. This increases the likelihood that household consumers,...

  17. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra;

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness......, United Kingdom and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with...... insights obtained from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating...

  18. Consumers’ Willingness-to-Pay for Retail Branded Beef Products with Bundled Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Jason R.V.; Parcell, Joseph L.; Tonsor, Glynn T.

    2011-01-01

    With a declining share of the domestic meat market, some beef producers are becoming more attentive to opportunities for value-added products tailored to the desires of certain consumer segments. Using a survey of St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri meat consumers, this study investigates perceptions of and willingness-to-pay for various value-added attributes that could be supplied as retail branded beef products. Factor analysis identifies two alternative attribute bundles as branding strat...

  19. Estimating enteric methane emissions from Chilean beef fattening systems using a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, RA; Catrileo, A; Larraín, R; Vera, R; Velásquez, A.; Toneatti, M; France, J; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A mechanistic model (COWPOLL) was used to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions from beef production systems in Chile. The results expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) were compared with enteric fermentation data reported in the last Chilean greenhouse gases inventory, which utilized an earlier the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Tier 2 approach. The simulation analysis was based on information from feedstuffs, dry ma...

  20. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  1. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  2. THE DEMAND FOR BEEF PRODUCTS: CROSS-SECTION ESTIMATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Heien, Dale; Pompelli, Greg

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the economic and demographic effects on the demand for steak, roast, and ground beef. Using an almost ideal demand system, the results indicate that demand is inelastic for steak and ground beef, elastic for roast, cross-price effects are significant, and all goods are Hicks-Allen substitutes. The impact of certain demographic effects, such as household size, region, tenancy, and ethnic origin, was generally quite significant. Other demographic variables, such...

  3. The role of geographical labelling in inserting extensive cattle systems into beef marketing channels. Evidence from three Spanish case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Bardají Azcaráte, Isabel; Atance Muñiz, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    The beef cattle sector is adapting to increasing demand-side requirements. Customers are looking for a differentiated product of constant quality in a market that is beginning to be dominated by major distribution companies. In this background, mechanisms to differentiate production are being implemented to co-ordinate both production and marketing processes and integrate livestock farmers into the commercial system. Extensive cattle systems carry an important weight in Spain because of their...

  4. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  5. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki Hong; Hwang, Yoon Seon; Kim, Young Boong; Kim, Eun Mi; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP ratios, the L and b values for color decreased, while the a value increased, from that in the control. The hardness of the noodles treated with BG increased with increasing mixture ratios, but hardness decreased in the BC and BP treatments with increasing mixture ratios (pnoodles with the largest beef composition in the mixtures of each treatment exhibited the highest turbidity scores, which was believed to be because the solid contents would be transferred to the soup during heating. In the sensory evaluation of cooked noodles, the BG 10%, BC 9%, and BP 1% treatments exhibited the best color. In an overall preference test, 20% of BG and 3% of BP could be added to the noodles. The best palatability was exhibited by the BG 10%, BC 13%, and BP 3% treatments. PMID:26761675

  6. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  7. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  8. RESEARCH OF MICROWAVE'S INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF DELICIOUS PRODUCTS FROM BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kozlova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.

  9. Tipologia de sistemas de produção bovina com ênfase na ocorrência de ectoparasitoses Typology of beef cattle production systems related to ectoparasitosis frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Funck Teixeira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para identificar, por meio da utilização de procedimentos de pesquisa diagnóstica, características dos sistemas de produção relacionadas à ocorrência de ectoparasitos. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas em 62 propriedades, cujos dados foram analisados por procedimentos estatísticos multivariados. Observou-se maior importância da área das propriedades, do manejo de pastagens e da freqüência de visitas do proprietário ao seu estabelecimento. O método utilizado, a época e a freqüência das aplicações de carrapaticidas destacaram-se entre as medidas de controle de ectoparasitoses. Os resultados reafirmaram a importância dos procedimentos de pesquisa diagnóstica como ferramenta de identificação de problemas técnicos e econômicos de sistemas de produção e de representação de sua diversidade, subsídios indispensáveis para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos experimentais mais coerentes com a realidade produtiva do estado.This study was carried out to identify, by using diagnostic research procedures, characteristics of production systems related to the occurrence of ectoparasites. Data of semi-structuralized interviews in 62 farms were analyzed by multivariate statistical procedures. Greater importance was observed for the property area, pasture management and the frequency of the property visits to his establishment. The used method, the season and the frequency of the applications of tick pesticides differed among the control types of ectoparasites. The results reaffirmed the importance of the research diagnostic procedures as tool of identification of economic and technician problems of production systems and representation of its diversity, indispensable subsidies for the development of more coherent experimental works with the productive reality of the state.

  10. The effect of production system and age on levels of iron, taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine in beef muscles and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Busboom, J R

    2005-08-01

    Samples of longissimus (LL) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles from Angus-cross heifers finished either on a high-concentrate ration in Washington, USA, (US cattle, n=15) or on pasture in New Zealand (NZ cattle, n=16) were assessed for composition characteristics. Half of the NZ cattle were of a similar age to the US cattle (NZAge) and half were of a similar weight (NZWt). Iron concentration was higher in TB (20.9 vs. 17.5μgg(-1); Pcarnosine, creatine and creatinine, as expected for a muscle with a more aerobic metabolism. These differences were magnified for the even more aerobic cheek muscle. Differences between the two NZ groups were small, but muscles from the US cattle contained less taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatinine. Reasons for these differences in various meat components for similar cattle from different production systems are not clear. PMID:22063884

  11. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.; Bello, M.; Umoh, V.J.; Yakubu, S.E.; Nok, A.J.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2013-01-01

    related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were......Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products. This is...... more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef and...

  12. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups... Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 317 Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA....

  13. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  14. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  15. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereal grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs. 0.95 kg/day; P<0.05, required a prolonged finishing period (172 vs. 155 days; P<0.05 than the confined animals. Meat samples from grazing cattle were less tender (shear force: 3.92 vs. 3.24 kg/cm2; P<0.05 and showed a lower lightness (L*: 33.0 vs. 35.8; P<0.001 and a higher redness (15.4 vs. 13.7; P<0.01 and yellowness (15.6 vs. 14.6; P<0.05. Fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat was significantly affected by the finishing system. Grazing heifers had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.06 vs. 3.66% of total fatty acids; P<0.05, conjugated linoleic acids (0.16 vs. 0.10% of total fatty acids; P<0.01 and ω-3 (0.44 vs. 0.30% of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  16. Climate metrics and the carbon footprint of livestock products: where’s the beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U. Martin; Johansson, Daniel J. A.; Cederberg, Christel; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bryngelsson, David

    2015-03-01

    The livestock sector is estimated to account for 15% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 80% of which originate from ruminant animal systems due to high emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management. However, recent analyses have argued that the carbon footprint (CF) of ruminant meat and dairy products are substantially reduced if one adopts alternative metrics for comparing emissions of GHGs—e.g., the 100 year global temperature change potential (GTP100), instead of the commonly used 100 year global warming potential (GWP100)—due to a lower valuation of CH4 emissions. This raises the question of which metric to use. Ideally, the choice of metric should be related to a climate policy goal. Here, we argue that basing current GHG metrics solely on temperature impact 100 years into the future is inconsistent with the current global climate goal of limiting warming to 2 °C, a limit that is likely to be reached well within 100 years. A reasonable GTP value for CH4, accounting for current projections for when 2 °C warming will be reached, is about 18, leading to a current CF of 19 kg CO2-eq. per kilo beef (carcass weight, average European system), 20% lower than if evaluated using GWP100. Further, we show that an application of the GTP metric consistent with a 2 °C climate limit leads to the valuation of CH4 increasing rapidly over time as the temperature ceiling is approached. This means that the CF for beef would rise by around 2.5% per year in the coming decades, surpassing the GWP based footprint in only ten years. Consequently, the impact on the livestock sector of substituting GTPs for GWPs would be modest in the near term, but could potentially be very large in the future due to a much higher (>50%) and rapidly appreciating CF.

  17. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  18. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. PMID:26995773

  19. ANALYSIS OF LABOR USE AND PROFITABILITY IN THREE PASTURE SYSTEMS FOR THE GRASS-FED BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Basu Deb; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    An experiment to compare three pasture systems was conducted at the Iberia Research Station in Jeanerette, Louisiana, for five consecutive years from 2009/10 to 2013/14. System 1 included of bermudagrass and ryegrass pasture; System 2 included bermudagrass, ryegrass, clover mix (berseem, red and white clovers), rye, and dallisgrass; and System 3 included bermudagrass, ryegrass, sorghum sudan, soybeans, clover mix (berseem, red and white clovers), rye, and dallisgrass. Fifty-four May-weaned st...

  20. Produtividade e Eficiência Biológica de Sistemas de Recria e Engorda de Gado de Corte no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and Biological Efficiency of Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Systems in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Beretta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas, por meio de simulações, a produtividade e a eficiência de sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Rio Grande do Sul, diferindo na idade de abate (IA dos novilhos (54, 42, 36, 30, 24 e 18 meses, IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectivamente, ou nos pesos de compra e venda (sistemas especializados na recria desde 150 a 250 kg - R1, recria de 250 a 350 kg - R2 ou engorda desde 350 a 450 kg -R3. Foi utilizado um modelo estático determinístico, representando os sistemas em equilíbrio. O manejo alimentar foi caracterizado para cada sistema com base em dados bibliográficos, conforme a IA estabelecida, enquanto os sistemas R1, R2 e R3 foram avaliados somente em campo nativo. Houve uma resposta em produtividade de tipo quadrático à redução na IA, atingindo o menor valor (65 kg/ha no sistema IA54 e o maior no IA18 (343 kg/ha. O custo energético por quilo de peso vivo produzido aumentou em 1,19 Mcal EM/kg a cada mês a mais na IA. Associada à redução da IA, a proporção de pastagens melhoradas cresceu até 68% da área de pastejo, possibilitando um aumento paralelo da carga e do ganho médio diário. A diminuição do peso de compra e venda dos animais, para um mesmo ganho total de peso vivo, aumentou a produtividade das empresas (R1=113; R2=81; R3=63 kg/ha, demonstrando ser a especialização na produção uma alternativa de melhoria em sistemas dependentes exclusivamente do campo nativo.A static deterministic model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of growing and finishing beef steers systems in Rio Grande do Sul State differing at steers slaughter age (IA: 54, 42, 36, 30, 24 and 18 months (IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectively, or in market live weight for buying and sale (cattle growing systems from 150 to 250 kg -R1, from 250 to 350 kg -R2, or finishing cattle from 350 to 450 kg -R3. Feeding management was described for each system based on published reports according to IA, while

  1. Organic beef and sheep production in the uplands OF0111

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the organic project at ADAS Redesdale is to evaluate the physical and financial implicattions of converting a hill and upland unit to an organic farming system. Conversion of 400 hectares, 600 breeding ewes (in 3 flocks) and 5 suckler cows was completed in 1993. The current evaluation (1995-1998) took place under full organic production. The assessmet is based on comparing organic and conventioanl farming systems, supported by data collected from commercial organic...

  2. The comparison of conventional beef production and bio-production using the method of life cycle assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plch, Radek; Jiroušková, Z.; Cudlín, Pavel; Moudrý, J. SR.

    Olomouc: Bioinstitut, 2011 - (Šarapatka, B.), s. 90-94 ISBN 978-80-87371-12-1. [3rd scientific conference 2011. Praha (CZ), 14.11.2011-15.11.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : conventional and bio-production * beef * LCA method Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Estimating the Value of Retail Beef Product Brands and Other Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper finds wide variation in brand premiums and discounts across types of branded beef cuts, ranging from -98 cents for a brand of ground beef targeting cost-conscious consumers to $4.15 for a brand of steak produced by a family-operated beef alliance. Other factors affecting beef cut prices include package size, price promotions, store format, ground beef leanness, type of steak cut, and geographic region where the beef was purchased.

  4. Okara, a soymilk industry by-product, as a non-meat protein source in reduced fat beef burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ing Tie Su

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okara is a by-product generated during the manufacture of soymilk and tofu. Wet okara was added to beef burgers at 0%, 20%, and 25%. The effects of okara on certain physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of reduced fat beef burgers were investigated. The beef burgers formulated with okara (104.0-106.0 kcal/100 g had 60% less calories than commercial beef burgers (268.8 kcal/100 g. The texture profile analysis showed that the addition of wet okara led to a significant increase in hardness (p < 0.05 and a concomitant reduction in the values of chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Lower sensory scores (p < 0.05 of flavour were observed in the beef burgers containing 25% wet okara. However, the sensory evaluation results showed that juiciness, appearance, tenderness, and overall acceptability of beef burgers formulated with okara did not differ statistically from that of the control (0% okara. Wet okara (20% can be used as a non-meat protein source in the production of reduced-fat beef burgers without changing their sensory quality.

  5. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  6. The MAGTAG-system and market-oriented quality control: Possibilities in the Danish beef sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plichta, Kirsten; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    1995-01-01

    standards and quality grades in the retail market for beef. * The advantage of using the MAGTAG-system for developing new credence characteristics depends on consumer preferences for such attributes and on the retailers' ability to standardize the quality of ordinary as well as ecological or 'ethical' meat....... * The MAGTAG-system is conceived of as technology which provides opportunities for: 1) developing quality standards for selected quality characteristics of cattle and meat; 2) quality control; the information may form a basis for understanding the causes of quality variation and of specifying ways of...... utilization and the transaction cost related to imperfect fitting between established criteria for payment and the highly valued quality attributes in down producers, lack of product standards and quality grades in the final market, which increase buyers' cost of evaluating different quality distributions of...

  7. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver;

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  8. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had jerky packaging, ranging from 1.26 to 1.72 log CFU/cm(2); however, at 72 h, mean L. monocytogenes reductions were >2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage. PMID:21333136

  9. Prediction of Fertility of Virginia Beef Heifers Using Expert Systems Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson II, Lawriston A

    1996-01-01

    An expert system to predict the fertility of beef heifers was developed using the A.I. Toolkit KAPPA-PC 2.33. The knowledge base was developed from scientific literature and from a beef cattle reproduction expert. The expert system computes an evaluation age, age both at the start and end of the breeding season, and weight per day of age to classify a heifer as having either a 3LOW2, 3GOOD2, or 3EXCELLENT2 likelihood of conception. The expert system summari...

  10. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  11. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  12. Expected and experienced quality as predictors of intention to purchase four new processsed beef products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Faiza; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores consumers‟ perception of quality of new processed beef products and the role of expected and experienced quality in the formation of consumer‟s purchase intentions. Based on the Total Food Quality Model, a conceptual framework is developed that relates cue evaluation, expected...... quality, experienced quality, purchase motive fulfillment and purchase intention. Structural equation modeling is used to test the framework with data from a sample of 201 respondents. Results show that cue evaluations, expected/experienced quality and purchase motive fulfillment all are predictors...

  13. Effect of Temperature and Retention Time on Methane Production from Beef Cattle Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of temperature and retention time on the rate of methane production from waste of beef cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated by using continuously mixed 3-liter working volume anaerobic fermentors. The temperatures ranged from 30 to 65°C with 5°C increments between fermentors. The fermentors were fed once per day with 6% volatile solids (organic matter). Retention time for each temperature was varied from 18 to 2.5 days. After 3-volume turnovers, samples were obtained on 4 c...

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  17. Health promoting values of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Migdał W.; Živković B.; Migdał Ł.

    2009-01-01

    The beef meat is mainly used as culinary cuts. The culinary value of beef and veal meat is determined by tenderness and palatability. 23% of meat produced in Europe (about 7,5 mln ton) is beef, veal production is estimated about 800 000 ton per year. Biggest producers of beef and veal are France (30%), Netherlands (26%), Italy (18%) Belgium (7%) and Germany (6%). 70% of beef and veal produced in Europe is consumed by French and Germans. Beef contains proteins (18 -23%) which have high biologi...

  18. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R.; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N.; Linke, Lyndsey M.; Magnuson, Roberta J.; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica, E. coli, and C. botulinum were greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes. PMID:26873315

  19. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R; Jones, Kenneth L; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-04-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni,C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica,E. coli, and C. botulinumwere greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes. PMID:26873315

  20. The Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare,

    2001-01-01

    Content: 1) Introduction 2) State of the Industry 3) Hosing Systems 4) Behaviour of Cattle 5)Effect of Housing on the Welfare of the Animals 6) the effects of Management on Cattle Welfare 7)Futere Research Needed 8) Conclusions 9) Recommodations 10) References 11) Acknowledgements

  1. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PASTURE-RAISED BEEF SYSTEMS IN APPALACHIA

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jason R.; D'Souza, Gerard E.; Sperow, Mark; Rayburn, Edward B.

    2004-01-01

    Cow-calf operations are important enterprises for family farmers in Appalachia and provide significant opportunity for supplemental income. This analysis constitutes a thorough economic assessment of pasture-raised beef production, an alternative to traditional production that could benefit the region's producers in terms of profitability and mitigated risk. Stochastic budgeting was utilized for profitability and risk comparison between traditional and pasture-raised operations and accounted ...

  2. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  3. The effects of resynchronization of estrus using the 5 d CO-Synch + CIDR system in beef heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Liles, Amanda Gail

    2008-01-01

    The effects of resynchronization of estrus using the 5 d CO-Synch + CIDR system in beef heifers Amanda Gail Liles ABSTRACT Recent efforts have improved synchronization systems that facilitate timed insemination in beef cattle. However, synchronization systems utilizing a single fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) frequently result in 25-40% non-pregnant heifers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness and define economic parameters of a FTAI resynchro...

  4. Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction of Beef Tallow For Biodiesel Production By Factor Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ehiri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel grade fuel made by transesterification reaction of vegetable oils and animal fats with alcohol. Three variable factors that affect the yield of biodiesel namely, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration were studied in this work. The biodiesel was produced via a batchprocess acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction of beef tallow with methanol. Optimal conditions for the reaction were established in a three factor two-level (23 central composite design with the biodiesel pretreatment yield as the response surface. The results show that the mean yield of biodiesel was 92.04% with a standard deviation of 5.16. An optimal biodiesel yield of 96.30% occurred at 0.5% HCl catalyst concentration and at constant conditions of 1.5h reaction time, 60oC reaction temperature and 6:1 methanol: tallow volume ratio. Gas chromatographic analysis of the beef tallow identified palmitic, stearic and oleic acids in it while the fatty acid methyl esters in the biodiesel product were oleate and linoleate. Catalysis was the most significant factor in the transesterification process.

  5. 75 FR 10460 - Improving Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health... Food Safety Inspection Service Improving Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef Product AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), USDA. ACTION: Notice of public...

  6. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Giulio Cozzi; Barbara Contiero; Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1) Housing systems and facilities; 2) Health and cleanlines...

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M Ali, Hikmah; J. A. Syamsu1

    2014-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS Agustina Abdullah 1*), J. A.Syamsu 1) dan Hikmah M.A 1) 1) Faculty of Animal Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. * Corresponding author : Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar - 90245 South Sulawesi. Email address : ABSTRACT Integrated farming systems of beef cattle with paddy is the best strategy to improve the op...

  8. Effects of early weaning on finishing feed efficiency, marbling development and retail product quality of beef steers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jason Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    Beef cattle producers continuously search for nutritional management options that provide flexibility to production scenarios. Due to its positive effects on maternal productivity, early weaning is one such alternative strategy that has received considerable interest. To better understand the effects of early weaning on calf productivity, an extensive literature review and three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of early weaning on finishing feed efficiency, marbling develo...

  9. Nitrogen food-print: N use and N cascade from livestock systems in relation to pork, beef and milk supply to Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimpiros, P.; Barles, S.

    2012-02-01

    A bottom-up approach is constructed to determine N losses from livestock farming systems and to relate these losses to the supply of fresh milk, pig and beef to Paris. First, the three products are expressed in terms of their nitrogen content; then, their fodder equivalent is determined by modelling feed formulas for swine, beef and dairy cows to meet their energy and protein requirements. Fodder deficits in livestock farms are determined by comparing the nutrient requirements of the livestock with the fodder production on the livestock farms. This allowed determining the geography of the livestock systems according to the imports of fodder to the livestock farms from external crop farms. Then we assessed the "farm-gate" N budgets in all crop and livestock farms of the entire livestock systems using data on total N fertilization, atmospheric deposition and manure management practices to finally derive N losses in relation to fodder cultivation and to manure management. Measured in N, the supply of milk, beef and pig to Paris sum 1.85 kg N/cap and the corresponding N losses from the farming systems total 8.9 kg N/cap. N losses per unit of product differ among the three livestock systems according to where and how the fodder is grown and to what densities the livestock is reared.

  10. Nitrogen food-print: N use and N cascade from livestock systems in relation to pork, beef and milk supply to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatzimpiros

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A bottom-up approach is constructed to determine N losses from livestock farming systems and to relate these losses to the supply of fresh milk, pig and beef to Paris. First, the three products are expressed in terms of their nitrogen content; then, their fodder equivalent is determined by modelling feed formulas for swine, beef and dairy cows to meet their energy and protein requirements. Fodder deficits in livestock farms are determined by comparing the nutrient requirements of the livestock with the fodder production on the livestock farms. This allowed determining the geography of the livestock systems according to the imports of fodder to the livestock farms from external crop farms. Then we assessed the "farm-gate" N budgets in all crop and livestock farms of the entire livestock systems using data on total N fertilization, atmospheric deposition and manure management practices to finally derive N losses in relation to fodder cultivation and to manure management. Measured in N, the supply of milk, beef and pig to Paris sum 1.85 kg N/cap and the corresponding N losses from the farming systems total 8.9 kg N/cap. N losses per unit of product differ among the three livestock systems according to where and how the fodder is grown and to what densities the livestock is reared.

  11. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology. PMID:24589421

  12. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  13. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawish, Reyad R; Al-Humam, Naser A

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs) in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon) were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of S. aureus. Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates. The percentage presence of S. aureus in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted. PMID:27088066

  14. Influence of home cooking conditions on Maillard reaction products in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Aurea Juliana Bombo; de Almeida Lima, Daniele; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Markowicz Bastos, Deborah Helena

    2016-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods on the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRP) in beef was investigated. Grilling and frying hamburgers to an internal temperature below 90 °C mainly generated furosine. When the temperature reached 90 °C and 100 °C, furosine content decreased by 36% and fluorescent compounds increased by up to 98%. Baking meat at 300 °C, the most severe heat treatment studied, resulted in the formation of carboxymethyllysine. Boiling in water caused very low MRP formation. Acrylamide concentrations in grilled, fried or baked meat were extremely low. Home cooking conditions leading to low MRP generation and pleasant colours were obtained and could be used to guide diabetic and chronic renal patients on how to reduce their carboxymethyllysine intake. PMID:26593478

  15. Effects of CSN3 and LGB gene polymorphisms on production traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII gene polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups, and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in these animals, which are submitted to an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 79 Nelore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu and 275 crossbred cattle originating from the crosses of Simmental (n = 30 and Angus (n = 245 sires with Nelore females. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the GLM procedure, and least square means of the genotypes were compared by the F test. The results showed that the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII polymorphisms did not have any effect on growth or carcass traits (p > 0.05.

