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Sample records for beef calves treated

  1. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  2. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  3. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  4. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  5. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Bart Pardon; Evy Goossens; Stefanie Verherstraeten; Sophie Roelandt; Leen Timbermont; Nicky Van Der Vekens; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Linde Gille; Laura Van Driessche; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle; Filip Van Immerseel; Piet Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  6. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  7. Calving intervals in beef cows at 2, 3, and 4 years of age when breeding is not restricted after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, L A; Azzam, S M; Kinder, J E

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate calving intervals and repeatability of calving intervals of young beef cows when breeding seasons were initiated immediately after calving. Average calving date at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age was recorded, and duration of calving interval between the first and second and second and third parities was compared in 178 crossbred beef cows calving between 1981 and 1988. Cows were placed in paddocks with intact bulls immediately after calving so they had the opportunity to conceive at the estrus associated with the initial estrous cycles after calving. Average Gregorian date of calving for cows was progressively earlier with older age (March 9, March 5, and February 14 at 2, 3, and 4) yr of age, respectively). Repeatability of calving intervals within individual cows was also evaluated. There was an interaction between year and parity on calving interval between 2 and 3 (P < .001) and 3 and 4 (P < .004) yr of age. Repeatability of calving interval was low and negative during 5 of the 6 yr. In young beef cows, year and parity interact to influence calving interval, and this average interval is less than 365 d when initiation of the breeding season is not restricted after calving. PMID:8707715

  8. Comparison of short-term health and performance effects related to prophylactic administration of tulathromycin versus tilmicosin in long-hauled, highly stressed beef stocker calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, J S; White, B J; Larson, R L; Blasi, D A; Renter, D G

    2008-01-01

    Health and feed performance parameters of 293 beef stocker calves at risk for bovine respiratory disease were compared after metaphylactic administration of one of two antimicrobials (tulathromycin or tilmicosin) with different durations of activity; the antimicrobial was administered 1 day after arrival. Calves that received metaphylactic tulathromycin displayed significant improvement in morbidity, mortality, and first-treatment success rates (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Tulathromycin-treated calves also showed a significantly improved average daily gain and feed:gain ratio (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Under conditions of this study, calves receiving tulathromycin were healthier through a 43-day growing phase compared with calves receiving tilmicosin. This health difference likely accounted for the differences in feed performance between the treatment groups.

  9. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with birth weights of Norwegian beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Holmøy, Ingrid H; Karlberg, Knut; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate factors which influence birth weights of beef suckler calves in Norway. Data were from a national beef cattle registry, and lifetime production data of cows slaughtered between January 2010 and January 2013 were included in the study population. The study population consisted of 20,541 cows and 53,819 calves. The analysis was performed on the subset of singleton calvings from which birth weights were recorded. The study sample consisted of 9903 cows with birth weights available for 29,294 calves. The mean birth weight was 43.47kg (95% CI 43.40; 43.53). Two multilevel linear regression models were built; the first was for all calves and included parity of dam as one of the explanatory variables (with herd and cow as random effects), the second model was for calves born to primiparous dams only where age of first calving was included as an explanatory variable (with a random herd effect). The multilevel regression models estimated that female calves were 2.3kg lighter than males (95% CI 2.2-2.4, Pheifer models, respectively), and both the herd and cow random effects were highly significant. In conclusion, birth weights of beef calves in the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System were influenced by sex of the calf, breed of the dam, parity, age at first calving, calving season, cow, herd and region. PMID:26803716

  10. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, J. A.; Niilo, L.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not r...

  11. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  12. Some alternatives to calving date and interval as measures of fertility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Torre, G; Brinks, J S

    1990-09-01

    Records of 594 calving dates and 493 calving intervals collected from a herd of Retinta beef cows in southwest Spain were studied. Their efficacy as reproductive measures were compared when a long breeding season was utilized. Variables used were date of present calving (DOC), date of subsequent calving (DOSC), time from start of breeding season to calving (TBSC), interval to next calving (CI), two adjustments of calving interval by subtracting the time that bulls were not available to the cow from actual CI (ACI1 and ACI2), and three scores. Period score (SCOR) measured the 20-d increment of the 220-d calving season in which the cow calved. Pair score (PAIR) was computed by subtracting the deviation of calving interval from 365 d from the average SCOR of the two calvings involved. Adjusted pair score (APAIR) was calculated in the same way as PAIR, but using ACI1 instead of CI. Heritability estimates for DOC, SCOR, and DOSC and CI were .16, .14, .13 and 0, respectively. Heritabilities of all other measures ranged from .01 to .06. Repeatability estimates for DOC, SCOR, DOSC and CI were .29, .28, .34 and .14, respectively. Repeatability values were .28, .18, .18, .23 and .32 for TBSC, ACI1, ACI2, PAIR and APAIR, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among CI and its alternative measures were very high and favorable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  14. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  15. Effects of supplementary selenium source on the blood parameters in beef cows and their nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 2 years, 32 beef cows nursing calves were randomly selected from a herd of 120 that were managed in 6 groups and were assigned to six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures. Treatments were assigned to pastures (2 pastures/treatment) and cows had ad libitum access to 1 of 3...

  16. The use of crossbreeding with beef bulls in dairy herds: effects on calving difficulty and gestation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz, R; Gandoy, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to analyse the evolution in the use of beef bull semen for dairy cattle insemination and, mainly, to assess calving difficulty, gestation length and proportion of stillbirths after breeding pure Holsteins or crossbreeding. Data were collected during 2004 to 2011 for 552 571 Holstein calvings (457 070 Holstein × Holstein, 43 384 Holstein × Limousine, 32 174 Holstein × Belgian Blue and 19 943 Holstein × Galician Blonde). The highest calving difficulty, compared with pure Holsteins was for crosses with Belgian Blue followed by Limousine and Galician Blonde. The Holstein × Limousine and Holstein × Galician Blonde crossbred calves had significantly longer gestation lengths than Holstein × Holstein and Holstein × Belgian Blue calves. Between the latter two, pure Holstein had the shortest gestation length. Calving difficulty and gestation length decreased as the age of the dam advanced. The most difficult calvings were observed in twin calvings, followed by the calvings of male calves and female calves. The gestations leading to the birth of male calves were longer than those leading to female calves and twin calves. Stillbirths were not related to the breed used for mating. Through examining these parameters, sire breed should be considered when selecting a beef breed for the insemination of milk-producing dams.

  17. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P x time interaction (P calves. Based upon these data, the innate immune system of EW calves appears to be more competent in responding to immune challenge compared with that of NW calves. Additionally, the differential IFN response indicates that the immune system of EW calves may be more effective at recognizing and eliminating endotoxin. These data suggest that an altered innate immune system may be one of the factors responsible for the improved feedlot performance previously reported in EW calves. PMID:19717781

  18. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-04-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum.

  19. The effects of dexamethasone administration and E. bovis challenge on fecal oocyst count and immune function in weaned beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressful events are believed to predispose beef calves to clinical coccidiosis. Previous studies aimed at reproducing stress-induced coccidiosis have been unsuccessful. No study has simultaneously subjected calves to stress and Eimeria challenge. Our initial goal was to develop a model of stress...

  20. Metaphylactic effect of Diclazuril 0.25% in suckling beef calves, during a coccidiosis outbreak in extensive farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jorge; Sanabria, Rodrigo; Travería, Gabriel; Di Paolo, Leandro; Peralta, Luis

    2013-03-31

    The weight gain performance and oocysts reduction, as response to the metaphylactic treatment with Diclazuril 0.25% at the start of a coccidiosis outbreak, was studied by a cases-controls transverse study. Fifty-eight suckling calves of approximately 90 days old were randomly selected from an infected beef herd on extensive farming. The calves were weighted and individual faecal samples were taken for oocyst per gram count (OPG). Out of those, 29 were drenched with 1 mg kg(-1) of Diclazuril in one oral dose (group T), since the other 29 remained as control group (group C). Samples for OPG and weights were measured again at days 7 and 21 after treatment, respectively. Later, the groups were divided (by the median) in higher or lower OPG counts, and were compared in the same way, in order to remove those without apparent infection (lower OPG counts). The faecal oocysts reduction reached 99.5% (p<0.0001), for the treated group. Along the three weeks of study, an increment of 2.65 kg in 21 days (125 g day(-1), p=0.036), was seen in treated group respect to controls, but this difference increased to 3.94 kg in 21 days (p<0.0001), when only the calves with higher OPG were taken into account. These results highlight the magnitude of the subclinical impact of coccidiosis, biased by the individual susceptibility to infection, which leads to get heavier infections and express higher oocysts output.

  1. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  2. Effect of a topical anaesthetic formulation on the cortisol response to surgical castration of unweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D; Lomax, S; Windsor, P A; White, P J

    2016-01-01

    Impracticality and cost of existing pain management strategies during surgical castration of beef cattle have limited their widespread implementation on-farm. A farmer-applied topical anaesthetic formulation, originally developed and used commercially to mitigate the pain of mulesing in lambs, was investigated for its potential use for managing pain in surgically castrated calves. This formulation contained lidocaine, bupivacaine, adrenalin and cetrimide. In this study, 24 Angus bull calves were randomly allocated to (1) surgical castration (C, n=8), (2) surgical castration with the post-operative application of topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=8) and (3) sham castration/control (CON, n=8). The experiment was conducted over 2 days, with treatment groups evenly represented across each day. Calves were habituated to handling before the experiment and blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol measurement at defined time periods before, at and post treatment, (at -0.5, 0 h, then +0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4 and 6 h). There was a significant effect of time on cortisol concentrations across all treatment groups (Pcortisol response at 0 h. The effect of treatment was not significant (P=0.077), however, there was a trend for CON calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C and CTA calves and CTA calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C calves. The mean area under the curve (AUC) of CON calves was significantly lower than those of C and CTA calves (P=0.04), however, there was no significant difference between the AUCs of CTA and C calves. Immediate application of topical anaesthetic after surgical castration did not significantly reduce plasma cortisol concentrations. However, the trend for CTA calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C calves warrants further investigation into the use of TA for pain relief of surgically castrated beef calves.

  3. Effect of Feeding Different Protein and Energy Supplements on Performance and Health of Beef Calves During the Backgrounding Period

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Robert Jesse

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS ON PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF BEEF CALVES DURING THE BACKGROUNDING PERIOD By R. Jesse Austin Committee Chair: Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) Newly received or weaned calves are highly susceptible to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease. In addition to high levels of stress, decreased feed intake and exposure to foreign antigens result in increased morbidity and possib...

  4. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  5. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Whitworth, Whitney A; Montgomery, T Gregory; Beck, Paul A

    2012-07-24

    In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow) that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.)/bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture): 1) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG), 2) wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR), or 3) wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L.) and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW). All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients). The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27) among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06) to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02) for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  6. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  7. Does supplementation of beef calves by creep feeding systems influence milk production and body condition of the dams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sidnei Antônio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Valente, Ériton Egídio Lisboa; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Martins, Leandro Soares

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of beef calves' supplementation in creep feeding systems on milk yield, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) of their dams on tropical pastures using a meta-analytical approach. The database was obtained from 11 experiments conducted between 2009 and 2014 in Brazil, totaling 485 observations (cows). The database consisted of 273 Nellore and 212 crossbred (7/8 Nellore × 1/8 Holstein) cows. All experiments were carried out in the suckling phase (from 3 to 8 months of age of calves) during the transition phase between rainy and dry seasons from February to June of different years. The data were analyzed by a meta-analytical approach using mixed models and taking into account random variation among experiments. Calves' supplementation (P ≥ 0.59) and the calves' sex (P ≥ 0.48) did not affect milk yield of cows. The average fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield was 6.71 and 6.83 kg/day for cows that had their calves supplemented and not supplemented, respectively. Differences were observed (P < 0.0001) for milk yield due to the genetic group where crossbred cows presented greater FCM yield (7.37 kg/day) compared with Nellore cows (6.17 kg/day). There was no effect of the calves' supplementation on BW change (P ≥ 0.11) and BCS change (P ≥ 0.23) of the cows. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of beef calves using creep feeding systems in tropical pastures does not affect milk yield, body weight, or body condition of their dams. PMID:27193314

  8. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  9. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  10. Effects of trace mineral injections on measures of performance and trace mineral status of pre- and postweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Moriel, P; Martins, P G M A; Lamb, G C; Havenga, L J

    2014-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) on measures of trace mineral status and performance in pre- and postweaned Brangus-crossbred beef calves. In Exp. 1, calves were assigned to treatments in alternating birth order (n = 150; 75/treatment), consisting of a 1-mL subcutaneous injection of ITM (MultiMin 90; MultiMin USA, Inc., Fort Collins, CO) or sterile saline. The ITM formulation consisted of 60, 10, 15, and 5 mg/mL of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se. Treatments were readministered at 100 and 200 d of age. Calf BW was recorded at birth and on d 100, 150, 200, and 250 (weaning). Trace mineral status was assessed in liver biopsy samples (n = 12/treatment) collected on d 150, 200, and 250. Administration of ITM had no impact on BW gain (P ≥ 0.55) but did result in greater (P ≤ 0.02) concentrations of liver Cu and Se and lesser (P = 0.05) liver Fe concentrations compared to saline-injected calves. In Exp. 2, 24 heifers were selected from the weaned calves of Exp. 1 (n = 12/treatment) and transported 1,600 km. Remaining on their original treatments, heifers were administered 5 mL of ITM or saline following transport (d 0). Blood samples, for acute phase protein (APP) analysis, were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 and liver biopsy samples for assessment of trace mineral status on d 13. Plasma APP concentrations increased in all calves following weaning and transport but concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in ITM- vs. saline-injected heifers on d 6 and 9. Liver concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn were greater (P ≤ 0.04) but ADG lesser (P = 0.05) for heifers receiving ITM vs. saline. In Exp. 3, 34 heifers, without previous exposure to ITM, were enrolled in a 177-d development study (n = 17/treatment). Treatments consisted of 2.5-mL injections of ITM or sterile saline on d 0, 51, and 127. Humoral immune response to an injection of porcine red blood cells (PRBC) was evaluated on d 51. Trace mineral status was evaluated in

  11. Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Bennett, G L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize genetic and environmental factors influencing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle. Records from nine purebred and three composite breeds and a variety of F1 and three-way crosses, including the progeny of 12 additional different sire breeds produced over a 20-yr period (1983 to 2002), were evaluated for breed and heterozygosity effects on the observed incidence of BRD. Heterozygosity fractions for calves and dams were defined by generalized breed origins: British, Continental, and tropically adapted. Variance components were estimated for each pure and composite breed, and across all breeds and crossbreeds. The effect of incidence of observed BRD was determined by comparing groups of low and high years of incidence. Respiratory disease in this herd followed a standard epidemiological pattern of initial introduction, reaching an epidemic stage at 70 to 170 d of age, followed by a period of rapid decrease to weaning. Estimates of heritability of incidence of BRD were low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.26, with overall estimates of 0.07 and 0.19 depending on the data set analyzed. The highest incidence of BRD in preweaned calves occurred in the Braunvieh breed (18.8%). The genetic correlation between the direct and maternal genetic effects was generally large and negative, suggesting dams genetically superior for resisting BRD raise calves that are more susceptible. Perhaps maternally superior dams provide passive immunity to their calves, which delays the development of the calves' direct immune system, making them more prone to BRD during the preweaning period. Heterozygosity of calves decreased the incidence of BRD compared with purebred cattle. Calves that were Continental x British or tropically adapted x British breeds had a lower incidence of BRD than did calves of British x British breeds. As the annual incidence of BRD increased, there was an associated increase in the heritability estimate. The estimated

  12. Aroma development in high pressure treated beef and chicken meat compared to raw and heat treated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sabrina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G; Orlien, Vibeke

    2010-10-01

    Chicken breast and beef muscle were treated at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min at 5 degrees C and compared to raw meat and a heated sample (100 degrees C for 15 min). Vacuum-packed beef meat with a smaller fraction of unsaturated fatty acids showed better oxidative stability during 14 days of cold storage, as shown by a low steady-state level of hydroperoxide values, than vacuum-packed chicken meat. Accordingly, the critical pressures of 400 MPa and 600 MPa for chicken breast and beef sirloin, respectively, were established. Volatiles released after opening of the meat bags or during storage of open meat bags, simulating consumer behaviour, were measured under conditions mimicking eating. Quantitative and olfactory analysis of pressurised meat gave a total of 46 flavour volatiles, mainly alcohols (11), aldehydes (15), and ketones (11), but all in low abundance after 14 days of storage. Overall, beef meat contained less volatiles and in lower abundance (factor of 5) compared to chicken meat. The most important odour active volatiles (GC-O) were well below the detection thresholds necessary to impart a perceivable off-flavour. Lipid oxidation was significantly accelerated during 24h of cold storage in both cooked chicken and beef when exposed to oxygen, while the pressurised and oxygen-exposed chicken and beef meat remained stable. Pressure treatment of beef and chicken did not induce severe changes of their raw aroma profiles.

  13. Investigation of stillbirths, perinatal mortality and weakness in beef calves with low-selenium whole blood concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Davis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this on-farm investigation, we report on stillbirths, weakness and perinatal mortality seen in calves on a commercial beef farm in the Roossenekal area, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Post-mortem examination of these calves and histopathological examination of organ and tissue samples did not indicate an infectious aetiology. Affected calves had marginal to deficient whole blood selenium concentrations. Whole blood samples collected from adult cattle on this farm and five neighbouring farms were deficient in selenium. The potential contributions of other minerals to the symptoms seen are a subject of ongoing investigation, but selenium deficiency was marked in this herd and required urgent correction. Methods to correct the deficiency included the use of injectable products, and an oral selenium supplement chelated to methionine. Selenium availability to plants is primarily determined by the selenium content of the parent bedrock, the presence of other minerals and the pH of the soil. The apparent sudden onset of this problem implicates a soil factor as being responsible for reducing selenium’s bioavailability in this area. Selenium deficiency can have a significant impact on human health. HIV and/or AIDS, various forms of cancer and several specific clinical syndromes are associated with selenium deficiency in humans, and the impact on human health in this area also requires further investigation.Keywords: vitamin E; selenium deficiency; cattle; one-health; Mpumalanga Province; soil pH; acid rain; stillbirths; white muscle disease; HIV

  14. Investigation of stillbirths, perinatal mortality and weakness in beef calves with low-selenium whole blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony J; Myburgh, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    In this on-farm investigation, we report on stillbirths, weakness and perinatal mortality seen in calves on a commercial beef farm in the Roossenekal area, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Post-mortem examination of these calves and histopathological examination of organ and tissue samples did not indicate an infectious aetiology. Affected calves had marginal to deficient whole blood selenium concentrations. Whole blood samples collected from adult cattle on this farm and five neighbouring farms were deficient in selenium. The potential contributions of other minerals to the symptoms seen are a subject of ongoing investigation, but selenium deficiency was marked in this herd and required urgent correction. Methods to correct the deficiency included the use of injectable products, and an oral selenium supplement chelated to methionine. Selenium availability to plants is primarily determined by the selenium content of the parent bedrock, the presence of other minerals and the pH of the soil. The apparent sudden onset of this problem implicates a soil factor as being responsible for reducing selenium's bioavailability in this area. Selenium deficiency can have a significant impact on human health. HIV and/or AIDS, various forms of cancer and several specific clinical syndromes are associated with selenium deficiency in humans, and the impact on human health in this area also requires further investigation. PMID:27543038

  15. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P yield grade, marbling score, and LM area, did not differ between treatments. These data imply that EW calves, which are maintained onsite before shipping, may be more tolerant to the stressors associated with transportation and feed yard entry. Early weaned calves, managed within the system described in this study, may have improved G:F.

  16. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P Carcass measures, including backfat thickness, USDA yield grade, marbling score, and LM area, did not differ between treatments. These data imply that EW calves, which are maintained onsite before shipping, may be more tolerant to the stressors associated with transportation and feed yard entry. Early weaned calves, managed within the system described in this study, may have improved G:F.

  17. Genetic and environmental factors associated with incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in preweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Bennett, G L

    2005-03-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is one of the most economically important diseases in preweaned calves. This study examined the health records of 45,497 calves over a 20-yr period to determine environmental and genetic factors influencing the incidence of IBK. Three data sets were analyzed with an animal model. The first data set (n = 41,986) evaluated environmental factors and genetic differences among nine purebred (Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental) and three composite breeds (MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III). Weaning weights of calves diagnosed with IBK were 8.9 kg lighter (P < 0.05) than weights of healthy calves. Incidence of IBK was related to age of the calf and the seasonal life cycle of the face fly (Musca autumnalis). Incidence of IBK increased in the spring (June), peaked during the summer months (July to September), and then decreased in the fall. Herefords were the most susceptible breed (P < 0.05) compared with all other purebreds and composites. Estimates of direct heritability for the incidence of IBK were generally low and ranged from 0.00 to 0.28 by breed. The maternal permanent environmental and genetic effects of the dam on the incidence of IBK were not significant for most breeds. The second data set (n = 9,606) was used to estimate heterosis for the incidence of IBK from a Hereford and Angus diallel design. The heterosis effect for the incidence of IBK in reciprocal Hereford/Angus crossbred calves was slightly negative (P = 0.12) but not large. The higher incidence of IBK in Angus x Hereford calves compared with Hereford x Angus calves (13.3 vs. 8.9%) suggests a maternal effect related to the incidence of IBK. Incidence of IBK in crossbred calves sired by tropically adapted breeds (Brahma, Boran, Tuli) compared with purebred and crossbred Bos taurus types was investigated in the third data set (n = 2,622). Crossbred calves sired by tropically adapted breeds had a lower

  18. Comparison of feed additive technologies for preconditioning of weaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersom, M; Imler, A; Thrift, T; Yelich, J; Arthington, J

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the response of weaned calves to different supplemental feed additives in a supplement to affect calf performance and mitigate stress response observed during weaning and preconditioning. At weaning in each of 2 yr, 160 Angus and Brangus calves (203 and 227 ± 2.3 and 2.5 kg) were stratified by BW, sex, and breed and were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments ( = 40 calves/treatment): 1) supplement without feed additives (control, CON), 2) supplemented with chlortetracycline, 350 mg/d (CTC), 3) supplemented with monensin, 175 mg/d (RUM), and 4) supplemented with rumen modifier, 5 g/d (ACT). Calves were held by treatment in 1 of 4 drylot pens for 7 d after weaning and were offered ad libitum access to hay and 2.27 kg/d of supplement before placement in one of thirty-two 0.8-ha pastures (5 calves/pasture). On pasture calves were supplemented with 2.27 kg/d (yr 1) or supplemented at 1.0% BW (yr 2). Calf BW and blood samples were collected following weaning (d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11 in yr 1; d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 in yr 2), at the conclusion of the preconditioning period (d 50, 51 in yr 2), and after transportation (d 52, 55, 59, 65 in yr 2) for analysis of acute phase protein (APP) concentrations. In yr 2, after 44 d on pasture, calves were loaded on 2 semitrucks and transported for 24 h. On return, calves were placed in 4 pastures with hay and fed their respective supplements for 14 d. For each year, data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the main effect of treatment, and pasture was the experimental unit. All variables quantified by day were analyzed using repeated measures. In yr 1, ACT and CTC had greater (P 0.05) among treatments; however an effect of day after transport (P < 0.001) was observed. Feed cost of gain and income over production cost (P ≥ 0.15; mean = $0.51/kg and $73.51, respectively) were not different among treatments. Use of supplemental additives may improve calf performance during a

  19. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

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    Trefz Florian M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration. Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l. However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed

  20. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  1. Effect of castration timing and oral meloxicam administration on growth performance, inflammation, behavior, and carcass quality of beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A C; Powell, J G; Kegley, E B; Gadberry, M S; Reynolds, J L; Hughes, H D; Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Thaxton, Y V; Backes, E A; Richeson, J T

    2015-05-01

    Beef bull calves (n = 62) were assigned randomly, within sire breed, to 1 of 4 treatments at birth. Treatments were 1) surgical castration near birth, 2) surgical castration near birth with oral administration of meloxicam (1 mg/kg BW), 3) surgical castration at weaning (WNG), or 4) surgical castration at weaning with oral administration of meloxicam (1 mg/kg BW; WMX). A subset of calves (n = 7/treatment group) were selected randomly near birth for blood collection, behavioral analyses, and rectal temperature (RT) records for a 7-d postcastration period on d 0 (birth), 1, 3, and 7, and on d 214 (weaning), 214 + 6 h, 215, 217, 221, and 228. Calf standing and lying activity were monitored from the same subsets by recording x- and y-axis positions of an accelerometer attached to the right metatarsus for 7 d postcastration. Calf BW was recorded throughout the entire production cycle, and carcass data were collected at slaughter. For statistical analyses, bulls left intact at birth were considered a positive control (BUL) for observations that occurred before their treatment application at weaning; likewise, bulls castrated at birth were considered a negative control (STR) during postweaning observations. No difference (P > 0.88) occurred in ADG between treatments throughout the preweaning period (d 0 to 214); however, 56-d postweaning ADG was greatest ( P= 0.02) in STR, intermediate in WMX, and least in WNG. At weaning, haptoglobin (Hp) was greater (P ≤ 0.005) for WNG and WMX compared to STR on d 214+6 h, 215, and 217, and Hp was greater (P = 0.05) in WNG compared to WMX on d 217. Neutrophils increased (P treatments. In this study, surgical castration at weaning, but not near birth, altered the acute phase response, behavior, and growth performance. Oral meloxicam reduced serum Hp and improved ADG briefly when administered to calves castrated at weaning. Oral administration of meloxicam may be efficacious for mitigating some of the stress and inflammation associated

  2. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  3. Use of crossbreeding with beef bulls in dairy herds: effect on age, body weight, price, and market value of calves sold at livestock auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Zotto, R; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Cassandro, M; López-Villalobos, N; Bittante, G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different breeds and breed crosses on age (AC, d), BW (kg), price (PR, $/kg), and market value (MV, $/calf) of purebred and crossbred calves sold for veal and beef production. The Kovieh wholesale cattle organization (Bolzano, Italy) grouped calves from several dairy herds located in the Trentino-Südtirol region in Italy and sold them by public auctions. Data on AC, BW, PR, and MV from 96,458 calves were recorded from January 2003 to December 2007 and consisted of 4 pure breeds [2 dairy, Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF); and 2 dual-purpose, Simmental (SI) and Alpine Grey (AG)], and 8 crossbreds by crosses of Limousin (LI) and Belgian Blue (BB) with the 4 dam breeds. Least squares means for AC, BW, PR, and MV were calculated for breeds and breed crosses with a model that included fixed effects of herd of birth, age (except for AC), sex, and breed of the calf, year and season of auction, and interactions between the main effects. The coefficients of determination of the models were 0.41, 0.51, 0.84, and 0.82 for AC, BW, PR, and MV, respectively. Sex, age, and breed were the most relevant sources of variation for BW (P < 0.001), whereas breed and sex were the most important sources of variation for AC, PR, and MV (P < 0.001). Also, PR and MV were significantly influenced (P < 0.01) by all the effects included in the model, except for season x age interaction in the case of MV. Market value of male was greater (P < 0.001) than that of female calves, with the exception of BS (-$28.76/calf) and HF (-$20.70/calf) purebred males. Dual-purpose purebred calves presented greater (P < 0.001) PR and MV than dairy purebreds (MV of $426.97/calf and $307.96/calf for SI and AG, and $256.24/calf and $275.65/calf for BS and HF, respectively). Calves from SI and AG dams had greater (P < 0.001) BW, PR, and MV than calves from BS and HF dams. Calves from SI cows had greater (P < 0.001) BW, PR, and MV than calves from AG

  4. Resolving Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected U.S. beef calves with complete genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Aspen M; Heaton, Michael P; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Grotelueschen, Dale M; Sjeklocha, David; Brodersen, Bruce; Petersen, Jessica L; Chitko-McKown, Carol G

    2016-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic variation. To effectively control BVDV by vaccination, it is important to know which subtypes of the virus are circulating and how their prevalence is changing over time. Accordingly, the purpose of our study was to estimate the current prevalence and diversity of BVDV subtypes from persistently infected (PI) beef calves in the central United States. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR (5' untranslated region) for 119 virus strains revealed that a majority (82%) belonged to genotype 1b, and the remaining strains were distributed between genotypes 1a (9%) and 2 (8%); however, BVDV-2 subtypes could not be confidently resolved. Therefore, to better define the variability of U.S. BVDV isolates and further investigate the division of BVDV-2 isolates into subtypes, complete genome sequences were obtained for these isolates as well as representatives of BVDV-1a and -1b. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete coding sequence provided more conclusive genetic classification and revealed that U.S. BVDV-2 isolates belong to at least 3 distinct genetic groups that are statistically supported by both complete and individual coding gene analyses. These results show that a more complex set of BVDV-2 subtypes has been circulating in this region than was previously thought. PMID:27400958

  5. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  6. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch Eilish M; McGee Mark; Doyle Sean; Earley Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d) 0) in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementar...

  7. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

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    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  8. Acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence leads to depletion and redistribution of WC1(+) γδ T cells in lymphoid tissues of beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Sakamoto, Kaori; Walz, Heather L; Brock, Kenny V; Hurley, David J

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of γδ T lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue during acute infection with high (HV) or low virulence (LV) non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in beef calves. This study was performed using tissue samples from a previous experiment in which thirty beef calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: LV [n=10; animals inoculated intranasally (IN) with LV BVDV-1a (strain SD-1)], HV [n=10; animals inoculated IN with HV BVDV-2 (strain 1373)], and control (n=10; animals inoculated with cell culture medium). On day 5 post inoculation, animals were euthanized, and samples from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected to assess the abundance of WC1(+) γδ T cells. A higher proportion of calves challenged with BVDV showed signs of apoptosis and cytophagy in MLN and spleen samples compared to the control group. A significantly lower number of γδ T cells was observed in spleen and MLN from calves in HV and LV groups than in the control calves (Pcells in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues at five days after challenge in beef calves. This reduction in γδ T cells in the studied lymphoid tissues could be also due to lymphocyte trafficking to other tissues.

  9. Severe diarrhea outbreak in beef calves (Bos indicus caused by G6P[11], an emergent genotype of bovine rotavirus group A

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    Thais N.S. Medeiros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The episodes of diarrhea caused by neonatal bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA constitute one of the major health problems in the calf rearing worldwide. The main G (VP7 and P (VP4 genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of diarrhea in calves are G6P[1], G10P[11], G6P[5], and G8P[1]. However, less frequently, other G and P genotypes have been described in BoRVA strains identified in diarrheic fecal samples of calves. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of an emerging genotype (G6P[11] in BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of a diarrhea outbreak in beef calves in a cattle herd of high production in extensive management system. The diarrhea outbreak, which showed high morbidity (60% and lethality (7% rates, occurred in calves (n= 384 Nelore (Bos indicus up to 30-day-old from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. BoRVA was identified in 80% (16/20 of the fecal samples analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE technique. In all PAGE-positive fecal samples were amplified products with 1,062-bp and 876-bp in the RT-PCR assays for VP7 (G type and VP4 (VP8* (P type of BoRVA, respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of four wild-type BoRVA strains showed G6-III P[11]-III genotype/lineage. The G6P[11] genotype has been described in RVA strains of human and animal hosts, however, in calves this genotype was only identified in some cross-sectional studies and not as a single cause of diarrhea outbreaks in calves with high morbidity and lethality rates as described in this study. The monitoring of the G and P genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in diarrhea outbreaks in calves is important for both animal and public health by allowing the identification of the most frequent genotypes, the characterization of novel genotypes and to identify reassortments with genotypes described in animal and human hosts. The results of this study show the importance of the monitoring of

  10. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes. PMID:25477550

  11. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Me...

