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Sample records for beef calves treated

  1. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  2. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  3. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  4. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Bart Pardon; Evy Goossens; Stefanie Verherstraeten; Sophie Roelandt; Leen Timbermont; Nicky Van Der Vekens; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Linde Gille; Laura Van Driessche; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle; Filip Van Immerseel; Piet Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  5. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  6. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  7. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  8. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  9. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P x time interaction (P calves. Based upon these data, the innate immune system of EW calves appears to be more competent in responding to immune challenge compared with that of NW calves. Additionally, the differential IFN response indicates that the immune system of EW calves may be more effective at recognizing and eliminating endotoxin. These data suggest that an altered innate immune system may be one of the factors responsible for the improved feedlot performance previously reported in EW calves. PMID:19717781

  10. Prevalence and first genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in beef calves in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in beef cattle from Vietnam. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and genotypes/assemblages of G. duodenalis in native beef calves younger than 6 months in the region. A total of 412 calf fecal samples, randomly selected from 99 small-scale farms located in DacLac and KhanhHoa provinces, central Vietnam, were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts using the zinc-sulfate flotation method followed by iodine staining. The overall prevalence on the sample and herd levels were 13.8 % (57/412) and 42.4 % (42/99), respectively. Molecular analysis in the β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes demonstrated the presence of only G. duodenalis assemblage E in the animals. Since assemblage E has been rarely reported in humans, the zoonotic risk in beef calves in the region appears to be minimal. PMID:26922741

  11. The effects of dexamethasone administration and E. bovis challenge on fecal oocyst count and immune function in weaned beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressful events are believed to predispose beef calves to clinical coccidiosis. Previous studies aimed at reproducing stress-induced coccidiosis have been unsuccessful. No study has simultaneously subjected calves to stress and Eimeria challenge. Our initial goal was to develop a model of stress...

  12. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  13. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  14. Effect of Feeding Different Protein and Energy Supplements on Performance and Health of Beef Calves During the Backgrounding Period

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Robert Jesse

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS ON PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF BEEF CALVES DURING THE BACKGROUNDING PERIOD By R. Jesse Austin Committee Chair: Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) Newly received or weaned calves are highly susceptible to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease. In addition to high levels of stress, decreased feed intake and exposure to foreign antigens result in increased morbidity and possib...

  15. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  16. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy and native beef (Qinchuan) calves in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T; Wang, R J; Ren, G J; Yu, Z Q; Zhang, L X; Zhang, S Y; Lu, H; Peng, X Q; Zhao, G H

    2016-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two common protozoa that parasitize the intestinal epithelium of animals and humans. Calves have been identified as important reservoirs of these two pathogens, but limited data is available for these two pathogens in calves in China. In the present study, the prevalence and assemblages/genotypes of both parasites in calves of dairy and native beef (Qinchuan) cattle in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, were analyzed using multilocus genotyping (MLST). Of 371 fecal samples collected from calves (including 198 dairy calves and 173 Qinchuan calves), the respective overall prevalence of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi was 18.87 (70 of 371) and 19.68 % (73 of 371). Both the zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblage A and animal adapted assemblage E were found in dairy and Qinchuan calves. Seventeen, eight, five, and two G. duodenalis subtypes were detected at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) loci, with five and two novel subtypes detected at the tpi and bg loci, forming 25 multiple genotypes (MLGs) (15 and 11 in dairy and Qinchuan calves, respectively). Of 73 samples that were positive for E. bieneusi at the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus, five ITS genotypes were found, including three known zoonotic genotypes (I, J, CHN1) and two novel genotypes (CSX1 and CSX2). MLST analysis of three microsatellite loci (MS1, MS3, MS7) and one minisatellite locus (MS4) detected six, two, two, and two genotypes at the MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 loci, respectively, forming ten MLGs (seven and four in dairy and Qinchuan calves, respectively). These results indicate complex population structures of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi in calves in Shaanxi province and the zoonotic potential of these two pathogens in calves in this province. PMID:26782809