  16. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  17. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Zungur; Berker Nacak; Meltem Serdaroglu

    2015-01-01

    Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*). Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking ...

  18. Effects of nisin and temperature on survival, growth, and enterotoxin production characteristics of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus in beef gravy.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchat, L. R.; Clavero, M R; Jaquette, C B

    1997-01-01

    The presence of psychrotrophic enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus in ready-to-serve meats and meat products that have not been subjected to sterilization treatment is a public health concern. A study was undertaken to determine the survival, growth, and diarrheal enterotoxin production characteristics of four strains of psychrotrophic B. cereus in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and beef gravy as affected by temperature and supplementation with nisin. A portion of unheated vegetative cells from...

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  20. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  1. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  2. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  3. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  4. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake) on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Branciari; David Ranucci; Dino Miraglia; Stefania Urbani; Sonia Esposto; Maurizio Servili

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a...

  5. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  6. Transmission of beef and veal prices in different marketing channels

    OpenAIRE

    El Benni, Nadja; Finger, Robert; Hediger, Werner

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates price transmission in beef and veal markets in Switzerland. We extend earlier research by analyzing both prices in one system and considering two different marketing channels for meat. VAR and VEC models are estimated using monthly up- and downstream prices collected at the processors’ level for 2004-2013. Tests on Granger causality for these markets suggest that a) multiple product investigation should be preferred over beef (or veal) only analysis and b) the results ...

  7. A Market Analysis for Specialty Beef in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Virginia beef producers have been overwhelmed with increasing costs and decreasing profits as well as facing challenges such as development pressures, drought, increasing competition for grazing land. Together these have reduced opportunities for expansion and often increased incentives for farmers to sell land for non-agriculture use. Nevertheless, opportunities exist for the Virginia beef market. Consumer demand is changing and consumers are seeking food from alternative production systems ...

  8. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  9. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  10. Produtividade e eficiência biológica de sistemas pecuários de cria diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto e na taxa de natalidade do rebanho no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and biological efficiency of beef cow-calf systems differing in age at first calving and herd calving rate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Beretta

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada por intermédio da simulação a produtividade e eficiência de sistemas de criação de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto (IP, anos e na taxa de natalidade (TN: "Sistema Tradicional" (ST IP=4; "Sistema Melhorado" (SM IP=3; e o "Sistema Um Ano" (SU IP=2. Em cada sistema foi avaliado o efeito da TN variando entre 50 e 90%. Foi usado um modelo estático determinístico. A resposta em produtividade e eficiência à redução na IP foi dependente da TN. No SM e SU foi determinada resposta curvilinear a aumentos na TN, atingindo uma produção máxima de 83,9 e 77,9 quilos de bezerro desmamado (BD/ha com TN de 82,5 e 92,3%, respectivamente. No ST a resposta foi linear, com aumentos de 6,1 kg BD/ha a cada 10% de aumento na TN. O custo energético por quilo BD produzido diminuiu linearmente, na medida em que a TN aumentou.A simulation model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of beef cow-calf systems in Rio Grande do Sul State with different heifers first calving age (CA, years and calving rates (CR: "Traditional System" (TS CA=4; "Improved System (IS" CA=3; "One Year System (OYS" CA=2. In each system it was studied the effect of CR varying from 50 to 90%. A statistic deterministic model was used. The effect of reducing CA on productivity and efficiency was dependent of CR. IS and OYS showed a quadratic response curve, with maximum production of 83,9 and 77,9 kg of weaned calf (WC/ ha for CR of 82,5 and 92,3%, respectively. TS response was linear, with increments of 6,1 kg WC/ha for each 10% increase in CR. Energetic cost per quilogram of WC was reduced linearly with increments in CR.

  11. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips. PMID:27420997

  12. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  13. Designing Sustainable Production and Distribution Scenarios for the Beef and Pork Supply Chains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Dondè

    2016-08-01

    The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.

  14. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  15. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. PMID:23644048

  16. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or...

  17. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to hire a Federal Grader to certify the quality of its product. Beef grades are USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, ... beef within 2 days after purchase for maximum quality. What is the safe food ... (not ready-to-eat) meat and poultry packages. The label tells the consumer ...

  18. Influence of production and postmortem technologies on composition and palatability of USDA Select grade beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, A Y; Gomide, L A; Mills, E W; Lemenager, R P; Judge, M D

    1994-05-01

    Improvement of USDA Select grade beef is essential for consumer acceptance of leaner beef. Seventy-two large- and medium-framed steer calves of mixed breeding were used in two experiments to evaluate feedlot performance, carcass composition, and beef palatability. Interactions of dietary energy level (corn concentrate or corn silage), breed type (Angus or Simmental), carcass electrical stimulation (ES) voltage (low or high), and chilling rate (normal or delayed) were determined. Grain-fed cattle had similar initial and slaughter weights, heavier carcasses, more marbling, higher quality grades, and higher dressing percentages (Exp. 2) compared with silage-fed cattle, even though all cattle were visually selected for a constant grade end point. Simmental cattle had heavier initial slaughter and warm carcass weights, larger loin eye area, less fat depth, and lower yield grade than Angus cattle. Percentage of lean in the 9-10-11th rib was lower and percentage of fat was higher for grain-fed and Angus steers than for silage-fed and Simmental steers, respectively. Neither diet nor breed influenced chemical composition of the edible portion, except that separable lean in Angus steers was higher in ether extract. No differences in palatability existed between Angus and Simmental steaks. High ES voltage compared with low voltage improved some tenderness characteristics and reduced some juiciness scores. The USDA Select grade beef of accepted palatability can be produced on either corn-grain or corn-silage diets, and only minor differences in beef palatability in such cattle are caused by ES voltage. PMID:8056667

  19. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef consum...

  20. Performance and carcass quality of forage-fed steers as an alternative to concentrate-based beef production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the performance and carcass quality of Parda de Montaña cattle under different management systems to find alternatives to concentrate feed indoor beef production. Treatments were: i Control, with 8 bulls (216±34.3 kg initial weight; 282±45.6 days fed concentrate and straw ad libitum during winter housing period until reaching 500 kg; ii G-supp, with 8 steers (204±31.2 kg initial weight; 271±47.5 days fed a total mixed ration (TMR (50% alfalfa hay, 10% straw, 40% corn ad libitum during winter housing period (from mid-April steers rotationally grazed on a mountain meadow supplemented with 1.8 kg dry matter corn/d until reaching 500 kg; iii TMR, with 8 steers (200±42.5 kg initial weight; 261±39.0 days managed as G-supp steers until mid-July, when they were housed and fed TMR ad libitum until reaching 500 kg. Control bulls had 45% greater weight gain than TMR and G-supp steers during housing period (P<0.001. In the finishing period, TMR had 31% greater weight gain than steers finished on pasture (P<0.01. At slaughter, Controls were 97-127 days younger than others (P<0.001. Steers finished on TMR had worse conformed carcasses, greater fat and fewer edible meat proportions than G-supp and Control (P<0.01. Total cost of TMR and Gsupp was greater than Control, with a similar income for G-supp and Control. TMR steers were paid less because of their worse carcass quality. Hence, finishing of steers on pasture with a supplement can be a feasible alternative to fattening bulls on concentrates, depending on the relative availability and price of feedstuff.

  1. Beef Fat Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Products Improves Insulin Sensitivity Without Altering Dyslipidemia in Insulin Resistant JCR:LA-cp Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Borthwick, Faye; Mapiye, Cletos; Vahmani, Payam; David, Rolland C; Vine, Donna F; Dugan, Michael E R; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-07-01

    The main dietary sources of trans fatty acids are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), and products derived from polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation (PUFA-BHP) in ruminants. Trans fatty acid intake has historically been associated with negative effects on health, generating an anti-trans fat campaign to reduce their consumption. The profiles and effects on health of PHVO and PUFA-BHP can, however, be quite different. Dairy products naturally enriched with vaccenic and rumenic acids have many purported health benefits, but the putative benefits of beef fat naturally enriched with PUFA-BHP have not been investigated. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of beef peri-renal fat (PRF) with differing enrichments of PUFA-BHP on lipid and insulin metabolism in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (JCR:LA-cp rat). The results showed that 6 weeks of diet supplementation with beef PRF naturally enriched due to flaxseed (FS-PRF) or sunflower-seed (SS-PRF) feeding to cattle significantly improved plasma fasting insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, postprandial insulin levels (only in the FS-PRF) without altering dyslipidemia. Moreover, FS-PRF but not SS-PRF attenuated adipose tissue accumulation. Therefore, enhancing levels of PUFA-BHP in beef PRF with FS feeding may be a useful approach to maximize the health-conferring value of beef-derived fats. PMID:27072368

  2. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  3. How product trial changes quality perception of four new processed beef products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Faiza; Grunert, Klaus G; Therkildsen, Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    evaluation, quality evaluation and purchase motive fulfillment. For two of the tested products, trial resulted in a decline of the evaluation of cues, quality and purchase motive fulfillment compared to pre-trial expectations. For these products, positive expectations were created by giving information about...... ingredients and ways of processing, which were not confirmed during trial. For the other two products, evaluations on key sensory dimensions based on trial exceeded expectations, whereas the other evaluations remained unchanged. Several demographic factors influenced the pattern of results, notably age...... and gender, which may be due to underlying differences in previous experience. The study gives useful insights for testing of new processed meat products before market introduction....

  4. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks....... Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case...

  5. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR CO-ORDINATION AND RISK SHARING WITHIN THE CANADIAN BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.

    2000-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Canadian beef industry has stated objectives of improving beef quality and consumer satisfaction while reducing unit costs of production. Suggested methods for achieving these goals include working towards value based marketing and improved information flows between different market levels through systems such as a birth to plate information system. These initiatives are designed to provide a more direct link between consumer product needs and breeding and management dec...

  6. Beef production based on cassava products and legume foliage in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Manh, Thang

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to determine the associative effects of supplemental sources of protein, or protein and energy, using cassava products and legume foliage on rumen degradability, in vivo digestibility, feed intake and growth rate of crossbred growing cattle. First it was hypothesized that the substitution of a part of a conventional concentrate with mixed cassava and legume foliage will positively influence rumen degradability and improve the performance of growing cattle. T...

  7. Great Changes in Production System of Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆仲璘

    2005-01-01

    Since the time that yaks were domesticated, due to the special social, natural and economic conditions ,and yaks own biological and economic characteristics, the Yak Production System has been formed, which is different from other livestock production systems. The system has the characteristics of unique breed, herding perennially on grassland and a variety of products. It is a low-efficiency system with the low-cost,low-production,long-cycle and slowfunction. Based on the experiments and research,exercising the measure of stopping milking and mainly producing beef,it's the redisposition of resources and the combination of multi-superiority. By the scientific management, the superiority of grass growing in warm season, the dominant position of total nutrition of mother milk, the superiority of calves developing in early days and the genetic preponderance of new breeds of yak are perfectly integrated. It also got the economic, biological and ecological benefits.

  8. Intensive vs. free-range organic beef. A preference study through consumer liking and conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate. PMID:26771143

  9. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    CON and INR cohorts. Collectively, these results suggest that feeding the AAC diet to late-gestating beef cows stimulated programming effects on postnatal offspring growth and health compared with the CON diet. Therefore, supplementing late-gestating beef cows with an organic complexed source of Co, Cu, Zn, and Mn instead of no supplementation appears to optimize offspring productivity in beef production systems. PMID:27065282

  10. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  11. EVALUACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE SISTEMAS DE RECRÍA-ENGORDA CON GANADO HEREFORD PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA VIII REGIÓN Economic evaluation of beef cattle production systems with Hereford cattle in the Andean foothills of the VIII Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron económicamente tres sistemas de recría-engorda para la precordillera andina basados en trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum y suplementación invernal con heno (TS; trébol subterráneo y suplementación invernal con heno y avena grano (TC, y trébol subterráneo en mezcla con trébol encarnado (Trifolium incarnatum, trébol subterráneo con festuca (Festuca arundinacea y alfalfa (Medicago sativa más suplementación invernal con heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense y avena (Avena sativa grano (VE. Se utilizaron terneros Hereford enteros de 197 kg PV inicial y 6,3 meses de edad promedio, saliendo de los sistemas con 385 kg PV promedio entre los 14 y 16 meses de edad. Los sistemas se proyectaron a tamaños de 25, 50 y 200 ha de praderas. La estructura de costos consideró costos variables (CV y fijos (CF. Los precios utilizados correspondieron a abril de 2001. La rentabilidad sin CF varió entre 17,1% en TS y 23,4%, en VE. Al incluir el CF la rentabilidad disminuyó en todos los sistemas con valores que fluctuaron entre 1,2 y 18,5% en TS y VE, respectivamente. La rentabilidad de los sistemas según tamaño varió entre -0,1% en sistema TS/predio 25 ha, único con rentabilidad negativa, y 19,17% en la combinación sistema VE/predio 200 ha. Los indicadores económicos fueron mayores en los sistemas TC y VE. Se presentó una mayor influencia del CF en la rentabilidad de los predios de tamaños menores. El sistema VE resultó siempre con margen neto positivo cuando se sensibilizó por precio de compra de terneros, precio de venta de toritos, costo de alimentación y porcentaje de mortalidad de terneros.Three beef cattle production systems were economically evaluated for the Andean foothills based on subterraneum clover (Trifolium subterraneum and hay supplementation during winter (TS; subterraneum clover with winter supplementation of hay and oats (TC; and subterraneum clover in a mix with crimson clover (Trifolium

  12. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jeong Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Woonsu Kim; Duhak Yoon; Seongwon Seo

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carc...

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Meat-Processing Environments, Beef Products, and Clinical Cases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; de Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto; da Silva, Danilo Augusto Lopes; Vallim, Deyse Christina; Hofer, Ernesto; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the antimicrobial resistance and the presence of virulence markers in 137 Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from meat-processing environments, beef products, and clinical cases. All isolates were subject to molecular serogrouping and their antibiotic resistance profiles were assessed against 12 antimicrobials. In addition, isolates were subjected to detection of virulence marker genes (inlA, inlC, inlJ). The isolates were classified into serogroups 4b, 4d, 4a, or 4c (46%), 1/2c or 3c (27%), 1/2a or 3a (13.9%), and 1/2b or 3b (13.1%). All tested isolates presented sensitivity to the majority of the tested antimicrobials, but most of them presented resistance or intermediate resistance to clindamycin (88.3%) and oxacillin (73.7%). Virulence markers were detected in all isolates, demanding further analysis to better characterize their pathogenic potential. PMID:25756759

  14. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  15. Technical note: Evaluation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Mang, A V; Cook, N; Orsel, K; Timsit, E

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral observations are important to detect illness in beef cattle. However, traditional observation techniques are time and labor intensive and may be subjective. The objective was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle (Fedometer [FEDO]; ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel). Sixteen steers (initial BW ± SD = 326 ± 46 kg) were fitted with data loggers (FEDO) on their left front leg and housed in a pen with a feedbunk equipped with an antenna emitting an electromagnetic field that reached 30 ± 2 cm in front of the feedbunk. Feedbunk attendance (duration of visit and frequency of meals) measured by FEDO was compared with live observations (27 observational periods lasting between 72 and 240 min; mean 126 min). Lying time and frequency of lying bouts were compared with previously validated accelerometers fitted to the hind leg (10 steers equipped for 10 to 12 d; HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger [HOBO]; Onset Computer Corporation, Pocasset, MA). Step counts were compared with video recordings (15 observations for 6-min intervals in 6 steers). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), accounting for repeated measures, and limits of agreement were computed. Comparison between FEDO and observed time at the feedbunk yielded a CCC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99). All 68 meal events observed were recorded by FEDO. However, FEDO recorded 4 meal events during the 27 observational periods that were not observed. Lying time measured by HOBO and FEDO were highly correlated (CCC = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99). However, frequency of lying bouts measured by FEDO was only moderately correlated to HOBO (CCC = 0.71; 95% CI 0.63-0.77); FEDO underestimating the number of lying bouts (on average, 0.4 fewer bouts per 6 h). Step count by FEDO was moderately correlated to video observations (CCC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-0.89); FEDO overestimating the number of steps (on average, 5 more steps per 6 min). In conclusion, the FEDO

  16. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  17. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  18. Production parameters and forage loss of oat and rye grass pastures managed with beef heifers fed diets with energy supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production parameters of intercropped pastures of oat and rye grass managed with beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat were evaluated. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at initial average age of 18 months and initial average live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized in the experiment. Animals were kept on oat + rye grass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no-supplementation (NS: heifers kept only in pastures; Megalac (MEG: supplementation with protected fat; brown rice meal (BRM: supplementation with BRM; BRM + MEG: supplementation with BRM plus protected fat. The greater participation of oat leaf was from July 5th to August 10th, 2009 and of rye grass, from August 30th to September 26th, 2009. The crude protein content increased until the 55th day (225.1 g/kg. Pasture total digestible nutrients presented a cubic behavior, with an average of 722.0 g/kg. The highest supply of leaf blades, 5.17 kg of dry matter/100 kg of live weight, was found in the second period. Pasture intake increased throughout the periods. Forage mass and support capacity of the animal did not differ between treatments, presenting means of 1245.02 kg of dry matter/ha and 882 kg of live weight/ha, respectively. Stoking rate, forage loss and pasture intake were not affected by the treatments. Supplementation of beef heifers with rice meal and/or protected fat did not change production parameters of oat + rye grass pastures or pasture intake. Increase in daily accumulation rate of dry matter and supporting capacity of the animals increases forage losses.

  19. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR, CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1, and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2. Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days. At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  20. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. PMID:20696533

  1. Productivity and reproductive performance of grazing beef heifers bred at 18 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and body development of beef heifers reared from 15 to 18 months of age on Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum, Alexandergrass pasture (Urochloa plantaginea or native pasture invaded by Annoni-2 grass (Eragrostis plana Nees. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, with three treatments and two replications. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate in order to maintain the sward height at 40 cm. Masses of leaf, stem and dead material, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were similar between Pearl millet and Alexandergrass. Average daily gain, stocking rate, live weight gain per hectare, body weight, body condition score, weight-to-height ratio and reproductive tract score of the heifers kept on annual summer pastures (Pearl millet or Alexandergrass were superior, compared with the heifers on Annoni-2 grass pasture.

  2. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mansoor Bhat; Mir Salahuddin; Imtiyaz A. Mantoo; Sheikh Adil; Henna Jalal; M. Ashraf Pal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materia...

  3. The Use Of Feed Technology Of Local Based Source To Support The Productivity Of Beef Cattle In West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buharman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed technology of local based sources to support beef cattle productivity is the key of the successful PSDS/K program in 2014. In 2009, the cattle population in West Sumatra was about 492,272 heads, and the population growth during 2005 – 2009 was about 6.1 percent per year are the growth of cattle slaughtered for local consumption was around 11.0 percent or about 86,028 heads/year. The rate of population growth is much lower than the target of PSDS/K 2014 which around 12.5 percent. The source of feedstuffs come from native grass and by product of agro-industry. These agro-industry by products such as rice, maize, cassava, palm oil, cacao, coffee by products have big potential for feed which account for supporting 1.75 to 2.1 million animal unit. These by-products mostly used for feed supplement by simple process technology. The role of institution like LM3 and SMD can be optimized to support local feed supply which available on location either for local cattle consumption or for commercial use.

  4. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  5. Expression Marker-Based Strategy to Improve Beef Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    For beef cattle research, a main objective is to control concomitantly the development of muscles and the qualities of beef cuts. Beef quality is a complex phenotype that is only detectable after slaughter and is highly variable. The beef industry is in need of tools to estimate beef quality of live cattle or online in abattoirs, with specific attention towards sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, and colour). Identification of relevant genetic and genomic markers is ongoing, especially for tenderness—a top priority quality attribute. In this paper, we describe the steps of an expression marker-based strategy to improve beef sensory quality, from the discovery of biomarkers that identify consistent beef and the biological functions governing beef tenderness to the integration of the knowledge into detection tests for desirable animals. These tools should soon be available for the management of sensory quality in the beef production chain for meeting market's demands and assuring good quality standards. PMID:27066527

  6. Research Status and Existing Problems in China Beef Quality Tracing System%我国牛肉质量追溯体系研究现状和存在问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白跃宇; 张震; 谭旭信; 孟伟; 陈海涛; 岳中仁; 耿繁军; 赵芳

    2012-01-01

    近年来,我国的食品安全屡屡出现问题,严重破坏了市场的正常运转和竞争秩序,而且还影响到了百姓对牛肉食品消费的信心,牛口蹄疫、疯牛病、瘦肉精中毒等事件的爆发,使牛肉质量安全成为全世界消费者普遍关注的问题之一.牛肉作为广大消费者的主流畜产品,如何保障其安全和质量,是摆在各级政府、肉牛企业和科研机构面前的重要课题.所以,建立我国牛肉全程质量安全追溯体系,不仅可以满足消费者对安全优质牛肉追溯性的需求,同时也将大大提高我国畜牧业生产的现代化水平和畜产品的国际竞争力.%In recent years,China's food security problems not only damaged the normal function of the market and competition order seriously, but also affected the confidence of the people on the consumption of beef products. The outbreak of bovine foot and mouth disease, mad cow disease and clenbuterol poisoning make beef quality and safety concerned by consumers around the world. Beef is the mainstream animal product having the vast number of consumers. How to protect its safety and quality is an important subject for all levels of government, beef cattle enterprises and research institutes. Therefore, the establishment of beef quality tracing system,not only meet consumer's demand for safe and high quality beef,but also will greatly improve the international competition level and modernization of China's livestock production.

  7. DRY NONHEATED ANAEROBIC BIOGAS FERMENTATION USING AGED BEEF CATTLE MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas production at beef cattle feedlots is hard to justify because of the large amounts of dilution water required and the high cost to design and operate conventional water-based digestion systems. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of producing biogas us...