  12. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-Ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  13. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  14. Genetic effects on acute phase protein response to the stresses of weaning and transportation in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, X; Arthington, J D; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2007-10-01

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects in purebred and crossbred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus calves on acute phase protein response to weaning and transportation. Calves (n = 1,032) were weaned in September of 2002, 2003, and 2004 at approximately 7 mo of age. Approximately 28 d after weaning, steer calves (n = 482) were transported 1,800 km (20 h) to Oklahoma. Concentrations of 3 acute phase proteins (ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, and haptoglobin) were measured in blood samples. Calves (steers and heifers) were sampled at weaning, and 24 and 72 h postweaning. For separate analyses, steers sent to Oklahoma were sampled before shipment, upon arrival, and 24 and 72 h after arrival. Combinations of the following fixed effects were investigated: sire breed, dam breed, sampling time, birth location, calf sex (weaning only), year, cow age, and interactions. Effects of special interest were sire breed x dam breed as an indication of breed group of calf, and the interaction of sire and dam breeds with sampling time. Weaning age and BW were investigated as linear and quadratic covariates. Sire of calf within sire breed was a random term. The correlation structure of repeated measures was determined by comparison of information criterion values for different structures within each analysis. In general, plasma acute phase protein concentrations in weaned calves increased with sampling time. Concentrations in the transported steers increased through sampling at 24 h after arrival, and were lower at 72 h. Significant estimates of heterosis were detected for Brahman-Angus haptoglobin concentrations at weaning (0.38 +/- 0.14 mg/dL x 100; 44%), and for Romosinuano-Angus fibrinogen concentrations at weaning (11.4 +/- 5.5 mg/dL; 10%) and in transported steers (22.5 +/- 8.4 mg/dL; 20%). The direct effect of Romosinuano was to increase (P Angus was to lower ceruloplasmin concentrations in weaned calves (-3.9 +/- 1.2; P = 0.001). Significant maternal effects

  15. Reduction of chlortetracycline residues in manure from therapeutically-treated beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heavily-used antibacterials, triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are common contaminants of biosolids that are accumulated and adsorbed into waste-water treatment plants. These compounds are highly persistent because they present high octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log10 Kow of 4.9...

  16. Body condition score to predict the postpartum fertility of crossbred beef cows Condição corporal na predição da fertilidade pós-parto de vacas de corte cruzadas

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes; Carlos Miguel Jaume; Carlos José Hoff de Souza

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between changes in body condition score (BCS) during the postpartum and fertility in beef cows suckling calves under extensive conditions were investigated. Cows were subjected to four BCS evaluations over the postpartum period, starting around one month after calving. In the second evaluation cows were treated with medroxy-progesterone acetate impregnated pessaries and received an injection of estradiol benzoate. At the third evaluation, pessaries were removed and calves wer...

  17. Bayesian evaluation of clinical diagnostic test characteristics of visual observations and remote monitoring to diagnose bovine respiratory disease in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Amrine, David E; Booker, Calvin; Wildman, Brian; Perrett, Tye

    2016-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle is a critical facet of therapeutic programs through promotion of prompt treatment of diseased calves in concert with judicious use of antimicrobials. Despite the known inaccuracies, visual observation (VO) of clinical signs is the conventional diagnostic modality for BRD diagnosis. Objective methods of remotely monitoring cattle wellness could improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little information exists describing the accuracy of this method compared to traditional techniques. The objective of this research is to employ Bayesian methodology to elicit diagnostic characteristics of conventional VO compared to remote early disease identification (REDI) to diagnose BRD. Data from previous literature on the accuracy of VO were combined with trial data consisting of direct comparison between VO and REDI for BRD in two populations. No true gold standard diagnostic test exists for BRD; therefore, estimates of diagnostic characteristics of each test were generated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results indicate a 90.0% probability that the sensitivity of REDI (median 81.3%; 95% probability interval [PI]: 55.5, 95.8) was higher than VO sensitivity (64.5%; PI: 57.9, 70.8). The specificity of REDI (median 92.9%; PI: 88.2, 96.9) was also higher compared to VO (median 69.1%; PI: 66.3, 71.8). The differences in sensitivity and specificity resulted in REDI exhibiting higher positive and negative predictive values in both high (41.3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle.

  18. Eye Histopathological Observation of Beef Calves Due to Vitamin A Deifciency%维生素A缺乏犊牛眼部组织病理学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺秀媛; 曹永强; 贺丛; 王朝阳; 李豪; 董海聚; 邓立新

    2015-01-01

    To observe and research the pathological changes in the eye tissues of the Vitamin A deifciency of beef calves, routine paraffin section technique and H.E staining methods were applied.The result showed the main pathological changes of the eye tissues were as follows:the cornea thickening and perforation,corneal cells necrosis, papilledema and cone rod cell loss.The iris pigment epithelium thinning was absent and reduced.Compared with normal cows, the pigment content reduced significantly,the blood vessels of iris,the trabecular meshwork and retinal also decreased,andthediameterofirisbloodvesseldecreasedsigniifcantly.%为观察维生素A缺乏肉犊牛眼部组织的病理学变化,本试验对已确诊为维生素A缺乏肉犊牛的眼组织,应用常规石蜡切片技术和H.E染色,在显微镜下观察病牛眼部组织的病理学改变。结果显示,眼部组织的主要病理变化表现在:角膜增厚及穿孔,角膜细胞坏死;视乳头水肿及视锥、视杆细胞缺失;虹膜色素上皮细胞减少,色素含量与正常牛相比明显减少;虹膜血管、小梁网处血管及视网膜血管较正常牛数量减少,且虹膜血管直径明显变小。结果表明,维生素A缺乏可引起肉犊牛眼部组织的病理学改变。

  19. Stocker and feedlot performance of beef heifers sired by Braunvieh and Wagyu bulls from Angus-, Brahman-, Senepol- and Tuli-sired dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female beef calves not retained within the cow-calf enterprise are sold and moved through the same production phases as male calves to produce finished beef. Female beef calves can be purchased at a lower price and have more post-weaning marketing opportunities than male calves. The objective of thi...

  20. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Eilish M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d 0 in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementary concentrates. Twenty-six days prior to weaning and housing, 20 singled suckled, pure-bred Simmental male (non-castrated, (n = 10, m and female (n = 10, f calves were assigned to one of two treatments (i concentrate supplement (CS: n = 10 (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (12.8 d, mean weight (s.d. 258 (20.2 kg or (ii no concentrate supplement (controls (NCS: n = 10, (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (13.4 d, mean weight (s.d. 257 (19.6 kg pre-weaning. Results There was a treatment × sampling time interaction (P + and WC1+ (γδ T cells lymphocytes and concentration of plasma globulin. On d 2, percentage CD4+ lymphocytes decreased (P + lymphocytes increased (P + lymphocytes in NCS did not differ (P > 0.05 from d 0. On d 2, WC1+ lymphocytes decreased (P P 0.05 in NCS than CS. Subsequently, percentages did not differ (P > 0.05 from pre-weaning baseline. On d 2, the increase in concentration of globulin was greater (P Conclusions Calves supplemented with concentrate prior to weaning had a lesser reduction in WC1+ lymphocytes, increased percentage CD4+ lymphocytes and concentration of total protein, and spent more time lying post-weaning, compared with non-supplemented calves.

  1. Calving sub-season and reproductive efficiency of beef cows Subépoca de parição e eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Reinher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated in this work the effect of calving sub-season on the pregnancy rate of 7,726 multiparous Hereford beef cows grazing on natural pastures in southern Brazil, from 1994 to 2007. Calving sub-season periods were divided in 20-day intervals from August 12th to 31st; from September 1st to 20th; from September 21st to October 10th; from October 11th to 31st; from November 1st to 20th. Calving in each sub-season and pregnancy rate (PR were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Overall means of each sub-season were 92.7% (from August 12th to 31st, 90.6% (from September 1st to 20th, 82.1% (from September 21st to October 10th, 77.7% (from October 11th to 31st, and 70.6% (from November 1st to 20th. Calving sub-season significantly influenced pregnancy rate. Cows which calved in the initial sub-season showed higher pregnancy rates than cows which calved from the fourth calving sub-season. However this difference did not occur in 1999 and in 2007 since calving rates did not statistically differ among the five sub-seasons. In 1998 and 2004, calving rates were lower and the effects of calving sub-season on pregnancy rates were higher, possibly due to climate variations. In general, pregnancy rate decreases as calving occurs later in the year, particularly in years when the weather adversely affects pasture growth.Avaliou-se o efeito da subépoca de parição sobre a taxa de prenhez de 7.726 vacas de corte multíparas Hereford mantidas em campo natural no Sul do Brasil, entre os anos de 1994 e 2007. As subépocas foram divididas em intervalos de 20 dias: de 12 a 31 de agosto; de 1 a 20 de setembro; 21 de setembro a 10 de outubro; 11 a 31 de outubro; e 1 a 20 de novembro. Foram analisados os partos ocorridos na subépoca de parição e a taxa de prenhez (PR pelo qui-quadrado. As médias gerais de cada subépoca foram 92.7% (12 a 31 de agosto, 90.6% (1 a 20 de setembro, 82.1% (21 de setembro a 10 de outubro, 77.7% (11 a 31 de outubro e 70.6% (1 a 20 de

  2. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for

  3. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( carcass characteristics. PMID:26523577

  4. Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

  5. Effect of early weaning on the performance of three-year-old, first-calf beef heifers and calves reared in the subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Kalmbacher, R S

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of early weaning fall-born calves on heifer and calf performance in Florida. Over two consecutive years, 3-yr-old Braford and Brahman x Angus first-calf heifers were assigned randomly to one of two treatments; early-weaned (EW, n = 20 and 30 for yr 1 and 2, respectively) and normal-weaned (NW, n = 20 and 38 for yr 1 and 2, respectively). Calves were EW on January 23 and 3 for yr 1 and 2, respectively. Following EW, all first-calf heifers were returned to bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures with the mature cowherd. Early-weaned calves were maintained on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) pastures at 8.2 and 10.7 calves/ha for yr 1 and 2, respectively, and were provided supplemental grain mixture (14% CP) at 1.0% of BW daily. Normal-weaned calves remained with their dams in the mature cowherd on bahiagrass. Final calf BW was collected on April 17 (d 84) and April 24 (d 111) for yr 1 and 2, respectively. Early-weaned calves had a greater (P < 0.001) ADG (0.17 kg/d) in yr 1, but a lower (P < 0.001) ADG (-0.24 kg/d) in yr 2 compared with NW calves. Early weaning resulted in heavier first-calf heifers with greater BCS at the time of normal weaning (August 1; 491 vs. 452 kg, with BCS = 6.34 vs. 4.75 for EW and NW heifers, respectively; SEM = 5.0 and 0.07). Heifers with EW calves had a higher (P < 0.07) pregnancy rate during both years than normal-weaned heifers (89.5 vs. 50.0 and 96.7 vs. 80.0% pregnant during yr 1 and 2, respectively). Early-weaned, first-calf heifers also had a lower (P < 0.05) calving interval in yr 2 (384 vs. 404 d; SEM = 6.0). These data suggest that EW will improve body condition of first-calf heifers resulting in an increased pregnancy rate. Early-weaned calves maintained on winter ryegrass provide producers with the ability to optimize early-weaned calf performance, while capitalizing on low cost of gain and favorable spring markets. PMID:12772839

  6. Comparison of Slaughter Performance and Beef Quality between Dairy Bull Calves and Fattening Cattle%奶公牛犊与育肥牛的屠宰性能及肉品质比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉杰; 孙芳; 王君才; 李红宇; 王嘉厚

    2011-01-01

    Four 6-month-old fattening dairy bull calves and four fattening cross-breeding adult beef cattle were selected to study the difference of beef production performance and quality between them. The results indicated that the percentage of bone of carcass was 4.45 percentage points higher than fattening cattle; the percentage of top grade parts of the meet was 0.35 percentage points higher than fattening cattle; the percentage of rump and hind legs meet was 1.67 percentage points higher than fattening cattle. The moisture content of calves was 75.39%, and protein content was 19.36%, which were 2.73 and 1.20 percentage points significantly higher than fattening cattle, and the fat content was 0.85%, which was 1.22 percentage points lower than fattening cattle. The shear force of the meet (outside ridge) of 72-hour cooling and 96-hour cooling were significant comparing with fattening cattle(p 〈0.01).The a* of meat color 3.88 lower than fattening cattle, and L* of meat color 6.55 higher than fattening cattle after 72-hour cooling, and the indexes of statistical analysis were significantly different(p〈0.01); the drop loss in indexes of WHC was significant difference(p〈0.05), and the cooked meet percentage was no difference(p〉0.05). Therefore, the percentage of the beef production of fattening calves were lower than adult beef cattle's, and the beef of calves were delicate and soft, fulling of juice, high protein, low fat and the meat color were pale on the beef quality, but the water-binding capacity of calves were significantly poorer than of adult beef cattle's.%选择6月龄育肥奶公牛犊和成年育肥杂交改良肉牛各四头,通过屠宰性能和肉品质比较,研究育肥奶公犊与杂交改良育肥肉牛的产肉性能和牛肉品质差异,为肉牛屠宰企业开发犊牛肉市场提供技术参数。结果表明,屠宰率为55.38%的犊牛胴体较屠宰率56.38%的育肥牛胴体,出肉率低6.25

  7. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( BCS but did not alter milk production, subsequent reproduction, or subsequent calf performance or carcass characteristics.

  8. Weight development and survival rate of reindeer calves treated against Oedemagena tarandi L and Cephenemyia trompe L

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    Endre Persen

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Three trials with treatment of reindeer warbles are carried out. All treated groups were injected intramuscularly with Warbex (35%, American Cyanamid, dosage 10 mg active ingredient/10 kg live weight. In total 911 calves and 403 adult females were included in the experiments. All animals were individually marked with plastic eartags. The trials tried to give answers as to the effect of treatment on: a weight development during winter, b weight development to the normal age of slaughter (18 months and c loss rate during winter. One trial deals with the effect of weight loss during winter by different date of treatment. All studies are undertaken within sex. Generelly the trials show that treated animals lost more weight during winter than untreated. There was found significant higher weight loss for treated female calves (0.7 kg, p=0.005 in the period January 13. — April 28. in trial I and for male calves (0.8 kg, p=0.01 in the period February 14. — April 4. in trial II. There is a trend that treatment increases the slaughter weight. A significant higher increase in the slaughter weight (0.8 kg, p=0.05 of treated male calves was found in trial III. No effect was found by treatment in the loss of animals in winter. The calves lossed during winter had a significant lower live weight at the start of the trial compared to those which survived. In the period February 14. — April 4. there was a higher weight loss in the male calves which were treated on February 14. compared to those treated on November 27. (0.5 kg, p=0.01. Forsøk med behandling av reinkalver mot reinbremslarver (Oedemagena tarandi L og Cephenemyia trompe L.Effekt på kalvens kondisjon målt ved levende vekt og overlevingsevne.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er utført tre forsøk med behandling av rein mot reinbremselarver (Oedemagena tarandi L. og Cephenemyia trompe L.. I alle forsøk er brukt intramuskulær injeksjon av Warbex (Am. Cyanamid 35% med dosering 30 mg

  9. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  10. Mês de parição, condição corporal e resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte primíparas Calving date, body condition score, and response to a timed artificial insemination protocol in first-calving beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meneghetti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available No experimento I, foi avaliada a alteração da condição corporal (CC pré e pós-parto em 155 novilhas inseminadas para parir de setembro a dezembro. A CC foi avaliada mensalmente no pré e pós-parto, de junho a fevereiro. No experimento II, 538 vacas primíparas foram sincronizadas com o protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF que usou estradiol junto ao dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona (CIDR®. As taxas de ciclicidade, sincronização e concepção foram avaliadas por ultra-som. No experimento I, os animais que pariram primeiro tiveram maior (PIn experiment I, it was evaluated the body condition score (BCS change during pre and post-partum in 155 heifers, inseminated to calve from September to December. The BCS was monthly evaluated from June to February, during the pre and post-partum periods. In experiment II, 538 primiparous cows were synchronized with a timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol which used estradiol associated with an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR®. The cyclicity, synchronization, and conception rates were evaluated by ultrasound. In experiment I, the animals that calved earlier had higher (P<0.001 reduction on BCS. In experiment II, it was observed higher BCS (P<0.0001 in cows with lower days in post-partum, higher (P<0.05 synchronization rate in cows with a better BCS, and also an increase (P<0.0001 in conception rate as BCS got better (increase in six percentual points in conception for each increase of 0.25 in BCS. Beef heifers should not calve earlier when is planned to submitt these animals to TAI at the beginning of the next breeding season.

  11. Relationships of milk yield and quality of six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality to calf preweaning average daily gain (ADG) of beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvie...

  12. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    , with CO2 reduced for CO2 from fermentation processes, and nitrogen excretion in urine. The beta-agonist had no effect on the level of rumen fermentation as indicated by the same methane production for control and treated animals. Heat Production (HE, RQx) increased by the treatment of beta...

  13. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein......Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644......,969) treated animals (Group 2 and 3). Beta-agonist supplementation was 5 and 10 mg/d in Group 2 and 3 respectively in Section A and 10 and 20 mg/d in Section B. Measurements were performed by means of nitrogen and carbon balances and with use of indirect calorimetry. In each section the mean intake of dry...

  14. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardon Bart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk, ruminal disorders (0.7%, idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%, enterotoxaemia (0.5% and enteritis (0.4%. Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.

  15. Relationships of milk yield and quality from six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Mays, A R; Turner, K E; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-04-01

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality of beef cows to calf preweaning ADG in beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano and from Brangus dams to determine whether the relationships were homogeneous across cow breed group. Approximately 50 cows/yr were milked monthly for 6 mo in each of the 7 yr of this study. Milk traits were included in models as linear and quadratic covariates along with interactions of the covariates with sire breed. Tests for curvilinearity and homogeneity of regression coefficients indicated the relationship of calf preweaning ADG to milk yield and quality was quadratic and homogeneous across Charolais and Gelbvieh; linear and homogeneous across Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano; and linear and different from other sire breeds in Herefords (P Brangus (P 0.05) of a relationship in Bonsmara, Charolais, Hereford, or Romosinuano. There was little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship of calf preweaning ADG to MUN in any of the sire breed groups. Results from this study confirmed the importance of the influence of milk yield and quality on calf preweaning growth but indicated this influence can depend on the breed composition of the cow. Furthermore, results suggest that breed origin or adaptation may have influenced the relationships of calf preweaning ADG to cow milk yield and quality. PMID:26020207

  16. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  17. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  18. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  19. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY TITER AND RECTAL TEMPERATURE IN RESPONSE TO A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRAL VACCINE IN NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  20. Fontes energéticas para bezerros de corte desmamados aos 80 dias de idade Energy supplements for beef calves weaned at 80 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2006-06-01

    ão alimentar nos tratamentos com GM (4,21 foi melhor que naqueles com CS (4,80.In this study different energy supplements for feedlot calves weaned at 80 days of age and averaging 90 kg of body weight were evaluated. The following energy sources were used: corn grain (CG, rice bran (RB, soybean hulls (SH, corn grain + rice bran (CG + RB, soybean hulls + rice bran (SH + RB or corn grain + soybean hulls (CG + SH. The diets were isonitrogenous (13% crude protein with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sorghum silage (AG-2005E constituted the forage portion of the diet. No significant differences were observed for dry matter intakes (DMI expressed in kg (4.43 kg, per 100 kg of body weight (3.17% or per unit of metabolic weight (109.10 g. Calves fed SH showed greater intake of NDF than those fed CG expressed in kg per day, per 100 kg of body weight and per unit of metabolic weight (2.41 kg, 1.73% and 59.46 g vs. 1.44 kg, 1.02% and 35.01 g, respectively. Daily digestible energy intake (DEI was similar among treatments as well as the average daily weight gain (.986 kg, feed conversion (4.52 kg DMI/kg of weight gain and energy efficiency (12.23 Mcal DEI/kg of weight gain. However, when compared by contrast analyses both diets with SH (SH and SH + RB and both diets with CG (CG and CG + RB, it was observed that animals receiving diets with soybean hulls consumed more DM than animals fed corn grain expressed either per 100 kg of body weight (3.28 vs. 3.06% or per unit of metabolic weight - MW (112.67 vs. 105.59 g. It was also observed differences in DEI, being greater for diets containing corn grain (12.47 Mcal/day and .304 Mcal/MW compared to those containing SH (11.67 Mcal/day and .288 Mcal/MW. Feed conversion improved on calves fed diets with CG (4.21 than on those fed soybean hulls (4.80.

  1. Efeitos do manejo pós-parto de vacas primíparas no desempenho de bezerros de corte até um ano de idade Effects of post-partum management of primiparous cows on growth of beef calves up to one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-04-01

    weaning at 100 (EW and at 180 (CW days of age, were evaluated using 92 beef calves from Hereford and Braford primiparous cows. The sex of the calves affected significantly the birth weight, and no effect was observed for the breed of cow. The treatments and breed of cow did not affect the average daily gain (ADG of the calves from birth to early weaning (GEW. Calves born from Braford cows had higher LW at EW (WEW than calves born from Hereford cows, while the WEW was not affected by the treatments. Calves born from Braford cows on T2 had ADG up to 180 days (ADG180 and LW at 180 days (LW180 greater than calves born from Braford cows on T1 and Hereford cows on T2. Calves from CW had greater LW180 and ADG180 than calves from EW. However, treatments and weaning ages did not affect the LW at 365 days and the ADG up to 365 days of age. The three cows post-partum management schemes and the two calves weaning ages evaluated did not affect the calves performance up to one year of age.

  2. FONTES ENERGÉTICAS PARA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE BEZERROS DESMAMADOS PRECOCEMENTE, MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM. ENERGETIC SOURCES FOR SUPPLEMENTATION OF EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES KEPT ON ELEPHANT GRASS PASTURE (Pennisetum pupureum, SCHUM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas sobre o desempenho de bezerros, desmamados precocemente, submetidos ao pastejo contínuo em capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv Taiwan A-146. As fontes energéticas testadas foram a casca de soja, o grão de milho moído e o farelo de arroz integral, além da mistura múltipla desses três alimentos, fornecidos ao nível de 1% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca. A pastagem apresentou em média massa de forragem da planta inteira de 7286 kg de MS/ha, com 34,31% de folhas. O ganho de peso médio diário (GMD não foi influenciado significativamente pela fonte energética, sendo 0,867; 0,841; 0,753 e 0,817 kg para a casca de soja, grão de milho, farelo de arroz integral e mistura múltipla, respectivamente. O GMD apresentou comportamento quadrático (1,119-0,024X+0,00034X2 frente aos períodos experimentais. O peso final dos bezerros suplementados com grão de milho (162 kg foi maior que os suplementados com farelo de arroz integral (156 kg, ambos não diferindo dos suplementados com casca de soja (160 kg ou mistura múltipla (158 kg. O estado corporal final foi maior nos animais que receberam a casca de soja ou a mistura múltipla (3,62 e 3,64 pontos, respectivamente em relação àqueles que receberam milho ou farelo de arroz integral (3,48 e 3,43 pontos, respectivamente como suplemento. Palavras chaves: Casca de soja, estado corporal, farelo de arroz integral, ganho de peso, grão de milho ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effect of different energetic sources on the performance of early weaned beef calves, submitted to continuous grazing on pasture of Elephant Grass Taiwan A146. The energetic sources tested were ground corn grain, soybean hulls and rice bran, besides a mixture of the three energetic sources. The amount offered was equivalent to 1% of the live weight, dry matter basis

  3. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  4. Yak Calving Interval and Calving Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏强

    2005-01-01

    The results of 439 times of calving interval(CI) from 161 yak cows showed that the average CI is 459(se=131)d. The CI with 3 to 6 calving numbers is 25~48 d shorter than that of 1 to 2 and above 7 calving numbers. Although slaughtering a great number of calves during the late September and early October do bring about relatively higher calving rate that is mos yak cowst can give 3,4,5 and 6calves during 4,5,6 and 7 years old respectively. This makes major calving months shift from April or May to June.

  5. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  6. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  7. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  8. Treatment of hypernatremia in neonatal calves with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Petrie, Lyall

    2007-01-01

    Five hypernatremic, diarrheic, neonatal calves were treated mainly by the intravenous administration of 5% dextrose alone or with isotonic sodium bicarbonate. All calves recovered without complications. The average reduction rate of serum sodium concentration was about 4 times that recommended and has not been tried successfully before in hypernatremic scouring calves.

  9. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later....

  10. Initial experience of use of an articulated external fixator in treating Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease by means of arthrodiastasis during the active phase of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Malheiros Luzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To present the preliminary results from treating patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (LCPD by means of hip arthrodiastasis using a monolateral external fixator applied to the hip and to succinctly describe the surgical technique used, in a prospective study. METHODS: Prospective study on 18 patients with LCPD who underwent surgical treatment by means of the hip arthrodiastasis technique using a monolateral external fixator. There were 13 male and five female patients of mean age 8.5 years, ranging from five to 13 years. All the patients presented unilateral hip impairment: nine on the right side and nine on the left. The results were evaluated at maturity using clinical and radiological criteria. RESULTS: All the patients evolved with improvement of joint mobility, and pain relief was achieved in 88.9% of them. Reossification of the femoral epiphysis occurred within the first three months of the treatment. The hips operated at the necrosis stage of the disease did not passed through the fragmentation stage, thus shortening the evolution of the disease. The results were 77.8% satisfactory and 22.2% unsatisfactory. CONCLUSION: Hip arthrodiastasis with a monolateral external fixator during the active phase of LCPD improved the degree of joint mobility. Use of the arthrodiastasis technique at the necrosis stage or at the fragmentation stage (active phase of the disease presented satisfactory results from treatment of LCPD.

  11. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  12. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature and serum proinflammatory cytokine and haptog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare immun...

  13. Experimental selection for calving ease and postnatal growth in seven cattle populations. I. Changes in estimated breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental selection was used to create beef cattle lines with similar yearling weight direct and weaning weight maternal EBV and either lower 2-yr-old heifer calving difficulty score EBV or proportionally average birth weight EBV. Select (low heifer calving difficulty score EBV) and control line...

  14. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  15. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Optimizing the use of fibrous residues in beef and dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Erickson, G E; Kononoff, P J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Increased corn prices over the past decade have altered land use away from traditional forage in favor of corn. Accordingly, beef and dairy producers have had to adopt nontraditional forage resources into their production systems, many of which have become available as a result of increased corn production. Corn residues have become more available due to increases in corn hectares and yield. The individual plant components (i.e., husk, leaf, and stem) vary in fiber digestibility (NDF digestibility estimates = 40.5, 31.4, and 0.6% ± 0.8 for husk, leaf, and stalk, respectively). Stocking cattle to consume 3.6 kg forage/25.5 kg of grain allows cattle to graze selectively; selection of husks and leaves improves cattle performance. Byproducts of the wet and dry milling industries can be supplemented to calves grazing corn residues to provide protein and energy. Optimal gains were observed when these byproducts were supplemented at approximately 2.5 kg/d to 250-kg growing calves. Gestating beef cows do not require supplemental inputs when grazing corn residue, if stocked appropriately. Alkaline treatment of crop residues improves their feeding value. Concentrations of up to 20% harvested corn residue treated with calcium oxide can be included in finishing diets with an average of 1.3% reduction in G:F when diets contain 40% wet or modified distillers grains. Conversely, when untreated corn residues are included in similar finishing diets, G:F is reduced by 13.4%. Calcium oxide-treated residues included in beef growing diets increases DMI and ADG without significant improvements in G:F. Calcium oxide treatment of corn residues has been evaluated in dairy diets by replacing corn or corn silage with variable results. Efficient use of nontraditional fiber sources, such as corn milling byproducts and corn residue, are critical to the future viability of ruminant animal production. PMID:26115250

  16. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    OpenAIRE

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  17. Descriptive study of 32 cases of doxycycline-overdosed calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Brihoum, Mounir; Amory, Hélène; Desmecht, Daniel; Cassart, Dominique; Deleuze, Stefan; Rollin, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports of doxycycline-induced toxicity are limited despite common use of this antibiotic to treat infectious respiratory disorders in calves. OBJECTIVE: To describe previously unreported kidney lesions and diagnostic test results in doxycycline-overdosed calves and to compare these results with other findings reported previously. ANIMALS: Thirty-two calves that presented with adverse effects after receiving high doses of doxycycline as a treatment for mild respiratory disor...

  18. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    , the contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16...... to preliminarily estimate GHG emissions from beef production systems if land opportunity cost and land use change related to grazing and feed crop production for beef were taken into account. If so, the contribution from the production of 1 kg beef to global warming would increase by a factor of 3.1-3.9, based...

  19. Calving Performance in the Endangered Murboden Cattle Breed: Genetic Parameters and Inbreeding Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A.e. Eaglen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calving is a key event on any cattle farm, with both economic and animal welfare consequences when complications arise. Although mostly reported in highly selected breeds, problematic calving performance is also a worry to the unselected dualpurpose Murboden breed, local to Austria. This study presents genetic parameter estimates for calving ease and stillbirth in Murboden cattle. Furthermore, a potential effect of inbreeding on the breeds’ calving performance is evaluated. Results show a moderate direct and maternal heritability (0.18±0.04; 0.11±0.02 and a significant negative direct-maternal genetic correlation for calving ease (-0.41±0.10. Heritabilities of stillbirth are low yet significant (0.048±0.01; 0.018±0.007. A significant effect of inbreeding was detected on maternal calving ease i.e. the ease with which a dam calves. By categorizing the inbreeding coefficients of the dam in six ascending classes it was shown that calving ease worsens as inbreeding coefficients become larger. Results of this study reveal significant genetic variation in calving performance of the Murboden breed which opens doors for genetic selection. An additional important aspect of this study is that its result on inbreeding depression gives counterweight to the general intuitive notion in literature that high selection for production traits is the major contributor to calving difficulty in dairy and beef cattle breeds worldwide.

  20. Efeitos do peso vivo sobre a comercialização de bezerros de corte em leilões Effects of the live weight on the commercialization of beef calves in auction barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Christofari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se os efeitos da média de peso vivo de 1.880 lotes de bezerros comercializados em 13 leilões, no Rio Grande do Sul, sobre o valor de venda final por unidade de peso, e caracterizou-se a frequência dos lotes conforme a classe de peso durante as estações de outono e primavera, no período de 2004 a 2006. Os dados foram corrigidos pelo índice geral de preços - disponibilidade interna e analisados por meio de histogramas de frequência e análises de regressão e correlação. O peso vivo influenciou o preço dos bezerros, e a magnitude do efeito foi maior nos anos de grande demanda. Observou-se correlação negativa entre preço e peso dos bezerros na primavera, reflexo da oferta de animais mais pesados, devido aos efeitos de estação do ano ou à maior idade dos bezerros, comparados aos ofertados no outono. Não se observou maior liquidez dos bezerros comercializados no outono em relação aos da primavera. A conjuntura da cadeia da carne bovina e os preços de outras categorias têm grande relação com os preços pagos. A aquisição de animais de menor ou maior peso na ocasião da transação comercial pode auxiliar na redução dos custos que a reposição representa na produção.The effects of the live weight of 1,880 lots of calves marketed in 13 auctions in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on the value of final sale per unit of weight were evaluated, as well as the frequency of the lots according to the weight class during the autumn and spring seasons, in the period from 2004 to 2006, was characterized. The data were analyzed by frequency histograms, regression, and correlation analyses. The live weight is one of the characteristics that influenced the price of the calves; however, the magnitude of the effect was higher in years of great demand. A negative correlation was observed between price and weight of the calves in spring, which were results of the offer of heavier animals, due to the season effects or the

  1. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha)gene promoter polymorphisms with hyper-responsiveness to endotoxin (LPS)in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we identified a subpopulation of beef calves that failed to develop normal immune tolerance as defined by the patterns and magnitude of changes in plasma TNF-alpha concentration after 2 repeated LPS challenges. In these hyper responding calves (HRC), impaired LPS tolerance was related to...

  2. Giardiasis in dairy calves: effects of fenbendazole treatment on intestinal structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Buret, A G; McAllister, T A; Jelinski, M; Olson, M E

    2001-01-01

    Twelve Giardia duodenalis-infected Holstein dairy calves were allocated into a treatment (n=6) and placebo group (n=6) according to pre-study faecal cyst counts. Calves in the treatment group received an oral dose of 5 mg/kg fenbendazole once daily for 3 days, while placebo calves received a sterile saline solution. Calves were euthanised 7 days following the initiation of treatment and intestinal were collected and prepared for trophozoite quantitation, histology, electron microscopy, and disaccharidase assays. In all calves treated with fenbendazole, intestinal trophozoites were below detection limits, while in saline-treated calves, trophozoites were observed in all intestinal segments. Histologically, no significant difference was observed between treatment groups with respect to intestinal villus height or crypt depth. However, a significant decline in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was observed in fenbendazole-treated calves when compared with placebo-treated calves in the duodenum (13.9+/-1.2 vs. 17.0+/-1.1 IEL/100 enterocytes) and jejunum (21.6+/-0.8 vs. 30.7+/-1.0 IEL/100 enterocytes). In addition, measurements from TEM micrographs demonstrated a significant increase in microvillus surface area in the jejunum of fenbendazole-treated calves compared with saline-treated calves (31.2+/-10.2 vs. 22.8+/-7.6 microm(2)). This increase in microvillus surface area was also associated with an increase in jejunal maltase activity in fenbendazole-treated calves compared with calves treated with saline. These results demonstrate that fenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiasis in calves. fenbendazole treatment eliminated Giardia trophozoites from the small intestine of calves resulting in increased microvillus surface area and greater intestinal enzyme activity. This study also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of giardiasis in calves is similar to that observed in humans and laboratory animals, and provides further evidence that Giardia is

  3. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2010-01-01

    grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy...