  17. Effect of injectable trace minerals on the humoral immune response to multivalent vaccine administration in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Havenga, L J

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral responses of calves receiving a viral vaccination. Beef steer calves (n = 99; average BW = 316 ± 4.2 kg), seronegative for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus, genotypes 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), were sourced from 2 locations. All calves, except 15 non-vaccinated (sentinel) calves, received a single dose of a multivalent modified live vaccine (Titanium 5; AgriLabs, St. Joseph, MO) containing BHV-1, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Among the vaccinated calves, 2 treatments were concurrently and randomly applied on the basis of initial serum Se status and BW, including 1) injectable trace mineral supplement (ITM; n = 42; 7 mL subcutaneous.; MultiMin, Fort Collins, CO) containing 15, 40, 10, and 5 mg/mL of Cu, Zn, Mn (all as disodium EDTA salts), and Se (as Na selenite) or 2) saline-injected control (Control; n = 42). As a measure of humoral immunity, neutralizing antibody titers were measured on d 0, 14, 30, 60, and 90, relative to vaccine administration. All calves were seronegative for each of the 3 viruses on d 0, and sentinel calves remained seronegative throughout the study. Serum mineral concentrations were evaluated on d 0 and 14. No differences (P ≥ 0.30) in serum Cu, Zn, Mn, or Se were observed between treatments on d 0. Control steers experienced a decrease (P < 0.001) in serum Zn and Se, and ITM steers had an increase (P = 0.007) in serum Cu on d 14 relative to initial d 0 values. On d 14, serum Zn and Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) in ITM compared with Control steers. Vaccinated calves experienced marked increases in neutralizing antibody titers by d 30 following vaccine administration. Calves receiving ITM at the time of vaccination experienced greater (P ≤ 0.003) neutralizing antibody titers to BHV-1 on d 14, 30, and 60 compared with Control. These

  18. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  19. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  20. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  1. Evaluation of calving seasons and marketing strategies in Northern Great Plains beef enterprises: I. Cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer Leesburg, V L; Tess, M W; Griffith, D

    2007-09-01

    A bioeconomic computer model was used to evaluate alternate calving seasons in a cow-calf enterprise under range conditions representative of the Northern Great Plains. The simulated ranch utilized a rotational breeding system based on Hereford and Angus and had a fixed forage base (4,500 animal unit months of native range, 520 t of grass hay, and 183 t of alfalfa hay). Calving seasons studied were spring (SP, beginning March 15), summer (SU, beginning May 15), and fall (FA, beginning August 15). Weaning dates were October 31, December 15, and February 1, for SP, SU, and FA. The SP system was also simulated with a 5% increase in calf mortality (SP-IM), and SU with early weaning on October 31 (SU-EW). Herd size for the fixed resource was 509, 523, 519, 560, and 609 cows exposed per year for SP, SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, respectively. Corresponding values for weight weaned per cow exposed were 206, 186, 193, 153, and 145 kg. Steer calves, nonreplacement heifer calves, and cull cows were sold at the time of weaning. Quarterly cattle and feed prices used were representative of the peak, descending, valley, and ascending phases of the 1990s cattle cycle adjusted for inflation. Estimates of ranch gross margin (gross returns minus variable costs) were greatest for SP, followed by SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, and the ranks were consistent across phases of the cattle cycle. Differences between ranch gross margin for SP-IM and SU were small. In beef enterprises representative of the Northern Great Plains, with a restricted grazing season, limited access to low-cost, high-quality grazeable forage, and with calves sold at weaning, switching from early spring to a summer or fall calving date is not expected to improve profitability. If delaying calving improves calf survival, then calving in early summer may be a competitive choice. PMID:17504951