  8. Pre- and postpartum nutritional effects on milk production, milk composition, calf weaning weight and postpartum reproductive performance of commercial beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kearnan, Jeffrey Mark

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum and postpartum nutrition on milk production of commercial beef cows. Forty-three Angus or Angus X Holstein females, ranging in age from 2 to 6 yr, were randomly assigned by age and percentage Holstein within age to one of two prepartum grazing treatments (PRE). All females, regardless of PRE, were assigned at calving to receive the same post-calving nutritional energy. Females were assigned at calving by ag...

  9. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  10. Findings of the Health Risk Assessment of Escherichia coli O157 in Mechanically Tenderized Beef Products in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Catford, Angela; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Smith, Ben; Buenaventura, Enrico; Couture, Hélène; Fazil, Aamir; Farber, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, a total of 18 cases of foodborne illness caused by Escherichia coli O157 were reported as part of a Canadian outbreak related to contaminated beef. During the food safety investigation associated with the outbreak, it was determined that a few cases were likely associated with the consumption of mechanically tenderized beef (MTB) which had been tenderized at the retail level. Details of this investigation and its follow-up are available online on the Canadian Food Inspection Age...

  11. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, JL; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S; Benchaar, C; Beauchemin, KA; Nkrumah, JD; France, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure, to see if prediction improvements could be made for beef cattle. The database used for independent evaluation of methane predictions consisted of 74 animal means from six stu...

  12. Willingness to Pay for Tennessee Beef among Tennessee Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Leah; Jensen, Kimberly; Leffew, Megan; English, Burton; Lambert, Dayton; Clark, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines willingness to pay among consumers in five metropolitan areas in Tennessee for steaks and ground beef produced in Tennessee. Consumers are willing to pay a positive premium for Tennessee beef. The choice of shopping outlets for Tennessee beef is also examined. Demographics, prior shopping patterns, and product preferences influence shopping outlet choices.

  13. Food safety issues and the microbiology of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    World demand for high-quality animal protein presents opportunities for growth and expanded trade which is predicted to increase more than 6% for major beef producing countries and their beef industries. Contingent upon an increased consumer demand for beef is the production of high quality and mic...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  15. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  16. Executive summary of effects of air emissions from sour gas plants on the health and productivity of beef and dairy herds in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of licensed emissions into air from sour gas processing plants and oilfield batteries on the health and productivity of beef cow-calf and dairy herds was investigated. Four distinct atmospheric dispersion models were used to assess historical exposures at 1,382 dairy and 5,726 beef cow-calf farm sites from 1985 through 1994 to three exposure variables: (1) emissions into air from licensed sour gas processing plants, (2) sulphur dioxide from all larger industrial sources, or (3) solution gas flaring. In the dairy study, none of the emissions were found to have harmful association with herd culling or mortality, milk production, milk somatic cell count, stillbirths or twin births. The beef cow-calf study showed no significant negative association between the sour gas or sulphur dioxide exposure variables and herd culling, the calf-crop delivered, stillbirth, calf mortality, or calf-crop weaned. Some negative association was found to exist between the level of exposure to sulphur dioxide from large industrial sources, which increased the number of twin births and produced an increased calving season profile. However, this finding does not directly implicate the sour gas industry as a cause

  17. Effect of development system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, H A; Damiran, D; Hendrick, S; Larson, K; Funston, R

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in beef heifers born over a 2-yr period to determine the effects of target breeding weight (TBW) and development system (SYS) on growth and subsequent reproductive efficiency. Spring-born Angus heifers (253 ± 0.7 kg) were randomly allocated over 2 consecutive yr (yr 1, n = 80; yr 2, n = 96) to be developed to either 55% (350 kg) of mature BW (moderate gain, MG) or 62% (395 kg) of mature BW (high gain, HG). Each MG and HG group was further assigned to 1 of 2 replicated systems: (1) bale graze bromegrass-alfalfa round bales in field paddocks (BG) or (2) fed bromegrass-alfalfa round bales in drylot pens (DL). Heifers were fed a diet of bromegrass-alfalfa hay (56.9% TDN; 9.8% CP) and barley grain supplement (85.1% TDN; 12.3% CP). After the 202-d development period, heifers were exposed to bulls for a 63-d breeding season. Target BW × SYS interactions were not detected for any measured parameters. During the winter development period, MG heifers had lower (P = 0.01) ADG than HG heifers and MG heifers had lighter (P = 0.01) BW at breeding. The proportion of heifers attaining puberty by 14.5 mo of age was less (P = 0.05) in MG (20 ± 4%) than HG heifers (52 ± 3%). From the end of the 202-d development period to pregnancy diagnosis, ADG was greater (P = 0.04) in MG heifers than HG heifers (0.83 vs. 0.71 kg/d). First-calf pregnancy rates were 86 and 88% for MG and HG heifers, respectively (P = 0.41). Second- and third-calf pregnancy rates of cows, developed in either a MG or HG system as heifers, were not different (P = 0.74; 94.7 vs. 95.9% and 93.8 vs. 93.9%, respectively). Economic analysis revealed a $58 reduced development cost for heifers developed to 55% compared with 62% of mature BW without a loss in reproductive performance. PMID:24778339

  18. Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as an alternative carbon source: the effect of peptone, yeast extract and beef extract

    OpenAIRE

    Phisit Seesuriyachan; Ampin Kuntiya; Charin Techapun

    2011-01-01

    Coconut water (CW) is a by-product of food industry and has little value in Thailand. It is usually discarded as a wasteinto the environment. Consequently, we developed a value added process of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production usingLactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 and coconut water. The effect of three expensive supplements (peptone, yeast extractand beef extract) on EPS and biomass production was investigated at 35°C for 24 h. Using a mod-MRS-CW medium, preparedby replacing the de-ionized...

  19. Briefing note on the beef industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Sheep and beef farmers around the UK were interviewed to find out if they would adopt a range of technologies to reduce methane emissions.* Beef farmers produced a diverse range of outputs including environmental management as well as food production. Farmers worked in a range of different environments and are influenced by a variety of values.

  20. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle. PMID

  1. The Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership Approach to the Adoption of New Beef Industry Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Garry R.; Clark, R.E.; Parnell, Peter F.; Timms, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Technology adoption in the Australian beef industry has been low and slow compared to the intensive livestock and cropping industries. The principles of accelerated adoption provide an innovative solution to this problem. In the Beef CRC, Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership (BPP) members will meet regularly to measure their current performance, set targets for future productivity increases, and use a profitability framework to assess the potential impact of new technology. Capacity building a...

  2. Use of expected progeny differences for marbling in beef: I. Production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieselmeyer, B A; Rasby, R J; Gwartney, B L; Calkins, C R; Stock, R A; Gosey, J A

    1996-05-01

    Six Angus bulls with HIGH ( > .4) and six bulls with LOW ( carcass traits. Bulls were randomly bred to MARC II (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Simmental, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Gelbvieh) composite cows in each of 2 yr to calve in the spring. At weaning, steers and heifers were separated and managed in different production systems. Steers (n = 131) were fed a growing diet (1.1 Mcal of NEg/kg) for 48 d followed by adaptation to a 93% concentrate finishing diet. Heifers (n = 125) were fed a growing diet (.79 Mcal of NEg/kg) for 191 d followed by adaptation to the same 93% concentrate diet. Steers and heifers from each treatment were slaughtered at two times spaced about 60 d apart within both years. Marbling EPD class had no effect on fat thickness, USDA yield grade, carcass weight, finishing daily gain, finishing DMI, or finishing efficiency (P > .18). More (P carcasses of calves from sires with HIGH EPD for marbling graded USDA Choice than from LOW EPD sires, 74% vs 47%, respectively. Angus sires can be selected to produce progeny that have increased ability to grade Choice without increasing yield grade or decreasing animal growth or feed efficiency. PMID:8726732

  3. Effects of multi-nutrient feed supplement in beef cattle on methane production, manure quality and rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the experiments was to determine the effect of a multi-nutrient feed supplement (MFS) on methane production, and the effect of processing on animal waste to produce compost to improve crop production. Methane is one of the gases that contribute towards global warming and a significant proportion of global methane is produced by rumen fermentation and the breakdown of animal waste. The first of the integrated experimental program carried was the effect of the additional MFS in corn leaf silage with concentrate diet compared to MFS in a low quality of basal diet (rice straw) with a concentrate in beef cattle. Rumen fermentation products including methane gas production were measured along with digestibility, and DLWG. The second phase of the experiment involved the measurement of manures for the nutrient content of the compost and the effect of compost applications on rice yield. The results of the Experiment 1 showed that MFS supplementation increase dry matter digestibility by 15.6%, feed consumption by 7.5%, DLWG by 200% and improve the feed conversion ratio by 187%. The enhanced nutrition improved microbial populations and decreasing methane product from 88.0 to 21.7 mM. The result of the in vitro study found that the feed commonly supplied by farmers to their animal could be improved by the use of MFS with methane production decreasing from 42 ml to 25 ml. An in vivo experiment using the same rations showed an increase of 5.9, 11.4, 6.6, 4.6, 26.4% in DM consumption, CP consumption, GE consumption, DM digestibility and DLWG, respectively, and improving feed efficiency by 21.3%. N total content of compost derived from control and MFS feeding treatments without and with improved manure management was 168, 156, 150 and 146 g/day. Compost application to paddy rice also increased rice yields 76.5% for dried rice harvesting, and 67.4% for dried rice milling. (author)

  4. The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Saša Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.

  5. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  6. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  7. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  8. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan: consumers’ food safety perceptions and willingness to pay for tested beef

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Ouchi, Hiromi; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as ‘mad cow disease’, in Japan caused anxiety about consuming beef and beef products. As a result, there was a sudden fall in sales of beef that hurt the Japanese beef industry as well as major beef exporters to Japan. We analyse factors that affect Japanese consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) price premiums for BSE-tested beef and estimate the mean WTP for BSE-tested beef using data obtained from a consumer survey in Jap...

  9. Systemic productivity must complement structural productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lavie, René-Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic productivity is not just structural productivity (the making of assemblies), it also contains 'systemic productivity' (the productive placement within pluridimensional paradigms). An occurrential, dynamic model provides a cognitively founded explanation of systemic productivity.

  10. Vertical Coordination in the Evolving High Quality Beef Market (PowerPoint)

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.

    2010-01-01

    Panelists will discuss vertical aspects of vertical coordination in the beef industry. Focus will include cow herd production management and genetics, calf market price incentives, costs of producing high quality beef, and retail marketing of high quality beef and premium brands. Together this complete vertical supply chain discussion will provide a comprehensive assessment of how the U.S. beef industry can improve beef quality and enhance consumer demand. Implicit in this overview is an asse...

  11. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune; de Smet, Stefaan; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-01-01

    investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... and beef technologies. Information becomes either less relevant when the product is actually tasted, as indicated by the findings in Norway, or more relevant when information is confirmed by own experience during tasting, as indicated by the findings in Belgium....

  12. 77 FR 31975 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... University, the E. coli Center at Penn State University, the American Type Culture Collection in Manassas... September 20, 2011, Federal Register notice states (at 76 FR 58161, col. 1-2): ``For imported products... meaning of 21 U.S.C. 601(m)(1) (76 FR 58157; Sep. 20, 2011). The products are adulterated because...

  13. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, M. Mansoor; Salahuddin, Mir; Mantoo, Imtiyaz A.; Adil, Sheikh; Jalal, Henna; Pal, M. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating) and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level. PMID:27057103

  14. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansoor Bhat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan, the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolates from raw beef and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustacková, A; Nápravníková, E; Schlegelová, J

    2004-01-01

    E. faecalis (67%) and E. faecium (13.7%) were most frequently isolated among enterococci that contaminate cooled and frozen processed meat, follow-up heat-treated meat products and unheated fermented dry salami. Most isolates of both species were resistant to cephalothin (95 and 83 %) and clindamycin (77 and 67%, respectively). Furthermore, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to erythromycin (44 and 72%), tetracycline (34.5 and 17.4%), and streptomycin (13.3 and 4.3%, respectively). Only a few of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin while all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, penicillin, and teicoplanin. During the production of heat-treated meat products, numbers of resistant isolates increased in spite of the decreasing enterococcal contamination of the samples. An opposite situation was found in the production of fermented dry salami. PMID:15530006

  16. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  17. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S.; Benchaar, C.; Beauchemin, K.; Nkrumah, D.J.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent VFA stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure,

  18. Effects of Plant-Derived Extracts, Other Antimicrobials, and Their Combinations against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beef Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Kee-Tae; Sofos, John N

    2015-06-01

    The antimicrobial effects of thyme oil (TO), grapefruit seed extract (GSE), and basil essential oil, alone or in combination with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium diacetate, or lactic acid, were evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a moisture-enhanced beef model system. The model system was composed of a nonsterile beef homogenate to which NaCl (0.5%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25%) were added, together with the tested antimicrobial ingredients. Beef homogenate treatments were inoculated (ca. 3 log CFU/ml) with rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (eight-strain mixture) and incubated at 15 °C (48 h). The most effective individual treatments were TO (0.25 or 0.5%) and GSE (0.5 or 1.0%), which immediately reduced (P tenderization. Beef cuts (10 by 8 by 3.5 cm) were inoculated (ca. 4 log CFU/g) on one side with the rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strain mixture and were then spray treated (20 lb/in(2), 10 s) with water, GSE (5 and 10%), lactic acid (5%), or CPC (5%). Untreated (control) and spray-treated surfaces were then subjected to double-pass blade tenderization. Surface contamination (4.4 log CFU/g) of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced (P tenderized sections were obtained in the untreated control and CPC-treated samples, respectively. PMID:26038897

  19. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    FCR and RFI) (P < 0.05) and greater CH4 emissions (P = 0.017). In conclusion, agitated temperament and higher stress responsiveness is detrimental to productivity. A greater stress response is associated with a reduction in feed intake that may both increase the efficiency of consumed feed and the ratio of CH4 emissions/unit of feed. Therefore, temperament and stress response should be considered when designing strategies to improve efficiency and mitigate CH4 emissions in beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  20. Beef herd health and productivity and exposure to the petroleum industry in west-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health and productivity of cow-calf herds surrounding a new sour gas processing plant have been monitored from the fall of 1991 through to the calfing season in 1997. No significant change in the risk of non-pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, calf mortality, median calfing date or crude weaning date have been found. There was measurable improvement in average age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide and the complex mixture of compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants did not appear to have affected productivity parameters across the cow-calf production cycles examined, although there have been five examples of positive association between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Increased risk of non-pregnancy was occasionally observed to be associated with one or more of sour flaring battery facilities, all battery flaring sites, active gas wells, and larger field facilities, however, these associations were not consistent among years . Risk of abortions did not increase with proximity of facilities or flaring. Examples of positive correlation were observed between volume of sour gas flared from battery sites and increased risk of stillbirth, sour gas and increased calf mortality, and exposure to oil well or all well sites and increased productivity

  1. Beef herd health and productivity and exposure to the petroleum industry in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, C. L.

    1999-07-01

    Health and productivity of cow-calf herds surrounding a new sour gas processing plant have been monitored from the fall of 1991 through to the calfing season in 1997. No significant change in the risk of non-pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, calf mortality, median calfing date or crude weaning date have been found. There was measurable improvement in average age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide and the complex mixture of compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants did not appear to have affected productivity parameters across the cow-calf production cycles examined, although there have been five examples of positive association between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Increased risk of non-pregnancy was occasionally observed to be associated with one or more of sour flaring battery facilities, all battery flaring sites, active gas wells, and larger field facilities, however, these associations were not consistent among years . Risk of abortions did not increase with proximity of facilities or flaring. Examples of positive correlation were observed between volume of sour gas flared from battery sites and increased risk of stillbirth, sour gas and increased calf mortality, and exposure to oil well or all well sites and increased productivity.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

  3. Recent Trends in the Production and Trade of Cattle Beef and Pigs in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alister; Harrison, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Thai economy has experienced rapid changes in the underlying factors that determine demand for meat and livestock products. GDP growth has remained at over 8% over the last decade and has not fallen below 5% in the last 30 years. Incomes have grown at a faster rate than other ASEAN countries and the development of a new urban-based middle class has stimulated a westernisation of tastes and preferences (Sindelar, 1996; Hassalls & Associates, 1996). These changes have, in some cases, stimul...

  4. Environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska were determined through a simulation of their production system. Relevant information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production ...

  5. Exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as an alternative carbon source: the effect of peptone, yeast extract and beef extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW is a by-product of food industry and has little value in Thailand. It is usually discarded as a wasteinto the environment. Consequently, we developed a value added process of exopolysaccharide (EPS production usingLactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 and coconut water. The effect of three expensive supplements (peptone, yeast extractand beef extract on EPS and biomass production was investigated at 35°C for 24 h. Using a mod-MRS-CW medium, preparedby replacing the de-ionized water with 100% CW and supplemented with 20 g/l crystalline sucrose and a reduced quantity(50% of the three expensive supplements (5 g/l of peptone, 2.5 g/l of yeast extract, and 2.5 g/l of beef extract gave thehighest yield of EPS (12.3 g/l. By optimizing the conditions for fermentation (pH 5.5, agitation speed at 50 rpm and initialsucrose concentration of 100 g/l, EPS yield increased up to 38.2 g/l. When compared with the modified MRS medium, themedium supplemented with CW was found to be suitable for the reduction of cost spent on the organic nitrogen and growthfactors (savings close to 50%.

  6. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  7. Performance and ruminal metabolism in beef cattle in grazing system in the dry period of year receiving virginiamycin in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Fernandes Ferreira; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; João Teodoro Pádua; Ubirajara Oliveira Bilego; Marcos Antônio Sales Lima; Aldi Fernandes de Souza França; Elis Aparecido Bento; Leonardo Guimarães Oliveira; Danilo Grandini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM) in two levels, the proteinenergy supplement for growing beef cattle diet with the tropical grass base in the dry season. Three treatments were evaluated: control treatment, only Mineral Supplement ME - Production - F.10 proteinenergy (SPE); 100 virginiamycin treatment (VM 100) + SPE 108 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day and treatment virginiamycin 200 (200 MV) + SPE 216 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day. The variables analyz...

  8. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  9. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... quality; 4) marinating by submerging aiming for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement and restructuring through enzyme binding; 6) shock wave treatment and 7) thermal processing. Participants' attitudes towards beef, their innovativeness and risk aversion were also assessed. In total, 65...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  10. Double Gene Targeting Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay Discriminates Beef, Buffalo, and Pork Substitution in Frankfurter Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Asing; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-08-17

    Beef, buffalo, and pork adulteration in the food chain is an emerging and sensitive issue. Current molecular techniques to authenticate these species depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays involving long and single targets which break down under natural decomposition and/or processing treatments. This novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeted two different gene sites for each of the bovine, buffalo, and porcine materials. This authentication ensured better security, first through a complementation approach because it is highly unlikely that both sites will be missing under compromised states, and second through molecular fingerprints. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND5 genes were targeted, and all targets (73, 90, 106, 120, 138, and 146 bp) were stable under extreme boiling and autoclaving treatments. Target specificity and authenticity were ensured through cross-amplification reaction and restriction digestion of PCR products with AluI, EciI, FatI, and CviKI-1 enzymes. A survey of Malaysian frankfurter products revealed rampant substitution of beef with buffalo but purity in porcine materials. PMID:27501408

  11. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Marie J. Haskell; John A Rooke; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body ...

  12. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  13. Typologies and Spatialization of Agricultural Production Systems in Rondônia, Brazil: Linking Land Use, Socioeconomics and Territorial Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon at the municipal level. We adopted a decision tree approach, using land use maps derived from remote sensing data (PRODES and TerraClass combined with socioeconomic data. The decision trees allowed us to allocate municipalities to one of five agricultural production systems: (i coexistence of livestock production and intensive agriculture; (ii semi-intensive beef and milk production; (iii semi-intensive beef production; (iv intensive beef and milk production, and; (v intensive beef production. These production systems are, respectively, linked to mechanized agriculture (i, traditional cattle farming with low management, with (ii or without (iii a significant presence of dairy farming, and to more intensive livestock farming with (iv or without (v a significant presence of dairy farming. The municipalities and associated production systems were then characterized using a wide variety of quantitative metrics grouped into four dimensions: (i agricultural production; (ii economics; (iii territorial configuration, and; (iv social characteristics. We found that production systems linked to mechanized agriculture predominate in the south of the state, while intensive farming is mainly found in the center of the state. Semi-intensive livestock farming is mainly located close to the southwest frontier and in the north of the state, where human occupation of the territory is not fully consolidated. This distributional pattern reflects the origins of the agricultural production system of Rond

  14. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  15. Soil nutrients, bacterial communities, and veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle backgrounding confinement on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States hosts the world’s largest grain fed beef production. Commercial beef production in the US consists of three tiers that include: cow-calf enterprises, cattle backgrounding/stockering, and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding/stockering represents an intermediate between the ...

  16. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picasso, V.D.; Modernel Hristoff, P.D.; Becona, G.; Salvo, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Astigarraga, L.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs

  17. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P beef cattle caused a sustained decrease of methanogenesis, with no sign of adaptation, and that these effects were reversed once NOP addition was discontinued PMID:26020199

  18. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    different countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960's with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows are...... instrumental measures of these characteristics has made the sorting int consumer-relevant quality categories impossible. Recently, schemes have been set up in several countries to produce beef under certain controlled conditions with the aim of assuring a certain quality. These schemes involve participation of...

  19. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  20. Beef quality traits of heifer in comparison with steer, bull and cow at various feeding environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Reddy, Bandugula; Sivakumar, Allur S; Jeong, Dawoon W; Woo, Yang-Byung; Park, Sang-June; Lee, So-Young; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The present review has been focused largely on the sex type differences in beef quality among heifers, cows, steers and bulls in various feeding environments. Genetic groups, feeding systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics and fatty acid profiles of cattle. Studies identified that heifer beef has super characteristics in eating quality and a better healthy composition in fatty acids than steer, cow and bull. Diet influences the variation of fatty acid profile; particularly the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) interacts with breed and sex. Animals finished in pasture systems were reported to show better ratios of PUFA/ saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3. Carcasses of roughage-fed beef are lighter and have less marbling and lower quality grades but have higher cutability than carcasses of grain-fed bulls. Heifers and cows are reported to deposit more fat than steers and bulls. Among males, lower production of testosterone by steers favors more fat thickness compared with bulls. Marbling greatly varies among cattle belonging to different sexes, and particularly, females have genetic makeup that efficiently controls deposition. The current review identified that heifers can be a premium beef brand, while steer beef currently take a large part of market share across the world. PMID:25236779

  1. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...... example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical...... artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer...

  2. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  3. Belle II production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  4. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  5. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn;

    and novel beef products and processes. Method: Eight focus groups, each with between 7 and 9 participants were conducted in the capital cities of Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom in May 2008. In total 65 individuals aged between 19 and 60 years took part in the discussions. The focus group...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...