  4. The susceptibility differences of buffalo and Ongole calves against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P

  5. Efeitos da taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmama de bezerras de corte e do nível nutricional pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre a produção e composição do leite e o desempenho de bezerros Preweaning gain rate of beef heifers and postpartum nutritional level, as cows, on milk production and composition and performance of their calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de ganho de peso de bezerras de corte na fase de aleitamento, do nascimento aos sete meses, e seu reflexo sobre o desempenho posterior, enquanto vacas. As taxas de ganho de peso avaliadas quando bezerras, durante o período pré-desmame, foram: baixa (menor que 350 g/dia e moderada (maior que 350 g/dia. Quando vacas e após o parto, foram mantidas com seus bezerros até o desmame, em pastagem nativa (PN ou pastagem cultivada (PC. As vacas, quando bezerras, foram pesadas ao nascer e aos sete meses de idade (desmame e, quando vacas, foram pesadas, com seus bezerros nas primeiras 24 horas pós-parto; aos 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 dias; e ao desmame, que ocorreu com idade média dos bezerros de 228 dias. As avaliações da produção de leite e a coleta de amostras para avaliação da composição do leite foram realizadas nas mesmas datas das pesagens, com exceção do nascimento. Taxas de ganho de peso inferiores a 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade não foram prejudiciais ao futuro peso das bezerras, em razão da compensação no peso que apresentaram na fase pós-desmama. Bezerras com taxas de ganho de peso menores que 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade, enquanto vacas produziram maiores quantidades de leite (4,83 vs 3,71 L/dia, total de gordura (47,4 vs 35,9 kg, lactose (52,6 vs 39,7 kg, extrato seco total (140,4 vs 107,2 kg e extrato seco desengordurado (94,8 vs 71,2 kg, e bezerros com maiores ganhos de peso (717 vs 617 g/dia e mais pesados ao desmame (189,0 vs 166,1 kg que as vacas que, quando bezerras, apresentaram taxas de ganho de peso acima de 350 g/dia.The preweaning weight gain rate of beef heifers and its effects on their subsequent performance as cows, was studied. The weight gain rates evaluated as heifer calves before weaning were low (below 350 g/day and moderate (above 350 g/day. As cows and after calving, they were kept together with their calves until weaning on native (NP or cultivated pasture (CP

  6. Genetic analysis on accumulated productivity and calving intervals in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Chud, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim; Grupioni, Natália Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for accumulated productivity (ACP), first calving interval (CI1), second calving interval (CI2), and mean calving interval (MCI) in Nelore beef cattle. The ACP trait is a reproduction index and comprises the total number of calves born per dam, weight of weaned calves, and age of the dam at calving. Genetic parameters were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood method in two-trait analyses. The average heritability estimate for ACP was 0.17 (0.03). For CI1, CI2, and MCI, the heritability estimates were 0.02, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. Genetic correlations between ACP with CI1, CI2, and MCI were -0.16 ± 0.47, -0.29 ± 0.53, and -0.40 ± 0.27, respectively. Despite of the low heritability estimates obtained in our study, reproduction traits should be further studied and their inclusion in the selection criteria must be evaluated in order to improve the performance of females because these traits are of great economic importance in beef cattle. Accumulated productivity could contribute to decrease the mean calving interval in Nelore cattle.

  7. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  8. Effect of slaughter age on meat qualitative traits of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bergero; C. Russo; G. Preziuso; A. Schiavone; M.I. Tarantola

    2011-01-01

    Veal calves breeding holds an important of bovine meat production part over all our country, as for the appreciation by the consumers for its pale coloured flesh, believed to be more digestible, than for favourable use of Frisian males that are slaughtered because they exceed the restocking of beef (Balasini, 2000)...

  9. Crevassing and calving of glacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneally, James Patrick

    Calving of ice is a relatively new area of research in the still young field of glaciology. In the short time that calving has been studied, it has been mainly treated as an afterthought, with the predominant mode of thinking being that it will happen so to concern oneself with why is not important. Many studies dealt with observations of calving front positions over time vs. ice velocity in an attempt to quantify the calving rate as the difference between the two, while others have attempted to deduce some empirical relationship between calving rate and variables such as water depth or temperature. This study instead addresses the question of why, where, and when ice will first become crevassed, which is an obviously necessary condition for a later calving event to occur. Previous work examining the causes of calving used ideas put forth from a variety of fields, including civil engineering, materials science, and results from basic physics and mechanics. These theories are re-examined here and presented as part of a larger whole. Important results from the field of fracture mechanics are utilized frequently, and these results can be used as a predictor of ice behavior and intrinsic properties of ice, as well as properties like back stresses induced by local pinning points and resistive shears along glacial ice boundaries. A theory of fracture for a material experiencing creep is also presented with applications to ice shelves and crevasse penetration. Finally, a speculative theory regarding large scale iceberg formation is presented. It is meant mainly as an impetus to further discussion on the topic, with the hope that a model relating crevasse geometries to flow parameters can result in crevasse spacings that could produce the tabular icebergs which are so newsworthy. The primary focus of this thesis is to move away from the "after the fact" studies that are so common in calving research, and instead devote energy to determining what creates the conditions that

  10. Desempenho de bezerros de corte alimentados com diferentes fontes protéicas associadas à silagem de sorgo colhida em duas alturas de corte Performance of beef calves fed with different protein sources associated with silage of sorghum harvested in two different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miranda Vargas Júnior

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três fontes protéicas (uréia - U, farinha penas - Fp e farelo soja - Fs associadas a duas silagens de sorgo (silagens de sorgo corte alto - SCA e corte baixo - SCB por intermédio do desempenho de bezerros de corte, confinados por 84 dias. Foram utilizados 36 bezerros mestiços (Charolês/RedAngus/Nelore, castrados, com cinco meses de idade e pesando em média 146,44 kg. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD; o consumo de matéria seca expressos em kg/dia (CMS, percentagem de peso vivo (CMSPV e peso metabólico (CMSPM; e a conversão alimentar (CA. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado por intermédio de um fatorial 3x2. Houve efeito significativo na interação silagem versus fonte protéica para a variável GMD, com o maior GMD para SCAFp (1,61 kg/animal/dia versus a SCBFs (1,32 kg/animal/dia. Os demais parâmetros não diferiram estatisticamente quando analisada a interação ou isoladamente a silagem ou fonte protéica. A silagem de sorgo corte alto promoveu numericamente um maior GMD e CMS.Three protein sources (urea - U; feather meal - Fm; soybean meal - Sm associated to two sorghum silage (sorghum at high cutting - SHC; and sorghum at low cutting - SLC were evaluated by measuring beef calf performance, confined for 84 days. Thirty-six crossbred (Charolês/RedAngus/Nelore castrated calves, with five months of age and average weight alive on the 146.44 kg, were used. Average daily weight gain (DWG; the dry matter intake expressed in kg/day (DMI, percentage live weight (DMILW and percentage of metabolic weight (DMIMW and the feed : gain ratio (FGR were evaluated. The treatments followed a 3x2 factorial in a completely randomized design. There was significant effect in the interaction silage versus protein source for variable DWG, with the higher DWG for SHCFm (1.61 kg/animal/day versus SLCSm (1.32 kg/animal/day. The other parameters did not differ when the interaction or separately the silage or protein

  11. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  12. Comparison of production characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Lunt, D K

    1990-06-01

    Birth, weaning, growth and carcass records for calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls were used to evaluate the potential contribution of Piedmontese to beef production in the U.S. Bulls were mated by AI to Hereford and crossbred cows and heifers. Calves were born during fall 1985 or spring 1986. Statistical models used to analyze the importance of sire breed used sire nested within sire breed as a random effect. Effects of sex, birth season, contemporary group, dam breed and parity were considered fixed and tested with the residual error. Piedmontese-sired calves had the longest gestation length, followed by Charolais and Angus-sired calves (287.5, 285.0 and 282.8 d, respectively). Breed of sire was not significant for birth weight, but Piedmontese- and Charolais-sired calves had longer cannon bones than Angus-sired calves. Differences were found for weaning hip height, but weaning weights, weaning muscle scores and ADG during the preweaning period were similar for calves by the three sire breeds. When fed to a similar fat thickness, Angus-sired calves required fewer days on feed, produced lighter carcasses and gained less per day than Charolais- or Piedmontese-sired calves. Piedmontese-sired calves required more days on feed than Charolais-sired calves when slaughtered at a similar subcutaneous fat thickness. Piedmontese-sired calves produced carcasses with a larger average rib eye area, higher dressing percentage and lower (more desirable) yield grade than Charolais- or Angus-sired calves. No significant sire breed differences were detected for tissue cholesterol content. PMID:2384357

  13. Desenvolvimento intestinal de bezerros recém-nascidos aleitados com colostro de vacas tratadas com rbST Intestinal development of new-born calves fed colostrum of cows treated with rbST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Bagaldo

    2007-08-01

    , samples from liver, jejunum and ileum were collected. Calves from rbST group showed lower levels of DNA and protein in jejunum at seven days of age, while protein concentration increased at two days of age. Similar response was observed for the ratio of protein/RNA in jejunum. In the control group, the increase in protein concentration was observed in the seventh day of age. The indicators of cellular activity measured in this trial suggested that greater IGF-I concentration in colostrum of rbST treated cows promoted intestinal cellular maturation by affecting behavior of first generation enterocytes.

  14. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls. PMID:9331860

  15. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls.

  16. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  17. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  18. Desempenho de novilhas de corte até o parto recebendo diferentes níveis de suplementação durante o período reprodutivo, aos 14 meses de idade Performance of beef heifers until calving receiving different levels of supplementation during the breeding season, at 14 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2012-03-01

    íodo reprodutivo. A suplementação durante o período de acasalamento aumenta o desempenho reprodutivo de novilhas aos 14 meses de idade.The objective was to evaluate the performance of beef heifers until calving receiving different levels of supplementation on native pasture during the first breeding season, from 14 to 17 months: no supplementation; 3.5 g/kg of body weight; and 7.0 g/kg of body weight. Ninety-eight Charolais, Nellore and their crosses, with average initial weight of 255 kg, were used. Weight at the end and average daily weight gain during the supplementation period were higher for 7.0 g/kg of supplement heifers (322 and 0.701 kg compared to those with 3.5 g/kg of supplement (302 and 0.464 kg and heifers without supplementation (288 and 0.425 kg, which did not differ from each other. Body condition score at the end of the supplementation was different between the three treatments, being 3.03, 3.33 and 3.47 points for heifers without supplementation; 3.5 g/kg of body weight; and 7.0 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Pregnancy rate was significantly affected by supplementation level, being 35.0, 34.2 and 70.0%, respectively. Heifers of the two supplementation treatments had higher conception rate at the first half of the reproductive period. Average heifer ages at calving were of 785, 778 and 761 days, respectively. The average daily weight and body condition of the heifers of the two genetic groups were similar; however, the initial and final weight of the supplementation period was higher for Charolais bulls daughters, compared with Nellore bulls daughters, reflecting on the heat (68.8 vs. 38.2% and pregnancy (60.9 vs. 26.5% rates. Characteristics related to calving were not affected by the supplementation levels during the reproductive period. The supplementation during the first breeding season increases reproductive performance of heifers at 14 months of age.

  19. Effect of Topically Applied Anaesthetic Formulation on the Sensitivity of Scoop Dehorning Wounds in Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Dominique; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Harris, Charissa; Lomax, Sabrina; White, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    The post-operative effects of three formulations of topical anaesthetic and a cornual nerve block on the sensitivity of scoop dehorning wounds in calves were compared in two trials. In Trial 1, 21 female Holstein dairy calves aged 8 to 24 weeks were randomly allocated to two groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic powder (DTAP, n = 10); and (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid (DTAE, n = 11). In Trial 2, 18 castrated male and 18 female Hereford beef calves aged 16 to 20 weeks were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a pre-operative cornual nerve block of lignocaine (DCB, n = 9); (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of the novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid from Trial 1 (DTAE, n = 9); (3) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a topical anaesthetic gel (DTAG, n = 9); and (4) sham dehorning (CON, n = 9). Sensitivity was assessed by scoring the behavioural response of calves to stimulation of the wound or skin at time points before and after treatment. In Trial 1, DTAP calves had a greater probability of displaying more severe responses than DTAE calves at 90 and 180 min (P wound following scoop dehorning in calves and may provide a practical option for pain relief on-farm. PMID:27648948

  20. Effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in F1 hybrid calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Ichijho, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in calves was investigated. Twenty Fl hybrid calves were used in this study (treated group n=10, control group n=10). Banana (2 g/kg BW) was administered to the calves for 5 days. Leukocyte subsets were examined on days 0, 5, 10, and 15. The numbers CD3+, (CD3+)CD45R-, and (CD3+)TcR+ cells significantly increased between day 0 and day 5 in the treated group (Pbanana to calves increased T-lymphocytes, suggesting it might be possible to enhance protective functions against infections.

  1. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....

  2. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  3. A comparison of prophylactic efficacy of tilmicosin and a new formulation of oxytetracycline in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.; Jacobsen, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Two replicated-pen field studies were performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the administration of long-acting oxytetracycline at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) versus tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW to feedlot calves upon arrival at the feedlot. Ten thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine, recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef steer and bull calves were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: oxytetra...

  4. An evaluation of the relative efficacy of a new formulation of oxytetracycline for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Booker, Calvin W.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.

    2002-01-01

    A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the efficacy of a new formulation of long-acting oxytetracycline (LA 30) to a standard long-acting oxytetracycline formulation (LA 20) and florfenicol (FLOR) for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot. Seven hundred and ninety-seven recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred, beef calves suffering from UF were a...

  5. 大枣牛肉粥治疗眼部慢性难愈合创面1例%1 case of ocular chronic wounds treated with jujube minced beef congee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫平

    2015-01-01

    由于组织结构的特殊性,眼部慢性难愈合创面的治疗十分困难。本文就1例右眼慢性泪囊炎患者采用泪囊摘除术后,配合服用大枣牛肉粥治疗的临床经验作一简单介绍,旨在为今后的临床治疗提供经验。%Because of the special nature of the organizational structure,the treatment of eye chronic wounds is very difficult.In this paper,we introduced therapy experience on 1 cases of chronic dacryocystitis who were treated with eye dacryocystectomy, combined with taking jujube beef porridge briefly,in order to provide experience for clinical treatment in the future.

  6. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon Bart; De Bleecker Koen; Hostens Miel; Callens Jozefien; Dewulf Jeroen; Deprez Piet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by t...

  7. Cynoglossum officinale toxicity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D C; Pfister, J A; Molyneux, R J; Kechele, P

    1991-05-01

    Six calves were given dried, ground Cynoglossum officinale daily in a dose which provided 15 (two calves) or 60 (four calves) mg per kg per day of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Those calves given 60 mg per kg of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids per day died following a single dose of plant material. These calves had a marked elevation of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and serum bile acid and total bilirubin (TBili) concentrations. These four calves all had massive hepatocellular necrosis and haemorrhage of the liver. Of the two calves that were given 15 mg per kg of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids per day, one died on day 34 and the other survived until day 35 when it was painlessly killed. There were significant elevations in serum AST and GGT activities in these calves. The histological lesions of the calf surviving until 35 days were compatible with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, that is megalocytosis, karyomegaly and necrosis of hepatocytes with karyomegaly of biliary epithelium. The pyrrolizidine base present in Cynoglossum officinale (heliotridine) and its esters have a similar type of toxicity to the highly toxic and more familiar macrocyclic diester pyrrolizidine alkaloids of the pyrrolizidine base (retronecine), present in Senecio or Crotolaria species.

  8. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver;

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  9. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  10. Composition of growth of Holstein calves fed milk replacer from birth to 105-kilogram body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M C; Van Amburgh, M E; Smith, J M; Kelsey, J M; Hutten, E L

    2001-04-01

    Sixty calves were assigned to a comparative slaughter study to determine the changes in composition of milk replacer-fed Holstein bull calves from birth to 105-kg body weight (BW). Six calves were slaughtered on day of birth and served as a baseline for comparison of compositional changes. Fifty-four calves were assigned to one of three treatments (18 calves per treatment). Calves were fed milk replacer containing 30% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat. Target growth rates for treatments 1, 2, and 3 were 500, 950, and 1400 g/d, respectively. Six calves from each treatment were slaughtered and analyzed for energy, nitrogen, ether extract, and ash when they reached 65, 85 and 105 kg of BW. Actual daily gains from birth to slaughter were 560, 973, and 1100 g, and net deposition of CP and fat were 140 and 44, 204 and 154, and 247 and 161 g/d for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Results were used to develop equations to predict retained energy [retained energy = (empty BW(0.223)) x (empty BW gain(1.32))], and retained protein, [retained protein = (184 x empty BW gain (kilograms/d)) + (17.2 x (retained energy)/empty BW gain] where retained energy is in Mcal/d, retained protein is in g/d, and empty BW and gain are in kilograms. The composition of gain observed was compared to predictions from the 1989 Dairy NRC and 1996 Beef NRC equations and demonstrated the equations do not represent the composition of gain in calves of this weight.

  11. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  12. Fumonisin B(1) is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S; Constable, P D; Eppley, R M; Waggoner, A L; Tumbleson, M E; Haschek, W M

    2001-04-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that alter sphingolipid biosynthesis and induce leukoencephalomalacia in horses and pulmonary edema in pigs. Experimental administration of fumonisin induces hepatotoxicity in all species, including cattle, as well as nephrotoxicity in rats, rabbits, and sheep. We investigated the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of fumonisin B(1) to calves. Ten milk-fed male Holstein calves aged 7 to 14 days were instrumented to obtain blood and urine. Treated calves (n = 5) were administered fumonisin B(1) at 1 mg/kg, iv, daily and controls (n = 5) 10 ml 0.9% NaCl, iv, daily until euthanized on day 7. Fumonisin B(1)-treated calves were lethargic and had decreased appetite from day 4 onward, serum biochemical evidence of severe liver and bile duct injury, and impaired hepatic function. Treated calves also had biochemical evidence of renal injury that functionally involved the proximal convoluted tubules. Sphinganine and sphingosine concentrations in liver, kidney, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle were increased in treated calves. Sphinganine, but not sphingosine, concentration was increased in brains of treated calves. In fumonisin B(1)-treated calves, hepatic lesions were characterized by disorganized hepatic cords, varying severity of hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatocyte proliferation, and proliferation of bile ductular cells. Renal lesions in treated calves consisted of vacuolar change, apoptosis, karyomegaly, and proliferation of proximal renal tubular cells, as well as dilation of proximal renal tubules, which contained cellular debris and protein. This is the first report of fumonisin B(1)-induced renal injury and organ sphingolipid alterations in cattle.

  13. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to deter

  14. Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, C; Hammon, H; Rossi, G L; Blum, J W

    1998-03-01

    The effects of feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer and the effects of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered s.c. or orally; 50 microg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d), and of s.c. injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d) on small intestinal mucosal morphology in newborn calves were studied by histomorphometry. Neonatal calves fed colostrum six times exhibited greater (P Long-R3-IGF-I had no significant influence on small intestinal morphology, and rbGH in supraphysiological amounts even reduced small intestinal mucosal variables after 1 wk of treatment. The study demonstrated enhanced postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract by prolonged colostrum feeding, but not by Long-R3-IGF-I or GH. PMID:9535335

  15. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, C M; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Kachman, S D; Snelling, W M; Spangler, M L

    2016-05-01

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first-parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was transformed from the USMARC scores to corresponding -scores from the standard normal distribution based on the incidence rate of the USMARC scores. Breed fraction covariates were included to estimate breed differences. Heritability estimates (SE) for BWT direct, CD direct, BWT maternal, and CD maternal were 0.34 (0.10), 0.29 (0.10), 0.15 (0.08), and 0.13 (0.08), respectively. Calving difficulty direct breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.13 to 0.77 and maternal breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.27 to 0.36. Hereford-, Angus-, Gelbvieh-, and Brangus-sired calves would be the least likely to require assistance at birth, whereas Chiangus-, Charolais-, and Limousin-sired calves would be the most likely to require assistance at birth. Maternal breed effects for CD were least for Simmental and Charolais and greatest for Red Angus and Chiangus. Results showed that the diverse biological types of cattle have different effects on both BWT and CD. Furthermore, results provide a mechanism whereby beef cattle producers can compare EBV for CD direct and maternal arising from disjoined and breed-specific genetic evaluations. PMID:27285683

  16. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune;

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...

  17. Genotype by environment interaction for the interval from calving to first insemination with regard to calving month and geographic location in Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Strandberg, Erling; Berglund, Britt; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate genotype by environment interaction effects, with environments defined as calving month and geographic location, on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) of Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden. The data set included 811,285 records on CFI for first-parity cows from January 2010 to January 2014 housed in 7,458 herds. The longest mean CFI was 84.7 d for cows calving in April and the shortest was 76.3 d for cows calving in September. The longest mean CFI of 87.1 d was recorded at the northernmost location (LOC-8), whereas the shortest mean CFI of 73.5 d was recorded at the southernmost location (LOC-1). The multiple trait approach, in which CFI values in different calving months and different geographic locations were treated as different traits, was used to estimate the variance components and genetic correlations for CFI by using the average information (AI)-REML procedure in a bivariate sire model. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability were highest for January calvings and 3 times smaller for June calvings. Location 2 had the highest heritability and LOC-8 the lowest, with heritability estimates decreasing from LOC-2 to LOC-8. Genetic correlations of CFI between calving months were weakest between cold months (December and January) and warm months (June, August, and September); the lowest estimate was found between January and September calvings. Genetic correlations of CFI between the different geographic locations were generally strong, and the weakest correlation was between LOC-3 and LOC-8. These results indicate a genotype by environment interaction for CFI primarily regarding seasons described by calving months. The effect of geographic location was less important, mostly producing a scaling effect of CFI in different locations. We concluded that CFI is more sensitive to seasonal effects than geographic locations in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:27085411

  18. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  19. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  20. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  1. ANIMAL PERFORMANCE, CARCASS QUALITY, AND TISSUE RESIDUES WITH BEEF STEERS FED FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGES GROWN ON SOIL TREATED WITH LIQUID DIGESTED SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed sewage sludges are a renewable resource which have potential as a fertilizer material on agricultural land. Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) silages, grown on soil treated with Pensacola liquid digested sludge (LDS) turned under prior to planting, were fed as the main i...

  2. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    In this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox® Bovis, Bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in Danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence...... was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced...... the first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 – 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial...

  3. Regucalcin Expression as a Diagnostic Tool for the Illicit Use of Steroids in Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Sereno, Alessandra; Cannizzo, Francesca T

    2015-06-17

    It has been previously demonstrated that sex steroid hormone treatment down-regulates regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of prepubertal and adult male bovines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low doses of sex steroid hormones combined with other drugs significantly affect regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of veal calves. The regucalcin expression was down-regulated in the bulbo-urethral glands of estrogen-treated calves, whereas it was up-regulated in the prostate of estrogen-treated calves. Only the testis of androgen-treated calves showed a down-regulation of the regucalcin expression. Thus, the administration of sex steroid hormones, even in low doses and combined with other molecules, could affect regucalcin expression in target organs. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests regucalcin expression in this organ as a first molecular biomarker of illicit androgen administration in bovine husbandry. PMID:26016660

  4. Health promoting values of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Migdał W.; Živković B.; Migdał Ł.

    2009-01-01

    The beef meat is mainly used as culinary cuts. The culinary value of beef and veal meat is determined by tenderness and palatability. 23% of meat produced in Europe (about 7,5 mln ton) is beef, veal production is estimated about 800 000 ton per year. Biggest producers of beef and veal are France (30%), Netherlands (26%), Italy (18%) Belgium (7%) and Germany (6%). 70% of beef and veal produced in Europe is consumed by French and Germans. Beef contains proteins (18 -23%) which have high biologi...

  5. Ultrasonographic imaging of abomasal milk clotting and abomasal diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Daniela; Schwedhelm, Lea; Wenge, Julia; Steinhöfel, Ilka; Heinrich, Christian; Coenen, Manfred; Bachmann, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    In case of diarrhea calves are treated with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), which are known to increase abomasal pH and inhibit milk clotting in vitro. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that ORS with HCO3(-) ≤ 62 mmol/L do not interfere with abomasal milk clotting in healthy calves. However, in diarrheic calves, feeding ORS and milk simultaneously may disturb abomasal curd formation and exacerbate diarrhea due to faster abomasal passage of ingesta. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ultrasonographically examine abomasal milk clotting and diameter after feeding milk and milk replacer (MR) with and without ORS to healthy and diarrheic calves. Abomasal curd formation and diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves were ultrasonographically imaged before and after feeding milk, MR and ORS prepared in milk or MR. Feeding mixtures of milk or MR with ORS did not cause any remarkable differences in the ultrasonographic images of abomasal content. Moreover, abomasal milk clotting was not disturbed due to diarrhea. Statistically significant differences of abomasal diameter after feeding between healthy and diarrheic calves indicated that abomasal emptying is delayed in diarrheic calves. Hence, further studies are needed to determine reasons for decelerated abomasal passage in calves suffering from diarrhea.

  6. Evaluation of thymus morphology and serum cortisol concentration as indirect biomarkers to detect low-dose dexamethasone illegal treatment in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vascellari Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticosteroids are illegally used in several countries as growth promoters in veal calves and beef cattle, either alone or in association with sex steroids and β-agonists, especially at low dosages and primarily through oral administration, in order to enhance carcasses and meat quality traits. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the reliability of the histological evaluation of the thymus, as well as the serum cortisol determination, in identifying beef cattle, treated with two different dexamethasone-based growth-promoting protocols and the application of different withdrawal times before slaughter. Results Our findings demonstrate that low dosages of dexamethasone (DXM, administered alone or in association with clenbuterol as growth promoter in beef cattle, induce morphologic changes in the thymus, resulting in increase fat infiltration with concurrent cortical atrophy and reduction of the cortex/medulla ratio (C/M. In fact, the C/M value was significantly lower in treated animals than in control ones, with both the protocols applied. The cut off value of 0.93 for the cortex/medulla ratio resulted to be highly effective to distinguish control and treated animals. The animals treated with DXM showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, as well as at the slaughterhouse, 3 days after treatment suspension. The animals treated with lower doses of DXM in association with clenbuterol, showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, but serum cortisol concentration was restored to physiological levels at slaughterhouse, 8 days after treatment suspension. Conclusions The histological evaluation of thymus morphology, and particularly of the C/M may represent a valuable and reproducible method applicable to large-scale screening programs, due to the easy sampling procedures at slaughterhouse, as well as time and cost-saving of the analysis. Serum cortisol determination could be

  7. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  8. Birth of live calves by in vitro embryo production of slaughtered cows in a commercial herd in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Arlotto

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fertilisation (IVF has become a useful breeding tool in most of the developed world. In this paper the success of bovine IVF and the birth of live calves under typical South African conditions is reported. Oocytes for IVF were collected from the ovaries of 6 slaughtered Bovelder beef cows. On average, 36.2 oocytes per donor were retrieved. From these oocytes, 43 blastocysts were produced from 5 of the donors by IVF with frozen Bovelder semen. The best 11 of these embryos were transferred into oestrous, synchronised Bovelder recipients in the same herd. As a result, 7 calves were born (a 64 %calving rate from 4 of the original donors. The calves had a normal birth mass, but the mean gestation length of the male calves was significantly longer than the herd average (291.6 versus 285.2 days respectively. No calving difficulties were encountered. In summary, it was shown that IVF for bovine embryo production and transfer is possible on a commercial basis in South Africa.

  9. Effect of whole linseed and protected CLA enriqued diet on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Barahona, M.; Campo, M. M.; Olleta Castañer, José Luis; Sañudo Astiz, Carlos; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Realini, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four feeding batches: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), CLA (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed + CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at approximately 450 kg live weight. The inclusion of linseed, protected CLA and both showed lower pH values than the control at 48 h post mortem. Meat from CLA fed animals showed higher cooking losses than the other treatments except for linseed. Beef from linseed f...

  10. Spatial Market Integration in the EU Beef and Veal Sector: Policy Decoupling and Export Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Rico, 1979-; Brümmer, Bernhard, 1969-; Thompson, Stanley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy of the Euro-pean Union allowed for discretionary implementation among member states. Discretion was allowed with respect to the timing and the degree of decoupling of policy support. Differences among member states were particularly apparent in the European beef and veal sector. Using weekly data from 2003 to 2009, we assess the consequences of different national implementation strategies of the reforms on market integration for young calves,...

  11. Efeito da pastagem, da produção e da composição do leite no desempenho de bezerros de diferentes grupos genéticos Effect of pasture, milk yield and composition on the performance of beef calves from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2004-06-01

    para o peso ao nascimento, desmame e GMD foi, respectivamente, de 3,4; 11,8; e 10,2%.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the performance of Charolais (CH and ½Nellore (NE ½CH (produced by CH cows, NE and ½CH ½NE (produced by NE cows calves, mantained with the cows until weaning, on native pasture (NP or winter (oat + italian rye grass and summer (alexander grass cultivated pasture (CP. Sixty straigthbred or crossbreds calves were used, and weighted at birth; 14; 42; 70; 98; 126; 154; 182 days; and at weaning. The cows milk yield was evaluated at the same date of the calves weighing, with exception at birth. Calves mantained on CP showed higher average daily weight gain (ADG (733 vs 440 g and were heavier at weaning (191,8 vs 128,6 kg than calves mantained on NP. Quadratic effect was observed for calves ADG (y=489.89 + 3.96DAY - 0.0198DAY², being the ADG maximum point (571 g at 85 days of age for those mantained on NP and at 107 days (848 g for those mantained on CP. Average daily milk yield explained 45% of calves weaning weight and 38% of the ADG. The correlations between the milk yield and calves ADG and weight were significant even in the advanced stages of lactation. The correlation between the average daily milk yield during the whole lactation period and the ADG was higher in animals mantained on CP (.54 than on NP (.44 and for F1 animals (.73 in relation to straigthbreds (.47. The lowest correlation between milk yield and ADG was observed for straigthbred NE calves (.31, for the other groups the correlation were .60; .71; and .84, for CH; ½CH ½NE and ½NE ½CH, respectively. Fat, lactose, nonfat dry extract and total dry extract contents did not show significant correlation with the ADG. However, when the total production of these components were considered, the correlations with ADG were significant. F1 calves were heavier at birth and weaning than straigthbreds. The heterosis for birth weight, weaning weight and ADG was, respectively, 3

  12. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia;

    2010-01-01

    judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...... of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct...

  13. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug. PMID:27227502

  15. Prevalência de rotavírus do grupo A em fezes diarréicas de bezerros de corte em sistema semi-intensivo de produção Prevalence of group A rotavirus in diarrheic feaces of beef calves in semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Buzinaro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a prevalência de rotavírus durante surto de diarréia em bezerros de um rebanho de corte, criado em regime semi-intensivo de produção. Analisaram-se, por meio de técnicas de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (EGPA e ensaio imunoenzimático (kit EIARA - Fiocruz, 69 amostras de fezes de bezerros, entre 30 e 60 dias de idade, colhidas em três estações de parição consecutivas (agosto a novembro/1999, janeiro a abril e agosto a novembro/2000. Pelo EIARA foram detectadas 63,8% (44/69 de amostras positivas. Na primeira estação de parição foi detectado rotavírus em 82,4% (14/17 dos bezerros que apresentaram quadro clínico de diarréia. No ano de 2000 a presença de rotavírus foi detectada em 41,7% (5/12 e 62,5% (25/40 do total de amostras examinadas. A análise do perfil eletroforético do genoma indicou grande diversidade, com quatro eletroferótipos distintos, todos com perfil longo, característico de rotavírus do grupo A.During three successive seasons of calving (August to November 1999, January to April and August to November 2000 69 fecal samples were collected from calves between 30 and 60 days of age presenting diarrhea, to account for the detection and prevalence of rotavirus. Samples were submited to an immunoenzymatic assay for rotavirus and adenovirus (kit EIARA-Fiocruz and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. Of the 69 samples tested, 63.8% (44/69 were positive by EIARA. At the first calving season rotavirus was detected in feces from 14 of 17 calves (82.4% with clinical signals of diarrhea. For the year 2000 seasons, rotavirus was detected in 5 of 12 (41.7% and 25 of 40 (62.5% of samples, respectively. The analysis of the eletrophoretic pattern of the positive samples showed four distinct group A rotavirus genome eletropherotypes.