  2. The effect of parturition induction treatment on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and resumption of ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavc, Miha; Kenny, David A; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two parturition induction protocols with a nontreated control group, on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers. At Day 285 of gestation, 81 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental fetuses, were blocked by live-weight, body condition score, expected calving date and fetal sex, and assigned to one of three groups: (1) control (CON; no induction treatment, n = 29); (2) induction with corticosteroids (CORT; n = 27); or (3) induction with corticosteroids plus prostaglandin (CORT + PG; n = 25). Interval from induction to calving in hours and calving ease on a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded. Vaginal mucus samples were collected on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving (Day 0) by means of a Metricheck and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving, and uterine cytology samples were obtained on Day 21. A positive cytologic sample was defined as greater than 18% neutrophils in the sample obtained via a cytobrush technique. Cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity if the presence of the CL was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the Mixed (normally distributed data) and Genmod (nonparametric data) procedures of SAS (v. 9.3). The interval from treatment to calving was longer (P < 0.0001) for CON (161.9 ± 15.12 hours) animals compared with CORT (39.7 ± 11.64 hours) or CORT + PG (32.6 ± 12.10 hours), which did not differ. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score. There was also no difference in incidence of retained placenta between the three groups. At Day 21 postpartum, cytology score tended to be higher for both induced groups (48%) compared with the control animals (24%), but this was not the case for vaginal mucus score (CON 52%, CORT 70%, and CORT + PG 52%). A higher proportion of CON had an involuted uterus by Day 21 postpartum (69

  3. Effects of trace mineral injections on measures of performance and trace mineral status of pre- and postweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Moriel, P; Martins, P G M A; Lamb, G C; Havenga, L J

    2014-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) on measures of trace mineral status and performance in pre- and postweaned Brangus-crossbred beef calves. In Exp. 1, calves were assigned to treatments in alternating birth order (n = 150; 75/treatment), consisting of a 1-mL subcutaneous injection of ITM (MultiMin 90; MultiMin USA, Inc., Fort Collins, CO) or sterile saline. The ITM formulation consisted of 60, 10, 15, and 5 mg/mL of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se. Treatments were readministered at 100 and 200 d of age. Calf BW was recorded at birth and on d 100, 150, 200, and 250 (weaning). Trace mineral status was assessed in liver biopsy samples (n = 12/treatment) collected on d 150, 200, and 250. Administration of ITM had no impact on BW gain (P ≥ 0.55) but did result in greater (P ≤ 0.02) concentrations of liver Cu and Se and lesser (P = 0.05) liver Fe concentrations compared to saline-injected calves. In Exp. 2, 24 heifers were selected from the weaned calves of Exp. 1 (n = 12/treatment) and transported 1,600 km. Remaining on their original treatments, heifers were administered 5 mL of ITM or saline following transport (d 0). Blood samples, for acute phase protein (APP) analysis, were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 and liver biopsy samples for assessment of trace mineral status on d 13. Plasma APP concentrations increased in all calves following weaning and transport but concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in ITM- vs. saline-injected heifers on d 6 and 9. Liver concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn were greater (P ≤ 0.04) but ADG lesser (P = 0.05) for heifers receiving ITM vs. saline. In Exp. 3, 34 heifers, without previous exposure to ITM, were enrolled in a 177-d development study (n = 17/treatment). Treatments consisted of 2.5-mL injections of ITM or sterile saline on d 0, 51, and 127. Humoral immune response to an injection of porcine red blood cells (PRBC) was evaluated on d 51. Trace mineral status was evaluated in

  4. Occurrence of Strongyloides papillosus associated with extensive pulmonary lesions and sudden deaths in calves on a beef farm in a highland area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Vítovec, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2007), s. 10-13. ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Strongyloides papillosus * beef calves * prevalence * sudden death syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.373, year: 2007