  6. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  7. Relationship between Portuguese consumer preferences and textural properties, chemical composition and nutritional value of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Ana Cristina Saragoça Melgado Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Beef is a nutritionally rich product with a high economic value. However in the last decades beef has been target of negative publicity by the media, mainly due to the high content of cholesterol as well as saturated and trans fatty acids (FA). The increasing number of food scares across the Europe over the last years has increased even more consumers’ concerns about beef quality and safety. Despite the health concerns beef sensory properties still remain the main purchasing an...

  8. 法国肉牛业发展经验%French Experience in Development of Beef Cattle Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚宇; 霍云龙[; Jean-François HOCQUETTE; 孟庆翔

    2015-01-01

    近年来我国牛肉生产和消费量增长巨大,肉牛产业发展迅速。如何适应各地生产条件、减少环境污染,并形成可持续发展的生产模式成为肉牛产业发展的关键。法国肉牛生产历史悠久,其肉牛存栏量和牛肉产量目前在欧洲排名第一,肉牛产业有许多经验值得借鉴。本文回顾了法国近几十年来肉牛产业的演变和现状,介绍了法国肉牛业的发展亮点,并结合中国肉牛业发展现状讨论了值得我们借鉴的法国经验。%In recent years, beef production and consumption in China has risen sharply and the beef cattle industry has developed rapidly. How to adapt to local production conditions, to reduce environmental pollution, and to construct a sustainable system has become a crucial point of the Chinese beef industry. France has a long history of beef production, its cattle herds and beef production is currently ranked first in Europe, and its beefindustry has alot of quotable experiences.This paper reviews theevolution of the French beef cattle industry in recent decadesand its current status, anddescribes the highlights ofdevelopment. TheFrench experiences that are useful for the development of the Chinese beef industryare discussed.

  9. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  10. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION CHAIN IN THE STATE OF TOCANTINS, BRAZIL COMPETITIVIDADE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DA CARNE BOVINA NO ESTADO DO TOCANTINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Firmino Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze the beef cattle chain competitiveness in the State of Tocantins, Brazil, based on some indicators and using as parameters three Brazilian states, which present the largest slaughtering and beef cattle production volume numbers: Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. The beef cattle chain, in Tocantins, depicts a formation process scenery and, as compared to the other three mentioned states, a still low competitive performance. The detailed examination of the present situation points out that, in all segments studied (livestock production, slaughtering/processing, distribution, and consumption, the indexes indicate a necessity of efforts to reach development factors that bring competitiveness and that will allow the Tocantins results to approach the national sector leaders.

    KEY-WORDS: Beef cattle chain; competitiveness; Tocantins.

    O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a competitividade do sistema agroindustrial da carne bovina do Tocantins, com base em alguns direcionadores, tendo como parâmetro as tr

  11. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  12. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  13. Incidence and persistence of zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens in a beef cattle feedlot runoff control vegetative treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elaine D; Woodbury, Bryan L; Nienaber, John A; Eigenberg, Roger A; Thurston, Jeanette A; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Determining the survival of zoonotic pathogens in livestock manure and runoff is critical for understanding the environmental and public health risks associated with these wastes. The occurrence and persistence of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. in a passive beef cattle feedlot runoff control-vegetative treatment system were examined over a 26-mo period. Incidence of the protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. was also assessed. The control system utilizes a shallow basin to collect liquid runoff and accumulate eroded solids from the pen surfaces; when an adequate liquid volume is attained, the liquid is discharged from the basin onto a 4.5-ha vegetative treatment area (VTA) of bromegrass which is harvested as hay. Basin discharge transported E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and generic E. coli into the VTA soil, but without additional discharge from the basin, the pathogen prevalences decreased over time. Similarly, the VTA soil concentrations of generic E. coli initially decreased rapidly, but lower residual populations persisted. Isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from VTA samples was infrequent, indicating differences in sedimentation and/or transport in comparison to bacteria. Isolation of generic E. coli from freshly cut hay from VTA regions that received basin discharge (12 of 30 vs. 1 of 30 control samples) provided evidence for the risk of contamination; however, neither E. coli O157 or Campylobacter spp. were recovered from the hay following baling. This work indicates that the runoff control system is effective for reducing environmental risk by containing and removing pathogens from feedlot runoff. PMID:17965390

  14. Sward canopy structure and performance of beef heifers under supplementation in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained with three grazing intensities in a continuous stocking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rume Casagrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the sward canopy structure of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained in three grazing intensities under continuous stocking system during the rainy season, along with the behavior and performance of grazing beef heifers supplemented with mineral salt or an energy/protein supplement. Three levels of forage allowance were assessed: 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kg of forage/kg of live weight, combined with two supplements (ad libitum mineral salt, and an energy/protein supplement at 0.3% of live weight/day, supplied daily. The experiment was designed as a randomized block study with two replications. The supplements did not influence the variables related to the canopy structure. Canopy height was greater at higher forage allowances during the late summer and early fall. Similarly, the stem mass was greater in pastures with higher forage allowances. Animals fed protein supplement spent less time grazing than animals supplemented with mineral salt. Stocking rate was higher in pastures with lower forage allowance levels, which increased the live weight gain per grazing area. Daily weight gain did not vary according to the forage allowance levels. The use of an energy/protein supplement did not affect the stocking rate; however, it increased individual live weight gain and live weight gain per grazing area compared with mineral salt supplementation. The use of energy/protein supplements is an efficient alternative to enhance animal performance and production under grazing systems during the rainy season

  15. Yield of warm beef carcass meat from simmental breed

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of live weight upon yield of warm beef carcass meat from Simmental breed. Twenty 12 - 18 month-old male bullocks were assigned with average live weight 450,52 ± 4,68 kg. The yield of warm beef carcass meat, edible and non-edible by-products was determined

  16. Evaluation of calving seasons and marketing strategies in Northern Great Plains beef enterprises: I. Cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer Leesburg, V L; Tess, M W; Griffith, D

    2007-09-01

    A bioeconomic computer model was used to evaluate alternate calving seasons in a cow-calf enterprise under range conditions representative of the Northern Great Plains. The simulated ranch utilized a rotational breeding system based on Hereford and Angus and had a fixed forage base (4,500 animal unit months of native range, 520 t of grass hay, and 183 t of alfalfa hay). Calving seasons studied were spring (SP, beginning March 15), summer (SU, beginning May 15), and fall (FA, beginning August 15). Weaning dates were October 31, December 15, and February 1, for SP, SU, and FA. The SP system was also simulated with a 5% increase in calf mortality (SP-IM), and SU with early weaning on October 31 (SU-EW). Herd size for the fixed resource was 509, 523, 519, 560, and 609 cows exposed per year for SP, SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, respectively. Corresponding values for weight weaned per cow exposed were 206, 186, 193, 153, and 145 kg. Steer calves, nonreplacement heifer calves, and cull cows were sold at the time of weaning. Quarterly cattle and feed prices used were representative of the peak, descending, valley, and ascending phases of the 1990s cattle cycle adjusted for inflation. Estimates of ranch gross margin (gross returns minus variable costs) were greatest for SP, followed by SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, and the ranks were consistent across phases of the cattle cycle. Differences between ranch gross margin for SP-IM and SU were small. In beef enterprises representative of the Northern Great Plains, with a restricted grazing season, limited access to low-cost, high-quality grazeable forage, and with calves sold at weaning, switching from early spring to a summer or fall calving date is not expected to improve profitability. If delaying calving improves calf survival, then calving in early summer may be a competitive choice. PMID:17504951

  17. Production management system of ecosafety agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Denysenko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with suggestions for improving the production management system of ecosafety agricultural products according to international standards in the sphere of quality and environmental protection. The production management algorithm of ecosafety products, including methodological and application platform of forming of administrative decisions has been suggested.

  18. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  19. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  20. Impacts of climate change and climate variability on the competitiveness of wheat and beef cattle production in Emerald, north-east Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, S M; McKeon, G M; Meinke, H; Entel, M; Flood, N

    2001-09-01

    Emerald, north-east Queensland, is at the northern margin of the wheat cropping region of Australia. The Emerald region was previously used predominantly for grazing beef cattle; however, cropping has developed in importance over the past 30 years. We use historical climate records (1890-1998) to simulate and compare wheat yields, grass production and live-weight gain (LWG) over time. The cropping expansion from the 1970s to the early 1990s has occurred in a unique period in the 108-year record with the highest average wheat yields, lowest wheat yield variability and the greatest relative productivity of wheat production against grass production. If this window of opportunity is a result of long-term climate variability, then cropping is likely to decline in the region as conditions return to those experienced earlier in the record. If this increase is related to climate change, then cropping is likely to persist in the region with productivity maintained at current levels particularly through the yield-enhancing effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this persistence will be influenced by the frequencies of El Niño conditions that may increase with global warming. The high relative productivities experienced over the past few decades have probably biased producers' expectations, and applications for drought support need to take into account the longer-term perspective provided by this analysis. Nevertheless, the last 6 years have the lowest simulated mean LWG production on the record. The identification of poor production periods depended on the production element being addressed and the timescale involved. PMID:11697663

  1. Consumer impressions of Tender Select beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Meade, M K; Reagan, J O; Byrnes, B L; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-10-01

    With the recent development of technology to classify beef for tenderness, it is now possible for packers and retailers to market brands of beef known to be consistently tender. The present experiment was conducted to determine consumer impressions of Tender Select, a model beef brand comprised of cuts from tender U.S. Select carcasses. A telephone survey was conducted in metropolitan Denver, CO, to recruit consumers (n = 1,036) for this study. Consumers who met minimal limits for household income, age, and beef consumption were invited to participate in a beef shopping and usage study in a local supermarket. Point-of-purchase material was developed that described Tender Select as "the only steak guaranteed tender and lean." When shown a copy of the Tender Select concept card, 89% of participating consumers (n = 759) indicated that they would definitely or probably buy that product. Of those consumers that said they would buy the product, 35% indicated that their purchases of Tender Select would be in addition to their current fresh meat purchases. Most consumers (54.1%) indicated that if Tender Select was available at their grocery store, 1 or 2 of their next 10 purchases of beef cuts would be Tender Select. Sixty-five percent of consumers indicated that if a grocery store carried a line of beef cuts guaranteed to be tender, they would buy all of their beef at that store. Both strip loins from 104 U.S. Select beef carcasses, representing a broad range (8.7 to 43.4 kg; CV = 42%) in slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem, were used to determine the effect of SSF classification on consumer satisfaction and the correlation among trained sensory panel descriptive attribute ratings and in-home consumer ratings of beef longissimus steaks. Both trained sensory panelists and consumers rated low-SSF steaks higher than the high-SSF steaks for all traits (P premium to purchase guaranteed-tender U.S. Select steaks. PMID:11721839

  2. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME. Overall, our review and analyses suggested that there is a strong linear

  3. Evaluation of Beef Marbling Grade Based on Advanced Watershed Algorithm and Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyan Meng; Yonghai Sun; Yuan Ni; Yumiao Ren

    2014-01-01

    As to the problem of inaccurate in traditional grade method of beef marbling, a automatic grading system based on computer vision had been founded and was used to predict the beef quality grade of Chinese yellow cattle. Image processing was used to automatically evaluate the beef marbling grade. Segmentation methods used in rib-eye image of beef carcass was improved watershed algorithm. All grading indicators were obtained by image processing automatically. Four grading indicators, which char...

  4. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p

  5. Sward canopy structure and performance of beef heifers under supplementation in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained with three grazing intensities in a continuous stocking system

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rume Casagrande; Ana Cláudia Ruggieri; Matheus Henrique Moretti; Telma Teresinha Berchielli; Bruno Ramalho Vieira; Anna Paula de Toledo Piza Roth; Ricardo Andrade Reis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sward canopy structure of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained in three grazing intensities under continuous stocking system during the rainy season, along with the behavior and performance of grazing beef heifers supplemented with mineral salt or an energy/protein supplement. Three levels of forage allowance were assessed: 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kg of forage/kg of live weight, combined with two supplements (ad libitum mineral salt, and ...

  6. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Corva; Liliana Soria; Alejandro Schor; Edgardo Villarreal; Macarena Pérez Cenci; Mariana Motter; Carlos Mezzadra; Lilia Melucci; Cristina Miquel; Enrique Paván; Gustavo Depetris; Francisco Santini; Juan Grigera Naón

    2007-01-01

    The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G) and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G). We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from cro...

  7. Effects of sex control and twinning on economic optimization of culling cows in Japanese Black cow-calf production systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, K; Hirooka, H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sex control and twinning techniques on determination of optimal culling parity of cows in beef cow-calf production systems were deterministically analyzed using a herd model simulation. The model simulated the annualized net revenue as an economic indicator during the whole life cycle of a cow. Biological factors (survivability, growth, reproduction, and feed requirements) and economic factors (returns from sales of live calves and cows' carcasses and production costs) were inc...

  8. Multi-criteria Assessment of Innovative Technology in the Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley Moreland; Paul Hyland

    2010-01-01

    In Australia rural research and development corporations and companies expended over $AUS500 million on agricultural research and development. A substantial proportion of this is invested in R&D in the beef industry. The Australian beef industry exports almost $AUS5billionof product annually and invest heavily in new product development to improve the beef quality and improve production efficiency.  Review points are critical for effective new product development, yet many research and develo...

  9. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  10. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  11. Domestic and Trade Impacts of Foot and Mouth Disease and BSE on the Australian Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Perevodchikov, Evgeniy V.

    2010-01-01

    Although Australia is the sixth largest producer of beef, with production of 2 million metric tonnes, behind regions such as the USA, Brazil and the EU it is the second largest exporter of beef behind Brazil. Average beef exports from Australia are approximately 65% of the total amount of beef produced or about 1.3 million metric tonnes. For these reasons Australia is particularly vulnerable to diseases that are not endemic to the country and could close or disrupt its export markets for beef...

  12. A prospective field study examining the association between environmental emissions from the petroleum industry and the productivity of commercial beef cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, C.L.; Ribble, C.S.; Janzen, E.D.; Campbell, J.R. [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, AB (Canada). Dept. of Herd Medicine and Theriogenology

    2000-07-01

    The health and productivity of seven cow-calf herds located near a new sour gas processing plant was measured using newly developed intensive biological accounting methods. Production records from more than 7000 bull contacts were examined from 1991 to 1997. Detailed information was collected on other risk factors which could influence beef herd productivity. Published reports were in good agreement with the collected data on the median risks for non-pregnancy, abortion, late calving, stillbirth, calf mortality, calving date or weaning weight. Herd age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves improved significantly. Exposure assessments made on individual animals indicated that there is no consistent association between the total sulfation and H{sub 2}S deposition which was used as markers for the compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants and flares. However, five examples of association were found to exist between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Finally, the association between cow-calf productivity and cumulative animal proximity to petroleum field facilities and sour gas flares from battery sites was examined. It was determined that an increased risk of non-pregnancy was sometimes associated with exposure to sour flaring, battery facilities, active gas wells and larger field facilities, but the association was not consistent from from year to year. Flaring was not found to be associated with increased abortion risk, but volume of flared sour gas from battery sites was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. In the 1992-1993 calf crop, sour flaring was found to be associated with an increased risk in calf mortality.

  13. A prospective field study examining the association between environmental emissions from the petroleum industry and the productivity of commercial beef cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health and productivity of seven cow-calf herds located near a new sour gas processing plant was measured using newly developed intensive biological accounting methods. Production records from more than 7000 bull contacts were examined from 1991 to 1997. Detailed information was collected on other risk factors which could influence beef herd productivity. Published reports were in good agreement with the collected data on the median risks for non-pregnancy, abortion, late calving, stillbirth, calf mortality, calving date or weaning weight. Herd age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves improved significantly. Exposure assessments made on individual animals indicated that there is no consistent association between the total sulfation and H2S deposition which was used as markers for the compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants and flares. However, five examples of association were found to exist between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Finally, the association between cow-calf productivity and cumulative animal proximity to petroleum field facilities and sour gas flares from battery sites was examined. It was determined that an increased risk of non-pregnancy was sometimes associated with exposure to sour flaring, battery facilities, active gas wells and larger field facilities, but the association was not consistent from from year to year. Flaring was not found to be associated with increased abortion risk, but volume of flared sour gas from battery sites was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. In the 1992-1993 calf crop, sour flaring was found to be associated with an increased risk in calf mortality

  14. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  15. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  16. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which...

  17. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuang Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  18. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  19. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  20. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

  1. Toyota production system

    OpenAIRE

    Gmenta, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Teoretická část práce rozebírá problematiku štíhlého podniku, resp. štíhlé výroby, dále základní metody, systémy a přístupy užívané v Toyota production system (TPS).Praktická část popisuje jejich implmentaci v konkrétním podniku z oblasti automobilového průmyslu a nabízí návrhy řešení problému spojených se zaváděním TPS.

  2. Supply Chain Practice, Supply Chain Performance Indicators and Competitive Advantage of Australian Beef Enterprises: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry; Parton, Kevin A.; Cox, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on an Australian agribusiness supply chain, the Australian Beef Supply Chain. The definition of the Australian Beef Supply Chain is the chain or sequence of all activities from the breeding property to the domestic or overseas consumers. The beef sector in Australia is undergoing rapid change because of globalisation, a highly competitive beef market (local and export), quicker production cycle and delivery times and consequently reduced inventories, a general speed-up o...

  3. Evaluation of Beef Marbling Grade Based on Advanced Watershed Algorithm and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyan Meng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As to the problem of inaccurate in traditional grade method of beef marbling, a automatic grading system based on computer vision had been founded and was used to predict the beef quality grade of Chinese yellow cattle. Image processing was used to automatically evaluate the beef marbling grade. Segmentation methods used in rib-eye image of beef carcass was improved watershed algorithm. All grading indicators were obtained by image processing automatically. Four grading indicators, which characterize the size, number and distribution of marbling particles, were proposed for the inputs of neural network prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the image processing methods were effective. The grading system based on computer vision and neural network model can better predict the beef quality grading. The prediction accuracy of beef marbling grade was 86.84%. Algorithm proposed in this study proved the image processing and neural network modeling is an effective method for beef marbling grading.

  4. Comparison of limitation for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms in raw beef products at home and abroad%国内外生鲜牛肉食源性致病微生物标准限量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎玉苗; 黄彩霞; 卢凌; 孙宝忠

    2012-01-01

    论述了我国生鲜牛肉中主要食源性致病微生物的危害及污染状况,指出我国生鲜牛肉存在着被各种食源性致病菌污染的情况和风险。通过对国外一些国家的食源性致病微生物限量标准进行比较分析,指出我国生鲜牛肉食源性致病微生物限量标准与国际标准存在一定的差距,以及我国建立生鲜牛肉食源性致病微生物限量标准的重要性和紧迫性,并对我国生鲜牛肉微生物限量标准制定提出几点建议和意见。%The hazards and pollution condition of main foodborne pathogenic microorganisms in raw beef were analyzed.The essentiality and urgency of formulating limitation for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms in raw beef in China were pointed out by comparing with those abroad.Finally,some advices about limitation for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms in raw beef products were put forward.

  5. Western Canada beef productivity study : a component of the western Canada study on animal and human health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities : study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine if exposure from oil and gas emissions has an impact on animal and human health in western Canada. The study design has been reviewed and endorsed by the Science Advisory Panel of the Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association which is composed of 10 internationally renowned scientists with experience in environmental and reproductive epidemiology, animal and human health, and toxicology. The research methodology includes a peer review process to ensure credibility. The five components of the study include: beef cattle productivity; assessment of the immune function in beef cattle; assessment of wildlife reproduction and immune function; exposure monitoring; and, human health. This study provides insight beyond that gained from previous studies. The association between flaring and reproductive outcomes in beef herds was examined. The association between herd location in high sulfur deposition areas and increased risk of reproductive failure was also evaluated. The study includes exposure markers for both sweet gas emissions and sour gas sources. Passive monitors measured volatile organic carbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Monitoring was also conducted for other compounds including sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final analysis and assessment of the data should be complete by late 2003 with a report available for peer review at the beginning of 2004. refs

  6. Soil physical quality in crop-livestock systems in a beef cattle-rearing pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cassante de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop-livestock systems (CLS using no-tillage systems have been used to reform and recover degraded pastures, allowing farmers greater profitability and improving soil health. In an experiment with the purpose to evaluate four models of CLS in rearing of cows Nellore, comparing them with the rebuilds performed in permanent pasture, soil physical attributes of quality (density-Db, microporosity-Mi and diameter weighted aggregates-DWA were evaluated in three soil layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm six years after implantation.  The experiment was located in the Research Unity of São José do Rio Preto/APTA, in an Ferrasol, texture sandy/medium. The 26 ha-area was divided into 24 plots, distributed according to a randomized block design, with four replications and six treatments: (T1 permanent pasture with moderate fertilization (application of 45 kg of N/ha/year; (T2 permanent pasture with fertilizer intensive (90 kg of N/ha/year divided into two applications, and four CLS models with fertilization equal to the second treatment: (T3 one year of maize followed by two pasture; (T4 one year of corn and one of pasture, (T5 two consecutive years of corn followed by a pasture and (T6 two consecutive years of corn followed by two years of pasture. The goal was to provide information to identify environmental gains of CLS models with their long-term use. Changes were observed in the size and shape of the aggregates and the presence of roots in the aggregates. Permanent pastures (T1 and T2 form larger aggregates, at right angles, with fewer roots, while aggregates in the soil managed with CLS (T3 to T6 aggregates are smaller, rounder, with more roots and more darkened color. These observations are supported by the DWA aggregates, since the permanent pasture treatments (T1 and T2 showed higher values when compared to soils with CLS. Regarding the soil layers, there was higher aggregate stability in the surface layer (0-10 and 10-20 cm due to the higher input

  7. Validation of a lactic acid- and citric acid-based antimicrobial product for the reduction of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella on beef tips and whole chicken carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laury, A M; Alvarado, M V; Nace, G; Alvarado, C Z; Brooks, J C; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a lactic acid- and citric acid-based antimicrobial product on the reduction of Salmonella on whole broiler carcasses during processing and the reduction of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef trim. Freshly harvested broiler carcasses were inoculated with an inoculum of Salmonella strains to yield a 10(5) CFU/ml pathogen load on the surface of the carcass. The beef tips were inoculated as well with an inoculum of either E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella to yield 10(4) CFU/100 cm(2). After 30 min for attachment, the broiler carcasses were treated with Chicxide applied for 5 s via a spray or immersed in Chicxide for 5, 10, or 20 s. Broiler carcasses were rinsed in poultry rinse bags with 400 ml of Butterfield's phosphate buffer in which Salmonella was enumerated from the diluents and Butterfield's phosphate. Chicxide significantly reduced Salmonella by 1.3 log CFU/ml with spray treatment and 2.3 log CFU/ml for all dip treatments. Following 30 min of attachment, the beef tips were placed into a spray cabinet with either Beefxide or sterilized water (control) and sprayed at 1 ft/2.5 s chain speed at 40 lb/in(2). The external surface of each beef tip was swabbed (100 cm(2)) to determine pathogen loads. Beefxide significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.4 log CFU/100 cm(2) and Salmonella by 1.1 log CFU/100 cm(2) (P < 0.05) compared with the control samples. PMID:19833048

  8. The Impact of Pork Advertising on US Meat Demand in the Presence of Competing Beef Advertising and Food Safety Events

    OpenAIRE

    Piggott, Nicholas E.; Zhen, Chen; Beach, Robert H.; Wolhlgenant, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects of domestic advertising and promotion expenditures on meat demand, extending previous efforts in several areas, including the use of more recent data, employing a complete demand system and simultaneously measuring the impacts of generic pork and beef advertising and food safety information on the demand for beef, pork, and poultry. Using the Generalized Almost Ideal Demand System (GAIDS), own- and cross- beef and pork advertising and own- and cross- beef, pork, and pou...