  16. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  17. Molasses as a possible cause of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome" in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgoret, M S; Botha, C J; Myburgh, J G; Naudé, T W; Prozesky, L; Naidoo, V; Van Wyk, J H; Pool, E J; Swan, G E

    2009-06-01

    During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome". The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1), which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches of molasses had no

  18. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  19. Protection against respiratory disease in calves induced by vaccines containing respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis and M dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, C J; Stott, E J; Thomas, L H; Gourlay, R N; Taylor, G

    1987-10-17

    A field trial to assess the ability of two vaccines to protect calves against respiratory disease was carried out on a large beef rearing unit in southern England over the two winters of 1983 to 1984 and 1984 to 1985. A quadrivalent vaccine containing the killed antigens of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, Mycoplasma bovis and M dispar or a vaccine containing only the respiratory syncytial virus component were inoculated into 246 and 245 calves, respectively; 245 calves remained as unvaccinated controls. The calves were reared in seven batches and outbreaks of disease occurred in five; significant protection was achieved in the four batches in which disease was associated with respiratory syncytial virus and M bovis infection, together or independently. The death rate from pneumonia was 9 per cent in the control group, 2 per cent in the calves inoculated with the quadrivalent vaccine (P less than 0.001), a protection rate of 77 per cent, and 3 per cent in the calves inoculated with the respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (P less than 0.01), a protection rate of 68 per cent. The proportion of calves receiving treatment for respiratory disease was 38 per cent in the control group, 25 per cent in the calves inoculated with the quadrivalent vaccine (P less than 0.001) and 27 per cent in the calves inoculated with the respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (P less than 0.01). The results show that protection against respiratory disease can be achieved by parenteral vaccination of calves with the appropriate inactivated microorganisms.

  20. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  1. Efeitos do livre acesso de bezerros ao creep-feeding sobre os esempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas Effects of free access of beef calves to creep-feeding on productivity and reproductive performance of primiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do livre acesso ao creep-feeding sobre os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas mantidas em pastagem nativa melhorada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., trevo branco (Trifolium repens Lam. e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel foram avaliados nesta pesquisa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado composto por quatro tratamentos segundo esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois sexos: vacas amamentando bezerros ou bezerras; dois sistemas de alimentação: vacas amamentando bezerros (as com ou sem acesso a creep-feeding, totalizando 16 unidades experimentais. As vacas primíparas do sistema com creep-feeding apresentaram peso corporal e escore de condição corporal, no final do experimento, mais altos que as do sistema sem creep-feeding (412 kg e 3,94 vs. 399 kg e 3,77, respectivamente. Vacas do sistema com creep-feeding tiveram ganho de peso médio diário mais elevados que o de vacas com bezerros não-suplementados (0,549 vs. 0,449 kg/dia. O creep-feeding e o sexo dos animais não influenciaram a taxa de prenhez das vacas primíparas.The research evaluated the effects of the creep-feeding on the productive and reproductive performance of the primiparous cows, maintained on improved natural pasture with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., white clover (Trifolium repens Lam. and cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel. A completely randomized experimental design composed by four treatments according to 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two sex: cows suckling male or female calves; two systems of feeding: cows suckling male or female with or without access creep-feeding, totalizing 16 experimental units. The primiparous cows of the creep-feeding system showed body weight and corporal condition, in the end of the experiment, higher in relation to the ones without creep-feeding system (412 kg and 3.94 versus 399 kg and 3.77, respectively. Cows in the creep-feeding system showed average

  2. 介入治疗儿童早期股骨头坏死的临床分析%Clinical studies on interventional therapy in treating early stage Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪海森; 翟文亮; 程斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To make new approach of the interventional radiology in the treatment of LeggCalve-Perthes Disease. Methods 23 cases with Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease confirmed by X ray,CT,MRI clear diagnosis, and supper-selective catheterization of femoral artery was given in all children through medila and lateral circumfle femoral arteries and obtuator artery. The effects of thrombloytic,antispasmodic and vasodilator therapies were comfinned by digital subtraction angiography( DSA). Results The interventional radiology was administered to the patients once or twice. The pain disappeared and lameness obviously attenuated 3 months following the treatment. The imaging revealed estrusion of fossa capitis femoris, adsorption of dead bones, and formation of new bones. Conclusion the interventional radiology has the advantages of less trauma and complications, high concentration of drugs, and quick improvement of blood supply in local tissues, which makes possible the recovery of joint function and absorption of sequestrum during osteosis of children's development.%目的 探讨介入治疗儿童股骨头缺血性坏死的临床价值.方法 作者对23例经X线、CT、MRI诊断明确的早期股骨头缺血性坏死患儿,采用介入治疗技术,即经股动脉插管,选择性行旋髂内动脉、旋骼外动脉或闭孔动脉DSA血管造影,并灌注溶栓性药物、解痉药物及血管扩张药物.结果 23例儿童早期股骨头缺血坏死患儿经介入治疗1~2次,3个月复查,疼痛消失,跛行明显改善,影像学检查显示病侧股骨头塌陷变凸,死骨吸收,新骨形成.结论 儿童股骨头缺血坏死于骨质生长旺盛期,采取介入治疗方法,创伤小,并发症少,局部灌注药物浓度高,作用强,改善血供快,关节功能可望完全恢复.

  3. Less pressure at Calve (food industry); Calve onder lagere druk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2002-04-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the Dutch food industry Calve applies a sophisticated compressed air system for the production of peanut butter, mayonnaise and sauces in the Delft factory. Parent company Unilever hopes the new system will reduce energy consumption by nearly 400,000 kWh. In a business where product quality is crucial, and where compressed air is critical for quality, pressure reduction is a daring move. [Dutch] De productie van pindakaas, mayonaise en sauzen van Calve in Delft verloopt sinds 1 januari met een uitgekiendere persluchtregeling. Zo hoopt moederbedrijf Unilever jaarlijks bijna 400.000 kWh op de energienota te besparen. In een bedrijf waar de kwaliteit van het product zeer kritisch is en sterk afhankelijk is van perslucht, is drukverlaging een gedurfde onderneming.

  4. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  5. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  6. Genetic analyses of days to calving and their relationships with other traits in a Canchim cattle herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Buttarello Mucari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heritabilities and genetic correlations in a Canchim beef cattle herd were estimated using data on the following traits: male scrotal circumference at twelve months (SC12; days to first calving (DFC for heifers; days to calving (DC for cows; male and female weight (W at twelve months (W12; heifer weight at the start of the first breeding season (WFBS and at first calving (WFC; and cow weight at the start of the breeding season (WBS and at calving (WC. Analyses of the DFC and DC traits were carried out excluding and including penalized (DFC P and DC P non-calving females. The restricted maximum likelihood method was used, applying one-trait models for the DFC and DC analyses and two-trait models for analyses of DFC and DC combined with the other traits studied. Statistical models included fixed and additive direct random effects for all traits, maternal permanent environmental random effect for SC12 and W12, and the animal permanent environmental random effect for DC P, WBS and WC. We found that DFC and DC values can be improved by selecting for an increase in the SC12. Genetic correlations between DFC and W12 and between DC and W12 indicated that selection for increased W12 may increase DFC but does not produce significantly correlated responses in DC. Associations of the other body weight traits with DC and DFC suggest that heavier females experience lower reproductive performance.

  7. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  8. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults.

  9. Salvage of Theileria infected calves with clinical manifestation of exophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Sudan, Vikrant; Sachan, Pratibha; Srivastava, Ashish

    2015-09-01

    Two crossbred female calves aged between 30 and 35 days were presented with bilateral exophthalmia, inappetence, pyrexia and cachexia since last 15 days. Clinical examination revealed mainly bilateral exophthalmia with dry and pulpy cornea, generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, petechiae, high rectal temperature and sternal recumbency. The calves were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks and thin layer blood smears revealed presence of piroplasm in the RBCs, while lymph nodes aspirate smear examination revealed presence schizonts in the mononuclear cells. The calves were treated with buparvaquone; meloxicam, nandrolone decanoate and vitamins A, D3, E and H. From day second post-therapy a remarkable improvement in the clinical condition was noticed and substantial reduction in the both protruded eyeballs was noticed by 7 days post-therapy in the both calves. Further at day 47 post-therapy the one calf was free from the parasite on blood smear examination and right eye was retracted in its orbits with full of sight. Moreover the left eye was also retracted in its orbit but there was loss of sight and opacity developed in this eye. While, the other calf also revealed remarkable improvement in the clinical condition and both eye balls retracted completely into the orbit at day 30 post-therapy. But, at day 86 the calf developed microphthalmia and complete loss of sight in both eyes. It can be concluded that adjunction of antioxidants and hematopoietic agents may salvage the calves suffering from fatal theileriosis. PMID:26345050

  10. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  11. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of the calves (solid feed supply reduce abnormal oral behaviors in veal calves; Van Putten, 1982; Veissier et al., 1998); however, no specifications were made about the type and source of feed.Rumen dev...

  12. [Protozoan infection causes diarrhea in calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Claerebout, E; Vercruysse, J

    2005-12-01

    The role of protozoan parasites in the etiology of diarrhea in calves is highlighted with emphasis on correct diagnosis. In neonatal calves, Cryptosporidium parvum is isolated in more than 44% of the faeces of diarrhetic calves. In calves older than one month, both Eimeria bovis and E. zuernii, and Giardia duodenalis are associated with diarrhea and poor growth. Clinical diagnosis has to be confirmed by examination of host faecal material. Both for C. parvum and G. duodenalis immunological assays are available. Control measures must aim to reduce or prevent oocyst or cyst transmission, by combining management measures, desinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment.

  13. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  14. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on pregnancy rates in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ropstad

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 1990, a total of 69 calves with a minimum body weight of 46 kg were allocated into two groups, one treated with a single injection of 75 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (N = 35, the other serving as control (N=34. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis in December 1990 and 1991. Udder palpation was performed in July and September 1990. Treated animals had significantly lower plasma progesterone levels in December 1990. The pregnancy rate as determined by udder palpation was 16.7% for treated animals and 48.3% for controls (P<0.01. All animals which were found to be pregnant had high progesterone levels (>5 ng/ml the following winter. The mean body weight increase was 5.1 kg lower in females which kept their calves until September than in barren females (P<0.05. More than 50% of the pregnant females lost their calves during the summer.

  15. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  16. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  17. Behaviour of calves in the first weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech NEJA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations were conducted on 20 calves (10 bull calves and 10 heifer calves. The first series of observations was made in the first 4 days of life, and the second after a month (within 30 to 33 days of calving. Time from birth to first unassisted standing (standing on all extended legs ranged from 16 minutes (heifers to 158 minutes (bulls for normal calving. Calves born from normal parturitions stood up after an average of 81 minutes and those born from difficult parturitions after 302 minutes. Calves that required assistance at calving showed shorter standing and longer lying time. In the first 4 days of life and after a month, both male and female calves were more often in left lateral recumbency when resting. Heifer calves more often visited the feeder while bull calves more often consumed concentrates, water and hay.

  18. Energy metabolism of young, unadapted calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Calves reared for veal or other meat production are usually purchased before 2 weeks of age. The first weeks at the rearing unit represent a critical phase regarding their health. During this period calves are fed at a very low level. In this thesis, the energy metabolism of young, newly purchased c

  19. Neonatal diarrhea by bovine coronavirus (BCoV in beef cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Lorenzetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.

  20. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to hire a Federal Grader to certify the quality of its product. Beef grades are USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, ... beef within 2 days after purchase for maximum quality. What is the safe food ... (not ready-to-eat) meat and poultry packages. The label tells the consumer ...

  1. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  2. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  3. Effects of the supplementation with yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of water buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13 received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13 don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under same milking system. All animals were weighed and measured weekly. During the test the animals gain 11,38 +/- 5,2 Kgr y 13.92 +/- 5,0 Kgr by treated and non treated calves, respectively. The increase of the corporal measures during the test was (cm: Toraxic Circumference 7,0 +/- 5,58 Vs 9,23 +/- 4,02, Height 5,77 +/- 6,81 Vs 5,92 +/- 4,5 and Length 2,92 +/- 8,17 Vrs 0,54 +/- 4,86 by treated and no treated calves, respectively. No statistic difference was found between groups. In conclusion, the feeding with yeast culture didn’t increase significantly the weight gain and development in water buffalo calves.

  4. Evaluation study of calves with total artificial heart (TAH) surviving for 218-293 days of pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasků, J; Vasků, J; Dostál, M; Guba, P; Gregor, Z; Vasků, A; Urbánek, P; Necas, J; Dolezel, S; Cídl, K

    1990-12-01

    Evaluation of five longest surviving calves among a total of 54 longterm survivors, at the Brno Research Centre was performed. These calves were treated by administration of antihypertensives and partially by electrical stimulation of the right atrium to reduce central venous pressure (CVP). Treatment for CVP was effective, as compared with two groups of 5 calves each not treated in this way, and it is assumed to be an important factor for prolongation of survival. Mineralization of driving diaphragms was present in all these calves. No preventive measures of this pathologic change were performed in this group. Another complication is hemolysis, which is partly caused by immune mechanisms initiated by administration of alpha-methyl dopa and partly by mechanical destruction due to a heavily mineralized driving diaphragm. The prevention of mineralization is another important problem for future research. Other problems, concerning the survival of TAH recipients are discussed.

  5. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchiyama Hirofumi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be

  6. Beef Quality Assurance Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V, DVM

    1997-01-01

    Most of us have felt that injections given to a calf early in its life would be of little problem by the time it went to slaughter. We were WRONG!!! Colorado State University has provided the data and the pictures to prove it. In fact, 90% of the lesions found at slaughter originated during the cow-calf, stocker or early feeding periods. And, injections given while the calf is young caused greater lesions than those given when it was older. The study followed calves injected at branding or we...

  7. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...

  8. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Gavin F.; McNiven, Mary A.; Petit, Hélène V.; Duynisveld, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 1...

  9. Repeatability and genotypic correlations of reproductive and productive traits of crossbred beef cattle dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L N; Gasparino, E; Torres Júnior, R A A; Euclides Filho, K; Silva, L O C; Alencar, M M; Souza Júnior, M D; Battistelli, J V F; Silva, S C C

    2015-01-01

    Beef cattle production requires reproductive efficiency. However, measures of reproductive traits are not usually collected; consequently, correlated traits that could be used as indicators would be useful. We examined associations between measures of reproductive and productive efficiency that could be used as selection indicators. Data from 194 dams of the genetic groups Angus x Nelore, Caracu x Nelore, and Valdostana x Nelore collected over 4 years were used. The reproductive traits analyzed were days to heat (DH), calving interval (CI), days to calving (DC), and pregnancy rate (PR). The productive traits were dam weight (DW), body condition score (BCS), calf weight (CW), and weaning rate (WR). The effects on the model were: year, genetic group, reproductive status (RS), age, reproductive rest, and breed of bull (CW and WR). Multivariate analyses were performed, using the Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. We conclude that the reproductive measures are ineffective as selection indicators, whereas using dam weight may be a good alternative.

  10. Haematological Studies of Gaolao Calves

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Kapale; D. G. Jagtap; D. M. Badukale and S.K.Sahatpure

    2008-01-01

    The hematological study in fifteen healthy Gaolao calves ranging from birth to 12 months of age indicate the mean ± S.E. value of TEC (11.00± 0.20 million/cu.mm), Hb (14.27±0.43 gm%), PCV (35.00±0.79%), MCV (31.70±0.92 cu.μ), MCH (13.04±0.84 μ. μgm), MCHC (41.16±1.76%), TLC (07.49±0.39 thousand/cu.mm), Lymphocytes (71.87 ±1.45%), Neutrophil (23.27±1.27%), Monocyte (1.3 ...

  11. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Granberg Malin; Andersson Ann-Christin; Englund Stina; Knutsson Rickard; Ehrs Sara; Norström Agneta; Hartzell Lisbeth; Westermark Therese; Elvander Marianne; Lewerin Susanna; Bäckman Stina; Wikström Per; Sandstedt Karin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The c...

  12. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing

    OpenAIRE

    McGee Mark; Earley Bernadette; Lynch Eilish M; Doyle Sean

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i) abrupt weaning and ii) subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d) 0, mean age of calf (s.d.) 212 (24.5) d), cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed i...

  13. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  14. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  15. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  16. USING SAFFRON CAKE IN FEEDING CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev S. I.; Kucherova I. A.; Chehranova S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article proves a positive effect of feeding with saffron cake and premix based this substance on growth and development, nutrient utilization ration, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood of calves of black-motley breed

  17. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  18. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greif Gisela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  19. [The development of the body weight of calves with sarcoptic mange before and after treatment with Ivomec pour-on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenstein, M; Kutzer, E

    1996-01-01

    In 2 stages of a trial the bodyweight of 16 calves (6 Fleckvieh female, 6 Braunvieh female, 4 Braunvieh male), experimentally infected with Sarcoptes bovis, was controlled between birth and until 25 weeks after treatment with Ivomec pour-on (5 mg ivermectin/10 kg b.w.). On the day of treatment and before the turnout to the pasture the living Sarcoptes mites and mange lesions were determined. The two stages were characterized by different degrees of mange, which also became noticeable in the daily increase of bodyweight on an average of 200 g and 570 g respectively compared with the untreated calves. After treatment of the animals of the control group the daily increase in bodyweight within a few weeks was identical with the increase of the bodyweight of the earlier treated calves, whereby 16/19 weeks after the turnout to the pasture (female calves) and the possibility to take in grass ad libitum and 16 weeks after beginning of fattening (male calves) respectively the group of earlier treated calves still showed a higher mean bodyweight of about 27 kg and 24 kg.

  20. Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guides Reports Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ) Originally posted August 9, 2010; Updated August ... as a result of the outbreak. “Natural” pet treats , such as pig ears and dehydrated/dried beef ...

  1. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  2. An investigation into beef calf mortality on five high-altitude ranches that selected sires with low pulmonary arterial pressures for over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Joseph M; Gould, Daniel H; Garry, Franklyn B; Knight, Anthony P; Dargatz, David A; Holt, Timothy N

    2013-03-01

    Producer reports from ranches over 2,438 meters in southwest Colorado suggest that the mortality of preweaned beef calves may be substantially higher than the national average despite the selection of low pulmonary pressure herd sires for over 20 years. Diagnostic investigations of this death loss problem have been limited due to the extensive mountainous terrain over which these calves are grazed with their dams. The objective of the current study was to determine the causes of calf mortality on 5 high-altitude ranches in Colorado that have been selectively breeding sires with low pulmonary pressure (branding (6 weeks of age) in the spring to weaning in the fall (7 months of age). Clinical signs were recorded, and blood samples were taken from sick calves. Postmortem examinations were performed, and select tissue samples were submitted for aerobic culture and/or histopathology. On the principal study ranch, 9.6% (59/612) of the calves that were branded in the spring either died or were presumed dead by weaning in the fall. In total, 28 necropsies were performed: 14 calves (50%) had lesions consistent with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure, and 14 calves (50%) died from bronchopneumonia. Remodeling of the pulmonary arterial system, indicative of pulmonary hypertension, was evident in the former and to varying degrees in the latter. There is a need to better characterize the additional risk factors that complicate pulmonary arterial pressure testing of herd sires as a strategy to control pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23512918

  3. Influência das taxas de ganho de peso pré-desmame das vacas e do tipo de pastagem no período pós-parto sobre a eficiência biológica de vacas e de bezerros de corte Effects of different preweaning rates of body weight gain and type of pasture during the postpartum on biological efficiency of beef cows and calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a influência de duas taxas de ganho de peso de bezerras (baixa: 340 ± 32 g/dia ou moderada: 490 ± 29 g/dia do nascimento aos 7 meses de idade e do tipo de pastagem no período pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre sua eficiência biológica e de seus bezerros até o desmame (aos 217 dias. Quando vacas e após o parto, os animais foram mantidos em pastagem nativa (PN ou em pastagem cultivada (PC. Durante a lactação, vacas com baixa taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmame apresentaram maior produção de leite. Houve similaridade entre as taxas de ganho de peso baixa e moderada para a conversão de litros de leite (7,32 e 6,44 L/kg, respectivamente e de kg de MS de leite produzido pelas vacas (1,00 e 0,86 kg/kg, respectivamente em kg de ganho de peso dos bezerros; a exigência total de energia líquida para mantença (mantença + gestação + produção de leite (TOTELm (2.733,7 e 2.316,7 Mcal, respectivamente; TOTELm por kg de bezerro desmamado (14,7 e 14,7 Mcal/kg, respectivamente; e kg de bezerro desmamado por 100 kg de vaca ao desmame (42,0 e 38,7 kg/100 kg, respectivamente. No entanto, vacas com baixa taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmame desmamaram mais kg de bezerros por unidade de peso metabólico da vaca ao desmame (1,89 vs 1,73 kg/g.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of different rates of weight gain (low: 340 ± 32 g/day or moderate: 490 ± 29 g/day of heifers, from birth until seven months of age, and the type of pasture after calving, as cows, on the biologic efficiency of cows and their calves until weaning at 217 days. After calving, the animals were maintained on native pasture (NP or cultivated pasture (CP. During lactation, cows with low preweaning rate of weight gain showed higher milk production. Similarity between low and moderate rates of weight gain was verified for conversion of litres of milk (7.32 and 6.44 L/kg, respectively and kg of dry matter of milk produced by

  4. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Elzo, Mauricio; Ahn, Soohyoun; Driver, J Danny; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260) from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  5. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raies A Mir

    Full Text Available Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260 from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  6. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  7. Pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, E A; Mestorino, O N; Mariño, E L; Errecalde, J O

    2001-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) and its major metabolite albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were studied in six calves, after administration of RBZ (7.5 mg/kg), using a 10% experimental solution by the intravenous (i.v.) route, a 10% commercial solution by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, and a 10% experimental suspension by the intraruminal (i.r.) route. Blood samples were drawn during a 60-h period. Plasma drug and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic evaluation in each case was prepared by weighted least-squares nonlinear regression analysis. Ricobendazole i.v. data were best fitted by a two-compartment model. The best pharmacokinetic exponents and coefficients were estimated, and the pharmacokinetic variables for RBZ and ABZSO2 were calculated from them. Similar patterns of plasma disposition were found for RBZ after i.r. and s.c. administration, suggesting delayed release from the s.c. site resembling the slow release of the drug from the rumen. PMID:11442798

  8. Breeding soundness evaluation of young beef bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    The overall aims were to learn more about factors affecting fertility in Swedish beef sires in general and in yearling beef bulls in particular, focusing mainly on sexual maturity and hind limb health finding useful tools in order to be able to routinely perform a complete bull breeding soundness evaluations in Swedish beef bulls. Semen was collected from yearling beef bulls, postmortem, and the sperm morphology was evaluated. Using a strict definition, based on sperm morphology, we could dem...

  9. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  10. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  11. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  12. Body condition score of Nellore beef cows: a heritable measure to improve the selection of reproductive and maternal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A F A; Neves, H H R; Carvalheiro, R; Oliveira, J A; Queiroz, S A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the economic importance of beef cattle production in Brazil, female reproductive performance, which is strongly associated with production efficiency, is not included in the selection index of most breeding programmes due to low heritability and difficulty in measure. The body condition score (BCS) could be used as an indicator of these traits. However, so far little is known about the feasibility of using BCS as a selection tool for reproductive performance in beef cattle. In this study, we investigated the sources of variation in the BCS of Nellore beef cows, quantified its association with reproductive and maternal traits and estimated its heritability. BCS was analysed using a logistic model that included the following effects: contemporary group at weaning, cow weight and hip height, calving order, reconception together with the weight and scores of conformation and early finishing assigned to calves at weaning. In the genetic analysis, variance components of BCS were estimated through Bayesian inference by fitting an animal model that also included the aforementioned effects. The results showed that BCS was significantly associated with all of the reproductive and maternal variables analysed. The estimated posterior mean of heritability of BCS was 0.24 (highest posterior density interval at 95%: 0.093 to 0.385), indicating an involvement of additive gene action in its determination. The present findings show that BCS can be used as a selection criterion for Nellore females.

  13. Prevalence of abortion and stillbirth in a beef cattle system in Southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, José C; Segura-Correa, Victor M

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal mortality is an important cause of production losses in the livestock industry. This study estimates the prevalences of abortion and stillbirth in a beef cattle system and determines the significance of some risk factors, in the tropics of Mexico. Data were obtained from a Zebu cattle herd and their crosses with Bos taurus breeds, in Yucatan, Mexico. The logit of the probability of an abortion or stillbirth was modeled using binary logistic regression. The risk factors tested were: year of abortion (or calving), season of abortion (or calving), parity number and dam breed group. The effect of twins on stillbirth was tested using Fisher exact test. Of the 4175 calvings studied 49 were abortions (1.17%). Significant factors in the logistic regression analysis for abortions were season of abortion and parity number. The risk of abortion was lower in the dry seasons compared to the rainy and windy seasons (P = 0.009). The risk of abortion was higher in second parity cows followed by the third and first parity cows, as compared to older cows (P = 0.015). Of the 4126 births, 87 were stillbirths (2.11%). Significant factors in the logistic regression analysis for stillbirth were year of calving (P = 0.0001) and parity number (P < 0.001). The risk of stillbirth in first parity cows was 2.6 times that of old cows. Of the total births, 15 were twins (0.36%) of which 7 were born dead calves. Herd owners must focus on the significant risk factors under their control to reduce the prevalence of prenatal mortality. PMID:19449114

  14. Clinical pathology of milking calves digestion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatur Bogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The period from calving until normal dry food feeding is very sensitive for preruminat animals. Normal weaning can be successful at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Young milking calves are very susceptible to bacterial or viral infection if immunity is not reached through colostrum on time. On the other hand indigestions are very frequent and account for one-third of the most frequent disorders in young calves. Parturition losses (dystocia and respiratory diseases are more frequent. The final result of negative environmental and management influences can be the onset of acute or chronic diarrhea associated with long, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. Acute dehydration and death are not so rare. Etiological reasons are known, it is possible define them: inadequate feeding of pregnant cows and heifers in late stages of pregnancy; hygiene problems and bad management of neonate calves. Contaminated milk, starters and milk substitutes are the main source of scours. These problems are evident on farms where owners or workers do not have the elementary knowledge about physiology, anatomic differences and management principles for preruminant animals. At weaning time calves can develop serious problems when dry feeding does not begin on time. For does that reason normal micro flora and fauna are not able to accept normal function for ruminal digestion.

  15. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  16. Influence of production and postmortem technologies on composition and palatability of USDA Select grade beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, A Y; Gomide, L A; Mills, E W; Lemenager, R P; Judge, M D

    1994-05-01

    Improvement of USDA Select grade beef is essential for consumer acceptance of leaner beef. Seventy-two large- and medium-framed steer calves of mixed breeding were used in two experiments to evaluate feedlot performance, carcass composition, and beef palatability. Interactions of dietary energy level (corn concentrate or corn silage), breed type (Angus or Simmental), carcass electrical stimulation (ES) voltage (low or high), and chilling rate (normal or delayed) were determined. Grain-fed cattle had similar initial and slaughter weights, heavier carcasses, more marbling, higher quality grades, and higher dressing percentages (Exp. 2) compared with silage-fed cattle, even though all cattle were visually selected for a constant grade end point. Simmental cattle had heavier initial slaughter and warm carcass weights, larger loin eye area, less fat depth, and lower yield grade than Angus cattle. Percentage of lean in the 9-10-11th rib was lower and percentage of fat was higher for grain-fed and Angus steers than for silage-fed and Simmental steers, respectively. Neither diet nor breed influenced chemical composition of the edible portion, except that separable lean in Angus steers was higher in ether extract. No differences in palatability existed between Angus and Simmental steaks. High ES voltage compared with low voltage improved some tenderness characteristics and reduced some juiciness scores. The USDA Select grade beef of accepted palatability can be produced on either corn-grain or corn-silage diets, and only minor differences in beef palatability in such cattle are caused by ES voltage. PMID:8056667

  17. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...... variables, and these were proposed to reflect fearfulness, activity, exploration, and attention towards the environment. These hypothesised underlying temperamental traits were consistent with findings of previous studies using larger numbers of calves. Two learning PCs were extracted from the PCA on...

  18. Spring migration, calving and post-calving distribution and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued collection of information regarding calving and post-calving distribution, and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd is important for...

  19. The effects of firocoxib on cautery disbudding pain and stress responses in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M L; Millman, S T; Barth, L A; Van Engen, N K; Hsu, W H; Wang, C; Gehring, R; Parsons, R L; Coetzee, J F

    2015-09-01

    Perioperative analgesic effects of oral firocoxib following cautery disbudding were investigated in preweaned calves. Twenty Holstein calves approximately 4 to 6wk old received a single oral dose of firocoxib, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory, at 0.5mg/kg (n=10) or placebo (n=10) in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Responses, including ocular temperature determined by infrared thermography, pressure algometry measuring mechanical nociception threshold, and heart rate, were evaluated at 2, 4, 7, 8, and 24h after cornual nerve block and cautery disbudding. Blood samples were collected over 96h and analyzed for plasma cortisol and substance P concentrations by RIA. Additionally, ex vivo prostaglandin E2 concentrations were determined over a 72-h study period using an enzyme immunoassay. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effects model with repeated measures. An inhibition of ex vivo prostaglandin E2 synthesis was observed from 12 to 48h following disbudding in calves treated with firocoxib. Cautery disbudding was associated with an increased nociception for the duration of sampling (24h). During the initial 24-h period following disbudding, no difference in response between treatment groups was noted. Following 24h, mean cortisol concentrations diverged between the 2 study groups with placebo-treated calves having increased cortisol concentrations at approximately 48h after disbudding. Furthermore, the overall integrated cortisol response as calculated as area under the effect curve tended to be reduced in firocoxib-treated calves. The prolonged effects of cautery dehorning require further investigation. Moreover, the effect of firocoxib on cortisol reduction observed in this study requires additional exploration. PMID:26142860

  20. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  1. Fractal Feature Analysis Of Beef Marblingpatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunjie; Qin, Chunfang

    The purpose of this study is to investigate fractal behavior of beef marbling patterns and to explore relationships between fractal dimensions and marbling scores. Authors firstly extracted marbling images from beef rib-eye crosssection images using computer image processing technologies and then implemented the fractal analysis on these marbling images based on the pixel covering method. Finally box-counting fractal dimension (BFD) and informational fractal dimension (IFD) of one hundred and thirty-five beef marbling images were calculated and plotted against the beef marbling scores. The results showed that all beef marbling images exhibit fractal behavior over the limited range of scales accessible to analysis. Furthermore, their BFD and IFD are closely related to the score of beef marbling, suggesting that fractal analyses can provide us a potential tool to calibrate the score of beef marbling.

  2. Stress, immunity, and the management of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Moisá, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    Despite many advances in management and housing of dairy calves, 1 in 10 US dairy heifers die before weaning. A better understanding of the internal and external stimuli that contribute to the physiological and behavioral responses of calves to stressors is needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Feeding calves their first meal is crucial, as successful passive transfer reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity. Sexually dimorphic immune and stress responses appear to be present in young cattle, but more research is needed to determine if this is caused by human bias for female calves. After that first feeding, 1 in 10 heifers and most bull calves in the United States are transported to specialized calf-raising facilities, yet information is lacking on the newborn calf stress response during transit. Whether calves are raised on site or at a calf ranch, individual housing systems are commonly used in the United States to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure and provide individual feeding and healthcare. However, health, growth, and social implications may be present for calves in alternative systems with greater space allowance than conventional systems or group housing. Disbudding and castration are typically performed at an early age for dairy calves during the pre-wean stage. These stressors often take place when the calf has decreased passive transfer of Ig and immunity is developing. Availability of pain mitigation through anesthetics and analgesics is limited, but evidence indicates that analgesics attenuate suppressed leukocyte function during these procedures. Solid-feed intake is a primary measure for determining weaning readiness, but some milk replacer formulas may influence the calf's oral behaviors before weaning; therefore, alternate weaning methods may need to coincide with alternate milk replacer formulas. The calf's behavioral and stress response at weaning may influence its immunity during the transition from individual to group

  3. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  4. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  5. Bull influences on conception percentage and calving date in Angus Hereford, Brahman and Senepol single-sire herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R E; Littell, R; Rooks, E; Adams, E L; Falcon, C; Warnick, A C

    1990-09-01

    Bull breeding soundness parameters, semen characteristics and sexual behavior were evaluated for effects on reproductive performance in single-sire beef herds. A total of 155 cow herds (Angus, 50 herds; Hereford, 40 herds; Brahman, 46 herds; and Senepol, 19 herds) bred to bulls of the same breed were observed for 8 yr. All bulls produced adequate quality semen and had scrotal circumference (SC)>or=30 cm. Reproductive performance was evaluated by the conception rate (CON), conception rate during the first 21 d of the breeding season (21dCON), mean calving date (MCD), and mean calving date of the first half of the herd to calve (HHCD). Correlations were determined between breeding soundness parameters and reproductive performance for all bulls combined, by breed, and by age. The Cp statistic was used to select models for the effects of parameters on CON, 21dCON, MCD and HHCD. Breeding season length and breed had significant effects. The percentages of normal cells, proximal droplets, detached heads and the semen score (motility plus percentage of normal cells) had a significant effect on CON when all bulls were considered. After the effect of season was deleted, the most significant parameter affecting CON in the Brahman was the percentage of detached sperm heads. In the Angus, motility was significantly correlated with all reproductive performance indices. In the Hereford, breeding soundness examination score (BSE) was positively correlated with 21dCON. PMID:16726860

  6. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  7. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (Pcattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (Pcattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study.