  5. Investigation of stillbirths, perinatal mortality and weakness in beef calves with low-selenium whole blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony J; Myburgh, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    In this on-farm investigation, we report on stillbirths, weakness and perinatal mortality seen in calves on a commercial beef farm in the Roossenekal area, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Post-mortem examination of these calves and histopathological examination of organ and tissue samples did not indicate an infectious aetiology. Affected calves had marginal to deficient whole blood selenium concentrations. Whole blood samples collected from adult cattle on this farm and five neighbouring farms were deficient in selenium. The potential contributions of other minerals to the symptoms seen are a subject of ongoing investigation, but selenium deficiency was marked in this herd and required urgent correction. Methods to correct the deficiency included the use of injectable products, and an oral selenium supplement chelated to methionine. Selenium availability to plants is primarily determined by the selenium content of the parent bedrock, the presence of other minerals and the pH of the soil. The apparent sudden onset of this problem implicates a soil factor as being responsible for reducing selenium's bioavailability in this area. Selenium deficiency can have a significant impact on human health. HIV and/or AIDS, various forms of cancer and several specific clinical syndromes are associated with selenium deficiency in humans, and the impact on human health in this area also requires further investigation. PMID:27543038

  6. Investigation of stillbirths, perinatal mortality and weakness in beef calves with low-selenium whole blood concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Davis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this on-farm investigation, we report on stillbirths, weakness and perinatal mortality seen in calves on a commercial beef farm in the Roossenekal area, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Post-mortem examination of these calves and histopathological examination of organ and tissue samples did not indicate an infectious aetiology. Affected calves had marginal to deficient whole blood selenium concentrations. Whole blood samples collected from adult cattle on this farm and five neighbouring farms were deficient in selenium. The potential contributions of other minerals to the symptoms seen are a subject of ongoing investigation, but selenium deficiency was marked in this herd and required urgent correction. Methods to correct the deficiency included the use of injectable products, and an oral selenium supplement chelated to methionine. Selenium availability to plants is primarily determined by the selenium content of the parent bedrock, the presence of other minerals and the pH of the soil. The apparent sudden onset of this problem implicates a soil factor as being responsible for reducing selenium’s bioavailability in this area. Selenium deficiency can have a significant impact on human health. HIV and/or AIDS, various forms of cancer and several specific clinical syndromes are associated with selenium deficiency in humans, and the impact on human health in this area also requires further investigation.Keywords: vitamin E; selenium deficiency; cattle; one-health; Mpumalanga Province; soil pH; acid rain; stillbirths; white muscle disease; HIV

  7. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  8. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P yield grade, marbling score, and LM area, did not differ between treatments. These data imply that EW calves, which are maintained onsite before shipping, may be more tolerant to the stressors associated with transportation and feed yard entry. Early weaned calves, managed within the system described in this study, may have improved G:F. PMID:15753350

  9. Assessment of progesterone profiles and postpartum onset of luteal activity in spring calving Hereford beef suckler cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmann Andres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction is the single greatest factor limiting beef cattle production. Previous research on beef suckler luteal activity has largely focused on the mechanisms, and duration, of postpartum anoestrus. However, the temporal pattern of luteal activity after resumption of post-partum ovarian activity, and the impact of pattern type on days open (DO in purebred beef suckler cows, are unknown. Methods Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken thrice weekly from 120 lactations, in 87 animals, on 3 farms, over two years. Onset of luteal activity (OLA was defined as the first day milk progesterone concentration exceeded 3 ng/ml for two successive measurements, or exceeded 5 ng/ml once. It was defined as delayed if it occurred more than 61 days postpartum. A short initial luteal phase consisted of progesterone concentrations which exceeded 3 ng/ml for fewer than 4 sequential measurements. Temporal progesterone patterns were classified as: 1 Normal cyclicity; 2 Cessation of luteal activity; 3 Prolonged luteal activity; 4 Erratic phase: failure to conform to 1, 2 or 3. Data concerning parity, previous calving interval, breeding values, calf birth and 200-d weight were obtained from the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System database. Results The mean (SD OLA was 41 d (20. Parity and calf birth weight were inversely correlated with OLA. Delayed OLA occurred in 14.4% of lactations. A short first luteal phase occurred in 61.5% of lactations, but this was unrelated to irregular luteal phase occurrence, pregnancy or DO. Irregular luteal phases occurred in 22% of lactations. The irregularities were: prolonged luteal phase (11%; cessation of luteal activity (5%; erratic luteal activity (6%. Early OLA was associated with prolonged luteal phases. DO was positively correlated with irregular luteal phases and negatively correlated with calf 200-d weight. Conclusions This study demonstrates that irregular luteal phases