  9. PROFIT ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL BEEF CATTLE FARM IN MINAHASA REGENCY, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sahrun DALIE; Erwin WANTASEN; Selvie, D. ANIS; Stevie. P. PANGEMANAN

    2016-01-01

    A traditional beef cattle farm agribusiness needs the development in farmer’s way of thinking, from production for family or market need, to production for higher profit, and this could be achieved by adapting the economic principles. The objective of this study was to find out business information for profitable business. This study was carried out on beef cattle farmers group in Kanonang III Village, Kawangkoan District, Minahasa Regency. Results showed that raising 10 beef cattles resulted...

  10. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte submetidas a diferentes sistemas alimentares Performance of beef heifers submitted at different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de sistemas alimentares sobre o desenvolvimento de fêmeas de corte, dos oito aos 18/20 meses de idade. Foram avaliadas novilhas da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore. Os sistemas de alimentação foram: 'aveia + azevém + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, seguida de pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke; 'aveia + azevém + campo' - pastagem de aveia e azevém mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação energética mais pastagem de milheto; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + campo'- pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni. O suplemento foi grão de sorgo moído, 0,7% do peso vivo (PV/dia. Foram tomados registros de PV, escore de condição corporal (ECC, atividade ovariana e manifestação de estro no período dos 18 aos 20 meses de idade das novilhas. Novilhas exclusivamente em pastagem natural durante o verão/outono não atingiram o peso recomendado para acasalamento aos 18/20 meses de idade. Novilhas que apresentaram estro foram mais pesadas e realizaram maior ganho diário médio durante o inverno. Novilhas mantidas em aveia + azevém + milheto apresentaram maior porcentagem de ovários funcionais aos 18/20 meses de idade.The effect of feeding systems on performance of beef heifers, on period of eight to 18/20 months of age. Charolais heifers and their crosses with Nellore were evaluated. The feeding systems were: 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + Pearl millet'- Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam and Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke pasture; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + natural pasture'- Black oat and annual ryegrass and natural pasture with Annoni grass (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass

  11. Changeability of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenraad, M. S.; Wortmann, J. C.; Olhager, J; Persson, F

    2007-01-01

    Modem production management systems consist of transaction processing systems and decision enhancement systems. A clear example of two such components are an ERP systems and APS systems. These systems are often standard software systems, and therefore suitable for many different situations. This pap

  12. Inclusion systems and amalgamated products of product systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat , B. V. Rajarama; Mukherjee, Mithun

    2009-01-01

    Here we generalize the concept of spatial tensor product, introduced by Skeide, of two product systems via a pair of normalized units. This new notion is called amalgamated tensor product of product systems, and now the amalgamation can be done using a contractive morphism. Index of amalgamation product (when done through units) adds up for normalized units but for non-normalized units, the index is one more than the sum. We define inclusion systems and use it as a tool for index computations...

  13. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...

  14. An Analysis of Perceived Important Challenges Currently Facing the U.S. Grass-fed Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sitienei, Isaac; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine U.S. grass-fed beef producer perceptions of important challenges facing the industry. The most important challenges facing grass-fed beef producers were shortage of processors, lack of a clear marketing system, pasture management problems, and the long period of time required to get animals to the desired market weight. Key words: Grass-fed beef, grain-fed beef, challenge, industry

  15. Effect of genotype and age on some carcass and meat quality traits of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soji, Z; Muchenje, V

    2016-07-01

    Genotype and age effects on pH24, L*, a*, b*, tenderness (WBSF), cooking (CL %), and thawing loss (TL %) of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system were determined. Carcass traits (bruising, subcutaneous fat (SF), and conformation) were also measured. Meat quality measurements were taken on the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n=175) of A, AB, B, and C carcasses from Angus, Bonsmara, Fleckvieh, Non-descript, and Simmental genotypes. No bruises were evident in all carcasses. All carcasses scored medium conformation (class 3) while in SF classification, class 2 had the greatest frequency (66.3%). Genotypic effects (PSimmental had least tender meat while Non-descript and Fleckvieh had the tenderest meat within the C-age class. Meat quality varied within animals of the same age-class across genotypes. PMID:26995775

  16. Effect of an artificial sweetener and yeast product combination on immune function measurements, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred ninety-nine crossbred beef heifer calves (205 ± 7.9 kg initial BW) were used in a 44-d receiving trial with 2 dietary treatments (9 pens/treatment) in a completely random design. Diets were a steam-flaked corn and alfalfa hay-based control (CON) diet or the same diet (ADD) with added art...

  17. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  18. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  19. Consumer preferences for ground beef packaged under a modified atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H.; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Roosen, Jutta; Sven M. Anders

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify factors that determine consumers’ purchase decisions for ground beef offered with different packaging technologies. Consumers’ increasing knowledge about food technologies and changes in food labeling regulation influence agribusiness’ future product development and marketing strategies. Non-hypothetical choice experiments with ground beef, conducted in the USA, are used to quantify consumers’ valuation of technology-related attributes namely sh...

  20. Selection and Development of Replacement Beef Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Stenquist, Norris J.; Bennett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Selection, development, management, and nutrition of heifer calves to be used as herd replacements are key factors in maintaining beef herd productivity. A cow/calf producer, to be successful, must have some goals or criterion for heifer selection and development. For practically all Utah cattle production areas, economics dictate that heifers must calve as two-year-olds. Heifers must be properly developed and managed to permit this. The following factors are important: Heifers should 1) beco...

  1. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  2. Forecasting beef prices for military subsistence procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Borza, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Defense Subsistence Region Pacific (DSRPAC) is responsible for the acquisition of food products (meat, fresh fruit and vegetables, etc.) for military personnel located west of the Rocky Mountains. In the author's review of current DSRPAC operations, it was observed that capitalizing on price movements was not a consideration during acquisition cf beef products. Using time-series analysis, it was shown that significant...

  3. Advances in the Research of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Beef and Its Products%牛肉酶解工艺及其产物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珍; 安鑫; 王亚茜; 廖鲜艳; 黄俊逸

    2014-01-01

    The use of papain, protamex and flavourzyme to hydrolyze beef is widespread. This paper reviews the current status of research on enzymatic hydrolysis of beef and its hydrolysate. Three hydrolysis procedures for beef are summarized, namely single enzymatic hydrolysis, and one-step or stepwise hydrolysis with multiple enzymes. It has been demonstrated that enzymatic hydrolysis of beef results in the release of amino acids or the formation of polypeptides, which are readily absorbed by the human body and have diverse bioactivities. The hydrolyzed beef has broad prospects for application in the meat industry.%常用于水解牛肉的酶有木瓜蛋白酶、动物蛋白水解复合酶、风味复合酶等,本文总结了蛋白酶水解牛肉的工艺以及酶法水解牛肉的研究现状,归纳了牛肉酶解的3种工艺方法:单酶水解、多酶复合水解和多酶分步水解。结果表明:牛肉经过酶解释放出氨基酸或形成多肽,更利于人体消化吸收,并且具有一定的生物活性,牛肉酶解工艺在肉制品行业中有广阔的发展前景。

  4. Typology of Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Edwards, Kasper; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Many organisations are moving from mass production to mass customization. Product configuration systems (PCS) are increasingly seen as an interesting option for firms who wish to pursue a strategy with a high degree of product variance while retaining a low cost of specifying the product. To become...... more specific in relation to how product configuration systems can support mass customization, it is necessary to understand how different product configuration systems can be classified, and how these differ. This paper presents a typology of product configuration systems based on the five kinds of...... knowledge needed for the configuration task. Lastly, we discuss the implementation and use-related issues that can be derived from the typology....

  5. Establishment of minimum operational parameters for a high-volume static chamber steam pasteurization system (SPS 400-SC) for beef carcasses to support HACCP programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff, Deanna; Phebus, Randall; Kastner, Curtis; Marsden, James

    2005-01-01

    A static chamber steam pasteurization unit (SPS 400-SC()) was installed in a high-volume commercial beef slaughter facility. The SPS 400-SC consists of a three-phase carcass treatment cycle of water removal, steam pasteurization, and water chilling. Seven chamber temperatures (71.1, 73.9, 76.7, 79.4, 82.2, 85.0, and 87.8 degrees C) were evaluated at the midline area of pre-rigor beef carcasses. For each temperature evaluated, 20 carcass sides were randomly selected and aseptically sampled by tissue excision immediately before and after steam pasteurization to determine total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, generic E. coli, and total coliform populations. The 87.8 and 85.0 degrees C treatment temperatures were highly effective at reducing total aerobic bacterial populations, with log(10) reductions of 1.4 and 1.5 CFU/cm(2), respectively, from pretreatment mean population levels of 1.7 and 1.9 log10 CFU/cm(2). These temperatures also reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and generic E. coli to undetectable levels (<0.4 CFU/cm(2)) on all carcasses sampled. Treatment at 82.2 was marginally effective at reducing bacterial populations, while 71.1, 73.9, 76.7, and 79.4 degrees C treatments were ineffective at reducing microbial populations. In a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)-based system employing steam pasteurization of carcasses as a critical control point, a critical limit of 85.0 degrees C as a minimum chamber temperature should be established, with a targeted operating temperature of 87.8 degrees C providing optimum antimicrobial activity. PMID:15992309

  6. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juaneda, Pierre; Durand, Denis; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA co...

  7. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jen-Hua; Ockerman, Herbert W.

    2013-01-01

    Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. T...

  8. Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation%甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。%In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.

  9. 甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价%Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.%利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。

  10. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results indica...

  11. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  12. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  13. Inclusion of Ethanol Co-Products in Beef Cow Diets: Impact on Cow Performance and Developmental Programming of the Progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Shee, Christie N

    2013-01-01

    The main goal for a cow-calf producer is profitability, which requires optimum reproductive performance, while keeping feed costs low and ensuring that nutritional needs are met. Cow herds are grazed on pasture or crop residues, but these may not always meet nutritional requirements. Ethanol co-products such as dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and condensed distiller's solubles (CDS) may be supplemented to increase the energy and protein concentration of the diet. Recently it has...

  14. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  15. Comparação de sistemas de avaliação de dietas para bovinos no modelo de produção intensiva de carne. II - Creep feeding Comparison of diet evaluation systems for cattle in an intensive beef production model. II - Creep-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Marques de Brito

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 29 bezerros lactentes da raça Canchim com 55 dias de idade e peso corporal médio de 107 kg, que receberam suplemento alimentar durante a estação chuvosa, visando avaliar o desempenho proporcionado pelos ajustes nutricionais recomendados por diferentes sistemas de avaliação de dietas. Os suplementos, à base de milho em grão moído, farelo de algodão e farelo de soja, seguiram as recomendações do Sistema de Proteína Metabolizável (MP, do Sistema de Proteína e Carboidratos Líquidos de Cornell (CNCPS e do Sistema de Proteína Digestível no Intestino (PDI, para possibilitar o mais elevado ganho de peso corporal possível, conforme indicação de cada sistema de ajuste. O ganho diário de peso corporal não diferiu entre os tratamentos CNCPS, MP e PDI, com médias de 1,0 kg/cab. para cada um dos três tratamentos estudados. Foram estimadas as diferenças de peso corporal à desmama, em relação a um lote testemunha sem suplementação, para que o creep-feeding proporcionasse rentabilidades líquidas de 0; 0,6; 1,2; e 6% ao mês, encontrando-se valores de 15,5; 27,1; 17,1; e 15,9 para o CNCPS; 27,9; 17,6; 16,4; e 28,7 para o MP; e 18,1; 20,4; 35,6; e 22,5 em kg/cab. para o sistema PDI. Concluiu-se que os suplementos avaliados pelos sistemas proporcionaram resultados de desempenho animal compatíveis com os estimados.Twenty-nine suckling Canchim calves averaged 107 kg of body weight and 55 days of age were fed with supplement during the wet season, in order to evaluate the performance provided by nutritional adjustments recommended by different systems of evaluation of diets. Supplements were composed of grounded corn grain, cottonseed meal and soybean meal, in agreement with the recommendations of the Metabolizable Protein System (MP; Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS; and Intestine Digestible Protein System (PDI, for the highest possible body weight gain, according to indications of each adjustment

  16. Competitive advantages of the Brazilian Beef Processing Plants in their Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Américo Cassano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study has the primary objective of identifying the major competitive advantages owned by Brazilian beef processing plants in their internationalization process. In order to reach it, it was carried out an exploratory research, based on the survey of official data and publications concerning world’s beef cattle production, followed by a literature review and finally, by a single case study. This case study was conducted through an interview with former employee of Redenção Frigorífico do Pará Ltda. The obtained results allowed the identification of the major competitive advantages of the studied company in its internationalization process, such as the raw material quality and availability, production scale, Brazilian cattle’s extensive production system, and control and prevention of main cattle diseases. It was concluded that Brazilian beef production plants really have competitive advantages within the internationalization process context, some of them practically observed in the studied company, and others that can be effectively corroborated by future studies.

  17. Inclusion of crude glycerin with different roughages changes ruminal parameters and in vitro gas production from beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Regina Paschoaloto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing availability of crude glycerin from biodiesel production has generated great stock in the industries. To solve this problem, crude glycerin is being used as an energy source to replace corn in livestock diets. This study evaluated the effects of the association of crude glycerin (10% on DM of diets with different roughages in Nellore cattle diets on ruminal pH and ammonia, degradability, digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, and greenhouse gas production. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 6×6 Latin square design. The following treatments were evaluated: Hydrolyzed Sugarcane associated or not with crude glycerin, Corn Silage associated or not with crude glycerin or Tifton-85 Hay associated or not with crude glycerin. Association of crude glycerin with roughages did not affect the rumen ammonia concentration and pH and dry matter intake, but reduced the intake of NDF for diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane and Corn Silage and reduced the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CNF and starch and decreased the effective degradation at the rate of 8% h-1 for diets with Tifton-85 Hay. The association crude glycerin with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane reduced the production of CH4 and CO2 in mL g-1 of DM. The inclusion of crude glycerin affects differently nutrient utilization in diets with Corn Silage, Hydrolyzed Sugarcane or Tifton-85 hay. Moreover, promotes mitigation of greenhouse gases in diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane. Association of crude glycerin with Corn Silage in Nellore cattle diets showed better conditions of ruminal fermentation and utilization of nutrients.

  18. Quality evaluation of beef carcasses produced under tropical conditions of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Rios, J M; Lancaster, P A; Goad, C L; Horn, G W; Hilton, G G; Galindo, J G

    2013-01-01

    , conformation was identified as the criterion with the greatest influence on final quality grade and the primary reason for the absence of Supreme grading among the carcasses studied. It is concluded that the application of the Mexican beef carcass classification norm NMX-FF-078-SCFI-2002 into a sample population of beef cattle coming out of a tropical beef production environment highlights a system capable of sending animals to slaughter at an early age with adequate meat and fat color and subcutaneous fat distribution although requiring improvement in conformation. PMID:23048152

  19. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 107 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen, B K; Lynch, O A; Carroll, J; McDowell, D A; Duffy, G

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the prevalence, concentration and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in the Irish beef chain. A total of 900 samples including bovine hides, carcasses and ground beef were examined for the pathogen over a 2-year study (July 2007-June 2009). Salmonella prevalence was low in all sample types; bovine hide (0.75%, 3 of 400); carcasses (0.25%, 1 of 400); and ground beef (3%, 3 of 100). All positive samples contained the pathogen in low concentrations (Dublin from hide and carcasses and S. Braenderup in ground beef. All isolates were susceptible to 13 anti-microbials. The study highlights that Salmonella can be found at low levels at all stages of beef chain production, processing and retail and that there is a need for multiple hurdle interventions and practices along the beef chain, which will reduce consumer exposure to this pathogen. PMID:24495534

  1. Characteristics of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Application on Beef Product Detection%近红外光谱仪特性及在牛肉制品检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈育涛; 朱秋劲

    2012-01-01

    近红外光谱技术作为一种新型的分析检测技术,具有快速准确、无损的特点,在食品品质检测和生产监控中有着良好的应用前景。本文着重介绍近红外分析技术的原理、仪器和在牛肉及其制品中的应用并将其与相关同类仪器的性能特点进行对比,最后对近红外光谱技术进行展望。%Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) technology, as a new analysis technology, has bright prospects for applications in food quality detection and production monitoring owing to its rapidity, reliability and no destruction. In this paper, NIR technology is introduced with emphasis on its principle, instrumental composition and application in the detection of beef and beef products. Moreover, its features are compared with those of other similar technologies. Finally, its development prospects are presented.

  2. DOWN MARKET EFFECTS IN BEEF COW-CALF HERDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Stephen L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, prices for weaned calves were at the lowest point for the current cattle market cycle. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Beef ,97 Study examined the effects of the down market on beef cow-calf herd management practices. Most producers did not alter management practices in response to the down market. Among producers who made changes, costs were cut largely in the area of herd health management. Specific management practices in which costs were cut included...

  3. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... or through the anus. Adults and children with pork tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor ...

  4. 我国牛肉溯源体系发展情况、存在问题及解决措施%Development, Existing Problems and Countermeasures of China Beef Trace System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓刚; 张芳毓; 刘臣; 陈群; 张国梁

    2011-01-01

    Our country has explored valuably in implementation of beef trace management system, but there still existing some key problems needed to be resolved promptly. After concrete analysis of the problems in the construction of beef trace management system, we present some pointed countermeasures in the respects of management regulations establishment, coding design, hardware and software platform design, standard system construction and system integration, and hope to provide references to the safety controlling of beef quality.%我国目前已经在牛肉溯源性管理体系的实施方面进行了有益的探索,但是仍然存在许多关键问题亟待解决。本文通过对牛肉溯源体系建设中存在的问题进行分析后,在管理法规建立、编码设计、软硬件平台建设、标准系统应用和系统集成等方面提出了有针对性的解决措施,从而为我国牛肉质量安全控制提供参考。

  5. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  6. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  7. Characterization of Genes for Beef Marbling Based on Applying Gene Coexpression Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dajeong Lim; Nam-Kuk Kim; Seung-Hwan Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Yong-Min Cho; Han-Ha Chai; Heebal Kim

    2014-01-01

    Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large d...

  8. Economics of early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early weaning is a management option for producers to consider during extended droughts. Early removal of the calf from its dam reduces forage needs of the cow-calf enterprise and has been found to improve BW gain and pregnancy rates in the cow herd. However, early weaning may not always be economi...

  9. Determinant of Funding Accessibility and its Impacts to The Performance of Beef-Cow Breeding Enterprises in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Asnawi, Aslina

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction One of the cattle breeding undertakings or enterprises actively performed by rural communities and has its business development motivated by the government at present is the beef-cow breeding enterprise, because during the last few years, particularly before 2010, the total production of beef was relatively low compared to the demand and consumption of beef. This is also strengthened by the Program of Minister of Agriculture on Self Fulfillment in Buffalo Meat and Beef for ...

  10. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a combined multi-phase supplier selection model. The process repeatedly revisits the criteria and sourcing decision as the development process continues. This enables a structured adoption of product and production system innovation from strategic suppliers, where...... previously the literature purely focuses on product innovation or cost reduction. Design/methodology/approach: The authors adopted an embedded researcher style, inductive, qualitative case study of an industrial supply cluster comprising a focal automotive company and its interaction with three different...

  11. The system Around the Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

          The design discipline has traditionally focused on products physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ?operative paradigm? to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors? role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a...

  12. Implementation of a Molecular System for Traceability of Beef Based on Microsatellite Markers Implementación de un Sistema de Trazabilidad Molecular para la Carne Bovina Basado en Marcadores Microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Felmer D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal products traceability has acquired considerable importance as a security measure in EEC member countries since the food crisis of the mid-nineties. This has led to reinforcing the capacity to manage cattle product quality, with traceability emerging as the main tool to prevent risks to product security and quality as demanded by consumers in developed countries. The practical application of a traceability system for beef, based on molecular markers requires the election of a panel of microsatellites, as well as the optimization of methods of sampling and DNA analysis. In this work, a traceability system for beef based on a panel of 10 microsatellites markers was implemented. Different biological samples were evaluated, such as hair, blood, tissue and meat. Hair samples were the most suitable because they are easy to obtain and to manipulate, and have a low storage cost; whereas in the food processing chain, meat samples were the most suitable due to the facility of obtaining from the maturation room. The traceability system was evaluated in a meat processing plant, confirming traceability of 150 samples of hair with their respective meat counterparts with a 100% of certainty, demonstrating the reliability of the developed method. The implemented system is an important contribution since it allows for ensuring the quality of animal products, and can be used as a tool to certify conventional traceability systems. This would allow for increasing the competitiveness of this sector and generating greater confidence among consumers.La trazabilidad de productos de origen animal ha adquirido gran relevancia como un elemento de seguridad ante las crisis alimentarias ocurridas a partir de mediados de los noventa en países de la Comunidad Europea. Esto ha reforzado la gestión de calidad en productos pecuarios, surgiendo la trazabilidad como la principal herramienta para disminuir los riesgos de seguridad y calidad de los productos que demandan los

  13. A comparative analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions intensity of wheat and beef in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US food system utilizes large quantities of liquid fuels, electricity, and chemicals yielding significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are not considered in current retail prices, especially when the contribution of biogenic emissions is considered. However, because GHG emissions might be assigned a price in prospective climate policy frameworks, it would be useful to know the extent to which those policies would increase the incremental production costs to food within the US food system. This analysis uses lifecycle assessment (LCA) to (1) estimate the magnitude of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions from typical US food production practices, using wheat and beef as examples, and (2) quantify the cost of those emissions in the context of a GHG-pricing regime over a range of policy constructs. Wheat and beef were chosen as benchmark staples to provide a representative range of less intensive and more intensive agricultural goods, respectively. Results suggest that 1.1 ± 0.13 and 31 ± 8.1 kg of lifecycle CO2e emissions are embedded in 1 kg of wheat and beef production, respectively. Consequently, the cost of lifecycle CO2e emissions for wheat (i.e. cultivation, processing, transportation, storage, and end-use preparation) over an emissions price range of $10 and $85 per tonne CO2e is estimated to be between $0.01 and $0.09 per kg of wheat, respectively, which would increase total wheat production costs by approximately 0.3–2% per kg. By comparison, the estimated lifecycle CO2e price of beef over the same range of CO2e prices is between $0.31 and $2.60 per kg of beef, representing a total production cost increase of approximately 5–40% per kg based on average 2010 food prices. This range indicates that the incremental cost to total US food production might be anywhere between $0.63–5.4 Billion per year for grain and $3.70 and $32 Billion per year for beef based on CO2e emissions assuming that total production volumes stay the

  14. Identification and analysis of beef heifers with superior capacity for fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle production is highly dependent upon reproductive efficiency. Early pregnancy loss, estimated to be at least 25% in beef cattle and 45% in dairy cattle, is economically detrimental to both the beef and dairy industries. The majority of embryonic loss occurs between days 8 and 16 of gestation...