  8. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to determine whether pre-breeding RTS in heifers is a valid tool to predict long-term reproductive performance. Outcomes measured were failure to show oestrus during the first 24 days of the first 50-day AI season (24-day anoestrus), failure to become pregnant during each yearly artificial insemination (AI) season (reproductive failure), number of days from the start of each AI season to calving, and number of years to reproductive failure. The effect of RTS on each outcome was adjusted for year of birth, pre-breeding age, BW and body condition score (BCS), and for 24-day anoestrus, bull, gestation length, previous days to calving and previous cow efficiency index, the latter two in the case of the 2nd to the 5th calving season. During their first breeding season, heifers with RTS 1 and 2 combined were more likely to be in anoestrus for the first 24 days (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.5, 6.4, P=0.003), and were also more likely to fail to become pregnant even after adjusting for 24-day anoestrus (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9, P=0.025), compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined. Animals with RTS 1 and 2 combined were at increased risk of early reproductive failure compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined (HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, P=0.045) although RTS was not associated with calving rate or days to calving after the second calving season. Low RTS at a threshold of 1 had consistent specificity of ≥94% for both 24-day anoestrus and pregnancy failure, however its predictive value was lower in the age cohort with a higher prevalence of anoestrus. We conclude that RTS is a valid management tool for culling decisions intended to improve long-term reproductive success in a seasonal breeding system

  9. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  10. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of th

  11. Factors affecting the relationship between calving interval of cows and weaning weights of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, P E; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Characters related to production and reproduction were observed on 744 straightbred and F2 calves and their dams produced in a five-breed diallel with Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey breeds. These data were analyzed to estimate the effects of these characters on the relationship between weaning weight and calving interval. The model used for analysis of postpartum conception and calving interval included breedtype, season of conception, parity and management of the dam as main effects; condition of dam nested within parity; and age, weight and weight change of dam and weaning weight of previous calf as covariates. All effects and covariates were significant sources of variation in conception and calving interval. Brahman cows exhibited the longest conception and calving intervals, whereas Hereford X Jersey F1 cows had the shortest intervals. Heterotic effects for these intervals were low and nonsignificant. Weaning weight of the previous calf was positively correlated with postpartum conception and calving interval, but to determine the magnitude of the relationship the need to adjust for differences in breedtype, condition, parity, early management, age, weight and weight change of the dam was apparent. PMID:3722011

  12. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  13. An Inventory of Beef Slaughter & Processing Facilities for Virginia Direct Marketers of Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Y. Mainville; Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of producers in Virginia are seeking facilities where they can have their beef slaughtered and processed. This inventory provides information about the availability of beef slaughter and processing facilities to help meet this need.

  14. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doherty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case or low (control calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality.

  15. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  16. Confirmation of the progesterone receptor as an efficient marker of treatment with 17β-estradiol in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolato, Marzia; Botta, Mario; Baioni, Elisa; Richelmi, Guia Benedetta; Pitardi, Danilo; Varello, Katia; Caramelli, Maria; Bozzetta, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Under current European Union legislation the use of anabolic steroids in food-producing livestock is banned because of their long-term adverse effects on human health. We examined the expression profile of the immunohistochemical marker progesterone receptor in veal calves' sex accessory glands following experimental administration of anabolic compounds. The aim was to confirm the accuracy of the immunohistochemical approach in the detection of the over-expression of the progesterone receptor induced by the administration of sexual steroids at low levels (17β-estradiol and nandrolone alone or in combination). A total of 217 male veal calves were randomly divided into four groups: group A (104 calves) treated with 17β-estradiol (5 mg/head; 4 weekly injections); group B (20 calves) treated with nandrolone (50 mg/head; 4 weekly injections); group C (20 calves) treated with the association of the two steroids (5 mg estradiol + 50 mg nandrolone; 4 weekly injections); and group K (73 calves) kept as a control. All the sexual accessory glands were collected at the slaughterhouse (15 days after the last administration) and subjected to immunohistochemical staining with anti-progesterone receptor antibody. All the calves treated with 17β-estradiol alone or in association with nandrolone (groups A and C) showed strong positivity, while nandrolone-treated calves and controls (groups B and K) gave negative results to the immunohistochemical investigation. The statistical analysis showed that the progesterone receptor is a significant predictor of 17β-estradiol treatment alone or in association with nandrolone (p < 0.001): the immunohistochemical study resulted in 100% sensitivity (CI = 95%: 97.1-100%) and specificity (CI = 95%: 95.1-100%) for prostate and 99% sensitivity (CI = 95%: 95.6-100%) and 100% specificity (CI = 95%: 95.1-100%) for bulbo-urethral glands. The data confirm that this innovative biological approach offers a reliable tool to enhance the efficacy of

  17. Early weaning alters the acute phase response to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicates that early weaning prior to shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute phase proteins (APP), and can increase subsequent performance in the feedlot. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system...

  18. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  19. Relationships of milk production of beef cows to postweaning gain of thier calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk yield from 157 Brangus cows bred to 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 3-yr period with a single-cow milking machine to estimate the relationship of actual milk yield of cows and their calves’ postweaning average daily gain on two postweaning man...

  20. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  1. Effect of sample pre-treatment on the determination of steroid esters in hair of bovine calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of three sample pre-treatment steps, washing, cutting and grinding on the determination of steroid esters in hair is studied. The study is performed by using hair samples obtained after pour-on application of steroid esters to bovine calves. After sample pre-treatment the hair is treated

  2. Consumer Reaction to Beef Safety Scares

    OpenAIRE

    Saghaian, Sayed H.; Reed, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two beef safety scares on retail-level meat per capita consumption and prices in Japan. The objective is to investigate the Japanese consumer reactions to the news of FMD and BSE discoveries, as reflected in the quantity and price changes in the immediate neighborhood of each event. Better understanding of consumer reactions to beef safety scares helps the beef industry restore consumer confidence after food safety crises and provides opportunities for nation...

  3. ECONOMICS OF PURCHASING GENETICALLY SUPERIOR BEEF BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Clary, Gregory M.; Jordan, Johnny W.; Thompson, Carl Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Net present value analysis is used to derive the marginal bid price for a beef herd sire from after-tax net revenues and cash flow influenced by genetic improvements. Marginal bid price represents the additional amount a producer could pay, above the present value of the current beef herd sire, for a sire expected to exhibit superior performance as reflected by increased average weaning weights of offspring. An analysis of the profitability of purchasing a breeding bull for a commercial beef ...

  4. Organic Beef Production - Sire Breed Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Leavy, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The results to date, from this sire breed comparison study indicate that with the contrasting Aberdeen Angus and Charolais sire breeds that is possible to achieve animal performance data comparable to well managed conventional suckler calf to beef systems (300 kg carcass for heifers in Nov and 400 kg carcass for steers in March). Similarly the responses to sire breed type, sex and date of slaughter for the organic beef animals are biologically compatible. Organic beef is produced under organi...

  5. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE LAW OF CATTLE AND BEEF TRACEABILITY IN MARKETING CHANNELS ON THE DOMESTIC HANWOO BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Sanggon; Lee, Jungmin; Chai, Sanghyen; Lee, Hyungwoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability in marketing channels on the domestic Hanwoo beef industry. The Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability might affect the demand and supply of Hanwoo beef. After introducing the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability into the marketing channels, the price of Hanwoo beef has increased a lot in the Korean beef market. Domestically produced Hanwoo beef has a price premium compared with the imported b...

  6. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  7. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  8. A comparison of surgical outcomes of perineal urethrostomy plus penile resection and perineal urethrostomy in twelve calves with perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis, ultrasonographic findings, surgical management, outcome, and survival rate of perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation in 12 male calves are described. All calves were crossbred and intact males. The most noticeable clinical presentations were perineal (n= 10 or prescrotal (n= 2 swellings and micturition problems. The main ultrasonographic findings were oval shaped dilatation of the urethra in all animals with dimensions of 40-75 X 30-62 mm. The calves with perineal urethral dilatation were treated by perineal urethrostomy (n= 4 and partial penile transection including the dilated urethra and urethral fistulation (n= 6. Prescrotal urethral dilatations were treated by penile transection proximal to the dilatation site (n= 2. Cystitis and stricture of the urethra were recorded postoperatively for two of the calves that underwent perineal urethrostomy. Nine animals were slaughtered at normal body weight approximately 6-8 months after the surgical treatment. Three animals were slaughtered after approximately three to four months, two of them having gained insufficient body weight. Our study shows that ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of urethral dilatation in bovine calves. Our study also shows that the partial penile transection may be a suitable and satisfactory choice of surgical treatment for correcting the urethral dilatation in bovine calves.

  9. The effect of a fenbendazole treatment on cyst excretion and weight gain in calves experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vandenhoute, Els; Pohle, Herbert; Casaert, Stijn; De Wilde, Nathalie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2010-04-19

    A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with 10(5)Giardia duodenalis cysts. Eleven days later, all animals were allocated into two groups of 14 animals each, based on the average pre-treatment cyst counts. Treatment was randomly assigned to one of the two groups, and all animals in the treatment group received a daily oral dosage of 15mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight during 3 consecutive days. The calves in the control group received a placebo (water). From 3 days after treatment onwards, cyst excretion was determined three times a week during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded on a daily basis, and all animals were weighed prior to treatment and weekly thereafter. At the end of the experimental period, there was a significant (Pfenbendazole treated and untreated calves experimentally infected with G. duodenalis, although additional data need to confirm the need for treatment in natural conditions.

  10. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  11. POPONA FOR COMFORT AND HEALTH OF CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Eremenko O. N.; Kulikova N. I.

    2015-01-01

    Milk productivity of cows is largely dependent on the efficiency of their own genetic potential. For the successful solution of this question it this essential the creation of proper technological conditions for high live stock process of ontogeny beginning from the neonatal period. One of the significant factors that influence the growth, development and safety of young grows in early of young grows in early postembryonic period are zoo-hygienic conditions of calves. Currently the "cold" met...

  12. POPONA FOR COMFORT AND HEALTH OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremenko O. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk productivity of cows is largely dependent on the efficiency of their own genetic potential. For the successful solution of this question it this essential the creation of proper technological conditions for high live stock process of ontogeny beginning from the neonatal period. One of the significant factors that influence the growth, development and safety of young grows in early of young grows in early postembryonic period are zoo-hygienic conditions of calves. Currently the "cold" method of keeping calves in individual houses is developed and widely used. It promotes the increase in the intensity of growth by 8,1%, prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract improving hygienic conditions and rising of profitability of their growing by 4,2%. It is now that calves kept individual houses in the face of increasing wind and decreasing temperatures as well as high humidity of air environment in winter, feel discomfort, move less, stay lying on the litter in the house. For the purpose of warming the animals in cold frosty days keeping outside in the houses, increasing their viability, growth intensity and the guarantee of prevention gastrointestinal tract and pulmonary system diseases development the staff of the Department of private zoo techniques (animal genetics and pig-keeping from Kuban State Agrarian University have developed Popona - blanket-clothes for calves, which will allow to redirect received from feed energy to a calf growth. It will happen by reducing energy consumption for heating the body and prevent the development of colds due to the formation and preservation of the heat in the body in the absence of wet wool on with the external precipitation

  13. Halley Research Station, Antarctica: calving risks and monitoring strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anderson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The British Antarctic Survey's Halley Research Station is located on the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica, where it is potentially vulnerable to calving events. Existing historical records show that the Brunt Ice Shelf is currently extended further into the Weddell Sea than it was before its last large calving event, so a new calving event may be overdue. We describe three different possible future scenarios for a large-scale calving event on Brunt Ice Shelf, and conclude that the currently most threatening scenario for the Halley Research Station is a calving event on the neighbouring Stancomb–Wills Glacier Tongue, with subsequent detrimental consequences for the stability of the Brunt Ice Shelf. Based on available data, we suggest an increasing likelihood of this scenario occurring after 2020. We furthermore describe ongoing monitoring efforts aimed at giving advanced warning of an imminent calving event.

  14. Antimicrobial drug use and risk factors associated with treatment incidence and mortality in Swiss veal calves reared under improved welfare conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Steiner, A; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-one Swiss veal farms producing under a label with improved welfare standards were visited between August and December 2014 to investigate risk factors related to antimicrobial drug use and mortality. All herds consisted of own and purchased calves, with a median of 77.4% of purchased calves. The calves' mean age was 29±15days at purchasing and the fattening period lasted at average 120±28 days. The mean carcass weight was 125±12kg. A mean of 58±33 calves were fattened per farm and year, and purchased calves were bought from a mean of 20±17 farms of origin. Antimicrobial drug treatment incidence was calculated with the defined daily dose methodology. The mean treatment incidence (TIADD) was 21±15 daily doses per calf and year. The mean mortality risk was 4.1%, calves died at a mean age of 94±50 days, and the main causes of death were bovine respiratory disease (BRD, 50%) and gastro-intestinal disease (33%). Two multivariable models were constructed, for antimicrobial drug treatment incidence (53 farms) and mortality (91 farms). No quarantine, shared air space for several groups of calves, and no clinical examination upon arrival at the farm were associated with increased antimicrobial treatment incidence. Maximum group size and weight differences >100kg within a group were associated with increased mortality risk, while vaccination and beef breed were associated with decreased mortality risk. The majority of antimicrobial treatments (84.6%) were given as group treatments with oral powder fed through an automatic milk feeding system. Combination products containing chlortetracycline with tylosin and sulfadimidine or with spiramycin were used for 54.9%, and amoxicillin for 43.7% of the oral group treatments. The main indication for individual treatment was BRD (73%). The mean age at the time of treatment was 51 days, corresponding to an estimated weight of 80-100kg. Individual treatments were mainly applied through injections (88.5%), and included

  15. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra;

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness...... from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can....... The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...

  16. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI.

  17. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  18. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, C. B.; Holland, B. P.; McMillen, G.; Step, D. L.; Krehbiel, C. R.; Namjou, K.; McCann, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07 cm-1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be ˜330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  20. Pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J F; Poole, D H; Hughes, L; Dejarnette, J M; Inskeep, E K; Dailey, R A

    2009-09-01

    Reduced capability of the uterus to support pregnancy in the absence of its interaction with secretions from male accessory glands has been demonstrated in rodents and to some extent in pigs. However, in cattle, the role of postmating inflammatory response on pregnancy success has not been studied. The current study examined the influence of uterine presensitization with seminal antigens at breeding on pregnancy outcome in cows. Lactating beef (n=1090) and dairy (n=800) cows received 0.5 mL seminal plasma (SP), 40 ng recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1), or 0.5 mL bovine serum albumin (BSA), or were left untreated before or at insemination. Semen was deposited into the anterior cervix using a second insemination gun. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 35 to 40 d postinsemination by transrectal ultrasonography or from records of calves born the subsequent calving season. Pregnancy rates in beef cows did not differ among treatments but differed among trials (69.8%, 52.5% vs. 40.3%; Pplasma on pregnancy outcome in lactating dairy or beef cows but realized marginal improvements when pregnancy rates were below 50% (compromised fertility). PMID:19501392

  1. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  2. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  3. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  4. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement is an undesirable contact between acetabular rim and femoral neck and presents abnormality of proximal femoral part and acetabulum, as well. Two forms may appear: cam impingement and pincer impingement. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease may be caused by various reasons, as the consequence of the disease itself, and as the consequence of its treatment. Coxa magna deformity (large femoral head and neck and coxa brevis deformity (shortened femoral neck may produce cam femoroacetabular impingement during hip flexion. After the disease, the flattened femoral head (coxa plana may persist. Chiari pelvic osteotomy is the only treatment option for such femoral head deformity. Acetabular labrum squeezed continuously between the femoral head and the non-articular part of the cut iliac bone lead to cam femoroacetabular impingement, as well. If Salter or triple pelvic osteotomy is used that may cause a very large iatrogenic acetabular retroversion, we can also refer to radial type pincer femoroacetabular impingement. Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease should be conducted according to the natural course of the disease and prognosis. Treatment should start on time, well before a crushed femoral head develops, because it is the easiest way to establish hip spherical congruency at the end of treatment. This is the best option to prevent secondary hip arthrosis caused by femoroacetabular impingement or by insufficient head coverage at the end of remodelling. In each case of delayed hip pain, followed by a limited range of movements, femoroacetabular impingement should be taken into consideration, confirmed, and treated by some of the available therapeutic methods.

  5. Beef labelling: The Emergence of Transparancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, detailed information on beef products seemed no real necessity. However, following the outbreak of BSE, the Government felt obliged to protect consumer interest with legislation. Obligatory product information became required for beef trace

  6. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  7. Briefing note on the beef industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Sheep and beef farmers around the UK were interviewed to find out if they would adopt a range of technologies to reduce methane emissions.* Beef farmers produced a diverse range of outputs including environmental management as well as food production. Farmers worked in a range of different environments and are influenced by a variety of values.

  8. Effect of ferrous sulphate on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Lobna S. Elgebaly; Adel M.A. Eisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of iron on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves was studied. Ten calves from a private farm in Gharbia Governorate were used. Calves were separated from their dams immediately after birth and received colostrum during the first hours after calving and twice daily for 48 h. Thereafter, they received whole milk. Calves were divided into two equal groups. The first group was kept as controls. Calves of the second group were...

  9. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or...

  10. Conditioning and aversion to toxic Solanum bonariense ("naranjillo" leaves in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ruiz-Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Solanum bonariense is a perennial poisonous shrub that induces cerebellar cortical degeneration when eaten by cattle. The aim of this research was to outline a protocol to induce a conditioned aversion to this plant. During the pre-conditioning period ten calves (126±12kg BW were maintained at half of their normal energy intake with lucerne hay and water ad libitum, to stimulate consumption of S. bonariense. Every two days they were offered 100g ofS. bonariense leaves for 5 minutes. Calves began eating the target plant on day 10 and consumed all the plant material on day 12. The conditioning period began after each calf consumed the entire amount of S. bonariense for three consecutive sessions. Five animals were randomly selected for conditioning, and after ingestion ofS. bonariense they were dosed by oral gavage with lithium chloride (LiCl at 200mg kg-1 BW (treated group, while the other five received a similar volume of water by oral gavage (control group. After 2 doses of LiCl the treated group ate no S. bonariense while the control group consumed the entire 100g. We confirmed that LiCl is a powerful tool to induce conditioned aversions against S. bonariense in calves, which persists for at least 3 months.

  11. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  12. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  13. Physiological data including evaluation of immuno-response in relation to anabolic effects on veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, J; Herlyn, D; Boehncke, E; Schulz, V; Sandersleben, J V; Hänichen, T; Geisel, O

    1976-01-01

    In a series of experiments with a total of 1480 veal calves, different aspects of treating calves with anabolic steroids were examined. The anabolics used were 17beta-estradiol (E), trenbolone acetate (T), progesterone (P), testosterone (Te), C+T, E+P, E+Te and zeranole (Z). The N-retention was estimated by examining the urea: creatinine ratio in single urine specimens during the course of two feeding trials. Increased gain due to the treatment with E (20 mg implanted/calf) + P (200 mg) and Te (200 mg), respectively, E + T (140 mg) or Z (36 mg) was during the whole experimental period. The extra gain, due to anabolics seems to contain even more protein. This conclusion may be supported by the crude protein content of meat samples. The antibody production of a total of 311 male and female calves was investigated after the application of the following steroids: E (20 mg), T (200 mg), T (200 mg), E + T, P (200 mg), Te (200 mg), E + P, E + Te, and Z. Eleven days after the implantation of the steroids the animals were immunized with alumprecipitated human serumalbumin. Antibody-titres were determined by the Antigen-Binding-Capacity Test on day 14 following immunization. In nearly all groups the antibody-titres of female calves exceeded those of male calves on the average by 75%. The immune response of all experimental groups did not differ significantly from that of the corresponding control groups. However, the results indicate that both E + T and its single components E and T exert an immunodepressive effect in male calves. While the humoral antibody formation in the calf appears not to be influenced by anabolic steroids, it cannot be decided presently whether these substances effect cell-mediated immune reactions and/or unspecific mechanisms of resistance. When estradiol (20, 200, and 500 mg) and trenbolone acetate (140, 1400, 3500 mg) alone and in combination were implanted in female calves, blood glucose, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, cholesterine and

  14. Impact of oral meloxicam on circulating physiological biomarkers of stress and inflammation in beef steers after long-distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, N K; Stock, M L; Engelken, T; Vann, R C; Wulf, L W; Karriker, L A; Busby, W D; Lakritz, J; Carpenter, A J; Bradford, B J; Hsu, W H; Wang, C; Coetzee, J F

    2014-02-01

    Transportation stress can result in significant economic losses to producers due to decreased animal productivity and increased medication costs associated with sickness such as bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Meloxicam (MEL) provides pain relief and anti-inflammatory effects in cattle for several days after a single oral treatment. Our hypothesis was that MEL administration before shipping would reduce the impact of long-distance transportation on circulating physiological biomarkers of stress and inflammation in beef steers. Ninety-seven beef steers were blood sampled for baseline biomarker determination and then randomly assigned to receive either 1 mg/kg MEL (n = 49) or a placebo (CONT; n = 48) per os before a 1,316-km transportation event lasting approximately 16 h. Calves were then blood sampled on arrival and 5 d later. Changes in the hemogram, circulating plasma proteins, total carbon dioxide (TCO2), fibrinogen, substance P (SP), cortisol, haptoglobin (Hp)-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) complexes, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) between treatments over time were compared using a mixed effects model with statistical significance designated as P < 0.05. Analysis of covariance was conducted to assess the relationship between circulating MEL concentrations and biomarker changes over time. An increase in neutrophil, platelet, monocyte, white blood cell, and red blood cell counts occurred after transportation (P < 0.0001) and a decrease in lymphocyte count were observed (P < 0.0001). Meloxicam treatment reduced the stress-induced neutrophilia (P = 0.0072) and circulating monocyte count (P = 0.013) on arrival. Mean corpuscle hemoglobin (P = 0.05), mean corpuscle volume (P = 0.05), and lymphocyte count (P = 0.05) were also greater in the CONT calves compared with MEL calves after transportation. Furthermore, Hp-MMP-9 complexes, TCO2, TNFα, plasma proteins, and SP increased and cortisol decreased after shipping (P < 0.01). Meloxicam treatment tended to

  15. Classifying of Nellore cattle beef on Normal and DFD applying a non conventional technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Antonelo, Daniel Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy in the Normal and DFD classification in Nellore beef using a bench-top hyperspectral imaging system. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ = 928-2524 nm) was used to collect hyperspectral images of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n = 78) of Nellore cattle. The images were processed, being selected region of interest and extracted spectra image and were selected the wavelengths considered most important for the treats evaluated. Six linear discriminant models were developed to classify beef samples on Normal and DFD. The model using all wavelengths associated with the reflectance and absorbance spectrum transformed with the pretreatment 2nd derivative resulted in an overall accuracy of 93.6% for both pretreatments. In this configuration, the model was able to classify correctly 73 samples from a total of 78 samples. The results demonstrate that the hyperspectral imaging system may be considered a viable technology for beef classification on Normal and DFD.

  16. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  17. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (Pbeef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total annual accumulated CH4 when applied to the 4 diverse beef production systems. Overall, despite the small number of animals used it was demonstrated that there is a biological impact of using more specific CH4 prediction equations. Based on this approach, farm and national carbon budgets will be more accurate, contributing to reduced uncertainty in assessing mitigation options at farm and national level. PMID:24174549

  18. Feeding & Management of Dairy Calves & Heifers. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Walt

    This guide is designed to assist postsecondary and secondary teachers of agriculture in their use of the University of Wisconsin bulletin "Raising Dairy Replacements" in their dairy science instructional program. Eight lessons are provided in this unit: breeding decisions, management of cows from breeding to calving, care at calving time, the…

  19. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  20. Fecal microbial diversity in pre-weaned dairy calves as described by pyrosequencing of metagenomic 16S rDNA. Associations of Faecalibacterium species with health and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Oikonomou

    Full Text Available In this study, we use barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the fecal microbiota of neonatal calves and identify possible relationships of certain microbiota profiles with health and weight gain. Fecal samples were obtained weekly from 61 calves from birth until weaning (seventh week of the calves' life. Firmicutes was the most prevalent phylum, with a prevalence ranging from 63.84% to 81.90%, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.36% to 23.93%, Proteobacteria (3.72% to 9.75%, Fusobacteria (0.76% to 5.67%, and Actinobacteria (1.02% to 2.35%. Chao1 index gradually increased from the first to the seventh postnatal week. Chao1 index was lower during the third, fourth, and fifth week of life in calves that suffered from pneumonia and were treated with antibiotics. Diarrhea incidence during the first four weeks of the calves' life was also associated with a reduction of microbial diversity during the third week of life. Increased fecal microbial diversity after the second week of life was associated with higher weight gain. Using discriminant analysis we were able to show differences in the microbiota profiles between different weeks of life, between high and low weight gain groups of calves, and between calves affected and not affected with diarrhea during the first four weeks life. The prevalence of Faecalibacterium spp. in the first week of life was associated with weight gain and the incidence of diarrhea, with higher prevalence being associated with higher weight gain and less diarrhea. Representative sequences from Faecalibacterium spp. were closely affiliated to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results presented here provide new information regarding the intestinal microbiota of neonatal calves and its association with health and growth. Fecal microbial diversity was associated with calf age, disease status and growth rates. Results suggesting a possible beneficial effect of Faecalibacterium spp. on health and growth are promising.

  1. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  2. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Diagnostics and contemporary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease represents avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a growing child. It commonly affects children aged 2-14 years, mostly boys, and has familiar pattern. The etiology of this disease is unknown. It is based on avascular necrosis due to variations of the femoral head vascular supply, trauma, coagulation of endocrine disturbances. The disease presents with limping and pain localized in the hip with projection to thigh and knee, frequently accompanied by the limitation of abduction and internal rotation, as well as slight limitation in flexion of about 20 degrees. Plain radiography is most informative additional diagnostic procedure, enabling assessment of the stage of disease, containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum, acetabular coverage and the extent of disease. Main treatment goal is obtaining the spherical congruity of the hip joint. This can be achieved by abduction bracing, varization femoral osteotomies and various innominate osteotomies (sometimes combined with femoral osteotomies. Children younger than four years of age, with minimal femoral head involvement, do not need any treatment. These children with a larger involvement, older than four years of age, with possible containment in hip abducion, should be treated by one of the following procedures: Salter innominate osteotomy, Salter innominate osteotomy with femoral shortening, or triple pelvic osteotomy. The patients with containment of the hip is not possible in abduction (related to subluxation and femoral head crush, should be treated by Chiari pelvic osteotomy.

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P;

    2008-01-01

    QTL affecting stillbirth and calving difficulties but not calf size that could be used in selection to improve calving performance. Progeny-tested sons (2,297) were genotyped for 356 microsatellites in 34 grandsire families on all 29 autosomes. A total of 27 significant QTL on 17 chromosomes were...... detected using a between-families linear regression model. For the direct calving traits, 4 QTL significantly affected calving difficulty, 5 QTL affected stillbirth, and 7 QTL affected calf size subjectively assessed by the farmer as a categorical trait. When the maternal components of the same traits were...... tested, there were significant effects of 3 QTL on calving difficulty, 6 QTL on stillbirth, and 2 QTL on calf size. The variance component mapping approach was used to estimate the relative posterior probability of linkage and pleiotropic models. The most probable model indicated a pleiotropic QTL...

  4. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  5. ESTIMATES OF BREED DIRECT, MATERNAL AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE HUMID TROPICS OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Mario M. Osorio-Arce; Segura-Correa, José C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the breed-direct, breed-maternal and heterosis effects for weaning and yearling weights of Brahman cattle and its crosses with Charolais, Simmental and Brown Swiss breeds in a beef cattle system in Tabasco, Mexico. The climate of the region is tropical humid. Data were obtained on 1217 calves born from 1995 to 2007; among the 16 breed-group combinations one was purebred mating (Brahman), 3 two-breed static crosses, 7 three-breed static crosses and ...

  6. Effect of polymorphisms linked to LEP gene on its expression on adipose tissues in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, D T; Hepp, D; Moraes, J C F; Weimer, T A

    2007-06-01

    In cattle, genetic markers at the leptin (LEP) gene and at those linked to the gene have been described as affecting calving interval (markers LEPSau3AI and IDVGA51), or daily weight gain (BMS1074 and BM1500). This work investigated the effect of these alleles on LEP mRNA levels in cattle subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. A sample of 137 females of a Brangus-Ibage beef cattle herd was analysed to evaluate the distribution of the polymorphisms; then, animals having at least one of the IDVGA51*181 (allele 181 at marker IDVGA51; six animals), LEPSau3AI*2 (four), BMS1074*151 (13), BM1500*135 (six) alleles and a control group composed of animals without any of these alleles (four animals) were submitted to surgery to obtain omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Leptin mRNA expression was quantified by TaqMan RT-PCR, using 18S rRNA as internal control and adjusted for the effect of body condition score, through regression analysis. Omental fat had LEP gene expression 33% lower than the subcutaneous tissue. Carriers of IDVGA*181 and BMS1074*151 showed subcutaneous fat leptin mRNA levels higher than the controls. Leptin controls feed intake and coordinates reproduction; therefore, animals with higher LEP gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and probably will also have longer calving interval. PMID:17550358

  7. Determination of trenbolone in urine and faeces of calves by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunological methods were established for the determination of residues of trenbolone acetate (TBA) in urine and faeces of calves treated with TBA. Both methods are easy to handle (about 60-80 samples within 2 days). Their reliability has been demonstrated by means of examining specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. The lower limit of sensitivity is around 0.024-0.032 ng TBOH/ml urine and 0.034-0.048 ng TBOH/g faeces. Both RIAs could be applied for routine control of illegal treatment of veal calves with TBA. For the first time the excretion of TBOH after implantation with TBA was measured radioimmunological in 2 veal calves. Residues of TBA are measurable in urine and in faeces during the whole fest period (up to 61 days after implantation). The major part of TBOH is excreted with the faeces. Until the substances needed for the RIA of TBOH are available commercially, thin-layer-chromatography (Vogt 1977) can alternatively be used for the determination of residues of TBA. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance and in vivo digestibility in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on growth performance, faecal consistency and in vivo digestibility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves was evaluated. Forty calves were randomly assigned at 10 d of age to one of four treatments: (A milk replacer with no additive, (B milk replacer supplemented with 0.17 g/l of viable (2 x l09 cfu/g E. faecium bacteria daily for 3 days with an interval of 7 days throughout 11 weeks, (C milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 4 weeks, (D milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 11 weeks. A total mixed ration was offered ad libitum from 5th week of the experimental period. Faecal score was significantly better in E. faecium-treated calves than control ones. The use of E. faecium had no effect on average daily gain at any stage, total body weight (BW gain, dry matter intake or total tract digestibility. Therefore, E. faecium supplementation may be able to act favourably on the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Irradiation inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in low- and high-fat, frozen and refrigerated ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of two levels of fat (11.1 to 13.9% [low-fat] and 27.1 to 27.9% [highfat]) and temperature (frozen [-17 to -15 degrees C] and refrigerated [3 to 5 degrees C]) on gamma irradiation (60Co) inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in raw ground beef patties was investigated. Ground beef patties inoculated with stationary growth phase cells of five-strain mixtures of L. monocytogenes or S. aureus were treated with seven mean gamma irradiation doses up to 2.062 or 2.147 kGy, respectively. D10 values ranged from 0.507 to 0.610 kGy and 0.435 to 0.453 kGy for L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, respectively. Neither the fat content of beef nor the temperature during irradiation treatment influenced inactivation rates of the two pathogens. Regression coefficients were high for all treatment conditions, the lowest being 0.984 for L. monocytogenes and 0.990 for S. aureus in high-fat frozen beef. Based on the highest D10 value obtained, a dose of 2.50 kGy would theoretically kill 4.10 log10 L. monocytogenes and 5.12 log10 S. aureus per gram of ground beef. The fact that this investigation was done under commercial processing and irradiation treatment conditions, to the extent possible, makes the significance of the results more meaningful to the beef industry

  10. New indicators of beef sensory quality revealed by expression of specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Carine; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Le Cunff, Martine; Dubroeucq, Hervé; Renand, Gilles; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2007-06-27

    To identify new molecular markers of beef sensory quality, the transcriptomes of Longissimus thoracis muscle from 25 Charolais bull calves were analyzed using microarrays and compared between high and low meat quality groups; 215 genes were differentially expressed according to tenderness, juiciness, and/or flavor. Among these, 23 were up-regulated in the tenderest, juiciest, and tastiest meats, and 18 were highly correlated with both flavor and juiciness (e.g., PRKAG1), explaining up to 60% of their variability. Nine were down-regulated in the same meats, but only DNAJA1 [the results relating to DNAJA1 and its relationship with tenderness have been patented (Genomic marker for meat tenderness; Patent EP06300943.5, September 12, 2006)], which encodes a heat shock protein, showed a strong negative correlation with tenderness that alone explained 63% of its variability. This protein, known for its anti-apoptotic role, could be involved in meat aging. Thus, DNAJA1 could constitute a new marker of beef sensory quality. PMID:17547415

  11. Effects of milk yield on biological efficiency and profit of beef production from birth to slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S P; Wilton, J W; Pfeiffer, W C

    1999-02-01

    Effect of milk yield (MY) on biological efficiency and gross margin as an indicator of profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter was determined. Data included 9 yr of spring-born single male calves. Biological efficiency was calculated as carcass weight/total feed energy intake, including nonlactating and lactating intakes of cow and creep and feedlot intakes of calf. Slaughter end point was finish constant at 9 mm of fat thickness. Gross margin was determined as returns minus feed costs. Three breeding systems were analyzed: purebred Hereford (HE), large rotational (LR), and small rotational (SR). Analyses were performed separately by breeding system when differences in the effect of MY among breeding systems were significant. Increased MY was associated with increased preweaning gain (P .10) effect of MY on age at slaughter or on carcass weight per day of age at slaughter was found. Increased MY was associated with increased cow lactating energy intake (P gross margin from birth to slaughter (P profit potential of beef production from birth to slaughter. PMID:10100661

  12. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 and verocytotoxin producing E. coil (VTEC) on Danish beef carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Boel, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coil (VTEC), E. coli O157, and VTEC O157 in 474 swab samples from Danish beef carcasses was determined. The presence of E. coli O157 was determined by a culture method that included immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by real time PCR...... testing of isolates for verocytotoxin (vtx) genes. E. coil O157 was recovered from 4.2% of the carcass samples and VTEC O157 from 3.4% of the samples. All VTEC O157 contaminated carcasses were from bull calves and the VTEC O157 prevalence on bull calf carcasses was 7.3%. The VTEC O157 contaminated beef...... PCR assay for the E. coil O157 specific rfbE gene was developed. In total 22.4% of the enriched samples were positive for the O157 rfbE gene. The combined results of the vtx and rfbE real time PCR screening showed that 17.5% of the carcasses potentially were contaminated with VTEC O157. Screening...