  10. Comparison of feed additive technologies for preconditioning of weaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersom, M; Imler, A; Thrift, T; Yelich, J; Arthington, J

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the response of weaned calves to different supplemental feed additives in a supplement to affect calf performance and mitigate stress response observed during weaning and preconditioning. At weaning in each of 2 yr, 160 Angus and Brangus calves (203 and 227 ± 2.3 and 2.5 kg) were stratified by BW, sex, and breed and were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments ( = 40 calves/treatment): 1) supplement without feed additives (control, CON), 2) supplemented with chlortetracycline, 350 mg/d (CTC), 3) supplemented with monensin, 175 mg/d (RUM), and 4) supplemented with rumen modifier, 5 g/d (ACT). Calves were held by treatment in 1 of 4 drylot pens for 7 d after weaning and were offered ad libitum access to hay and 2.27 kg/d of supplement before placement in one of thirty-two 0.8-ha pastures (5 calves/pasture). On pasture calves were supplemented with 2.27 kg/d (yr 1) or supplemented at 1.0% BW (yr 2). Calf BW and blood samples were collected following weaning (d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11 in yr 1; d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 in yr 2), at the conclusion of the preconditioning period (d 50, 51 in yr 2), and after transportation (d 52, 55, 59, 65 in yr 2) for analysis of acute phase protein (APP) concentrations. In yr 2, after 44 d on pasture, calves were loaded on 2 semitrucks and transported for 24 h. On return, calves were placed in 4 pastures with hay and fed their respective supplements for 14 d. For each year, data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the main effect of treatment, and pasture was the experimental unit. All variables quantified by day were analyzed using repeated measures. In yr 1, ACT and CTC had greater (P 0.05) among treatments; however an effect of day after transport (P < 0.001) was observed. Feed cost of gain and income over production cost (P ≥ 0.15; mean = $0.51/kg and $73.51, respectively) were not different among treatments. Use of supplemental additives may improve calf performance during a

  11. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  12. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trefz Florian M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration. Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l. However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed

  13. Effects of accompanying use of heat treated corn grain and whole soybeans in concentrates on weaned calves performances

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović B.; Grubić G.; Đorđević N.; Adamović M.; Radivojević M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of simultaneous using heat-treated corn grain as basic energy source and heat treated whole soybeans as protein source, in diet for calves 60-120 days old. The main predicted effects were improved energy and nutrients utilization efficiency and production performances of calves at this age. Thirty-six weaned Holstein calves were used, there were three treatments using different concentrates, formulated as: concentrate with micronize...

  14. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  15. Physico-chemical Meat Qualities of Loin and Top Round Beef from Holstein Calves with Different Slaughtering Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sungsil

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical and sensory properties of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) beef from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12 mon-old Holstein calves. For both loin and top round muscles, the moisture contents were decreased, whereas the protein and fat contents were increased, as the slaughtering age increased. In terms of meat color, for both muscle types, CIE L* values were decreased, whereas CIE a* values and myoglobin content increased as the slaughtering age increased. pH values were significantly higher in the 3 mon-old group than in the other groups. The Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were lowest for loin muscles from the 12 mon-old group; however, there was no significant difference for top round muscle among the 4 age groups. Cooking loss for both loin and top round muscles were significantly higher for the 3 mon-old group than for the other groups. The water holding capacity (WHC) of both muscles were highest for the 12 mon-old groups (ptenderness and overall likeness. Top round muscle from the 9- and 12 mon-old groups had significantly higher scores for overall likeness than those from the other age groups. PMID:26761502

  16. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  17. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  18. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes. PMID:25477550

  19. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk

    OpenAIRE

    Newby, Nathalie C.; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Me...