  15. 基于NFC的新疆牛羊肉质量安全可追溯系统的设计与开发%Design and Development of Beef and Mutton Quality Safety Traceability System Based on NFC in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京京; 李志刚

    2016-01-01

    分析NFC技术及其在可追溯系统中的应用,并与其他主流的标识技术进行对比分析,针对新疆特色牛羊肉从养殖到销售过程中出现的质量安全问题,利用Web技术构建基于B/S结构的可追溯系统框架,分析系统层次结构和业务流程,并对可追溯系统的功能模块进行设计.通过可追溯系统实现监管部门对牛羊肉质量的监控和企业对产品的管理,同时解决消费者进行食品安全溯源"最后一公里"的问题.%Analyzing NFC ( near field communication ) technology and its application in the traceability system,comparing with other mainstream identification technology,in view of the feature red meat in Xin-jiang,especially for their quality and safety from farming to sales problems appeared in the process,built a traceability system based on B/S structure framework by using technology of web,analyzed the hierarchy and system flowchart of the traceability system, and designed the function module. Finally, realized the beef and mutton quality monitoring,enterprise management of the product,and resolving consumer food safety traceability "the last kilometer" problem by traceability system.

  16. RESEARCH ON SENSORY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATIONS FOR MEAT PRODUCTS BASED ON FUZZY MATHEMATICS——Taking Chinese Traditional Spiced Beef as case%基于模糊数学的肉制品感官综合评判研究——以酱牛肉为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李石新; 邓屹洋

    2013-01-01

    Sensory attributes of meat products are fuzzy,and it is scientific and rational for fuzzy mathematics to be applied to evaluate their sensory attributes.Based on brief introduction on the mathematical principle of on fuzzy comprehensive evaluations,this research constructs index system and weight of the meat sensory comprehensive evaluation.A fuzzy integrity evaluation model was applied to assess seven kinds of Chinese traditional spiced beef (CTSB).Six variables including color,appearance,flavor,taste,texture and residual taste were selected to calculate the weight coefficient of each factor.The results indicated the fuzzy integrity evaluation can differentiate exactly and objectively the qualities and grades of beef samples.Among 7 samples,HongKong spiced beef scores the highest.This case verified that feasibility of application of fuzzy integrity evaluation to Chinese traditional meat products.%肉制品感官属性具有模糊性,运用模糊数学对其感官属性进行评价具有科学合理性.本研究在对模糊综合评判的数学原理进行简介的基础上,构建了肉制品感官综合评判的指标体系,并确定了各指标的相应权重.以此为为基础,选取色泽、组织状态、香气、口感、滋味和残留肉滋味为评价集合,通过计算确定各评价指标的权重,并对七种具有代表性的酱牛肉产品进行了模糊数学综合评价.结果表明,模糊综合评判法客观而准确的区分出不同产品的优劣程度和等级,七种产品中以香港酱牛肉综合评价最高.

  17. Modeling European ruminant production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipling, Richard P.; Bannink, André; Bellocchi, Gianni; Dalgaard, Tommy; Fox, Naomi J.; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Kjeldsen, Chris; Lacetera, Nicola; Sinabell, Franz; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Oijen, van Marcel; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Scollan, Nigel D.

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse

  18. The system around the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    The design discipline has traditionally focused on products’ physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ‘operative paradigm’ to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors’ role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a...

  19. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  20. Index computation for amalgamated products of product systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Mithun

    2011-01-01

    The notion of amalgamation of product systems has been introduced in [7] which generalizes the concept of Skeide product, introduced by Skeide, of two product systems via a pair of normalized units. In this paper we show that amalgamation leads to a setup where a product system is generated by two subsystems and conversely whenever a product system is generated by two subsystems, it could be realized as an amalgamated product. We parameterize all contractive morphism from a ...

  1. Research on hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is closely watched for environmental issues in recent years. In this research, hydrogen production systems and production techniques are widely investigated, and selected some hydrogen production process which have high validity for FBR system. Conclusions of the investigation are shown below. (1) Water-electrolysis processes and steam reform processes at low temperatures are already realized in other fields, so they well be easily adopted for FBR system. FBR system has no advantage when compared with other systems, because water-electrolysis processes can be adopted for other electricity generation system. On the other hand, FBR system has an advantage when steam reforming processes at low temperatures will be adopted, because steam reforming processes at 550-600degC can't be adopted for LWR. (2) Thermochemical processes will be able to adopted for FBR when process temperature will be lowered and material problems solved, because their efficiencies are expected high. Radiolysis processes which use ray (for example, gamma rya) emitted in reactor can be generate hydrogen easily, so they will be able to be adopted for FBR if splitting efficiency will be higher. Further investigation and R and D to realize these processes are considered necessary. (author)

  2. U.S. Grass-Fed Beef: Marketing Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Li, Quan; Wandschneider, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Grass-fed beef is a product with health benefits that may appeal to health-conscious consumers. This article analyzes the results of a choice experiment to explore the importance of health benefits in the marketing of grass fed beef. Both price and fat and calories have a negative effect on the choice of the product, and higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids have a positive effect. Price is the most important attribute to respondents (39.5%), a low level of fat and calories is the second most ...

  3. A social-ecological systems framework for food systems research: accommodating transformation systems and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems (SES framework was developed to support communication across the multiple disciplines concerned with sustainable provision and/or appropriation of common-pool resources (CPRs. Transformation activities (e.g. processing, distribution, retailing in which value is added to resource units appropriated from CPRs were assumed in developing the framework to be exogenous to the SES of focal concern. However, provision and appropriation of CPRs are nowadays often closely integrated with the market economy, so significant interdependence exists between many CPR provision/appropriation activities and the activities in which appropriated resource units are transformed into the products ultimately marketed. This paper presents a modified version of the SES framework designed to better account for transformation activities in order to be more suitable for diagnosing those sustainability problems where it is inappropriate to define all such activities as exogenous to the SES of focal concern. The need for such modification was identified in a research project examining the challenges faced by Cambodian cattle-owning smallholders in accessing value chains for premium-priced beef. Hence the immediate focus was on strengthening the SES framework’s value for facilitating a multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach to food system research projects of this kind. The modified SES framework’s potential in this respect was illustrated by a preliminary application that drew on literature reviewed for the Cambodian project. Significant further potential exists in using the modified framework as a foundation from which to develop a version that is suitable for application to SESs in which transformation systems are appropriately represented as endogenous. Maintaining consistency with the standard SES framework will enable communication to occur more effectively between food system researchers and CPR scholars more generally.

  4. Effects of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; Jennings, J S; Depenbusch, B E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alternative finishing strategies on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Beef steers (64 pens; 8 steers/pen) were allocated to a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Factor 1 consisted of diet, with cattle fed a conventional (CON) diet or a diet consisting of Programmed Nutrition Beef Program (PN) supplements. The PN treatment included Programmed Nutrition Beef Receiver fed from d 1 through 20 of feeding and Programmed Nutrition Beef Finisher fed from d 21 to harvest. Factor 2 evaluated the presence (EGP+) or absence (EGP-) of exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) in the production system. Steers in the EGP+ treatments were initially implanted with Component E-S, reimplanted with Component TE-IS, and fed 400 mg·animal·dof ractopamine hydrochloride for the final 28 d before harvest. Steers were harvested on d 175, and strip loins were removed from 2 carcasses selected at random from each pen for transport to Kansas State University. One 1.27-cm-thick steak was removed from the anterior face for proximate and long-chain fatty acid analysis. There were no diet × ExGP interactions ( > 0.10) for feedlot performance except for DMI ( = 0.02). Steers in the PN/EGP+ treatment consumed more feed than all other treatments ( 0.10) by diet, but ExGP improved these measures ( 0.10). Use of ExGP increased ( 0.10) marbling score. Using ExGP reduced the percentage carcasses grading Premium Choice ( 0.10). Use of ExGP increased ( < 0.05) the ratio of saturated:unsaturated fatty acids. In summary, the alternative feeding strategy presented in this study produced similar feedlot performance and carcass characteristics compared with a conventional feedlot system. PMID:26020906

  5. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  6. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J.; Mendizabal, Jose A.; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega‐3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega‐3, with CLA, or with omega‐3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatme...

  7. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...... system operation, i.e., it does not rely on information about the possible faults. We illustrate the proposed method using real-world data from a coal driven power plant as well as simulated data from an oil production facility....

  8. Prospects for the European beef sector over the next 30 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Chatellier, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The role of livestock production within the European society has changed much in recent years. In the future, this change is set to continue not only for the beef supply chains (competitiveness) but also for animal research: new strategies and revised objectives are necessary to meet the challenges. The demand for animal products including meat is increasing, notably in developing countries. In the 27 Member States of the EU, beef production declines slowly and the trade balance has been nega...

  9. Commercial application of high-dose irradiation to produce shelf-stable meat products. Part 1 - Experimental sterilisation dose required for shelf-stable beef casserole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D10 values for several locally isolated and type strains of Clostridium sporogenes were determined in phosphate buffer. The D10 values obtained compared favourably with those published in the literature for C. sporogenes and Clostridium botulinum. Three strains representing the least resistant, most resistant and average resistant organisms in any mixed population were selected to be used for inoculation pack studies. Pouches containing a beef casserole were inoculated with a mixed spore suspension and irradiated at -40 deg. C to doses of 10-46 kGy with 4 kGy increments. After irradiation the pouches were incubated at 30 deg. C for six months or until they were swollen. The results obtained indicated an experimental sterilisation dose (ESD) of 26-30 kGy. The calculated minimum radiation dose (MRD) would therefore be in the region of 45 kGy. (author)

  10. Assessment of beef production from Brahman x Thai native and Charolais x Thai native crossbred bulls slaughtered at different weights. I: growth performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waritthitham, A; Lambertz, C; Langholz, H-J; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2010-05-01

    Effects of genotype and slaughter weight on growth performance and carcass quality of Brahman x Thai native (BRA) and Charolais x Thai native (CHA) crossbred bulls were studied. Thirty-four BRA and 34 CHA bulls raised under practical fattening beef farm conditions were randomly selected and slaughtered at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight, respectively. Parameters of growth performance, carcass quality and commercial prime cuts were determined. Results showed that growth performance and carcass quality of CHA was better, since they showed higher weight gain, better body muscle score, higher carcass weight high dressing percentage, higher carcass muscle, less carcass fat and bone plus connective tissue proportions, better carcass classifications, greater loin eye area and higher commercial prime cut percentage. Slaughter weights up to 600 kg resulted in increased carcass weight, loin eye area and percentage of commercial prime cuts and can therefore be recommended. PMID:20374884

  11. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic...... and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared to...... the high yielding conventional farms. In analysis of future strategies for milk production, it is suggested that system expansion should be applied, in order to also account for environmental impacts from affected systems. Thus, scenarios for milk and meat production should be analysed in an...

  12. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  13. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  14. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farm household consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts were purposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namely Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated by Two Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneously significant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investment with the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. The simulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service per conception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising of price of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and price of beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and 5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concluded that the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farm household consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor and price significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  15. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  16. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  17. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  18. Un Modelo de Simulación de Sistemas de Engorda de Bovinos a Pastoreo Beef Fattening Simulation Model for Different Grazing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Castellaro G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboró un modelo de simulación de sistemas de producción de carne basado en utilización de pasturas, cuyo objetivo fue evaluar diferentes alternativas pratenses bajo distintas modalidades de manejo, tipos de bovinos, densidades de carga, estrategias de suplementación y precios de insumos. El modelo se estructuró sobre la base de un programa computacional, cuyo módulo principal maneja archivos de datos de manejo y genera archivos de resultados. La sección dinámica está estructurada en subrutinas orientadas a resolver ecuaciones que simulan los procesos biológicos, siendo los más importantes el consumo de energía metabolizable y el cambio de peso vivo. El crecimiento y valor nutritivo de los pastizales fue simulado empíricamente a partir de la interpolación de datos mensuales de tasas de crecimiento y digestibilidad de diferentes tipo de pasturas. El modelo también calcula los procesos relacionados con el manejo del pastoreo, conservación de forrajes y aspectos bioeconómicos. Para la validación del subsistema animal, se utilizaron los datos de peso vivo de toretes Hereford obtenidos de los experimentos físicos de pastoreo realizados durante la temporada 1979-1980. Al relacionar mediante un análisis de regresión los valores simulados con los medidos en los experimentos, se obtuvo un coeficiente de determinación superior al 95%, confirmándose la inexistencia de sesgo en la estimación. La raíz del error cuadrático medio (RMSE no superó el 6%, lo que indicaría que este modelo es realista y tiene un alto grado de precisión.A simulation model of beef cattle fattening systems based on grazing pastures was developed. The objective was to evaluate different pasture options under different management strategies, types of beef cattle, stocking densities, supplementation strategies and input prices. This model was structured based on a program, whose main module drives management input and generates result files. The dynamic

  19. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  20. Designing a Voluntary Beef Checkoff

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Winn, Chris; Chung, Chanjin; Ward, Clement E.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court considered whether the mandatory fees imposed by the beef checkoff violates the First Amendment. As a precaution, many states began forming voluntary beef checkoffs, where funds would be raised through voluntary contributions. This study conducted a survey of Oklahoma cattle producers to determine what type ofvoluntary checkoff design would receive the greatest support. The most popular checkoff placed a large emphasis on advertising and a slightly lower check...

  1. Management systems in production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cullen Enquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster in the U.K. North Sea recommended that an operator should formally present it's company Management System and demonstrate how safety is achieved throughout the life cycle of a platform, from design through operation to abandonment. Brunei Shell Petroleum has prepared a corporate level Safety Management System. As part of Safety Case work, the corporate system is being extended to include the development of specific Management Systems with particular emphasis on offshore production operations involving integrated oil and gas facilities. This paper will describe the development of Management Systems, which includes an intensive Business Process Analysis and will comment upon it's applicability and relationship to ISO 9000. The paper will further describe the applicability and benefits of Management Systems and offer guidance on required effort. The paper will conclude that development of structured Management Systems for safety critical business processes is worthwhile but prioritization of effort will be necessary. As such the full adoption of Management Systems will be directional in nature

  2. Modelling Supplementation Strategies for Beef Steer Rearing and Fattening Systems in Southern Chile Modelación de Estrategias de Suplementación en la Recría y Engorda de Novillos en el Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to analyze beef production systems in Southern Chile. The study considered the identification of the main components of systems under different beef steer management strategies, using pasture with or without supplementation and back grounding cattle on pasture followed by a winter period of confined feeding with pasture silage and concentrates. Validation of model outputs using 200 kg LW Hereford steers against real experimental data showed no significant differences (P ≥ 0.01 between simulated and observed final weights. In order to analyze the interaction between the stocking rate (SR and supplementation, three SR of 2, 2.5 and 3 steers ha-1 with and without pasture silage supplementation at the rate of 5 kg DMd-1 steer-1 for the length of the entire period were simulated. Means were compared by the least significant difference (LSD, P ≤ 0.05. Significant differences were found in terms of final weights, which decreased with increasing SR regardless of the supplementation level, although silage supplementation tended to reduce differences between SR. A second set of simulation runs was carried out to simulate on-farm finishing of the steers through a final phase of confined feeding based on a ration of silage and concentrates. Final weights differed between SR and systems and results showed that the optimum corresponded to 2.5 steers ha-1, since at this SR the largest income corresponded to the smallest mean cost. It is concluded that a stocking rate of 2.5 steers ha-1 is feasible if winter supplementation is available, independently of a finishing period in feedlot.Un modelo matemático fue desarrollado para analizar sistemas de producción de carne bovina en el Sur de Chile. El estudio consideró la identificación de los componentes en diferentes estrategias usadas en novillos de carne, usando praderas con y sin suplementación y la recría seguida por una engorda a corral en invierno con ensilaje de

  3. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. PMID:27180327

  4. A characterization of direct-market beef processing and marketing in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Y. Mainville; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-; Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle; Webb, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    Describes the processing and marketing practices used by direct-marketers of beef in Virginia, including producersï_’ slaughter and processing decisions, as well as key marketing practices such as product form, advertising, and pricing.

  5. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually...

  6. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  7. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  8. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  9. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    risks of each one of them. The obtained data was consecutively transcribed, coded and analysed by using the software package NVivo 7. The results reveal a dependency between the acceptance of novel beef products and how consumers perceive the characteristics of the innovation itself. Excess manipulation...

  10. Multi-product, multi-level product control system analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Popplewell, Keith

    1980-01-01

    Several techniques are applicable to the modelling of production and inventory control systems. In this thesis discrete linear control theory is examined as a method of modelling multi-product, multi-level systems. These systems are categorised and a general discrete linear control model is used to determine system stability and to predict system responses to specific patterns of input information. The response of the system to random variability in input or other system variable is also show...

  11. MC1R gene analysis applied to breed traceability of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rolando

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the breed of origin highly affects the beef price, reliable methods are needed to detect incorrect declarations. As most breeds are standardised for coat colour, the Melanocortin 1 Receptor gene (MC1R, involved in the regulation of eu/pheomelanins synthesis, has been suggested as marker for breed traceability of products of animal origin. The aim of this investigation is to characterise the main breeds reared in the Piedmont Region by MC1R locus and to apply the analysis of the locus to breed traceability of beef cuts purchased in different outlets of the Region. A total of 168 DNA samples of four cattle breeds (Piemontese, Blonde d’Aquitaine, Italian Friesian and Aosta Red Pied were analysed for MC1R locus by PCR-RFLP. In addition, 28 DNA samples from beef with breed indication were tested. Piemontese and Blonde d’Aquitaine were monomorphic for the E+and eallele, respectively. In the Friesian breed the EdEd genotype was the most frequent, but Edewas also observed (2%. Aosta Red Pied was the most variable breed, with the presence of the three alleles and five genotypes out of six. The comparison of the genotypic distribution in the four breeds clearly indicates that it is possible to distinguish among Piemontese, Blonde d’Aquitaine and Friesian breeds, but the same is not true for Aosta Red Pied, which has genotypes in common with the other breeds. The results on beef samples revealed a high percentage of mislabelling (about 18%, which concerned Friesian breed and crossbreds. These results indicate that MC1R locus is an effective marker in breed traceability of beef, when the involved breeds are characterised by different genotypes. Moreover, compared to other genetic markers, it has the great advantage of not requiring DNA reference sam- ples. This survey, though limited, has revealed a high percentage of incompatibilities. Therefore, the analysis of MC1R locus is recommended in the framework of product certification, at least for

  12. Jointly achieving profitability and environmental outcomes: methane abatement from genetic improvement in the Australian beef industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Griffith, Garry R.; Hegarty, Roger S.

    2006-01-01

    Selection of cattle with greater feed efficiency is known to be profitable. Savings in southern Australian beef production systems of $6.55 per breeding cow per year have been estimated for selection for lower residual feed intake (RFI), and an additional saving of $4.34 per breeding cow per year may be achieved in feedlots. Greater feed efficiency is also expected to reduce methane emissions. A gene flow model was developed to simulate the spread of improved RFI genes through both a single h...

  13. Decline in available world resources - implications for livestock production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    supplementation that increase feed conversion efficiency, building on such demonstration trials as those of Dolberg and Finlayson to increase beef production in China. Ruminants produce 80 million tonnes of methane annually mostly by animals fed low quality feeds. Improving these feeds reduces methane production per unit of product and utilization of nitrate to replace urea in low protein diets can reduce methane production per animal to almost zero removing the down side of increasing enteric methane production, a major contributor to global warming, as production from ruminants increase. Water the other major resource required for agriculture has also been depleted. Many of the world's large river systems are being drained for urban and industrial water supplies or for irrigated crops before they reach their previous destination. Glacial melt is altering the timing of water availability, particularly where it supplies irrigation water in the dry season. The Ghengetic plains are in grave danger of losing their third rice crop in a year putting 200 million people at risk. Ground water has been exploited using cheap fuel, but many of the large aquifers are now too deep to be economically mined for irrigation, reducing some of the major areas of crop production. Bio-fuel production on the Texas high plain is putting enormous strains on water from the aquifer. Yet bio-fuels produce a huge demand in terms of water pollution. The advent of peak oil will clearly return vast areas of irrigated cropland to rain fed cropping, pasture or desert with major loss of food productivity. Global warming cannot be ignored in any discussion on future agriculture. Increasing sea levels will undoubtedly remove considerable areas of fertile delta and weather patterns will certainly change, leading to at times more intense drought and or flooding rains. Warming also carries with it the risk of decreased crop production as recent research has demonstrated that rice yields decrease by 10% for every

  14. Gamma irradiation of beef for shelf-life extension and for improving its bacterial quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 1-3 kGy on bacteriological, chemical and sensory quality of beef ball from commercial producer were investigated. The shelf-life at 3 degrees C of beef ball, irradiated at 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kGy was determined and compared to those packed under atmospheric condition. Two replications of beef ball were carried out. Changes in mesophilic count, psychrotrophic count, Lactobacillus count, pH, TB A number and sensory quality of irradiated and non-irradiated beef ball were determined every 1, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 24 days. The results indicated that irradiation of beef ball at 2 kGy eliminated Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and reduced bacterial load by 2-3 log cycles. Salmonella sp. was not detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated products. Significant changes in odor and TB A number were observed after 1 kGy treatment. The shelf-life of non-irradiated beef ball based on psychrotrophic count was approximately 7 days compared with 21 and 24 days for beef ball irradiated at 0.9 and 1.8 kGy. The sensory quality of irradiated beef ball tended to decrease during storage but was within the acceptable range even after 24 days of storage at 3 degrees C. Packing of beef ball under vacuum or atmospheric condition gave similar results. Dosage at 2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality and increasing the shelf-life of beef ball without affecting sensory quality

  15. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  16. Breeding soundness evaluation of young beef bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    The overall aims were to learn more about factors affecting fertility in Swedish beef sires in general and in yearling beef bulls in particular, focusing mainly on sexual maturity and hind limb health finding useful tools in order to be able to routinely perform a complete bull breeding soundness evaluations in Swedish beef bulls. Semen was collected from yearling beef bulls, postmortem, and the sperm morphology was evaluated. Using a strict definition, based on sperm morphology, we could dem...