  13. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  14. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  15. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    of all links in the distribution chain. 11. There is very little branding in the beef market. Where fresh beef is not unbranded it is usually branded with national and regional origin. There are only few manufacturers' brands in the market. New product development is very scarce as well. 12......1. This report describes and analyses the market for fresh beef in Europe including both supply and demand issues. The report is made on the basis of published and unpublished reports and supplemented by in-depth interviews with industrialists in various types of companies and in different...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  16. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    of all lin the distribution chain. 11. There is very little branding in the beef market. Where fresh beef is not unbranded it is usually branded with national and regional origin. There are only few manufacturers' brands in the market. New product development is very scarce as well. 12. As a consequence......Executive summary 1. This report describes and analyses the market for fresh beef in Europe including both supply and demand issues. The report is made on the basis of published and unpublished reports and supplemented by in-depth interviews with industrialists in various types of companies...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  17. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  18. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... quality; 4) marinating by submerging aiming for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement and restructuring through enzyme binding; 6) shock wave treatment and 7) thermal processing. Participants' attitudes towards beef, their innovativeness and risk aversion were also assessed. In total, 65...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  19. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50 and B (n: 60, depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubitus on the housing surface, body hygiene as well as that of the resting area and the thermal comfort. The assessment was made by direct observation and numerical estimation, based on the Welfare Quality ® 2009 protocol (Assessment protocol for cattle as well as by means of a calves safety and welfare evaluation chart according to the European and national legislation on minimum calves safety and protection standards. Data collected and processed have shown the fact that not all housing conditions completely answer calves physiological requirements. Thus the appropriate housing criterion in the present study was met at B lot of 85 % and to a much smaller degree by the A lot (76 %. The assessment carried out by means of the safety chart have indicated that only the minimum criteria for calves rearing were met, which does not translate into a high level of their welfare.

  20. ESTIMATING CROSS ELASTICITIES OF DEMAND FOR BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which observed changes in per capita beef consumption can be accounted for by changes in relative prices and per capita real income. Particular attention was given to specifying the functional form by focusing on the nature of demand shifts over time. These considerations led to selection of the Fourier flexible form with a Fourier series expansion in relative meat prices. The results support the hypothesis that recent shifts in demand for beef can be attribu...

  1. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  2. ROMANIAN BEEF & VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  3. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  4. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  5. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  6. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  7. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Klarić; Drago Bagarić; Zvonko Antunović; Marcela Šperanda; Pero Mijić; Matija Domaćinović

    2009-01-01

    Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were...

  8. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  9. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  10. [Spinal muscular atrophy in Braunvieh calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, H; Ossent, P; Heckmann, R; Oertle, C

    1992-01-01

    Clinical, neurophysiological and histopathological findings of sixteen cases of spinal muscular atrophy in calves are described. The first clinical signs usually were noticed at 2-6 weeks of age. The animals showed weakness in the hindquarters, trembling and ultimate recumbency. There was a marked muscular atrophy in all four extremities. In addition, secondary bronchopneumonia was evident in 11 cases. Histopathological lesions consisted of degenerative changes in the neurons of the ventral horns and the axons of the spinal cord as well as degeneration of nerve axons in the extremities. Neurophysiological measurements revealed spontaneous activity in the muscles of the limbs. The conditions is autosomal recessive. So far 11 bulls have been identified and excluded from breeding.

  11. Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divi, Srikanth N; Bielski, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is the insidious onset of idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip in the pediatric population. The disease encompasses a wide spectrum of pathology, from mild with no long-term sequelae to severe with permanent degenerative change of the hip joint. A pediatric patient with hip pathology may initially only present with knee or thigh pain, thus obligating the clinician to maintain awareness about the hip during examination. Common physical examination findings include deficits in hip abduction and internal rotation, along with Trendelenburg gait in late stages. Plain radiographs demonstrate changes in the anterolateral aspect of the femoral head, sometimes only seen on the frog lateral X-ray in early stages. Treatment options aim to restore range of motion and maintain adequate coverage of the femoral head. When appropriate, surgery is used to reorient the femoral head or pelvis to maintain coverage. PMID:27064472

  12. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn;

    , and whether or not additives were present in the final product. Consensus existed associating unhealthy meat with BSE, poor general hygiene, a low price and excessive processing (marinating, canning, use of additives). The concept of restructuring and nutritionally enhancing beef with enzymes after removal......Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...

  13. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  14. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  15. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  16. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  17. Effect of Heat-treatment on Quality and Microbiology of Colostrum and on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to describe the effect of heat-treatment on microbial counts and IgG levels in colostrum and describe serum IgG concentrations in newborn calves fed heat-treated vs raw colostrum. Six farms, ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 cows, enrolled in the study. First milking ...

  18. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen. PMID:27342094

  19. Impact of Free Trade Agreements on the Colombian Beef Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Miguel I.; Frank, Julieta; Parra, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Colombia negotiated bilateral Trade Agreements (TAs) with the United States and with the MERCOSUR region (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Colombian cattle and beef interest groups argue that TAs hurt the local beef supply chain. We employ a partial equilibrium framework to assess the impact of these TAs on the welfare of cattle producers, beef marketers and meat consumers in Colombia. Our results suggest that with free imports of chicken parts from the U.S, beef consumption and ret...

  20. Beef Marbling Image Segmentation Based on Homomorphic Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Pang; Xiao Sun; Deying Liu; Kunjie Chen

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of uneven illumination and reflect light for beef accurate segmentation, a beef marbling segmentation method based on homomorphic filtering was introduced. Aiming at the beef rib-eye region images in the frequency domain, homomorphic filter was used for enhancing gray, R, G and B 4 chroma images. Then the impact of high frequency /low frequency gain factors on the accuracy of beef marbling segmentation was investigated. Appropriate values of gain factors were ...

  1. A Two-Station Seismic Method to Localize Glacier Calving

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, M. Jeffrey; Holland, David M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Zheng, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    A method of determining glacier calving location using seismic wave arrival times from paired local seismic stations is presented. The difference in surface wave arrival times for each pair is used to define a locus (hyperbola) of possible origin. With multiple pairs, this can be used to triangulate for the origin of the seismic wave, which is interpreted as the calving location. This method is motivated by difficulties with traditional seismic location methods that fail due to the emergent n...

  2. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  3. A farm survey on the presence of dioxins and dl-PCB in beef production systems in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess, HD.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, new maximum levels for the concentration of dioxins (PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB in food entered into force in the European Union [Regulation (EC No 199/2006]. The Swiss Confederation decided to adopt these values from the 1 January 2009 on (RS 817.021.23. A previous appraisal showed that beef from extensive production systems in Switzerland may exceed the new maximum level of 4.5 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. In order to identify the reasons of the presence of dioxins (PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in Swiss beef, a detailed survey was conducted on eight farms in 2008. Depending on the production system, on each farm several suckler cows and their calves or fattening bulls and heifers were selected and followed over several months. Samples of soil, milk, forages, concentrates and meat were taken and analyzed according to standard protocols. The sum of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs in soil averaged 1.4 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 dry matter (DM across all farms. The mean value found in feed samples was 0.25 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 feed (88% DM, which is considerably lower than the legal maximum level of 1.25 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 feed. The mean value of milk from suckler cows was 2.75 pg, and the one of milk from dairy cows was 2 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. Although two individual beef samples (out of 36 slightly exceeded the legal limit of 4.5 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat, the mean value of all beef samples was 2.3 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. The results did not allow to establish direct relationships between the presence of contaminants in feeds and milk or beef and they showed that variation in PCDD/F and dl-PCB contamination of meat within the same farm was very high. It can be concluded that the situation in Switzerland seems not to be alarming and that no particular measures have to be taken. Nevertheless farmers should be aware that extensive production coupled with absence of delay between weaning and slaughtering may induce some risk for producing non compliant beef.

  4. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  5. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  7. Calving seismicity from iceberg-sea surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, C.F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iceberg calving is known to release substantial seismic energy, but little is known about the specific mechanisms that produce calving icequakes. At Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier on the Gulf of Alaska, we draw upon a local network of seismometers and focus on 80 hours of concurrent, direct observation of the terminus to show that calving is the dominant source of seismicity. To elucidate seismogenic mechanisms, we synchronized video and seismograms to reveal that the majority of seismic energy is produced during iceberg interactions with the sea surface. Icequake peak amplitudes coincide with the emergence of high velocity jets of water and ice from the fjord after the complete submergence of falling icebergs below sea level. These icequakes have dominant frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz. Detachment of an iceberg from the terminus produces comparatively weak seismic waves at frequencies between 5 and 20 Hz. Our observations allow us to suggest that the most powerful sources of calving icequakes at Yahtse Glacier include iceberg-sea surface impact, deceleration under the influence of drag and buoyancy, and cavitation. Numerical simulations of seismogenesis during iceberg-sea surface interactions support our observational evidence. Our new understanding of iceberg-sea surface interactions allows us to reattribute the sources of calving seismicity identified in earlier studies and offer guidance for the future use of seismology in monitoring iceberg calving.

  8. Postpartum interval to estrus and patterns of LH and progesterone in first-calf suckled beef cows exposed to mature bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, E E; Berardinelli, J G; Short, R E; Wehrman, M; Adair, R

    1990-05-01

    Two trials were conducted in which Angus x Hereford first-calf cows were assigned randomly at calving to one of two treatments: exposure to mature penile-blocked bulls (BE) or isolation from bulls (NE). In Trial 1 (BE, n = 38; NE, n = 37), cow to bull ratio increased from 12:1 to 19:1 over a 14-d period; in Trial 2 (BE, n = 25; NE, n = 24), this ratio was maintained at 13:1. In both trials, blood samples were collected weekly for progesterone and ovaries and uteri of cows were examined rectally. Cows were observed for estrus twice daily (am:pm) beginning 10 d after calving. In Trial 2, intensive blood sampling for LH began 10 d after calving (eight cows per treatment) and continued at weekly intervals until estrus or the end of the trial. Postpartum weight change, condition score change and time to uterine involution did not differ (P greater than .10) between treatments in either trial. Interval to estrus was shorter (P less than .05) for BE cows than for NE cows in both trials. A greater proportion (P less than .05) of BE cows exhibited estrus by 60 and 90 d after calving and showed an increase in progesterone before first estrus. Mean and baseline LH concentrations and amplitude, frequency and duration of LH pulses were not altered (P greater than .10) by bull exposure. In conclusion, exposing first-calf suckled beef cows to bulls after calving hastened resumption of estrous cycles. Bull exposure did not alter patterns of LH concentrations but did increase proportions of cows that showed increased progesterone before first estrus. PMID:2365649

  9. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  10. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  11. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  12. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  13. MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF CROSSBRED SHEEP CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyar A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield of the most valuable cuts of the first grade the rams depending on the origin. The superiority of crossbred calves over the control for this indicator amounted to 16.4 and 33.4%. The chemical composition of the meat fine-wool lambs contained more moisture and less fat and less calories than meat crossbred animals. Increasing the hybrids values of the protein quality index indicates an increase in meat share of muscle proteins and the reduction of connective tissue, and consequently, improving the quality of the raw meat. Animals obtained by crossing, have wide and deep body, well-developed muscles of the thighs, the best quality characteristics of meat productivity

  14. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  15. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2010-01-01

    Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste...

  16. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  17. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm. PMID:26685846

  18. Are consumers beef quality perceptions in accordance with objective beef quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Banović, Marija; Cristina Monteiro, Ana; Lemos, Jose Pedro Cardoso; Madalena Barreira, Maria; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    The consumer has the final word in food choice, which is determined by his perceived quality. Within a project coordinated by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine we tried to relate objective quality with the consumer quality evaluation. To do so, we have measured the expected and experienced quality of a sample of Portuguese consumers towards three types of beef (PDO, national and imported) at the shop, and compared this subjective evaluation with the beef objective quality. Results at the con...

  19. Production of transgenic calves by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guochun; WAN Rong; HUANG Yinghua; LI Ning; DAI Yunping; FAN Baoliang; ZHU Huabing; WANG Lili; WANG Haiping; TANG Bo; LIU Ying; LI Rong

    2004-01-01

    Bovine fetal oviduct epithelial cells were transfected with constructed double marker selective vector (pCE-EGFP-IRES-Neo-dNdB) containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neomycin-resistant (Neor) genes by electroporation, and a transgenic cell line was obtained. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was carried out using the transgenic cells as nuclei donor. A total of 424 SCNT embryos were reconstructed and 208 (49.1%) of them developed to blastocyst stage. 17 blastocysts on D 7 after reconstruction were transferred to 17 surrogate calves, and 5 (29.4%) recipients were found to be pregnant. Three of them maintained to term and delivered three cloned calves. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of transgene in all of the three cloned calves. In addition, expression of EGFP was detected in biopsy isolated from the transgenic cloned calves and fibroblasts derived from the biopsy. Our results suggest that transgenic calves could be efficiently produced by SCNT using transgenic cells as nuclei donor. Furthermore, all cloned animals could be ensured to be transgenic by efficiently pre-screening transgenic cells and SCNT embryos using the constructed double marker selective vector.

  20. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  1. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  2. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation in the......The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...

  3. Ricobendazole kinetics and availability following subcutaneous administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, C E; Virkel, G L; Sanchez, S F; Alvarez, L I; Lifschitz, A L; Imperiale, F; Monfrinotti, A

    1998-01-01

    The plasma and abomasal fluid disposition kinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves, and the comparative plasma availability after s.c. injection of RBZ and that obtained after oral treatment with albendazole (ABZ), were characterised. Six parasite-free Holstein calves received RBZ (solution 150 mg ml(-1)) by s.c. injection at 3.75 mg kg(-1) (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 was conducted in two experimental phases; in phase I, five calves (Group A) received RBZ by s.c. injection and five animals (Group B) were orally treated with ABZ (suspension 100 mg ml(-1)), at 5 mg kg(-1). Drug treatments were reversed for each group in phase II and given at 7.5 mg kg(-1). Samples of abomasal fluid (via cannula) and jugular blood were collected over 72 hours post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. RBZ and its sulphone metabolite were detected in plasma following its s.c. administration. RBZ was rapidly absorbed, reaching the plasma Cmax at 4.5 hours post-dosing. The sulphone metabolite followed a similar kinetic pattern. Both molecules were rapidly and extensively distributed into the abomasum, being detected in abomasal fluid between 30 minutes and 36 hours post-administration. An extensive plasma/abomasum exchange process, with ionic-trapping in the abomasum, accounted for the higher AUC value (>200 per cent) obtained for RBZ in abomasum compared with plasma. The s.c. treatment with RBZ formulated as a solution resulted in a significantly greater plasma availability (measured as ABZ sulphoxide) than the oral treatment with ABZ (suspension) given at the same dose rates. PMID:9769065

  4. Clinical Observation on Effect of Gufusheng Capsule in Treating Early Stage Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease%骨复生胶囊治疗早期儿童股骨头缺血性坏死的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁普卫; 贺西京; 王国毓; 王栋; 李浩鹏; 刘亦恒; 刘德玉

    2005-01-01

    目的客观评价骨复生胶囊治疗早期儿童股骨头缺血性坏死(Legg-Calve-Perthes病,简称Perthes病)的临床疗效.方法采用随机单盲对照试验,将45例早期Perthes病患儿随机分为两组,对照组(23例),应用病变侧髋关节滑膜切除、股骨头减压及带缝匠肌髂骨瓣移植术,治疗组(22例)采用内服中药骨复生胶囊联合上述术式治疗,疗程均为6个月.结果近期疗效:治疗组和对照组临床总有效率分别为90.9%和78.3%,优良率分别为72.7%和60.9%,两组比较差异无显著性.两组治疗前后疼痛视觉模拟法(VAS法)评分及临床症状、体征评分比较均明显下降,两组治疗后比较差异有显著性(P<0.05,P<0.01).远期疗效(随访1年~4年1个月):治疗组和对照组总有效率和优良率比较差异有显著性(χ2=8.5976,P<0.05).结论骨复生胶囊对于缓解早期Perthes病患儿疼痛及促进病变髋关节功能改善有明显的促进作用,是一种治疗早期Perthes病安全、有效中药复方,值得进一步研究和开发.

  5. The utility of ketoprofen for alleviating pain following dehorning in young dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Barry N.; Duffield, Todd; Lissemore, Kerry

    2004-01-01

    To determine if ketoprofen, in addition to local anaesthesia, reduces pain following dehorning, we experimentally dehorned dairy calves, less than 2 weeks of age, with (20 calves) or without (20 calves) intramuscular injections of ketoprofen. All calves received a local anesthetic (lidocaine) prior to dehorning and were dehorned with heat cauterization. Cortisol concentration was measured via jugular blood samples taken immediately before dehorning and at 3 and 6 hours following dehorning. Ca...

  6. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bahr, Sabry M.; Wael M. EL-Deeb

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP), lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg) were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total pr...

  7. Investigating the use of behavioural, accelerometer and heart rate measurements to predict calving in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Miedema, Johanna Mary

    2010-01-01

    Calving is an essential event in dairy production, as lactation only begins after calving and cows must give birth at regular intervals in order to maintain milk production. Careful management is important during the weeks around calving as this is when dairy cows most frequently experience health problems. Experienced stockmen use judgements based on physical and behavioural changes in order to recognise when cows may be about to calve, and subsequently be available to offer ...

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves

    OpenAIRE

    Helal, Mahmoud Atef Youssef; Okamatsu, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Motoshi

    2012-01-01

    A dairy herd including approximately 50 milking cows and 40 heifers and calves was investigated. This herd was detected with high prevalence of calves persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Nine PI animals including a milking cow and 8 newborn calves were detected in the herd within 4 months. Prevalence of PI animals in this herd was estimated 7.0% which was very high compared to that estimated in previous reports. All newborn PI calves were strongly suspected to ...

  9. Pretreatment of serum samples to reduce interference of colostrum-derived specific antibodies with detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by ELISA in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Reichel, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected (BVDV PI) cattle; however, colostrum-derived antibodies may interfere with antigen detection in serum from young PI calves. Our study aimed to assess serum pretreatment methods for reducing such interference. Dilution of PI serum with serum containing specific antibody showed that antibody levels equivalent to those observed in colostrum-fed calves were able to eliminate all antigen signals in a serum sample. Serum was treated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid at pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5, then boiled, centrifuged, and the supernatant-recovered. BVDV antibody was undetectable by ELISA in supernatants from treated samples, and the antigen ELISA signal was improved. Maximum antigen signal recovery of >90% was achieved at pH 5 ± 0.5. When this optimal treatment method was applied to field samples from 3 PI calves (which were negative in the antigen-capture ELISA without treatment), the antigen signal improved and gave a positive result in each case. Pretreatment may provide an improvement in the detection of young PI calves. PMID:27016723

  10. Genomics and the global beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    After two decades of developing DNA-based tools for selection, we are at an interesting juncture. Genomic technology has essentially eliminated the potentially large negative impact of spontaneous single mutation genetic defects as the management of recent examples of beef defects has demonstrated....

  11. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  12. Effect of feeding system on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers, steer calves and heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, M L; Fox, D G; Black, J R

    1980-03-01

    Three types of cattle (Angus x Hereford yearling steers, Charolais x British breed steer calves and Hereford heifer calves) were evaluated for their response to different feeding systems utilizing high moisture corn, corn silage and soybean meal as major feed ingredients. Feeding ing systems for steers included: A = 85% concentrate; B = 40% concentrate; C = two phase, with switch from all corn silage to 85% concentrate in the middle of the feeding period; D = same as C except switch occurred late in the feeding period; E = all corn silage continuously. Heifer diets consisted of the following ratios of corn silage to concentrate: low energy = 89:11; medium energy = 67:33; and high energy = 100 fed at a moderate (10.9% for low energy and medium energy, and 11.7% for high energy) and high (13.8%) crude protein level. Treatments within each experiment were terminated at approximately the same final weight. Increasing percentage corn added to the total diet increased ADG in most comparisons. Adjusted to a constant carcass weight, increasing dietary energy increased fat thickness and reduced percentage retail product with no effect on quality grade in yearling steers and heifer calves. In Charolais cross-steer calves, increasing energy level increased quality grade with no effect on yield grade or percentage retail product. Energetic efficiency slightly favored system C in yearling steers while steer calves maximized efficiency on A. Hereford heifers were the most energetically efficient on medium energy diets. PMID:7364676

  13. Application of a novel antimicrobial coating on roast beef for inactivation and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luxin; Zhao, Liang; Yuan, Jing; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-10-15

    The antilisterial efficacy of novel coating solutions made with organic acids, lauric arginate ester, and chitosan was evaluated in a three-stage study on inoculated roast beef for the first time. Ready-to-eat roast beef was specially ordered from the manufacturer. The meat surface was inoculated with five-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail inoculums at two different levels, ~3 and 6 Log CFU/cm(2) and treated with the stock solution (HAMS), the 1:5 diluted solution (MAMS), and the 1:10 diluted solution (LAMS) (stage 1). During the 20 min contact time, the antimicrobial coatings reduced the Listeria populations by approximately 0.9-0.3 Log CFU/cm(2). The higher the concentrations of the antimicrobial solution, the better the antilisterial effects were. The treated inoculated beef samples were then stored at 4 °C for 30 days. During storage, Listeria growth inhibition effects were seen. While no growth was seen from the HAMS-treated samples, a 1.6 Log CFU/cm(2) increase was seen for MAMS-treated samples, a 4.6 Log CFU/cm(2) increase was seen for LAMS-treated samples, and a 5.7 Log CFU/cm(2) increase was seen for NoAMS-treated samples on Day 30 (~3 Log CFU/cm(2) inoculation level). In the second stage, the impact of the roast beef storage time on solution's antilisterial effect was evaluated. Results showed that the effect of the antimicrobial solution was dependent on both the initial inoculation levels and storage times. In stage 3, the effect of the antimicrobial solution on roast beef quality was studied with both instrument measurement and sensory evaluation. Minor changes in color, pH, and water activity were found. However, only limited sensory differences were seen between the treated and untreated samples. When panels were able to accurately find color differences between samples, they preferred the treated samples. The findings of this research proved the antilisterial efficacy of the novel antimicrobial solution and showed its potential for being used

  14. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  15. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  16. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves,...

  17. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  18. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  19. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis.

  20. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models. PMID:24398839

  1. Ruminal pH and temperature, papilla characteristics, and animal performance of fattening calves fed concentrate or maize silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bodas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding systems can play an important role, not only in beef farm profitability but also in animal health and performance. Fourteen Avilena-Negra Iberica bulls, with an initial weight of 270 kg (SE 22.6 kg and aged 223 d (SE 16.2 were used to study the effect of two feeding systems on ruminal pH and temperature and animal performance when calves were kept in loose housing conditions. Feeding systems were barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grain-based concentrate plus barley straw (CONC and maize (Zea mays L. silage-based total mixed ration (TMR. Internal wireless boluses were used to collect pH and temperature values every 10 min throughout the measurement period (15 d. Diet did not modify (P > 0.10 average daily gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, ruminal mucosa color, or papilla counts. Papilla width and papilla width/lamina propria thickness were significantly lower (P 0.10. Although animal performance is not affected, feeding fattening calves on a concentrate plus barley straw diet can result in better rumen conditions than using maize silage-based TMR.

  2. Surgical Management of Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Diseases of Feedlot Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David E; Miesner, Matt D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries, infections, and disorders of the musculoskeletal system are common in feedlot calves. These conditions often are amenable to surgical treatment with return of the calf to productivity. Weight gain and carcass quality are expected to be significantly adversely affected by pain and debilitation. The goal of surgical management of disorders of the joints, muscles, and feet should be resolution of the inciting cause, mitigation of pain, and restoration of form and function. If these are achieved, calves should return to acceptable, if not normal, feed intake, rate of gain, and carcass quality. PMID:26210767

  3. Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.

    2003-01-01

    I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

  4. PRESERVING THE QUALITY AND PROLONGATION THE SHELF-LIFE OF BEEF PACKED UNDER VACUUM OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE USING TERNARY ANTIOXIDANT BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stoyanov Staykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the quality and prolongation the shelf-life of stored at 0  0.5ºC packed under vacuum or modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere beef m. semimembranosus sprayed with 0.02% solution, containing 10 g.l-1 dihydroquercetin from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, 5 g.l-1 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract and 1 g.l-1 L-ascorbic acid was studied. The experiments were carried out with five samples: control - air packaged; vacuum packaged; vacuum packaged and treated with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend; packaged under modified atmosphere (80%O2/20%CO2; and packaged under rich in oxygen modified atmosphere, after spaying with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend. Samples were stored 28 days (to 32 d post mortem at 0  0.5ºC. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend preserve the sensory scores and colour properties of beef, and inhibited total microbial growth, and development of Brochothrix termosphacta and pathogens to the end of storage (28 d at 0  0.5ºC, was found. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend was not main factors which can affect the pH and free amino nitrogen changes in fresh beef. The pre-treatment of beef with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend may be successfully used for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf-life of beef m. semimembranosus packed under modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere. The shelf-life can extend with 75% compared to air packed meat, and with 7 days against only vacuum- or modified atmosphere packed beef.

  5. Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie H. Thames

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning, and 12 (5 weeks after weaning. ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX, macrolide (ermB, ermF, and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies/ g wet manure of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onwards, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P<0.10, even in control calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional

  6. A TARGET CONSUMER PROFILE AND POSITIONING FOR PROMOTION OF A NEW LOCALLY BRANDED BEEF PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Thulin, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the consumer profile and positioning for a new locally branded beef product. The research involves 413 beef consumers in California. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are approximately one-third of beef consumers in the local area. They are older, married, and from higher dual-income households. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are likely to have purchased other branded beef products. Approximately one-half of the...

  7. Evaluation of subclinical endometritis and consequences on fertility in piedmontese beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Gallo, S; Molinaro, F; Dondo, A; Zoppi, S; Vincenti, L

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical endometritis (SEM) is poorly investigated in beef cows, as stated in the literature. This project aims to evaluate the rate and the consequences of SEM in Piedmontese cows, with a focus on bacteriological findings and fertility parameters. Uterine cytology was performed for 97 subjects; a total of 31% of the cows were diagnosed as being positive for SEM and as having an 8% neutrophil (PMN) presence on the slide, which is considered as the best cut-off to diagnose the pathology. Only 13% of the cows positive for SEM were pregnant within 130 dpp and generally showed increases of 40 days in the partum to conception interval compared with the negative cows (142 vs 182, p = 0.01). Cows positive for both bacteriology and cytology showed a lower fertility than cows with only inflammation or only a bacterial presence (p = 0.0004). Bacterial isolation detected different species, but no difference in regard to the impact of these bacteria on SEM was shown. Parity, presence of calves, hygiene condition, age and number of service did not affect whether a cow was positive for subclinical endometritis (p < 0.05). The housing system (free stalls vs tie stalls) used seems to affect the SEM rate in Piedmontese cows; cows bred in tie stalls were more likely to be positive for SEM (OR = 2.2; p = 0.04). In conclusion, cytology seems to be a good technique for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in beef cows, and as in dairy cows, subclinical endometritis has a detrimental effect on fertility, causing an increase in partum to conception and a decrease in the rate of cows who become pregnant within 130 dpp, particularly for those cows housed in a tie stall. PMID:25598020

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  9. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  10. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  11. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (Pmanagement because this study has highlighted a number of areas which are below international standards, and may have repercussions for calf health. Furthermore, management practices on larger farms could be improved and, as these represent the future of dairy farming, a focus needs to be placed on them. Expanding herds are not a particular concern as herd expansion, independent of herd size, does not seem to be associated with calving and colostrum management practices on Irish spring-calving dairy herds.

  12. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.;

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  13. Addition of tea catechins and vitamin C on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability during chilled storage in cooked or raw beef and chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Mitsuru; O'Grady, Michael N; Kerry, Joe P; Joe Buckley, D

    2005-04-01

    The effects of addition of tea catechins (TC) and vitamin C (VC) on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability in cooked or raw beef and chicken meat patties during refrigerated storage were studied. Fresh beef striploin and chicken breast muscles were minced, following removal of external fat and connective tissue. Following mincing, beef and chicken were assigned to one of the following five treatments: control (meat treated with no antioxidant); TC200, meat plus 200 mg TC/kg muscle; TC400, meat plus 400 mg TC/kg muscle; VC200, meat plus 200 mg VC/kg muscle, VC400, meat plus 400 mg VC/kg muscle. Sodium chloride (1%) was added to all samples. Patties (125 g portions), formed from the above-treated minced meat, were oven cooked, cooled, and packaged in 30% CO(2):70% N(2). Fresh raw beef and chicken patties were packaged in 80% O(2):20% CO(2). All samples were stored for up to 7 days under fluorescent lighting at 4 °C. Sensory parameters (colour, flavour, taste, tenderness and overall acceptability) were evaluated on cooked beef and chicken patties after 1, 3 and 6 days of storage. Surface colour (Hunter L, a and b values), and lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured on days 1, 3 and 6 of storage for cooked meats and on days 2 and 7 for raw beef and chicken. Tea catechins addition (200 or 400 mg/kg) to minced meat caused (P<0.05) discolouration in cooked beef and chicken meat patties and significantly reduced (P<0.001) lipid oxidation in cooked or raw beef patties compared to the control. Beef, either raw or cooked, was more susceptible (P<0.01) to oxidation compared to chicken. Raw meat stored in high oxygen conditions was more susceptible to lipid oxidation than cooked meat stored in anaerobic conditions. Tea catechins treatments (TC200 and TC400) inhibited (P<0.05) lipid oxidation in raw beef to a greater extent than vitamin C treatments (VC200 and VC400). These results indicate that tea catechins are potent natural

  14. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in beef sold in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMDI ALIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in beef used in three regions of Kosovo. Total numbers of 89 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local meat shops for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. Among the beef samples, 14 (15.7% of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones. The mean levels (±SE of quinolones were found to be in average of 28.22 ± 1.11 µg/kg in samples respectively for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and flumequin. This study indicated that some beef meat sold in Kosovo contains residues of quinolone antibiotics. From the evaluation of tested samples is found positive the presence of enrofloxacin in 6 (6.7% beef meat samples and respectively for ciprofloxacin and fumequin in 3 (3, 35% and in 5(5, 6% beef meat samples. Study results confirmed quinolone residues in beef sold in Kosovo as constitute and serious risk for public health. Use of quinolones in treatment of cattle diseases in Kosovo remain an effective method of diseases control but are considered a common way of residues in beef produced and sold in Kosovo.