  20. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60°C, 60 min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth. PMID:26342981

  1. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-Ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  2. Growth and metabolism of growing beef calves fed tall fescue haylage supplemented with protein and(or) energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W L; Gay, N; Boling, J A; Muntifering, R B

    1987-10-01

    Endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue was fertilized in mid-August, stockpiled, harvested November 4 to 6 and stored in a concrete stave silo. Ninety-six growing calves (189 kg) were assigned to the following treatments (24 calves/treatment): 1) corn silage (CS) plus .4 kg/d of soybean meal (SBM; 2) fescue haylage plus .4 kg/d of SBM; 3) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and 4) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and .4 kg/d of SBM. Daily gains and dry matter (DM) intakes during the 91-d trial were .52, 4.58; .51, 5.22; .59, 6.06; and .63, 6.18 kg for treatments 1 through 4, respectively. Daily gains of calves fed corn silage plus SBM and fescue haylage plus SBM were not different (P greater than .05). However, a difference (P less than .05) existed between treatments 1 and 2 vs 3 and 4. Feed conversion was improved (P less than .05) in calves fed corn silage. Calves in a metabolism trial were fed either 1) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage or 2) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn. Digestibility of DM, N-free extract (NFE) and TDN did not differ (P greater than .05) between treatments. Ether extract digestibility was greater (P less than .05) for the added corn diet, while that of CP was greater (P less than .05) for the fescue haylage diet. Nitrogen retained was higher (P less than .05) for calves fed added corn. A follow-up trial with 96 growing calves (190 kg) compared September- and November-harvested fescue haylages supplemented with either 1.3 or 2.6 kg corn/d.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3667454

  3. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  4. Blood serum free amino acids pattern in newborn calves on colostral diet and orally treated with zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdić Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral zeolite treatement effects on the blood serum free amino acid pattern in newborn calves was investigated. The total number of 30 newborn Holstein calves of both sexes, weighting 35±3 kg (mean±SD, were immediately after parturition separated from their dams and placed in individual pens. Calves were divided in two experimental groups, 15 calves each. All calves were bottle-fed twice/ day (1.5 L/meal during the first 48 hours after delivery, in 12 hour intervals, with their mother's first (during 24 hours postpartum or second colostrum (at 24-48 hours postpartum, starting two hours after delivery. Zeolite suspension (20 mL, 25% suspension in distilled water was added to every meal for treated calves. Colostrum samples were collected from six cows at 0-12h and 24h after delivery. Total and colostral whey protein concentrations were determined using the colorimetric method. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of calves at 6, 16, 30 and 40 hours after birth. After spontaneous coagulation at room temperature blood serum was separated and stored at -20°C until analyzed. Total protein concentration was determined by the colorimetric method. Blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG concentrations were determined using single radial immunodiffusion (sRID plates. Pooled blood serum free amino acids (aspartic acid - Asp, glutamic acid - Glu, serine - Ser, histidine - His, glycine - Gly, threonine - Thr, alanine - Ala, proline - Pro, tyrosine - Tyr, arginine - Arg, valine - Val, methionine - Met, Leucine - Leu, Isoleucine - Ile, phenylalanine - Phe were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, GBC Australia. Total and colostral whey protein concentrations were significantly higher in the first colostrum and decreased between 50-75% at 24-48 hours later on. Mean blood serum IgG concentration was significantly increased at 6 and 16 hours in the treated calves (26±7:20±5 and 55±15:42±13 g/L, p<0.05. Blood