  17. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  18. Product Architecture as a Coordination System (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OKUNO (FUJIWARA) Masahiro; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2006-01-01

    Baldwin and Clark (2000) brought the substantial attention to the concept of product architecture. This concept, particularly the concept of module architecture, defines a product system as a "coordination system," taking the viewpoint that a product system is an object that is used by human users or developed by human developers. In this paper, product architecture is defined as a design concept for a product system that calls for complex part-to-part coordination in order to fulfill the use...

  19. Competitiveness of the EU Beef Sector – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Smeets Kristková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elements of competitiveness of the EU beef sector are assessed using the value chain approach. Consequently, the impact of the external factors represented by domestic policy and foreign trade policy is discussed, with the aim of deriving recommendations for policy makers. It is shown that investing in collaborative supply chains can improve the disadvantaged position of beef producers, which have the least power in the supply chain. Furthermore, the domains of science and innovation provide several opportunities that could be further explored, namely improving the logistics of the supply chain and developing more tailored quality systems. The main threats stem from potential free trade agreements, climate change and the internal competition between other agricultural crops. Better targeting of the CAP and environmental aspects are suggested to maintain the competitiveness of European beef producers.

  20. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Economic considerations related to U.S. beef herd expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsor, G T; Schulz, L L

    2015-09-01

    Significant attention perpetually surrounds possible changes in breeding herd inventories in the U.S. beef cattle industry. This article outlines economic considerations of U.S. herd expansion. Factors restricting expansion include land availability, increasing production efficiency, operator demographics, capital requirements, and commodity price volatility. Several offsetting factors support herd expansion including unprecedented cow-calf returns, ongoing global beef demand growth, and timing within the current cattle cycle. In addition to these industry-wide factors, several important variations in individual ranch considerations are outlined. The authors' expectations on future herd dynamics are provided, highlighting broader implications for individual operations, industry leaders, and the entire beef-cattle supply chain. The substantial economic impact and importance of the cow-calf sector warrants broader appreciation of these economic factors impacting herd expansion. The future size of the U.S. cattle industry is determined by the individual decisions of over 70,000 cattle owners, making this issue worthy of review by all industry stakeholders. PMID:26440321

  1. Nutritional characteristics and consumer acceptability of sausages with different combinations of goat and beef meats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Malekian; Margarita Khachaturyan; Sebhatu Gebrelul; James Henson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef...

  2. On cluster systems of tensor product systems of Hilbert spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Mithun

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the spatial product of two product systems is intrinsic. Here we extend this result by analyzing subsystems of the tensor product of product systems. A relation with cluster systems is established. In a special case, we show that the amalgamated product of product systems through strictly contractive units is independent of the choices of the units. The amalgamated product in this case is isomorphic to the tensor product of the spatial product of the two and the type I produc...

  3. Effects of post-grazing forage mass on a beef cattle grazing system on Tanzânia grass pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Penati; Moacyr Corsi; Guilhermo Francklin de Souza Congio; Pedro Castro de Almeida; Ricardo Cazerta Duarte Goulart; Miguel Miiti Shiota

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on herbage accumulation, animal performance, and total system yield on irrigated Tanzania grass pastures under rotational stocking. The experiment was conducted from October 1999 to January 2001, in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities, represented by the following quantities of green forage dry mass remaining after grazing: 1,000 (high intensity)...

  4. Brief Introduction to Compulsory Product Certification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ What is Compulsory Product Certification System? Compulsory Product Certification System is a kind of product qualifying assessment system which implements under laws and regulations by states in order to protect life security of human, animals and plants as well as environmental protection and national security.

  5. Fractal Feature Analysis Of Beef Marblingpatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunjie; Qin, Chunfang

    The purpose of this study is to investigate fractal behavior of beef marbling patterns and to explore relationships between fractal dimensions and marbling scores. Authors firstly extracted marbling images from beef rib-eye crosssection images using computer image processing technologies and then implemented the fractal analysis on these marbling images based on the pixel covering method. Finally box-counting fractal dimension (BFD) and informational fractal dimension (IFD) of one hundred and thirty-five beef marbling images were calculated and plotted against the beef marbling scores. The results showed that all beef marbling images exhibit fractal behavior over the limited range of scales accessible to analysis. Furthermore, their BFD and IFD are closely related to the score of beef marbling, suggesting that fractal analyses can provide us a potential tool to calibrate the score of beef marbling.

  6. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  7. Effects of post-grazing forage mass on a beef cattle grazing system on Tanzânia grass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Penati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on herbage accumulation, animal performance, and total system yield on irrigated Tanzania grass pastures under rotational stocking. The experiment was conducted from October 1999 to January 2001, in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities, represented by the following quantities of green forage dry mass remaining after grazing: 1,000 (high intensity, 2,500 (intermediate intensity and 4,000 (low intensity kg ha−1. Grazing cycles were of 36 days (33 rest and 3 grazing. The values observed at the end of the experiment for post grazing forage mass were close to the proposed values. Forage yield was 25,278, 36,850, and 34,144 kg DM ha−1, whereas animal performance was 0.398, 0.541, and 0.564 kg BW day−1for high, intermediate and low intensities, respectively. Grazing intensity was positive related to the stocking rate (6.5, 5.2 and 4.1 AU ha−1 at high, intermediate and low intensities, respectively. Total system yield was not affected by treatments, ranging between 1,518 and 1,287 kg BW ha−1 year−1.

  8. Effect of beef heifer development system on average daily gain, reproduction, and adaptation to corn residue during first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Weber, S P; Lardner, H A; Funston, R N

    2014-06-01

    Postweaning heifer development systems were evaluated at 2 locations in a 4-yr study for their effect on performance and subsequent adaptation to grazing corn residue as a pregnant heifer. In Exp. 1, heifers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to graze winter range (WR) or graze winter range and corn residue (CR). In Exp. 2, heifers were assigned to graze winter range and corn residue (CR) or graze winter range and placed in a drylot (DL). Artificial insemination and natural mating were used at breeding on the basis of location. In Exp. 1, heifers developed on corn residue tended (P = 0.11) to have reduced ADG compared with WR heifers. Subsequently, BW at the end of the 82-d corn residue grazing period tended (P = 0.09) to be lower for CR compared with WR heifers. However, the proportion of heifers attaining puberty before the breeding season and pregnancy rates were similar (P ≥ 0.29) for CR and WR heifers. Developing heifers on winter range tended (P = 0.09) to reduce heifer development costs $36/pregnant heifer compared with CR heifers. In Exp. 2, DL heifers had greater (P heifers, resulting in greater (P heifers compared with CR heifers (355 vs. 322 ± 9 kg). At pregnancy diagnosis BW remained greater (P = 0.02) for DL compared with CR heifers (423 vs. 406 ± 7 kg). Corn-residue-developed heifers had increased (P = 0.03) AI conception rates compared with DL heifers (78% vs. 67% ± 6%). However, there was no difference (P ≥ 0.21) in percent pubertal before the breeding season or final pregnancy rates for CR and DL heifers. Developing heifers on corn residue reduced (P = 0.02) heifer development costs $38/pregnant heifer compared with DL-developed heifers. A subset of pregnant heifers from both experiments grazed corn residue fields in late gestation. As pregnant heifers grazing corn residue, WR heifers (Exp. 1) tended to have reduced ADG compared with CR heifers (0.34 vs. 0.43 ± 0.08 kg/d, P = 0.07). Furthermore, in Exp. 2 CR heifers had greater (0

  9. Product Configuration Systems - Implications for Product Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    configurations. However, costs are but one parameter on which firms compete and firms must continually innovate new and develop existing products. This paper presents original empirical insights on implementation and use of product configuration systems in a number of Danish industrial firms. The paper discusses...... the organisational changes associated with PCS and how this affects product innovation and development. The paper begins by introducing product configuration systems, which are then placed in context to the firm as a process technology which coordinate different processes: product development, order......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) is a step in the direction of mass customization in the sense that PCS allows a firm to significantly lower the unit cost of configuration. Thus PCS is a valuable technology for lowering operating costs while retaining a high number of possible product...

  10. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Bart Pardon; Evy Goossens; Stefanie Verherstraeten; Sophie Roelandt; Leen Timbermont; Nicky Van Der Vekens; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Linde Gille; Laura Van Driessche; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle; Filip Van Immerseel; Piet Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  11. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Diwyanto; Atien Priyanti

    2008-01-01

    Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that i...

  12. USDA DATA REVISIONS OF CHOICE BEEF PRICES AND PRICE SPREADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Reduced form price equations were estimated to compare market demand responses from two data sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) beef price and price spread data per revisions in 1978 and per revisions in 1990. The latest revisions were necessary to account for changing beef industry technology and product consumption in the 1980s. Results indicate the elasticities of retail and derived demands average about 25 and 17% lower, respectively, when using the 1990 revised data. Trends a...

  13. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-07-01

    Brahman × British crossbred heifers (n = 40 and 38 heifers in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance. On d 0, heifers were ranked by BW (89 ± 16 kg) and age (72 ± 13 d) and randomly assigned to a conventional management group that was normally weaned on d 180 (NW; n = 10 heifers annually) or early weaned (EW) on d 0 and 1) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 heifers annually), 2) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 90, then grazed on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 heifers annually), or 3) grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 heifers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 heifers), then on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). On d 180, all heifers were grouped by treatment and rotated on Bahiagrass pastures until d 390. Grazing heifers were supplemented at 1.0% BW until d 180 and at 1.5% BW from d 180 to 390. From d 0 to 90, EW180 and EW90 heifers were heavier (P ≤ 0.02) than NW and EWRG heifers, whereas NW heifers tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier on d 90 than EWRG heifers. In yr 1 and 2, EW180 heifers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. In yr 1, EWRG heifers were lightest (P < 0.0001), whereas EW90 and NW heifers had similar BW (P = 0.58). Conversely, EW90, EWRG, and NW heifers achieved similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.18). Positive correlations were detected (P ≤ 0.05) between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 90 and ADG from d 0 to 90 and between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 180 and ADG from d 90 to 180. The EW180 heifers were youngest (P ≤ 0.01) at puberty. From d 260 to 340, the percentage of pubertal heifers was greater (P ≤ 0.03) for EW90 vs. NW heifers but did not differ (P ≥ 0.15) between EWRG and NW heifers. The ADG from d 0 to 90 and the plasma IGF-1 on d 90 and 180 explained approximately 34% of the

  14. Commercial application of high-dose irradiation to produce shelf-stable meat products. Part 3 - Effect of polyphosphates on the tenderness and sensory properties of beef silverside sterilised at 45 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five mixtures of sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodiumpyrophosphate on the texture and sensory properties of irradiated beef M. biceps femoris and M. semitendinosus muscles sterilised at 45 kGy were evaluated using pH after injection, drip loss measurement, Instron texture measurement and descriptive sensory analysis. The effect of cattle race was also investigated. Three breeds of cattle namely Afrikaner (Bos indicus), Hereford (Bos taurus) and Simmentaler (Bos taurus) were used. Steers were fed and raised in a controlled environment until 18 months of age, followed by slaughtering using the same procedure for each carcass. It was found that cattle breed had a significant influence on irradiated meat tenderness and juiciness. Afrikaner breed meat was the most tender and the most juicy. The Energy to break point measured using a Warner Bratzler Shear cell correlated with the ease of fragmentation (using fingers) as well as Initial Juiciness and Sustained Juiciness. Using polyphosphate levels of 13.2 mmol/kg produced undesirable flavours in the meat. The same tenderness was obtained using levels of 8.2 mmol/kg in the meat without undesirable taste. No differences were found between sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodium pyrophosphate treatments. Warmed Over Flavour was a significant factor influencing the quality of the products. (author)

  15. Competitiveness of Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: Domestic Resources Cost Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Abdul Rouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Beef demand in Indonesian people is supplied from the domestic and import production, including Australia and New Zealand. Domestic Resources Cost (DRC is one of the indicators in free trade that is defined as one of the competitiveness criteria. The competitiveness is determined by several factors, including resource, labor, technology and market demand. Based on the previous research results, it was obtained that: (1 The availability of abundant feed through the grazing system and crops livestock system can provide comparative advantage (DRC = 0.08-0.54; (2 The type of beef cattle kept had a good competitiveness (DRC = 0.08-0.94; (3 The labor’s wage can simultaneously create competitiveness (DRC<1; (4 The technological factor on farm level showed that the higher Average Daily Gain (ADG will make the competitiveness increased; and (5 The number of cattle had a positive causality on the competitiveness with a coefficient of 0.510. The smallholder farmer with the average farming scale of three heads per farmer had a lower competitiveness (DRC = 0.08 compared to the cattle fattening company (DRC = 0.01-0.02. The existing research showed that the beef cattle farming in several places in Indonesia had good competitiveness (DRC<1, but in some areas, its value was close to one (less competitive. Therefore, in order to improve the competitiveness, the formulation and implementation of the farm subsector policy should be regarded as a system including upstream to downstream subsystems so it is expected that the coordination and synergy policy among stakeholder and economic actor will be better.

  16. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG

  17. Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Ground Beef Using the GeneDisc Real-Time PCR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina eFratamico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 and certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC serogroups have emerged as important public health threats. The development of methods for rapid and reliable detection of this heterogeneous group of pathogens has been challenging. GeneDisc real-time PCR assays were evaluated for detection of the stx1, stx2, eae, and ehx genes and a gene that identifies the O157 serogroup followed by a second GeneDisc assay targeting serogroup-specific genes of STEC O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157. The ability to detect the STEC serogroups in ground beef samples artificially inoculated at a level of ca. 2-20 CFU/25 g and subjected to enrichment in mTSB or BPW was similar. Following enrichment, all inoculated ground beef samples showed amplification of the correct set of target genes carried by each strain. Samples inoculated with STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 were subjected to immunomagnetic separation, and isolation was achieved by plating onto Rainbow agar O157. Colonies were confirmed by PCR assays targeting stx1, stx2, eae, and serogroup-specific genes. Thus, this work demonstrated that GeneDisc assays are rapid, sensitive, and reliable and can be used for screening ground beef and potentially other foods for STEC serogroups that are important food-borne pathogens worldwide.

  18. Impact of Government Reform on Beef Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Malá, M. Malý

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the simulation of the impact of selected measures of government reforms in the beef market in the Czech Republic. The selected measures of government reforms are defined and specified on the base of available resources in the introduction. Subsequently, these measures are simulated by the model of partial equilibrium of defined market in the practical part. The impacts of the measures on both supply and demand of selected market are then commented, based on formal econometric quantification and verification of model outputs. The analyzed government measures are included in the form of an expected increase in VAT, the movement of the Czech crown, the development of consumer income and the price expectancy in vertical of beef. The results predict negative consequences on domestic market, in particular on the supply side, in the form of a relatively significant reduction in the number of pieces of cattle. These can result in reducing the number of enterprises with intensive fattening or in shifting their focus to other commodities of vegetable nature. On the demand side, the analyzed measures are likely to bring short-term price reductions. However, the steep growth accompanied by a reduction in quality of meat products can be reasonable expected in the long run. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSMT 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  19. Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Beef burger Steaks as Influenced by Cooking and Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets

  20. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Lanfranco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (deboned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts, four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish, and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI. The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and disaggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations.

  1. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  2. 77 FR 58091 - Risk-Based Sampling of Beef Manufacturing Trimmings for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... raw beef product intended for use in raw, non-intact beef product (64 FR 2803; Jan. 19, 1999... will enable it to better target sampling at slaughter establishments. \\3\\ See the FR notice on traceback (77 FR 26725; May 7, 2012) at:...

  3. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  4. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  5. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases. PMID:25654945

  6. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods, and...

  7. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Product/service-systems’ (PSS) are innovation strategies where instead of focusing on the value of selling physical products, one focuses on the value of the utility of products and services throughout the product’s life period. This approach enables companies to provide customers with offerings...... that continuously deliver value and create a strong competitive advantage. PSS attempts to transcend the old industrial credo that value is embedded in products and the consideration of ‘cost-quality-time’ relates to the physical artefact. While there is increasing interest in PSS, limited research has...

  8. An Inventory of Beef Slaughter & Processing Facilities for Virginia Direct Marketers of Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Y. Mainville; Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of producers in Virginia are seeking facilities where they can have their beef slaughtered and processed. This inventory provides information about the availability of beef slaughter and processing facilities to help meet this need.

  9. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    species. The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats......Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat...

  10. Feeding high-moisture corn instead of dry-rolled corn reduces odorous compound production in manure of finishing beef cattle without decreasing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibeque, S L; Miller, D N; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that feeding steers ground high-moisture ensiled corn (HMC) in lieu of dry-rolled corn (DRC) would reduce the amount of starch being excreted in the manure and the associated odorous compound production. One hundred forty-eight crossbred steers (363 +/- 33 kg of BW) were fed a DRC-or HMC-based diet in a feeding trial, and 8 Charolais-sired steers (447 +/- 22 kg of BW) were used in a nutrient balance study. Steers fed HMC tended to have a slightly lower DMI (P = 0.09), ADG (P = 0.06), and yield grade, but G:F, final HCW, and quality grade did not differ (P > or = 0.23) between treatments. Compared with feeding DRC, feeding HMC decreased (P = 0.02) starch intake from 5,407 to 4,846 g/d, decreased (P or = 0.55). In manure slurries incubated for 35 d with soil and water, total VFA concentration was lower (P < 0.01) in manure from steers fed HMC (1,625 micromol/g of DM) compared with steers fed DRC (3,041 micromol/g of DM). Lower initial (d 0) starch concentrations and greater initial pH was also observed in the slurries from the HMC manure. By d 3 of slurry incubation, there was an increase (P < 0.01) in free glucose and l-lactic acid in the DRC slurries but not in the HMC slurries. During manure incubation, alcohol and VFA content increased (P < 0.01) and pH declined, but to a lesser extent (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries. However, branched-chain VFA increased more (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries than in the DRC slurries. These data suggest that feeding HMC instead of DRC decreased fecal starch and production of some potentially odorous compounds in a finishing cattle system but had little impact on animal productivity. PMID:16775061

  11. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  12. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: considerations on puberty in replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, C L

    2013-03-01

    Many important changes occur throughout reproductive development in beef heifers, including during the prenatal, early postnatal, and peripubertal periods. Wave-like patterns of follicular development have been observed in heifer calves as early as 2 wk of age. Some dramatic changes occur from about 2 to 5 mo of age, most notably the transient increase in LH secretion. Most components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are fully competent by approximately 5 to 6 mo of age. Peripubertal changes include increases in LH secretion, estradiol production, follicular development, and reproductive tract size. Eventually, the process reaches the point that the initial ovulation is achieved. Heifers that reach puberty and experience multiple estrous cycles before the onset of their initial breeding season have a greater probability for early conception and optimal lifetime productivity. Attainment of puberty typically occurs at around 12 to 14 mo of age in beef heifers but varies greatly. Genetic differences and environmental factors contribute to this variation. In typical U.S. cow-calf operations, calves are generally weaned at approximately 200 d of age. The impact of postweaning management on age at puberty in heifers has been demonstrated, and there is considerable flexibility in the timing of gain from weaning to breeding. However, even when heifers are grown to the desired BW before the start of breeding, there remains a pronounced variation in the timing of puberty, which impacts pregnancy rates. Less attention has been focused on the impact of preweaning management on age at puberty. Heifer calves with increased growth rates from birth to weaning have reached puberty at earlier ages. Precocious puberty has also been induced in a majority of heifers with early weaning and feeding a high-concentrate diet. Nutritional control during early maturation in heifers exerts a substantial influence on the timing of puberty. Understanding the mechanisms involved in

  13. Estimation of demand and supply relationships for beef cattle in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase in per capita income is followed by an increased demand in number and quality of meat . The purpose of the study was to identify and qualifying factors that influence the demand and supply of beef, and to determine the magnitude of response related to the increase in per capita income. In this study, the time series data from 1970 through 1993 was used and collected from the Directorate General for Livestock Services and Central Bureau of Statistics for the province ofLampung. The parameters observed were production and consumption of beef, retail price, population, per capita income and input price of beef production . A 2SLS method was used to perform the analysis . The results of this study showed that estimated demand and supply relationships using the simultaneous model of2SLS method is appropriate for beef cattle . The results indicated that retail price of beef is determined simultaneously by demand and supply linkages (P<0.01 . In addition, people in Lampung were responsive enough to anticipate changes on per capita income and lead to the potential for developing Lampung as a strategic beef industry area in Indonesia.

  14. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  15. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  16. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960?s with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef's share of...... total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand analyses...... can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  17. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  18. Mudular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    modular product families and the interacting assembly system.   The thesis reviews extant theory and provides various classifications and discussions guided by the overall theme of product modularity and assembly systems. The empirical system analysis, based upon a longitudinal single case study......, articulates a system model incorporating both structural and performance elements. The extensive and detailed case analysis provides the necessary insight into the specific variables associated with the complex configuration of modular products and assembly systems.   Based upon the system model a number of...

  19. ECONOMICS OF PURCHASING GENETICALLY SUPERIOR BEEF BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Clary, Gregory M.; Jordan, Johnny W.; Thompson, Carl Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Net present value analysis is used to derive the marginal bid price for a beef herd sire from after-tax net revenues and cash flow influenced by genetic improvements. Marginal bid price represents the additional amount a producer could pay, above the present value of the current beef herd sire, for a sire expected to exhibit superior performance as reflected by increased average weaning weights of offspring. An analysis of the profitability of purchasing a breeding bull for a commercial beef ...