  15. Sexing of beef - a survey of possible methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, R; Schimmel, H

    2002-01-01

    The beef trade, amounting to several billion Euro per year, is of great importance in the European Union. Several measures have been introduced to support beef producers, such as intervention buying. However, these payments are only effected for male beef, which represents a temptation for fraud. Consequently, reliable methods for sexing of beef are required. This report summarises existing methods in EU countries as well as possible alternatives deduced from the literature. Individual methods are discussed for their advantages and disadvantages as well as their general applicability. PMID:22063107

  16. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  17. Measurements at calving for straightbred and crossbred cows of diverse types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, R E; Baker, J F; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R; Sanders, J O

    1990-10-01

    Reproductive and calving records of 611 cows from F1 and F2 generations from a diallel mating system with Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey were examined. The inter se matings were by artificial insemination, and each cow had three or four parturitions. Dependent variables included weight, hip weight at first calving, age at first calving, gestation length and calving interval. Brahmans were the heaviest, tallest and oldest purebred at first calving. Crossbred Brahman females tended to be older than other crosses at first calving. Purebred Brahmans and one-half Brahman crosses also had the longest gestation lengths and calving intervals. First-gestation (F1) crossbred cows were 18 kg heavier (P less than .05), 2.0 cm taller (P less than .01) and 35 d younger (P less than .05) at first calving than contemporary straightbreds. Average maternal heterosis for height at calving was significant (1.4 cm; P less than .05); however, estimates of specific and average maternal heterosis for measurements taken at first calving were generally nonsignificant. Estimates of specific and average individual and maternal heterosis were generally small and nonsignificant for gestation length and calving interval. PMID:2254189

  18. Electrocardiographic Studies on Neonatal Period of Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several physiological alterations may occur in cardiovascular system during fetal life to the neonatal period. Electrocardiographic studies in neonatal period may assist veterinarians to evaluate cardiovascular system in this period. Five multiparous high producing Holstein dairy cows were monitored at close-up dry period to calving. Electrocardiograms were recorded from their calves immediately and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days after birth and all electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated. Durations of P, R and T waves were increased significantly from birth to the end of neonatal period (P<0.05. R and T amplitudes were significantly elevated but P amplitude declined significantly. There were significant increasing patterns in PR, RR, QT and ST intervals during neonatal period (P<0.05. Based on these findings, it may be suggested that physiological alterations of the electrocardiographic parameters occur during the neonatal period of the Holstein dairy calves at neonatal period. These data could provide a better understanding of interpretation of the electrocardiographic alterations among neonatal calves.

  19. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two gr

  20. On the role of buoyant flexure in glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Vella, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between glaciers and the ocean are key for understanding the dynamics of the cryosphere in the climate system. Here we investigate the role of hydrostatic forces in glacier calving. We develop a mathematical model to account for the elastic deformation of glaciers in response to three effects: (i) marine and lake-terminating glaciers tend to enter water with a nonzero slope, resulting in upward flexure around the grounding line; (ii) horizontal pressure imbalances at the terminus are known to cause hydrostatic in-plane stresses and downward acting torque; (iii) submerged ice protrusions at the glacier front may induce additional buoyancy forces that can cause calving. Our model provides theoretical estimates of the importance of each effect and suggests geometric and material conditions under which a given glacier will calve from hydrostatic flexure.We find good agreement with observations. This work sheds light on the intricate processes involved in glacier calving and can be hoped to improve our ability to model and predict future changes in the ice-climate system.

  1. Genetic resistance to experimental Cooperia oncophora infections in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The variation in resistance of cattle to gastro-intestinal nematode infection was investigated in three experiments. Bull calves, aged three months and reared under uniform conditions, were artificially infected with infective larvae of Cooperia oncophora, a moderately pathogenic but very abundant p

  2. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute (all-milk-prote

  3. Genetic differences based on a beef terminal index are reflected in future phenotypic performance differences in commercial beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S M; Cromie, A R; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    The increased demand for animal-derived protein and energy for human consumption will have to be achieved through a combination of improved animal genetic merit and better management strategies. The objective of the present study was to quantify whether differences in genetic merit among animals materialised into phenotypic differences in commercial herds. Carcass phenotypes on 156 864 animals from 7301 finishing herds were used, which included carcass weight (kg), carcass conformation score (scale 1 to 15), carcass fat score (scale 1 to 15) at slaughter as well as carcass price. The price per kilogram and the total carcass value that the producer received for the animal at slaughter was also used. A terminal index, calculated in the national genetic evaluations, was obtained for each animal. The index was based on pedigree index for calving performance, feed intake and carcass traits from the national genetic evaluations. Animals were categorised into four terminal index groups on the basis of genetic merit estimates that were derived before the expression of the phenotypic information by the validation animals. The association between terminal index and phenotypic performance at slaughter was undertaken using mixed models; whether the association differed by gender (i.e. young bulls, steers and heifers) or by early life experiences (animals born in a dairy herd or beef herd) was also investigated. The regression coefficient of phenotypic carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat on their respective estimated breeding values (EBVs) was 0.92 kg, 1.08 units and 0.79 units, respectively, which is close to the expectation of one. Relative to animals in the lowest genetic merit group, animals in the highest genetic merit group had, on average, a 38.7 kg heavier carcass, with 2.21 units greater carcass conformation, and 0.82 units less fat. The superior genetic merit animals were, on average, slaughtered 6 days younger than their inferior genetic merit

  4. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...... included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible...

  5. Genetic Parameters for Milk ,Fat Yield and Age at First Calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic parameters for milk,fat yield and age at first calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang were evaluated using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood procedures with an animal model. Data consisted of records of 2496 Chinese Holsteins first lactation cows collected from 1989 to 2000. The model included 21herd effects, four calving season effects, nine age at first calving effects, 6697 animal effects. (Co)variance components of milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving were estimated with the software package for variance component estimation(VCE) by an animal model. The heritabilities were 0. 14.0. 21,0. 38 for milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving ,respectively. ihe estimates of genetic correlation between milk yield and fat yield,age at first calving were 0. 96,-0.29.respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between fat yield and age at first calving was-0.28.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and renal clearance of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Guelen, P J; Jansen, T; De Grève, B

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old veal calves. A two-compartment model was used to fit the plasma concentration-time curve of flumequine after the intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg of a 10% solution. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) of the drug ranged from 6 to 7 h. The Vd beta and ClB of 1-week-old calves (1.07 l/kg, 1.78 ml/min/kg) were significantly lower than those of 5-week-old (1.89 l/kg, 3.23 ml/min/kg) and 18-week-old calves (1.57 l/kg, 3.10 ml/min/kg). After the oral administration of 10 mg/kg of a 2% flumequine formulation mixed with milk replacer, the Cmax was highest in 1-week-old (9.27 micrograms/ml) and lowest in 18-week-old calves (4.47 micrograms/ml). The absorption was rapid (Tmax of approximately 3 h) and complete. When flumequine itself and a formulation containing 2% flumequine and 20 X 10(6) iu of colistin sulphate were mixed with milk replacer and administered at the same dose rate, absorption was incomplete and Cmax was lower. The main urinary metabolite of flumequine was the glucuronide conjugate (approximately 40% recovery within 48 h of intravenous injection) and the second most important metabolite was 7-hydroxy-flumequine (approximately 3% recovery within 12 h of intravenous injection). Only 3.2-6.5% was excreted in the urine unchanged. After oral administration a 'first-pass' effect was observed, with a significant increase in the excretion of conjugated drug. For 1-week-old calves it is recommended that the 2% formulation should be administered at a dose rate of 8 mg/kg every 24 h or 4 mg/kg every 12 h; for calves over 6 weeks old, the dose should be increased to 15 mg/kg every 24 h or 7.5 mg/kg every 12 h. The formulation containing colistin sulphate should be administered to 1-week-old calves at a flumequine dose of 12 mg/kg every 24 h or 6 mg/kg every 12 h. PMID:2384907

  7. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  8. Beef production in Romania (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the statistics is to show changes in the size and value of total production of animals for slaughtering and meat analyzed by use. Due to the interest of breeders and specialists from our country in specialized breeds of cattle meat production is increasing, the purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of beef production over the last three years. The number of animals slaughtered decreased steadily from 2010 to 2012. Most slaughter, were done in the second half of the years in which research was made. The largest number of cattle were slaughtered in December 2010, and the fewest (with 62.32% less in January 2012. Total slaughter is declining, but a higher number of animals are slaughtered in official slaughterhouses, at a higher weight. As a consequence, beef production is forecast to remain relatively stagnant.

  9. Genetic parameters for calving and conformation traits in Charolais x Montbéliard and Charolais x Holstein crossbred calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallee, A.A.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Charolais sires can be mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dairy cows to produce crossbred calves sold for meat production. Heritabilities and correlations between traits can differ when they are calculated within Charolais × Montbéliard or within Charolais × Holstein population. Moreover, the genetic

  10. Forecasting beef prices for military subsistence procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Borza, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Defense Subsistence Region Pacific (DSRPAC) is responsible for the acquisition of food products (meat, fresh fruit and vegetables, etc.) for military personnel located west of the Rocky Mountains. In the author's review of current DSRPAC operations, it was observed that capitalizing on price movements was not a consideration during acquisition cf beef products. Using time-series analysis, it was shown that significant...

  11. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  12. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  13. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  14. Comparison of pregnancy rates in beef cattle after a fixed-time AI with once- or twice-used controlled internal drug release devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth-Spurlock, A M; Poole, D H; Whisnant, C S

    2016-02-01

    The use of fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) provides producers with numerous benefits including the use of superior genetics, shorter breeding and calving seasons, and a more uniform calf crop. However, the cost of implementing FTAI protocols is one of the several drawbacks hindering their use in the beef industry. Potential injection-site lesions from intramuscular injections of the hormones necessary for estrus synchronization are also a cause of concern for carcass quality. The objectives of this experiment were to (1) determine whether or not a twice-used controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device would be effective in an FTAI protocol without adversely affecting pregnancy rate and (2) whether or not the subcutaneous administration of PGF2α affects pregnancy rate. Nulliparous females (n = 99) between 13 and 27 months of age and multiparous cows (n = 43) between 48 and 74 months of age were synchronized for estrus using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. The females were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments: (1) a once-used CIDR (control) or (2) a twice-used CIDR device (treatment) incorporated into their synchronization protocol. The females were also randomly assigned to have their injection of PGF2α administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Blood was taken in a random subset of nulliparous females (n = 52) just before device removal and assayed for concentration of progesterone. The concentration of progesterone was higher (P = 0.01) in the animals that received once-used CIDR devices than that in those received twice-used CIDR devices (3.4 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL, respectively). There was no significant effect of parity (P = 0.82), artificial insemination technician (P = 0.60), PGF2α administration (P = 0.83), or treatment (P = 0.67) on pregnancy rates to artificial insemination which were 75.4 ± 6.0% and 71.7 ± 6.4%, for animals that received once- and twice-used CIDR devices, respectively. This study provides

  15. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i abrupt weaning and ii subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d 0, mean age of calf (s.d. 212 (24.5 d, cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i d 0 (weaning, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii d 0 (housing, 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Results Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05. Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P 0.05. On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P Conclusions A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-γ production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  16. Comparative studies on gamma radiation and high pressure induced effects on minced beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total viable cell count of bacteria in vacuum-packaged chilled minced beef has been decreased equally, by approx. two log-cycles, as an effect of 1.5-2.0 kGy gamma radiation or 200-300 MPa high hydrostatic pressure (UHP) treatment for 20 min. Coliform bacteria could be eliminated to non-detectable levels by the same treatments. The shelf-life of both untreated and non-thermally pasteurised samples were limited mainly by growth of lactic acid bacteria. At about equal bactericidal effect, more drastic changes of texture and colour occurred in UHP-pasteurized minced beef samples than in the radiation-pasteurized ones. Whereas radiation pasteurisation caused minimal changes in appearance, texture and DSC-thermograms of minced beef, UHP-pasteurisation of the raw samples proved to be strongly discolouring by denaturing the muscle pigments and causing extensive denaturation of the myofibrillar proteins. The water holding capacity of irradiated samples decreased, while that of high pressure treated ones increased as compared to the untreated control. Near infrared spectrometry and electronic nose measurements gave promising results to make distinctions non-destructively on changes of various physical-chemical changes and quality parameters as a function of pasteurising treatments and/or storage

  17. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  18. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), is characterized by multiple (external and internal) haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches) from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every sampling point between 9

  19. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlin Annette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP, is characterized by multiple (external and internal haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every

  20. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  1. Identification of an ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1/GRIA1 polymorphism in crossbred beef cows differing in fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, R A; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Nonneman, D; Echternkamp, S E

    2013-06-01

    A proposed functional polymorphism in the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1 (GRIA1) has been reported to influence antral follicle numbers and fertility in cows. Repeat breeder cows that fail to produce a calf in multiple seasons have been reported to have reduced numbers of small (1 to 3 mm) antral follicles in their ovaries. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this GRIA1 polymorphism was affecting antral follicle numbers in repeat breeder cows. Repeat breeder cows (n = 64) and control cows (n = 72) that had always produced a calf were housed in a dry lot and observed twice daily for behavioral estrus. Blood samples were collected, and cows were genotyped for this GRIA1 polymorphism and for a polymorphism in the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) that was proposed to influence age at puberty. On d 3 to 8 after estrus cows were slaughtered, and reproductive organs were collected to determine antral follicle count, ovary size, and uterine horn diameter. Repeat breeder cows were older at first calving than control cows (P = 0.006). The length (P = 0.03) and height (P = 0.02) of the ovary contralateral to the corpus luteum (CL) were greater in control cows than repeat breeder cows. The endometrial diameter in the horn ipsilateral to the CL was greater in the control cows than the repeat breeder cows. Repeat breeder cows had fewer small (1 to 5 mm) antral follicles than control cows (P = 0.003); however, there was no association between GRIA1 genotype and antral follicle number. The GnRHR polymorphism was associated with age at first calving because cows that were homozygous for the C allele had a greater age at first calving than heterozygous cows or cows that were homozygous for the T allele (P = 0.01). In the granulosa cells from small (1 to 5 mm) antral follicles, mRNA abundances of 2 markers of oocyte quality, anti-Müllerian hormone and pentraxin 3, did not differ between fertility groups (P ≥ 0.12). We conclude that this GRIA1 polymorphism exists in beef cows but

  2. Housing system may affect behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, J A; Eastridge, M L; Swartzwelder, S S; Daniels, K M; Yohe, T T

    2016-01-01

    Social pressure is increasing to adopt alternative housing and management practices that allow farm animals more opportunity to exercise and demonstrate social behavior. The present study investigated the effect of pair housing on the behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves. Forty female Jersey calves were allocated to individual or pair housing at birth and monitored for 9 wk. Calves were provided with a single hutch, and those allocated to the pair housing treatment were provided a pen enclosure twice the size of individually housed calves and only one hutch was provided per pair. All calves were fed milk replacer via bucket twice per day (1.89 L/feeding first 7 d; 2.27 L/feeding until weaned) and had ad libitum access to grain and water. Gradual weaning commenced on d 49 by reducing the calves' milk allowance to one feeding per day, and weaning occurred on d 56. Grain consumption was monitored daily and calves were weighed weekly. Direct behavioral observations were conducted twice per week. Calves housed in pairs tended to have greater average daily gain compared with calves housed individually (0.63 vs. 0.59 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively). Pair housing also increased final body weight compared with individual housing (64.9 vs. 61.7 ± 0.59 kg, respectively). During observation periods, calves housed individually spent more time engaging in nonnutritive sucking than calves housed in pairs (21.5 vs. 8.15 ± 0.03% of total observations). Calves housed in pairs were observed cross sucking 13.5% of the time during observational periods. Although housing Jersey calves in pairs may increase measures of growth performance, future research should aim to reduce cross-sucking behavior within the Jersey breed through alternative feeding systems or environmental enrichment. PMID:26585485

  3. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were divided into three equal groups (10 calves in each group. Experiment was carried out in the period from calving up to the 60th day of calf ’s age. All groups were given whole milk, however, duration of whole milk feeding differed among groups. Group 1 consumed whole milk from birth up to the 30th day of age, group 2 from birth up to the 20th day of age and group 3 from birth up to the 10th day of age. Afterwards, all groups were fed with milk replacement formula up to the 60th day of age. Suggested technological solutions in calves feeding within this experiment were analyzed through evaluation of basic fattening characteristics, monitoring of diarrhea occurrences and calculating costs per kg of weight gain per each group. Statistical analysis referring to calves body weight, daily gain and liquid feed conversion during the 1st month of experiment proved the best values for group 1, which were statistically highly significant (P<0.01 if compared to other groups. Examination of health status of calves determined that diarrhea occurred less frequently in group 1, which led to conclusion that feeding whole milk to calves should be given priority with respect to its nutritive and health benefits. By analyzing economic aspect of feeding whole milk to calves in their 1st month of age, the lowest costs were obtained for group 1, which supports the fact that feeding calves with whole milk is cost effective.

  4. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  5. Yield of warm beef carcass meat from simmental breed

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of live weight upon yield of warm beef carcass meat from Simmental breed. Twenty 12 - 18 month-old male bullocks were assigned with average live weight 450,52 ± 4,68 kg. The yield of warm beef carcass meat, edible and non-edible by-products was determined

  6. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  7. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  8. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  9. Development of a multiple-step process for the microbial decontamination of beef trim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D H; Koohmaraie, M; Dorsa, W J; Siragusa, G R

    2001-01-01

    A multiple-hurdle antimicrobial process for beef trim was developed. The microbial profiles of inoculated lean beef trim tissue (BTL) and fat-covered lean beef trim (BTF) were monitored during prolonged refrigerated storage following the application of successive multiple antimicrobial treatments applied to inoculated beef trim on a processing conveyor belt set at a belt speed of 1 cm/s. Beef trim (meat size approximately 15 by 15 cm) was preinoculated with bovine feces before all treatments that included the following: control, no treatment; water wash at 65 psi for five passes; water plus lactic acid (2% [vol/vol] room temperature lactic acid wash at 30 psi for three passes); combination treatment 1 (water plus 65 degrees C hot water at 30 psi for one pass plus hot air at 510 degrees C for four passes plus lactic acid), combination treatment 2 (water plus hot water at 82 degrees C for one pass plus hot air at 510 degrees C for five passes plus lactic acid), and combination treatment 3 (water plus hot water at 82 degrees C for three passes plus hot air at 510 degrees C for six passes plus lactic acid). The effects of treatments on bacterial populations were monitored by enumerating mesophilic aerobic bacteria (APC), presumptive lactic acid bacteria (PLAB), psychrotrophic bacteria (PCT), coliforms, and Escherichia coli biotype 1 on product stored for up to 7 days at 4 degrees C. In the case of BTL, the numbers of APC, PCT, and PLAB increased during storage at 5 degrees C, whereas the numbers of coliform and E. coli decreased on average by 1.8 log CFU/cm2, then remained constant following the initial reduction. Negligible effects on color quality were observed from multihurdle treatment combination 1. In the case of the BTF, the microbial reductions by treatments were much greater than the reduction on BTL. The pH of treated BTF increased more slowly than the pH of treated BTL, resulting in further reduction of the microflora on BTF. Except for control and water

  10. Alleviation of Oxidative Stress by Using Olive Pomace in Crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) Calves Under Hot Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten female crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) calves , 8 – 10 months old with average live body weight of 112 kg at the be ginning of experimental period were used to investigate the effect of olive pomace (OP) supplementation which contains phenolic compounds on oxidant and antioxidant agents and some blood constituents, and its relation with growth performance in heat stressed calves. The animals were maintained under hot summer environmental conditions, where, ambient temperature and relative humidity average d 37.48°C ± 0.32 and 64.58 % ± 0.77 , (equivalent to THI 91) during day, and 28.38 °C ± 0.22 and 78.23 % ± 0.69 , (equivalent to THI 80) during night, respectively. The animals were divided into two equal groups (5 calves each). The first group control (received 0 % OP of the concentrate mixture, while the second group) treated received 15 % OP of the concentrate mixture, for two months. Body weight o f calves was recorded twice at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were taken from each animal at the end of experimental period to determine antioxidant and oxidant indices, some blood constituents and T 3 concentration. Our results showed that supplementation of OP significantly increased antioxidant status including catalase enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid as a non-enzymatic antioxidant and copper as a specific antioxidant protecting macromolecules. More over, OP significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde as a lipid peroxidation marker, iron concentration which act as a pro-oxidant, lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL – cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL – cholesterol), triglycerides and phospholipids. Also, OP caused a significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea- N concentrations as well as AST activity. However, OP significantly elevated T3 level, and improved feed efficiency and daily

  11. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens. PMID:27387141

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  13. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  14. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan: consumers’ food safety perceptions and willingness to pay for tested beef

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Ouchi, Hiromi; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as ‘mad cow disease’, in Japan caused anxiety about consuming beef and beef products. As a result, there was a sudden fall in sales of beef that hurt the Japanese beef industry as well as major beef exporters to Japan. We analyse factors that affect Japanese consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) price premiums for BSE-tested beef and estimate the mean WTP for BSE-tested beef using data obtained from a consumer survey in Jap...

  15. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  16. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  17. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  18. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  19. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Physiological effects of experimental verminous bronchitis in Friesian calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeux, P; Hajer, R; Boon, J H; Verstegen, M W; Breukink, H J

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary function values were measured in five Friesian calves of five months of age during the patent phase of an experimental moderate lungworm infection and were compared with the pulmonary function values recorded in four control animals. All the nine calves were free of any previous challenge with Dictyocaulus viviparus and were submitted to the same standardized conditions of body conformation, housing, feeding and procedures for pulmonary function testing. A significant increase of respiratory rate, minute ventilation, total pulmonary resistance and power of breathing and a significant decrease of tidal volume, dynamic lung compliance and PaO2 were observed in the infested animals. The absolute intrapleural pressure values were also significantly more negative. The conclusions of the statistical analysis were almost identical when predicted instead of measured pulmonary function values were used in the control group. The clinical, functional and pathological findings in the infested animals were all consistent with the picture of a lower airway obstructive disease. PMID:3160451

  1. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  2. Context for the Recent Massive Petermann Glacier Calving Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkner, Kelly K.; Melling, Humfrey; Münchow, Andreas M.;

    2011-01-01

    On 4 August 2010, about one fifth of the floating ice tongue of Petermann Glacier (also known as “Petermann Gletscher”) in northwestern Greenland calved (Figure 1). The resulting “ice island” had an area approximately 4 times that of Manhattan Island (about 253±17 square kilometers). The ice isla...... as part of the glacier's natural variability? Understanding the known historical context of this event allows scientists and the public to judge its significance....

  3. Effect of tetracycline administration on serum amylase activity in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Zendehbad, Bamdad; Alipour, Adeleh; Zendehbad, Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Tetracycline and related compounds are used extensively as broad spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections in ruminants. Tetracycline may cause acute pancreatitis which may result in increased serum amylase activity. However, it has been shown that administration of oxytetracycline in human results in decrease serum amylase activity. In this study changes in serum amylase activity were measured in 20 clinically healthy calves following intravenous injection of oxytetracycl...

  4. Experimental pneumonia in gnotobiotic calves produced by respiratory syncytial virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, L. H.; Slott, E. J.; Collins, A. P.; Jebbett, J.

    1984-01-01

    A bovine isolate of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), when inoculated intranasally into eight gnotobiotic calves produced significant macroscopic lesions of the lung (2-25% consolidation) but failed to produce any clinical signs of disease. The microscopic lesions comprised proliferative and exudative bronchiolitis with accompanying alveolar collapse and infiltration by mononuclear cells of the peribronchiolar tissue and alveolar walls. Virus was recovered from the nasopharynx between days 2...

  5. Oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Jansen, T; Guelen, P J; de Grève, B

    1989-10-01

    The oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old calves following intravenous and oral administration of different formulations of flumequine (Flumix, Flumix C and pure flumequine). Increasing age had a negative influence on the Cmax after the administration of Flumix, based on a larger VD in the older calves. The Cmax decreased from 5.02 +/- 1.46 micrograms/ml in the first week to 3.28 +/- 0.42 micrograms/ml in the 18th week. Adding colistin sulfate to the flumequine formulation and administring pure flumequine mixed with milk replacer had a negative effect on the Cmax of flumequine after oral administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight. The bioavailability of the orally administered flumequine formulations was 100% in all cases except after the administration of Flumix C, for which it was 75.9 +/- 18.2%. The urinary recovery of flumequine after intravenous injection of a 10% solution varied from 35.2 +/- 2.3% for Group B, to 41.2 +/- 6.3% for Group C. The dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight Flumix twice daily in 1-week-old veal calves is sufficient to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations, based on a MIC value of 0.8 micrograms/ml of the target bacteria. In older calves it is advisable to increase the dosage 7.5 or 10 mg/kg body weight every 12 hours. In combination with colistin sulfate it is also advisable to increase the dosage slightly because of the negative effect of the colistin sulfate on the Cmax of flumequine. PMID:2603356

  6. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (pcalves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  7. Pathological evidence of ehrlichiosis among calves inoculated with Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    OpenAIRE

    delos Santos, Jose R. C.; Oglesbee, Michael; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Stich, R W

    2008-01-01

    An immunocompetent animal disease model based on infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis would facilitate research toward understanding mechanisms responsible for the broad range of clinical signs associated with human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). Adaptability to experimental feeding of various tick species and stages and to testing therapies comparable to those for human diseases are additional advantages of large animal models. Herein we summarize pathology reports for calves that developed f...

  8. Vertical Coordination in the Evolving High Quality Beef Market (PowerPoint)

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.

    2010-01-01

    Panelists will discuss vertical aspects of vertical coordination in the beef industry. Focus will include cow herd production management and genetics, calf market price incentives, costs of producing high quality beef, and retail marketing of high quality beef and premium brands. Together this complete vertical supply chain discussion will provide a comprehensive assessment of how the U.S. beef industry can improve beef quality and enhance consumer demand. Implicit in this overview is an asse...

  9. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  10. Use of natural feed supplements that help to improve health status of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš ZÁBRANSKÝ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis for each cattle farming are healthy and strong individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which of the given feed supplements have the greatest effect on liveweight gain of calves in the early period after weaning from mother to infant milk substitutes. The research was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014. After the birth calves were weaned into individual boxes in the barn, where during the first 21 days of life their feeding ration was enriched with feed supplements. On the basis of the added supplement calves were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. First weighing of calves was done after birth and the second after 30 days. From the results of observations it can be concluded that feed supplements are accepted positively by calves in the first days of life and have a positive beneficial effect on weight gain and general health of calves.

  11. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased...... duration of nonnutritive sucking for calves fed via 1.5-mm tubes compared with calves in the 2 other treatments. The duration of nonnutritive sucking increased with increasing level of hunger. Furthermore, calves with reduced hunger showed a lower frequency of butting than calves at the 2 other hunger...

  12. Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q L; Hamid, N; Bekhit, A E D; Robertson, J; Law, T F

    2012-12-01

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of pre-rigor injection of beef semimembranosus muscle with nine proteases from plant and microbial sources, on the volatile profile of cooked beef after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem (PM) storage using Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 23 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 3 furans, 8 nitrogen and sulphur compounds, 4 alkanes, 7 alcohols and 6 terpenes were detected. Eleven volatile compounds characteristic of ginger flavour were detected in zingibain-treated meat. Benzaldehyde significantly increased (pbromelain, papain, ASP, actinidin, and KJ (except KJ 21 days) proteases resulted in flavour profiles closer to that of the control beef sample.

  13. Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q L; Hamid, N; Bekhit, A E D; Robertson, J; Law, T F

    2012-12-01

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of pre-rigor injection of beef semimembranosus muscle with nine proteases from plant and microbial sources, on the volatile profile of cooked beef after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem (PM) storage using Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 23 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 3 furans, 8 nitrogen and sulphur compounds, 4 alkanes, 7 alcohols and 6 terpenes were detected. Eleven volatile compounds characteristic of ginger flavour were detected in zingibain-treated meat. Benzaldehyde significantly increased (ppapain, ASP, actinidin, and KJ (except KJ 21 days) proteases resulted in flavour profiles closer to that of the control beef sample. PMID:22682685

  14. Hygienic quality and mutagenicity of minced meats and patties treated by ionizing energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wang Geun; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won June; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial safety of minced beef, minced pork, beef patties and pork patties irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam at an absorbed dose from 5 to 20 kGy. Also, the mutagenicity of minced beef, minced pork and patties treated with irradiation at 50 kGy was evaluated by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay). The results of the total aerobic bacteria of the minced beef, minced pork and patties showed that the sterilization effect of gamma irradiation was superior to that of electron beam irradiation. The results from Ames test showed that all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Also, no mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation.

  15. Hygienic quality and mutagenicity of minced meats and patties treated by ionizing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial safety of minced beef, minced pork, beef patties and pork patties irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam at an absorbed dose from 5 to 20 kGy. Also, the mutagenicity of minced beef, minced pork and patties treated with irradiation at 50 kGy was evaluated by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay). The results of the total aerobic bacteria of the minced beef, minced pork and patties showed that the sterilization effect of gamma irradiation was superior to that of electron beam irradiation. The results from Ames test showed that all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Also, no mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation

  16. Pimply gut condition in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuah, J K; Pegu, S R; Raina, O K; Siju, S J; Sakhrie, A; Deka, Anil; Rajkhowa, C

    2016-06-01

    The present observation was recorded at National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani from May 2010 to September 2012. A total of 15 mithun calves, which died in and around Jharnapani, were attended and detailed post-mortem examination was carried out. Out of these, five calves (33.33 %) aging between 1 and 1.5 years exhibiting the condition of chronic wasting and diarrhoea were found positive for pimply gut condition based on gross and microscopic examination. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule formation on the wall of the rectum; however, the entire lumen did not reveal any of adult parasites. In all the cases, there were congestion in the mucous layer and thickening of the intestinal wall. Histopathological examination revealed chronic enteritis with mononuclear cell infiltration comprising mostly of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In the muscularis mucosae, encysted larvae were found along with fibrous tissue proliferation. These lesions gave the intestine a nodular appearance as they thickened the wall and projected from the serosal surface. These extensive numbers of nodules in the intestine might have interfered with peristalsis and intestinal absorption which led to chronic wasting and diarrhoea in the calves. PMID:27413288

  17. [Spinal muscle atrophy in Brown Swiss x Braunvieh cross calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, G; Doll, K; Hafner, A; Hermanns, W; Dahme, E

    1992-05-01

    The report describes seven SMA-cases in descendents of crossbreeds of American Brown Swiss x Deutsches Braunvieh. Symptoms and course: After initially normal development of the calves for one to six weeks the disease set in suddenly followed by a rapid lethal course of one to one and a half weeks duration due to asphyxia and/or secondary diseases. Only one case was reported having been sick since birth (?). Characteristic signs were rapidly progressing muscular atrophy, paresis and paralysis of the limbs, the trunk and the diaphragm, usually accompanied by progressive dyspnoea. Signs of congenital neuromyodysplasia (arthrogryposis) of different degree were present in four of the seven calves. Six calves had contracted a secondary pneumonia. Blood gas analysis (6/7) revealed a compensated (1x) or decompensated (4x) respiratory acidosis. Neurohistological findings: Degeneration and loss of motor neurons in the ventral horns of the spinal cord and neurogenic muscular atrophy. Immunohistochemistry revealed a pronounced accumulation of type 200 kD-neurofilaments in perikarya and dendrites of ventral horn motoneurons indicating disturbed mechanisms of the axonal transport. The disease seems to be inherited as a recessive trait.

  18. Meat quality of calves obtained from organic and conventional farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare meat quality of organically and conventionally raised Simmental calves. Fifteen organic and fourteen conventional carcasses were considered, 8th rib and M. Longissimus thoracis were sampled on each carcass. Different tissues percentage of 8th rib were evaluated and meat colour, chemical and fatty acids composition of M. Longissimus thoracis were analysed. Fat percentage of 8th rib of organic calves was lower (P<0.01 than conventional ones. Cooking weight losses were lower (P<0.001 in organic meat compared to the conventional ones and red index was higher in organic calves due to the high content of heminic iron (P<0.001. Ether extract (P<0.001 and cholesterol content (P<0.05 was lower in organic meat with respect to conventional one. Positive value, from a nutritional point of view, were found in organic veal about n-3 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio and CLA content.

  19. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Nagabhushana

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302

  20. Septicaemic listeriosis in reindeer calves – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Nyyssönen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4 reindeer calves as a nearly pure growth from several internal organs, pointing to a septicaemic form of listeriosis. The calves were born in a calving corral. Silage feeding was considered the most probable source of the infection.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys poronvasoilla – tapausselostus Toukokuussa 2005 Suomen poronhoitoalueen kaakkoisosassa sijaitsevassa vasotustarhassa kuoli neljä poronvasaa pian syntymän jälkeen 5-11 päivän ikäisinä. Kaikkien vasojen kuolinsyyksi todettiin Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys. Tartunnan todennäköisin lähde oli vaatimien lisäruokinnassa käytetty säilörehu. Kyseessä on ensimmäinen poronvasoilla todettu Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys Suomessa. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tilfelle av sjukdomsfremkallende Listeriabakterie i reinkalver Listeria monocytogenes ble isolert fra 4 reinkalver som en nesten ren vekst fra flere indre organer, noe som antyder en sykdomsfremkallende form av listeriose. Kalvene nedkom i en kalveinnhegning, og man antok at dårlig silofôr var smittekilden.

  1. Numerical modelling of iceberg calving force responsible for glacial earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of geometric factors on the force history, amplitude and duration at the laboratory and field scales. We show first insights into the force and the generated seismic waves exploring different scenarios for iceberg capsizing.

  2. Clinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Amory Hélène; Detilleux Johann; Desmecht Daniel; Rollin Frédéric; Brihoum Mounir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves. Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1) received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID) and the six others (group 2) received five times th...

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in calves with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; VanBik, D; Kim, H Y; Cho, A; Kim, J W; Byun, J W; Oem, J K; Oh, S I; Kwak, D

    2016-06-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeal faeces from calves that were reared in Korea using PCR and ELISA. Diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from 590 calves (giardiasis in calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea found in this study differed from previous studies. Therefore, researchers and veterinarians should be aware of the possible involvement of giardiasis in haemorrhagic diarrhoea. PMID:27162285

  4. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    OpenAIRE

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves we...

  5. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, J L; Lourens, D C; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2 l twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age. Adjusting for birth mass, birth date, dam parity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG), both pre-weaning (days 0-42) and overall (days 0-60), was higher in HMV than in RMV calves (P calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P feed was higher in RMV than in HMV calves. Overall feed conversion rate of HMV calves was 9.6 % better than RMV calves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea. We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  6. Effect of added Punica granatum peel fruits and Nigella sativa seeds on immunology and performance of suckling buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of feed additives is considered as a good source to improve the immunity status of newborn calves instead of chemical products because the residuals of chemical products may have side effects on human health on the long-run. Punica granatum fruits peel (Pg-p) has been shown to possess a significant antioxidant activity also valued for their therapeutic properties and used to remove intestinal tapeworm. On the other hand, seeds of Nigella sativa (NS) are rich in fatty acids (Linoleic and Linolenic acid), essential fatty acids and non-starch polysaccharide. Recently, clinical and animal studies have shown that extract of the NS seeds have many therapeutic effects such as immunomodilative, antibacterial, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Thirty-six suckling buffalo claves (18 males and 18 females) were used in this study with average live body weight 38.44 ± 0.62 kg. The calves were divided into 3 groups, each group allotted to receive one of 3 tested starters throughout 105 d. The starter was offered without additive in the control group (G1), while it was mixed with 2% Pg-p in group (G2) and with 2% Pg-p plus 3% NS in group (G3). Weekly faecal swabs were collected from the experimental animals for bacteriological examination. Immunoglobulins (Ig) and blood metabolites were determined in blood serum. Three sets of digestion trials were carried out using 3 male calves of each group that fed the same tested rations. Milk consumption was not significantly different among groups while, starter and clover hay intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 than those in groups G1 and G2. The total weight gain achieved by group G3 was greater than that of G1 and G2 groups by 25.60% and 7.80%, respectively. Blood TP was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 than that in G1. An albumin value was relatively higher in G1 compared with the treated G2 and G3. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen was significantly greater in G2 in comparison with G1 and

  7. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  8. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  9. Canadian beef quality audit 1998-99.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Bygrove, S; Gillis, K; Malchow, D.; McLeod, G.

    2001-01-01

    The second beef quality audit was conducted in Canada in 1998-99 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in slaughtered cattle and to monitor changes since the first audit in 1995. Approximately 0.6% of the number of cattle processed annually in Canada were evaluated. Brands were observed on 49% and tag was observed on 43% of the hides. Both brands and tag had increased from 1995. Seventy percent of the cattle were polled and 5% had full horns; thus, the number of horned cattle had dec...

  10. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  11. Age of First Calving and Subsequent Fertility and Survival in Holstein Friesian Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin Gavan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between age at first calving (AFC and subsequent fertility and survival up to third calving in Holstein Friesian heifers. Study comprised 116 consecutively born female calves from the same herd. The animals were divided in four AFC groups for analysis: <24 months, 25-27 months, 28-30 months, > 30 months. Fertility before first calving was recorded as age at first breeding (AFB, services per conception (S/C, age at conception, first service conception rate (FSCR and actual AFC. After first calving, fertility was recorded as days to first service (DFC, days to conception (DTC, S/C and FSCR. Survival rate up to third calving also was recorded. The proportion of heifers conceiving to first service, before calving, was highest (100% for the youngest AFC group (<24 mounth and worst (33,33% for the oldest AFC gropu (>30 mounth. Fertility in the first lactation was best in primiparous cows calving at 25-27 months. Survival rate up to third calving was 42,85% for <24 months group, 75,55% for 25-27 months group, 68,42% for 28-30 months group and 44,44% for >30 mounth group. In conclusion, performance in Holstein Friesian cows was achieved with an AFC of 25-27 months. These animals performed well in terms of fertility and survival.

  12. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Bogaert, H; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Shamsuddin, M; Opsomer, G

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), length of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with gender and season of birth when data of all calves were analyzed. In addition, the insulin traits in calves born to cows were significantly associated with MGEST, DP and LL. The Insb was estimated to be higher in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The

  13. Protection of newborn calves against fatal multisystemic infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by feeding colostrum from vaccinated cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechor, G D; Rousseaux, C G; Radostits, O M; Babiuk, L A; Petrie, L

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether consumption of colostrum with high levels of serum neutralizing antibody to bovine herpesvirus 1 would protect neonatal calves from the frequently fatal multisystemic form of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Holstein calves were fed for 48 h after birth with either pooled colostrum from seropositive vaccinated cows or colostrum from seronegative unvaccinated cows. The serum neutralizing antibody achieved in the former calves was between 64 and 256 and the titer in the latter calves was below 8. At 48 h of age the calves were challenged by aerosolization with bovine herpesvirus 1. All five seronegative calves died or were euthanized in a moribund state between days 5 and 7 of the trial, whereas all five seropositive animals remained healthy throughout the study. Twice daily clinical examination revealed significantly lower scores in the seronegative group from 60 h postinfection. Relative lung weights were greater in the seronegative group, associated with a severe acute necrotizing bronchiolitis with fibrin exudation. The seronegative group of calves also demonstrated an acute necrotizing rumenitis, pharyngitis, glossitis, esophagitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. The seropositive animals had only small areas of subacute necrotizing fibrinopurulent rhinitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1 virus was isolated from all nasal passages of all calves but isolation of virus in the seronegative calves was made from the trachea (5/5), lung (4/5), bronchial lymph nodes (4/5), spleen (4/5), thymus (3/5), liver (2/5), rumen (2/5) and brain (1/5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2839276

  14. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns. PMID:22063690

  15. A comparison of γ-irradiation and microwave treatments on the lipids and microbiological pattern of beef liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daw, Z. Y.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of γ-irradiation (0, 2.5, 5 and, 10 kGy and microwaves (generated from an oven at low and defrost settings for 0.5, 1 and 2 min treatments on the chemical composition and microbiological aspects of beef liver samples were studied. The chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the non-treated and treated beef liver immediately after treatments and during frozen storage (-18ºC for 3 months. The chemical analyses of beef liver lipids showed that acid, peroxide and TBA values were slightly increased after irradiation treatments and also during frozen storage (-18ºC. On the contrary, iodine value of the treated beef liver was decreased. Irradiation treatments remarkably reduced the total bacterial counts in beef liver. The percent reduction of bacterial load for beef liver exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at defrost mode for 2 min and after 3 months at -18ºC was 62%. The bacterial load for beef liver exposed to γ-irradiation at 10 kGy after 3 months at -18ºC was decreased by 98%. Hence, γ-irradiation treatment was far better than microwave treatment for reduction of the associated microorganisms with beef liver. Salmonellae was not detected in non-irradiated and irradiated beef liver throughout the storage period.Se estudiaron los efectos de los tratamientos por irradiación γ (0, 2.5, 5 y 10 kGy y microondas (generados en un horno a nivel bajo y de descongelación durante 0.5, 1 y 2 min sobre la composición química y aspectos microbiológicos de las muestras de hígado de vaca. Los análisis químicos y microbiológicos se llevaron a cabo en hígado de vaca tratado y no tratado al inicio y durante el almacenamiento en congelador a -18ºC durante 3 meses. Los análisis químicos de los lípidos de hígado de vaca mostraron que los índices de acidez, peróxido y TBA se incrementaron ligeramente después de los tratamientos por irradiación y durante el almacenamiento en congelador (-18

  16. Heterosis retention for birth and weaning characters of calves in the third generation of a five-breed diallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, R E; Baker, J F; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R; Sanders, J O

    1991-12-01

    Data were 876 birth records and 727 weaning records of straightbred and F3 crossbred calves produced in the third generation of a five-breed diallel. Among straightbreds at birth, Holstein calves were heaviest and widest at the shoulders and hips. Jersey calves were lightest and narrowest at the hips, and Brahman calves were narrowest at the shoulders. Holstein crosses tended to be larger at birth than crosses among other breeds. Among straightbreds at weaning, Holstein calves were heaviest and tallest, and Hereford calves were lightest and shortest. Angus calves had the highest survival to weaning rate, and Holstein calves had the lowest survival rate. Among crossbred calves, Holstein crosses tended to be larger at weaning. Estimates of average heterosis retained for birth characters were not significant. Significant breed mean heterosis retention was observed for birth weight, shoulder width, and hip width of Hereford calves and for shoulder width and hip width of Holstein calves. Estimates of average heterosis retained for weaning weight and height were 6.1 kg (P less than .01) and 1.02 cm (P less than .05), respectively. In general, estimates of specific and average heterosis retained for survival to weaning were nonsignificant. Significant breed mean heterosis was observed for weaning weight and height of Brahman, Hereford, and Holstein calves and for survival to weaning of Hereford, Holstein, and Jersey calves. PMID:1808172

  17. Fator V de Leiden na doença de Legg-Calvé-Perthes Leiden's V-factor in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Lira Olivier Sanders

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trobofilias hereditárias têm sido implicadas na patogênese da doenca de Legg-Calvé-Perthes. Uma investigação do fator de risco hereditário mais comum para hipercoagulabilidade - a mutação no gene do fator V (fator V de Leiden - foi conduzida em 20 pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes e 214 controles sadios. A prevalência do fator V de Leiden foi maior nos pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes que no grupo controle (30 vs. 1,87%. A razão de chances (odds ratio para o desenvolvimento de Legg-Calvé-Perthes foi de 22,5 (pInherited tendency to hypercoagulability has been suggested as a cause of vascular thrombosis resulting in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. An investigation of the most common inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability - the mutation in the V-factor gene (Leiden's V-factor - was carried out among 20 Patients diagnosed with Legg- Calvé-Perthes disease. Patients were compared with 214 healthy controls. The prevalence of the Leiden's V-factor was higher in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease than in controls (30% vs. 1,87%. The odds ratio for the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in the presence of the Leiden's V-factor mutation was 22,5 (p<0,05; confidence interval: 5,68-89.07. These data suggest the Leiden's V-factor as an inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability associated with the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  18. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  19. Lipid and protein oxidation in charqui meat and jerked beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A. A. Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in the lipid (Lox and protein oxidation (Pox were measured quantitatively by TBARS and carbonyl methods, respectively, throughout the salting and drying steps of charqui meat (CH and jerked beef (JB preparation and their storage up to 60 days. The experiment was carried out on CH samples treated with brine (20.0% and JB with same brine solution added with sodium nitrite (0.02%. After 60 days of storage, the carbonyl substances in CH were 2.77nmol mg-1 while in the JB samples, there was 61.0% oxidation inhibition. The TBARS determination revealed a Lox inhibition by approximately 5-fold in the latter samples. These results indicated that in the metmyoglobin molecule, the nitrite kept the Fe in the Fe2+ state in JB samples whereas in CH, the Fe was oxidized to Fe3+, which catalyzed the oxidation reactions more efficiently, leading to the higher development of Lox and Pox.

  20. Impact of Government Reform on Beef Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Malá, M. Malý

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the simulation of the impact of selected measures of government reforms in the beef market in the Czech Republic. The selected measures of government reforms are defined and specified on the base of available resources in the introduction. Subsequently, these measures are simulated by the model of partial equilibrium of defined market in the practical part. The impacts of the measures on both supply and demand of selected market are then commented, based on formal econometric quantification and verification of model outputs. The analyzed government measures are included in the form of an expected increase in VAT, the movement of the Czech crown, the development of consumer income and the price expectancy in vertical of beef. The results predict negative consequences on domestic market, in particular on the supply side, in the form of a relatively significant reduction in the number of pieces of cattle. These can result in reducing the number of enterprises with intensive fattening or in shifting their focus to other commodities of vegetable nature. On the demand side, the analyzed measures are likely to bring short-term price reductions. However, the steep growth accompanied by a reduction in quality of meat products can be reasonable expected in the long run. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSMT 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  1. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  2. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-11-06

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life.

  3. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges; Rogério Ferreira; Lucas Carvalho Siqueira; Rodrigo Camponogara Bohrer; Jacson William Borstmann; João Francisco Coelho de Oliveira; Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI) system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227), 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg) and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0). On day six, cloprostenol (125µg) and eCG (400IU) were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group) or on day eight (TAI group). All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit sta...

  4. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia. PMID:22856572

  5. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Hao Kuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9 from three wet markets (A, B, and C in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  6. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-12-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis. PMID:24688507

  7. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  8. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

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    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  9. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for birth weight, birth date, dystocia, and survival as traits of dam in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-09-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated as traits of the dam in F2 progeny of F1 dams and F3 and 4 progeny of F2 and 3 dams in three composite populations of beef cattle. Traits included birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth, 72 h, and weaning for calves with dams of different age classes. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/4 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Among calves with 2-yr-old dams, breed effects were significant for birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth but not at 72 h and weaning. Calf survival at weaning was lowest for smallest (less than mu - 1.5 sigma) and largest (greater than mu + 1.5 sigma) birth weight classes and did not differ among intermediate birth weight classes. Calves with difficult births with 2-yr-old dams were significantly heavier at birth (39.6 vs 35.4 kg) and had significantly lower survival at 72 h (87.1 vs 92.2%) and at weaning (77.4 vs 85.1%) than calves with 2-yr-old dams that did not experience difficult births. Among calves with dams greater than or equal to 3 yr old and from dams of all ages, breed group effects generally were significant for the traits analyzed. Important breed group effects on dystocia and survival traits were observed independent of breed group effects on birth weight. Effects of heterosis were significant for birth weight for each generation of each composite population and for the mean of the three composite populations. Generally, heterosis effects for calving difficulty percentage were not significant. Effects of heterosis generally were significant for date of birth (earlier) for each composite population and for

  10. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of () and () genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, R G; Cushman, R A; McNeel, A K; Casas, E; Smith, T P L; Freetly, H C; Bennett, G L

    2016-03-01

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for 2 yr to equalize and genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epistatic and pleiotropic effects of these markers on BW, reproduction, and first calf performance traits in replacement beef females ( = 171) managed under 2 postweaning development protocols. Traits evaluated on the heifers were birth BW, weaning BW, 11-mo BW, 12-mo BW, 13-mo BW, first breeding season pregnancy evaluation BW, first calving season BW, 11-mo puberty, 12-mo puberty, 13-mo puberty, first breeding season pregnancy, and first calf weaning rate. Additionally, heifer's first calf performance traits of ordinal calving date, first calf birth BW, and first calf weaning BW (with and without age adjustment) were analyzed. Selection to increase minor allele frequencies and balanced sampling across genotype classes enhanced the ability to detect all genetic effects except dominance × dominance epistasis. The × genotype effect was significant ( < 0.05) for 11-mo BW and 12-mo BW and tended to be significant ( = 0.08) for 13-mo BW. Consistently, for all 3 traits, the most significant effect among epistatic × genotype effects was the additive effect, with the G allele decreasing BW. There were no associations between × genotype and fertility related traits ( ≥ 0.46) in this study. Additionally, there were no × genotype associations with first progeny performance traits ( ≥ 0.14). The large effect of the additive × additive interaction on first calf weaning BW was imprecisely estimated, which may warrant further investigation. PMID:27065254

  11. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease. PMID:18998232

  12. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  13. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Demeterco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  14. The effects of social contact and milk allowance on responses to handling, play, and social behavior in young dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D.M.; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social contact and milk allowance on social behavior, play behavior, and responses to handling in dairy calves. Forty test calves and 16 companion calves were allocated to 1 of 5 treatments from birth to 4 wk of age: (1) housed singly and fed...... with the dam, and pair-housed calves struggled at an intermediate level. Play behavior was recorded for 20 min/wk after the provision of fresh straw; calves housed singly and fed a low milk allowance spent less time playing than did calves in all other treatments. Three days after grouping, calves were...... subjected to a feed competition test; calves receiving the high milk allowance and housed in pairs spent more time feeding than did those receiving the high milk allowance and housed singly, with all other treatments showing intermediate responses. These results indicate that social contact decreased...

  15. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  16. Estimation of genetic effects in the presence of multicollinearity in multibreed beef cattle evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso, V M; Schenkel, F S; Miller, S P; Schaeffer, L R

    2005-08-01

    Breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects are of concern in the genetic evaluation of a multibreed population. Multiple regression equations used for fitting these effects may show a high degree of multicollinearity among predictor variables. Typically, when strong linear relationships exist, the regression coefficients have large SE and are sensitive to changes in the data file and to the addition or deletion of variables in the model. Generalized ridge regression methods were applied to obtain stable estimates of direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects in the presence of multicollinearity among predictor variables. Preweaning weight gains of beef calves in Ontario, Canada, from 1986 to 1999 were analyzed. The genetic model included fixed direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects, fixed environmental effects of age of the calf, contemporary group, and age of the dam x sex of the calf, random additive direct and maternal genetic effects, and random maternal permanent environment effect. The degree and the nature of the multicollinearity were identified and ridge regression methods were used as an alternative to ordinary least squares (LS). Ridge parameters were obtained using two different objective methods: 1) generalized ridge estimator of Hoerl and Kennard (R1); and 2) bootstrap in combination with cross-validation (R2). Both ridge regression methods outperformed the LS estimator with respect to mean squared error of predictions (MSEP) and variance inflation factors (VIF) computed over 100 bootstrap samples. The MSEP of R1 and R2 were similar, and they were 3% less than the MSEP of LS. The average VIF of LS, R1, and R2 were equal to 26.81, 6.10, and 4.18, respectively. Ridge regression methods were particularly effective in decreasing the multicollinearity involving predictor variables of breed additive effects. Because of a high degree of confounding between estimates of maternal

  17. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef.

  18. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Economic considerations related to U.S. beef herd expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsor, G T; Schulz, L L

    2015-09-01

    Significant attention perpetually surrounds possible changes in breeding herd inventories in the U.S. beef cattle industry. This article outlines economic considerations of U.S. herd expansion. Factors restricting expansion include land availability, increasing production efficiency, operator demographics, capital requirements, and commodity price volatility. Several offsetting factors support herd expansion including unprecedented cow-calf returns, ongoing global beef demand growth, and timing within the current cattle cycle. In addition to these industry-wide factors, several important variations in individual ranch considerations are outlined. The authors' expectations on future herd dynamics are provided, highlighting broader implications for individual operations, industry leaders, and the entire beef-cattle supply chain. The substantial economic impact and importance of the cow-calf sector warrants broader appreciation of these economic factors impacting herd expansion. The future size of the U.S. cattle industry is determined by the individual decisions of over 70,000 cattle owners, making this issue worthy of review by all industry stakeholders. PMID:26440321

  19. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  20. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... distribution, marketing strategies, and other distinguishing factors that will bring different perspectives and... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts representation...

  1. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  2. Evaluation of PCR-based beef sexing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Bernreuther, Alexander; Schimmel, Heinz; Pauwels, Jean

    2002-07-17

    Analysis of the sex of beef meat by fast and reliable molecular methods is an important measure to ensure correct allocation of export refunds, which are considerably higher for male beef meat. Two PCR-based beef sexing methods have been optimized and evaluated. The amelogenin-type method revealed excellent accuracy and robustness, whereas the bovine satellite/Y-chromosome duplex PCR procedure showed more ambiguous results. In addition, an interlaboratory comparison was organized to evaluate currently applied PCR-based sexing methods in European customs laboratories. From a total of 375 samples sent out, only 1 false result was reported (female identified as male). However, differences in the performances of the applied methods became apparent. The collected data contribute to specify technical requirements for a common European beef sexing methodology based on PCR. PMID:12105941

  3. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would adjust... Shackelford, Marketing Programs Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA,...

  4. An on-farm investigation of beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissier Isabelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beef suckler farms (194 farms throughout 13 counties were assessed once with housed cattle and once with cattle at grass using an animal welfare index (AWI. Twenty-three of the 194 farms were revisited a year later and re-evaluated using the AWI and the Tier-Gerechtheits-Index 35L/2000 (TGI35L/2000. Thirty-three indicators were collected in five categories: locomotion (5 indicators; social interactions (between animals (7, flooring (5, environment (7 and Stockpersonship (9. Three indicators relating to the size of the farm were also collected. Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems predominantly due to increased consumer concern about the source of animal products. The objectives were (i to evaluate animal welfare of Irish beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI, (ii to examine correlations between parameters, how they influence the AWI and investigate the applicability of the parameters used, (iii to investigate the impact of the activity of the farmer (full-time or part-time, the interest of the farmer and the number of animals on the AWI. Results The mean AWI was 65% and ranged from 54% to 83%. The grazing period represented 16.5% of the total points of the AWI. Seventy percent of the farms were rated as "Very Good" or "Excellent". There was no difference (P > 0.05 in AWI between full-time and part-time farmers. Part-time farmers had greater (P = 0.01 "social interactions": calving (P = 0.03 and weaning (P Conclusion The AWI was easily applicable for an on-farm evaluation of welfare. The Stockpersonship was an important factor in determining the AWI (11% of the total variation more specifically, the interest of the farmer. Part and full-time farming did not differ (P > 0.05 in AWI scores. This method could, with further development, be used in countries with both intensive and/or extensive production systems and would require substantially less resources

  5. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  6. Performance of young calves fed soybean protein replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyele, I O; Harshbarger, K E

    1983-04-01

    In two 12-wk trials we evaluated soybean protein in calf milk replacers. In trial 1, twelve 5-day-old Holstein calves were allotted randomly to three milk replacers. The diets contained 26% crude protein. In trial 2, 18 calves were used and the diet contained 30% crude protein. In trial 1 period 1 (10 to 15 days), mean coefficients of apparent digestibility (%) for milk protein, soy protein concentrate, and full fat soy flour replacers were dry matter 92.0, 70.0, 71.0; protein 90.1, 56.6, 61.3; fat 88.9, 55.0, 53.2;; and ash 85.8, 62.5, 61.2. Average daily nitrogen retentions were 10.8, -1.24, and -.7 g. Results in period 2 (30 to 35 days) for digestibilities and nitrogen retention showed considerable improvement over those in period 1. In trial 2 period 1, mean coefficients of apparent digestibility (%) for milk protein, soy protein concentrate, and defatted soy flour replacers were dry matter 87.5, 66.6, 47.9; protein 80.5, 57.2, 28.5; fat 81.5, 55.9, 33.5; and ash 83.8, 58.9, 48.4. Average daily nitrogen retentions were 10.8, 2.9, and -3.6 g. Results in period 2 for digestibilities and nitrogen retention also showed considerable improvement. Calves are able to use soy based replacers more effectively with age. PMID:6682865

  7. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or i

  8. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F...... calves), or individually for 3wk and in pairs for the next 3wk (LF calves). From 6 to 7wk of age, the calves were housed in a group of 6 calves (each group consisted of 3 pair of calves, 1 pair from each treatment). Video recordings of undisturbed behavior were obtained from each pair on d 2, 12, 22......, and 34 (age of the youngest calf in a pair) and from the group pens on d 44 and 49 (age of the youngest calf in the group). Behavioral recordings were performed using instantaneous recording at 5-min intervals on d 2, 22, and 34 over 16h to investigate overall activity and social activity of the pairs...

  9. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180 ± 3.7 kg of body

  10. Development of colonic microflora as assessed by pyrosequencing in dairy calves fed waste milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of pasteurization of waste milk used to feed dairy calves on the bacterial diversity of their lower gut. Using 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP), fecal samples from dairy calves aging from 1 week to 6 mon...

  11. Social isolation may influence responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=

  12. Blood bactericidal assay (Pasteurella haemolytica) comparison of morbidity in marketed feeder calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, C W; Richards, A B; Foster, G S

    1989-02-01

    An in vitro bactericidal assay that used bovine heparinized blood was investigated for its usefulness in detecting differences in the bactericidal immunity of calves against Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 (Ph1). Greater than 90% of killing occurred within 30 minutes. The substitution of fetal calf serum for autologous calf plasma caused loss of bactericidal activity of the blood. Decomplemented calf serum also was low in bactericidal activity. The blood bactericidal assay appears to be opsonin antibody-dependent and complement-dependent. The coefficient of variation (CV) that can be expected with this assay was established by use of a group of 8 calves; within-day CV maximum was 0.9, and between-day CV maximum was 2.1. The blood bactericidal assay was used to evaluate 30 calves under typical market stress from 4 farms in eastern Tennessee. All calves had decreased bactericidal activity, as they moved into a feedyard in Texas. The bactericidal activity was reduced among sick calves, based on the severity of clinical signs. Morbidity was highest during the first 14 days in the feedlot. During this period, healthy calves had a decreased bactericidal index (BI) of 4 points, and calves with clinical signs of bovine respiratory tract disease for 3 days had a decreased BI of 8 points. The average reduction in the BI of calves with clinical signs of bovine respiratory tract disease for 6 or more days was 14 points. PMID:2719384

  13. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M;

    2002-01-01

    an altered macromolecule absorption (immunoglobulin G (IgG) and porcine serum albumin (PSA)) compared with AI calves and whether the macromolecule absorption could be related to the degree of acidosis or to the cortisol secretion around birth. Hence, IgG and PSA absorption in control AI calves (n=7...

  14. Behavioural reactivity of heifer calves in potentially alarming test situations: a multivariate and correlational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Engel, B.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of consistency of individual differences in behavioural responses of heifer calves over time and across different situations. Twenty-five Holstein Friesian heifer calves were individually subjected to the same set of four behavioural tests at

  15. The variability of tidewater-glacier calving: origin of event-size and interval distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuis, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Calving activity at the front of tidewater glaciers is characterized by a large variability in iceberg sizes and inter-event intervals. We present calving-event data obtained from continuous observations of the fronts of two tidewater glaciers on Svalbard, and show that the distributions of event sizes and inter-event intervals can be reproduced by a simple calving model focusing on the mutual interplay between calving and the destabilization of the glacier front. The event-size distributions of both the field and the model data extend over several orders of magnitude and resemble power laws. The distributions of inter-event intervals are broad, but have a less pronounced tail. In the model, the width of the size distribution increases with the calving susceptibility of the glacier front, a parameter measuring the effect of calving on the stress in the local neighborhood of the calving region. Inter-event interval distributions, in contrast, are insensitive to the calving susceptibility. Above a critical susc...

  16. Buschke-Ollendorff syndrom i to generationer imiterende Legg Calvé Perthes sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Nebras; Fast, Sanne; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal;

    2015-01-01

    diagnosed earlier with Calvé-Legg-Perthes disease, which on revision most likely represented Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome may imitate Calvé-Legg-Perthes disease. Skin signs may be the clue to diagnosis. Main differentials are sclerotic bone metastases and osteoma....

  17. The benzodiazepine brotizolam reduces fear in calves exposed to a novel object test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Hopster, H.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the intravenous administration of the anxiolytic drug brotizolam on the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to novelty in a dose response fashion. Holstein Friesian heifer calves (39¿41 weeks of age; body weight 200¿300 kg) received an intr

  18. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  19. PCR as a diagnostic test method for deduction of H. somni on trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid from clinically normal calves and calves with pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J. M. D.; Angen, Øystein; Thomsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present field study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a species specific PCR test against Histophilus somni (earlier Haemophilus somnus). Trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) from 56 clinically normal healthy calves and 36 calves that developed pneumonia were...... disease. Among diseased calves, 97% contained bacteria in the lower respiratory tract, all of them classified as pure culture or many pathogenic bacteria in mixed culture. BRSV was detected in 53% of the diseased calves. A comparison of H. somni specific PCR test to cultivation showed PCR to be most...... sensitive test. No significant relation between pneumonia and detection of H. somni by PCR could be demonstrated, whereas a clear significant correlation between pneumonia and detection of H. somni by cultivation was found....

  20. Feeding of reindeer calves for slaughtering in the autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Jacobsen

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out for testing the profit of feeding reindeer calves to slaughter maturity in the autumn. The calves were fed a special reindeer calf feed KF-71 (see Table 1 & 2. 16 male calves were fed from September 9th to November 7th. The feed consumption per kg gain in dressed weight was 14,2 kg (estimated to 12,8 fattening feed units. The gain in dressed weight in the period was 5,8 kg per animal. Using the today price of reindeer feed and reindeer meat the feeding in this trial has not been profitable. Some other circumstances which are of importance in estimating the economy by feeding of reindeer calves for slaughter are discussed.Teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinta syksylla.Abstract in Finnish / Ybteenveto: Poronvasojen ruokinnan kannattavuutta teurastusta silmallapitaen om selvitetty kokeellisesti erityisella tahan tarkoitukseen valmistetulla vakirehulla (taulukot 1 ja 2. Kokeissa ruokittiin 16 vasaa syyskuun 9. ja marraskuun 7. paivan valisena aikana. Rehun kulutus teuraspainon lisayksena saavutettua kiloa kohti oli 14,2 kg. Ruokintajakson aikana teuraspaino lisaantyi elainta kohti 5,8 kg. Kun huomioidaan ruokinnassa kaytetyn rehun hinta ja toisaalta vasanlihan hinta ei ruokinta ollut kannattavaa. Kirjoituksessa pohditaan myos muita suhteita, joilla on merkitysta arvioitaessa teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinnan taloudellisuutta.Oppforing av reinkalver for slakting om høsten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er gjort forsøk for å belyse lønnsomheten ved oppforing av reinkalver til slakt om høsten med et kraftfor laget til dette formål (se Tabell 1og 2. 16 oksekalver ble foret i tidsrommet 9/9 til 7/11. Forforbruket pr. kg tilvekst i slaktevekt var 14,2 kg(beregnet til 12,8 f.f.e.. Tilveksten i slaktevekt i perioden er beregnet til 5,8 kg pr. dyr. Med de priser vi idag har på reinkalvfor og på kalvekjøtt har denne foringen ikke vært regningssvarende. Det er diskutert andre forhold som har betydning