  20. Consumer Reaction to Beef Safety Scares

    OpenAIRE

    Saghaian, Sayed H.; Reed, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two beef safety scares on retail-level meat per capita consumption and prices in Japan. The objective is to investigate the Japanese consumer reactions to the news of FMD and BSE discoveries, as reflected in the quantity and price changes in the immediate neighborhood of each event. Better understanding of consumer reactions to beef safety scares helps the beef industry restore consumer confidence after food safety crises and provides opportunities for nation...

  1. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf;

    2015-01-01

    (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper is the...... description of an empirical tested approach using a visual product architecture representation in combination with a PLM system to support the development of a product family of products. The results from the study encompass new PLM capabilities for handling multiple product structures, visualising multiple...

  2. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  3. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE LAW OF CATTLE AND BEEF TRACEABILITY IN MARKETING CHANNELS ON THE DOMESTIC HANWOO BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Sanggon; Lee, Jungmin; Chai, Sanghyen; Lee, Hyungwoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability in marketing channels on the domestic Hanwoo beef industry. The Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability might affect the demand and supply of Hanwoo beef. After introducing the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability into the marketing channels, the price of Hanwoo beef has increased a lot in the Korean beef market. Domestically produced Hanwoo beef has a price premium compared with the imported b...

  4. Applications and cost benefits of sexed semen in pasture-based dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S T; Hutchinson, I A; Cromie, A R; Shalloo, L

    2014-05-01

    Sexed semen technology is now commercially available in many countries around the world, and is primarily used in dairy cattle breeding. Sperm are sorted by flow cytometry on the basis of a 4% difference in DNA content between sperm containing X and Y chromosomes. Despite reliably producing a 90% gender bias, the fertility of the sexed semen product is compromised compared with conventional semen. The negative implications of the reduced fertility of sexed semen are amplified in seasonal systems of dairy production, as the importance of fertility is greater in these systems compared with year-round calving systems. A review of the literature indicates that conception rates (CR) to 1st service with frozen-thawed sexed semen are ~75% to 80% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen. Preliminary results from a large-scale field trial carried out in Ireland in 2013 suggest that significant improvements in the performance of sexed semen have been made, with CR of 87% of those achieved with conventional semen. The improved fertility of a sexed semen product that delivers a 90% gender bias has considerable implications for the future of breeding management in pasture-based dairy production systems. Sexed semen may facilitate faster, more profitable dairy herd expansion by increasing the number of dairy heifer replacements born. Biosecurity can be improved by maintaining a closed herd during the period of herd expansion. In a non-expansion scenario, sexed semen may be used to increase the value of beef output from the dairy herd. The replacement heifer requirements for a herd could be met by using sexed semen in the 1st 3 weeks of the breeding season, with the remaining animals bred to beef sires, increasing the sale value over that of a dairy bull calf. Alternatively, very short gestation sires could be used to shorten the calving interval. Market prices have a considerable effect on the economics of sexed semen use, and widespread use of sexed semen should

  5. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  6. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. PMID:25282702

  7. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality. PMID:19542506

  8. Methanol production method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  9. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    in the design and development aspects of PSS. The objective of this paper is to explore how a global manufacturing company is developing an offering to their customers that is focused on the utility of their products throughout their life time. The paper describes the process of how a company is shifting from...... of their products. This process of re-defining the value of what the company is actually offering to its customers is seen as a key element in PSS development. PSS development is expected to expand conventional product development in new directions, such as new activities, roles and responsibilities, knowledge...... and competencies, and value network relationships. The implications of this are discussed in relation to the company’s development approach....

  10. Evolvable Production Systems: Mechatronic Production Equipment with Evolutionary Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Antonio; Onori, Mauro; Neves, Pedro; Barata, José

    Current major roadmapping efforts have all clearly underlined that true industrial sustainability will require far higher levels of systems' autonomy and adaptability. In accordance with these recommendations, the Evolvable Production Systems (EPS) has aimed at developing such technological solutions and support mechanisms. Since its inception in 2002 as a next generation of production systems, the concept is being further developed and tested to emerge as a production system paradigm. Characteristically, Evolvable systems have distributed control, and are composed of intelligent modules with embedded control. A concerted effort is being exerted through European research projects in collaboration with manufacturers, technology/equipment suppliers, and universities. After introducing EPS, this paper presents current developments and applications.

  11. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  12. Mars Integrated Propellant Production System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian...

  13. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioning...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  14. System of Natural Health Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Paoletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The safety of vitamin K antagonists (VKA use can be compromised by many popular herbal supplements taken by individuals. The literature reports that 30% of warfarin-treated patients self-medicates with herbs. Possible interactions represent an health risk. We aimed to identify all herbs-oral anticoagulants interactions collected in the Italian database of suspected adverse reactions to “natural health” products. Methods. The Italian database of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions to natural products was analyzed to address herb-VKAs interactions. Results. From 2002 to 2009, we identified 12 reports with 7 cases of INR reduction in patients treated with warfarin (n=3 and acenocoumarol (n=4, and 5 cases of INR increase (all warfarin associated. It was reported 8 different herbal products as possibly interacting. Discussion. Our study confirms the risk of interactions, highlighting the difficulty to characterize them and their mechanisms and, finally, prevent their onset. The reported data underline the urgent need of healthcare providers being aware of the possible interaction between natural products and VKA, also because of the critical clinical conditions affecting patients. This is the first step to have the best approach to understand possible INR alterations linked to herb-VKA interaction and to rightly educate patients in treatment with VKA.

  15. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory;

    combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit......Utility cut-off values allow consumers to use simplifying decision strategies to lower the cognitive burden of decision making. Product attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or considered but with a great discount on their values....... This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...

  16. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers. PMID:21280649

  17. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  18. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang;

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  19. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...

  20. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  1. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  2. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  3. Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Alvarenga, Marle S; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Meat is both the most favored and most tabooed food in the world. In the developed world, there is a tension between its high nutritional density, preferred taste, and high status on the one hand, and concerns about weight, degenerative diseases, the ethics of killing animals, and the environmental cost of meat production on the other hand. The present study investigated attitudes toward beef, and toward vegetarians, among college students in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA. Across countries, men were more pro-beef, in free associations, liking, craving, and frequency of consumption. By country, Brazil and Argentina were generally the most positive, followed by France and then the United States. Ambivalence to beef was higher in women, and highest in Brazil. Only Brazilian and American women reported frequent negative associations to beef (e.g. "disgusting", "fatty"). Overall, most students had positive attitudes to beef, and the attitude to vegetarians was generally neutral. America and Brazilian women showed some admiration for vegetarians, while only French men and women had negative attitudes to vegetarians. In spite of frequent negative ethical, health, and weight concerns, in the majority of the sample, liking for and consumption of beef was maintained at a high level. PMID:26494521

  4. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jen-Hua; Ockerman, Herbert W

    2013-02-01

    Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. The results show that there was no significant difference between chemical compositions and cooking yields when comparing non-electrically stimulated and electrically stimulated roast beef. Moreover, electrical stimulation had no significant effect on oxidative stability and off-flavor problems of precooked roast beef as evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory test (warmed-over aroma and warmed-over flavor). However, there was an increased undesirable WOF and a decrease in tenderness for both ES and Non-ES treatments over refrigerated storage time. Electrical stimulation did cause reactions of amino acids or other compounds to decrease the desirable beef flavor in re-cooked meat. PMID:25049788

  5. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  6. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  7. Product service systems for household waste prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gottberg, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Waste prevention is the prioritized waste management option within EU waste policy. There is however a scarcity of research on and policy measures for waste prevention. Improved resource productivity in consumption practices may prevent waste. Literature suggests that Product Service Systems (PSS, ‘a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling a user’s needs’ (Goedkoop et al. 1999)) have potential for increased resource productivity compared with self-...

  8. Product Configuration Systems and Consequences for Productivity and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry with informat......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry with...... informations about expected and realised costs and benefits in implemented PCS's we have the following results: the three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, and 3)using less resources.The results achieved are in accordance with...... expectations. A problem is that costs in several cases are unknown or very uncertain. But in cases where they are known there are economic arguments in favour of the PCS....

  9. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Thuesen, Christian

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... systems in industry companies and partly to assess if the objectives suggested are appropriate for describing the impact of product configuration systems and identifying other possible objectives. The empirical study of the com-panies also gives an indication of more overall performance indicators being...

  10. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  11. Environmental issues for intensive biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.2 'Environmental Issues' was to evaluate environmental sustainability of intensive biomass systems and develop guidelines to ensure environmental soundness of such systems. Eight countries participated in the work: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, U.S.A. and U.K. During the period 1995-1997, collaborators have: evaluated environmental sustainability of intensive biomass production systems; assessed environmental sustainability of utilizing biosolids, e.g., wastewater sludge and wood ash, and effluents, to increase productivity of conventional and short rotation forestry systems; and evaluated and developed environmental guidelines for deployment of bioenergy production systems. The forestry and bioenergy industrial sectors were active participants in all Activity field study tours and workshops. This paper reviews achievements of Task XII Activity 4.2 and suggests where future international collaboration is required to achieve sustainable forestry bioenergy production systems 62 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  12. Ovarian follicular growth suppression by long-term treatment with a GnRH agonist and impact on small follicle number, oocyte yield, and in vitro embryo production in Zebu beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Dias, E A R; Bayeux, B M; Accorsi, M F; Monteiro, F M; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S; D'Occhio, M J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate small follicle number, oocyte yield, and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in Zebu beef cows treated long term with a GnRH agonist to suppress ovarian follicular growth. Nelore (Bos indicus) cows (n = 20) showing regular estrous cycles were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 10, placebo ear implant without a GnRH agonist); GnRH agonist (n = 10, GnRH agonist ear implant containing 9.4-mg deslorelin). All cows underwent an ovum pick-up (OPU) session 14 days (Day 14) before the start of treatments (Day 0) followed by seven OPU-IVEP procedures at 30-day intervals (Days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180). Semen from a single batch of a previously tested bull was used for all the IVEP. Cows treated with agonist reported a decrease over time in the proportion of animals with a (CL; P ≤ 0.05) and large follicles (>10 mm, P ≤ 0.05). These cows had a lesser number of medium + large follicles (>5 mm; 1.74 ± 0.5 vs. 4.13 ± 0.5; P ≤ 0.05), greater number of small follicles (2-5 mm; 44.3 ± 2.8 vs. 30.8 ± 1.8; P ≤ 0.05), greater yield of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; 21.0 ± 2.3 vs. 15.6 ± 1.9; P ≤ 0.05), greater proportion of COCs cultured (79.2 vs. 73.9%; P ≤ 0.05), COCs cleaved (10.6 ± 1.5 vs. 6.8 ± 1.1, P ≤ 0.05), and cleaved rate (52.8 vs. 44.3%; P ≤ 0.05) compared with control cows. The number (3.4 ± 0.7 vs. 3.0 ± 0.6; P > 0.05) and proportion (16.5 vs. 19.1%; P > 0.05) of blastocysts produced were similar between agonist and control cows, respectively. The study has shown that Zebu beef cows treated long term with a GnRH agonist had follicular growth restricted to small follicles. This did not compromise the ability of oocytes to undergo IVF and embryonic development. PMID:26924682

  13. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and

  14. Uso de técnicas de regressão na avaliação, em bovinos de corte, da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto: comparação entre grupos experimentais Use of regression techniques in the evaluation, in beef cattle, of feed conversion into product: comparison between experimental groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo propor e discutir um método de avaliação comparativa da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte baseado na utilização de técnicas de regressão. Os procedimentos matemáticos e estatísticos foram desenvolvidos a partir de banco de dados formado pela mensuração do consumo de matéria seca e do ganho médio diário em 380 bovinos zebuínos puros ou mestiços em 15 experimentos constantes na base de dados do sistema BR-CORTE. Foram selecionados dois grupos constituídos por animais Nelore (n = 156 e animais F1 Europeu × Nelore (n = 139. Foram propostas duas aproximações baseadas no ajustamento de modelos de regressão linear e não-linear, tendo o ganho médio diário com variável independente e o consumo de matéria seca como variável dependente. A utilização do alimento pelo animal foi estratificada em demanda para mantença e eficiência real de conversão em produto e as diferenças entre grupos foram avaliadas por intermédio de variáveis dummy. O critério de informação de Akaike foi proposto como ferramenta para escolha entre os modelos linear e não-linear. A avaliação comparativa da eficiência de transformação do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte por meio de técnicas de regressão permite, caso pertinente, a estratificação dos grupos em função da eficiência de uso da dieta para suprimento de demandas para mantença e para produção.The objective of this study was to propose and discuss a method to compare the feed into product conversion between two experimental groups of beef cattle based on regression techniques. The mathematical and statistical procedures were developed using a databank of dry matter intake and average daily gain of 380 purebred or crossbred zebu animals on the BR-CORTE nutritional system database. Two groups were selected from the databank and were formed by Nellore

  15. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  16. Toyota production system beyond large-scale production

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Taiichi

    1998-01-01

    In this classic text, Taiichi Ohno--inventor of the Toyota Production System and Lean manufacturing--shares the genius that sets him apart as one of the most disciplined and creative thinkers of our time. Combining his candid insights with a rigorous analysis of Toyota's attempts at Lean production, Ohno's book explains how Lean principles can improve any production endeavor. A historical and philosophical description of just-in-time and Lean manufacturing, this work is a must read for all students of human progress. On a more practical level, it continues to provide inspiration and instruction for those seeking to improve efficiency through the elimination of waste.

  17. Clinical Productivity System - A Decision Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Casey C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a data-driven clinical productivity system that leverages Electronic Health Record (EHR) data to provide productivity decision support functionality in a real-world clinical setting. The system was implemented for a large behavioral health care provider seeing over 75,000 distinct clients a year. Design/methodology/approach: The key metric in this system is a "VPU", which simultaneously optimizes multiple aspects of clinical care. The resulting mathematical value of clinical productivity was hypothesized to tightly link the organization's performance to its expectations and, through transparency and decision support tools at the clinician level, affect significant changes in productivity, quality, and consistency relative to traditional models of clinical productivity. Findings: In only 3 months, every single variable integrated into the VPU system showed significant improvement, including a 30% rise in revenue, 10% rise in clinical percentage, a...

  18. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  19. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  20. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-02-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  1. THE EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Dolatowski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition of natural antioxidants is one of the ways to extend the durability of meat and meat products. The effects of added pepper extracts on the colour and potential redox changes of beef patties during storage were studied. There were four types of ethanol based extracts of two types of pepper (sweet and hot, compacted at different tempera-tures: 35 and 50°C. Experimental material consisted of meat samples produced from lean beef 24-hours postmortem. The colour in a CIE L*a*b* systems was examined using an X-Rite reflection spectro-colorimeter. Oxidation-reduction potential was determined using a pH meter (CPC-501 set to the milivolt scale and equipped with a redox electrode ERPt- -13. The results indicate the influence of extracts of different types of pepper added on oxidation-reduction potential values. Meat samples with pepper extract compacted at 35°C addition had a lower oxidation-reduction potential compared with the samples with pepper extract compacted at 50°C addition. Oxidation-reduction potential values of meat samples increased during storage. No significant effects of type of a particular pepper ex-tract on redox potential values were observed. Pepper extracts increased redness (a* value of meat samples compared to the control, but had no effects on L* values (light-ness. During storage of meat samples slight changes of CIE a* parameters were noted.

  2. Beef quality grading using machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyamkondan, S.; Ray, N.; Kranzler, Glenn A.; Biju, Nisha

    2000-12-01

    A video image analysis system was developed to support automation of beef quality grading. Forty images of ribeye steaks were acquired. Fat and lean meat were differentiated using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Muscle longissimus dorsi (l.d.) was segmented from the ribeye using morphological operations. At the end of each iteration of erosion and dilation, a convex hull was fitted to the image and compactness was measured. The number of iterations was selected to yield the most compact l.d. Match between the l.d. muscle traced by an expert grader and that segmented by the program was 95.9%. Marbling and color features were extracted from the l.d. muscle and were used to build regression models to predict marbling and color scores. Quality grade was predicted using another regression model incorporating all features. Grades predicted by the model were statistically equivalent to the grades assigned by expert graders.

  3. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317.344 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... round eye round steak, beef round top round steak, beef round tip roast, beef chuck arm pot roast,...

  4. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmann Andres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Methods Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1 Normal cyclicity; 2 Cessation of luteal activity; 3 Prolonged luteal activity; 4 Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. Results The mean (SD OLA was 41 d (20. Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%; cessation of luteal activity (5%; erratic luteal activity (6%. Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. Conclusions This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases

  5. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    the rela-tionship between variables associated with configuration of modular product families and the interacting assembly system. One core result is the development of a system model based on the longitudinal case study incorporating both structural and performance elements. Based on the system model...

  6. Conceptual Modelling of Complex Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Perši

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex system dynamics, structure and behaviour performances call for a wide range of methods, algorithms and tools to reach a model capable of finding optimal performing parameters. In the modelling process, it is up to the analyst to select the appropriate combination of methods, algorithms and tools to express significant system performances. Such a methodology for designing complex systems should be based upon conceptual modelling to perform a sensitive analysis of different system levels and views, allowing system representations for developing computer models.Complex systems, such as business systems with a continuous-discrete production process, require a well organised supply chain highly reactive to production assortment changes. Aligning two different production components distinctive in their behaviour is especially delicate at the production parameters transition point. Such system performances require distinctive designing methods that can follow the double nature of the production process behaviour in accordance with their entities dynamics caused by assortment changes. Consequently, such systems need different conceptual presentations for their purpose to be realized from different views and aspects.

  7. Engineering Design of Localised Synergistic Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leung Pah Hang, M; Martinez-Hernandez, E.; M. Leach; Yang, A.

    2015-01-01

    Centralised production of essential products and services based on fossil fuels and large scale distribution infrastructures have contributed to a plethora of issues such as deterioration of ecosystems, social-economic injustice and depletion of resources. The establishment of localised production systems can potentially reduce unsustainable resource consumption and bring socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The main objective of this work is to develop engineering tools for the rational...

  8. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  9. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  10. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G.; Zhou, Y.;

    2013-01-01

    In many countries consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers’ attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on Western...

  11. GATING SYSTEMS FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDRODISTRIBUTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Volkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gating systems of the first group of special ways of casting into shell molds, casting in lined chill mold as more effective for production of hydrodistributors were developed and studied.

  12. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  13. Development of collaborative green lean production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdve, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with development of lean and green production systems from an action research point of view. The studies focus on Swedish-based automotive and vehicle industries and their aims to integrate sustainable thinking and environmental care into their operations management. Starting from operations management in manufacturing and corporate sustainable development, the research is built on how to integrate these two views into one production system. The systematic structure of a mul...

  14. Agricultural production systems and environmental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, T B

    1990-01-01

    By the turn of the century, American farmers and ranchers will be producing food and fiber through the application of highly sophisticated systems that involve a broad spectrum of relevant factors--from soil type, to options for fertilizer and pesticide use, to markets and other economic information. These systems will help farmers and ranchers better match land use to land capability, apply needed conservation practices, make environmentally sound production choices, and lower production cos...

  15. Products information interoperability in manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tursi, Angela; Dassisti, Michele; Panetto, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    National audience Information flows and products traceability are considered as tools to protect consumer safety. To meet traceability requirements, it is mandatory to find a system able to trace all relevant information related to the product lifecycle. This information is quite often scattered within organizations. The heterogeneity of applications induces a sort of “Babel tower effect”, which causes traceability problems, leading systems to fail at collecting information from different ...

  16. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  17. Will consumers pay less for fat on beef cuts? The case in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Shongwe, M.A.; Jooste, Andre; A. Hugo; Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta; Pelser, A.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that most of the fear expressed by consumers in terms of the link between cholesterol in the diet and heart disease is, amongst others, related to the amount of fat in red meat and dairy produce. The result is that many consumers are cutting back on, if not avoiding, red meat products. A major challenge ahead of the beef industry is to supply a product that complies with the demands of more sophisticated and health conscious consumers. But, even if the beef indust...

  18. Corrosion product behavior in VVER secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of corrosion products lead to some problems during long-term operation of VVER plants, such as secondary system component degradation including crud-induced local corrosion and corrosion cracking. Corrosion sludge and deposit removal from steam generators and other equipment is costly and time-consuming and leads to additional waste production. This problem is vital in the case of plant life extension. Appropriate solutions of the problem could be developed based on both Russian and international experience of the VVER fleet. Recommendations on how to mitigate corrosion product accumulation in VVER secondary systems were developed based on comparative analysis of available long-term data on corrosion product behavior in all the operating VVER plants, such as the following: Sludge and deposit accumulation in inner surfaces of secondary piping and components; Corrosion rate measurements using in-situ specimen testing at operated VVER plants; Efficiency of corrosion product removal from secondary system water by means of condensate polishers and steam generator blowdown cleanup systems; Sludge and deposit removal from steam generators during chemical cleaning; Secondary piping and components conservation efficiency during long outages. Comparative data analysis of corrosion product behavior has shown different corrosion product accumulation rates in Novovoronezh, Kola, Kalinin, Balakovo and Rostov NPPs. The said difference is due to different design and operation peculiarities. (author)

  19. Entanglement production in quantized chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayendra N Bandyopadhyay; Arul Lakshminarayan

    2005-04-01

    Quantum chaos is a subject whose major goal is to identify and to investigate different quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we study entanglement production in coupled chaotic systems as a possible quantum indicator of classical chaos. We use coupled kicked tops as a model for our extensive numerical studies. We find that, in general, chaos in the system produces more entanglement. However, coupling strength between two subsystems is also a very important parameter for entanglement production. Here we show how chaos can lead to large entanglement which is universal and describable by random matrix theory (RMT). We also explain entanglement production in coupled strongly chaotic systems by deriving a formula based on RMT. This formula is valid for arbitrary coupling strengths, as well as for sufficiently long time. Here we investigate also the effect of chaos on the entanglement production for the mixed initial state. We find that many properties of the mixed-state entanglement production are qualitatively similar to the pure state entanglement production. We however still lack an analytical understanding of the mixed-state entanglement production in chaotic systems.

  20. Effect of Growth of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria on Microbial Flora of Ground Beef under Workshop Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    F. Akbari Nakhjavani; H. Lamea; Sh. Darvishi; F Darvish

    2004-01-01

    The effects of growth of two strains of lactic acid bacteria on microbial flora of ground beef after packaging in air permeable packs were studied under workshop conditions. The strains isolated from dairy products were added to ground beef at a density of 104 CFU/g after identification and antibiosis test against indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). The two strains were Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 102, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. diacetylactis 2...