  5. Changes in muscle proteins due to treating beef and pork with electron rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the introduction the authors look at the possible ways of determing, during food inspection, whether meat or meat products have been treated with high-energy-radiation and conclude that there are no reliable methods avalilable at present. Treating vacuum-packed beef and pork with electron rays (β-rays) at doses of 0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 Mrad resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the pH-value of the meat and a decline in the solubility of the sarcoplasmic proteins. The pH-increase was not significant until a dose of 5 Mrad. The same applies to the decline in solubility of sarcoplasmic protein in beef. In pork a significant effect could be observed already at 1.0 Mrad. The sarcoplasmic protein of pig muscle would thus appear to be more sensitive to electron rays than that of bovine muscle. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 HIS

  6. Genetic effects on acute phase protein response to the stresses of weaning and transportation in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, X; Arthington, J D; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2007-10-01

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects in purebred and crossbred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus calves on acute phase protein response to weaning and transportation. Calves (n = 1,032) were weaned in September of 2002, 2003, and 2004 at approximately 7 mo of age. Approximately 28 d after weaning, steer calves (n = 482) were transported 1,800 km (20 h) to Oklahoma. Concentrations of 3 acute phase proteins (ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, and haptoglobin) were measured in blood samples. Calves (steers and heifers) were sampled at weaning, and 24 and 72 h postweaning. For separate analyses, steers sent to Oklahoma were sampled before shipment, upon arrival, and 24 and 72 h after arrival. Combinations of the following fixed effects were investigated: sire breed, dam breed, sampling time, birth location, calf sex (weaning only), year, cow age, and interactions. Effects of special interest were sire breed x dam breed as an indication of breed group of calf, and the interaction of sire and dam breeds with sampling time. Weaning age and BW were investigated as linear and quadratic covariates. Sire of calf within sire breed was a random term. The correlation structure of repeated measures was determined by comparison of information criterion values for different structures within each analysis. In general, plasma acute phase protein concentrations in weaned calves increased with sampling time. Concentrations in the transported steers increased through sampling at 24 h after arrival, and were lower at 72 h. Significant estimates of heterosis were detected for Brahman-Angus haptoglobin concentrations at weaning (0.38 +/- 0.14 mg/dL x 100; 44%), and for Romosinuano-Angus fibrinogen concentrations at weaning (11.4 +/- 5.5 mg/dL; 10%) and in transported steers (22.5 +/- 8.4 mg/dL; 20%). The direct effect of Romosinuano was to increase (P Angus was to lower ceruloplasmin concentrations in weaned calves (-3.9 +/- 1.2; P = 0.001). Significant maternal effects

  7. Reduction of chlortetracycline residues in manure from therapeutically-treated beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heavily-used antibacterials, triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are common contaminants of biosolids that are accumulated and adsorbed into waste-water treatment plants. These compounds are highly persistent because they present high octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log10 Kow of 4.9...

  8. Body condition score to predict the postpartum fertility of crossbred beef cows Condição corporal na predição da fertilidade pós-parto de vacas de corte cruzadas

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes; Carlos Miguel Jaume; Carlos José Hoff de Souza

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between changes in body condition score (BCS) during the postpartum and fertility in beef cows suckling calves under extensive conditions were investigated. Cows were subjected to four BCS evaluations over the postpartum period, starting around one month after calving. In the second evaluation cows were treated with medroxy-progesterone acetate impregnated pessaries and received an injection of estradiol benzoate. At the third evaluation, pessaries were removed and calves wer...

  9. Genetic relationships among calving ease, gestation length, and calf survival to weaning in the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the genetic relationships among calving ease (CE), calf survival (CS), and gestation length (GL) to assess the possibility of including this information in beef cattle breeding programs. A total of 35,395 field records were available for CE, 30,684 for GL, and 36,132 for CS from the Asturiana de los Valles beef cattle breed. The 3 traits were analyzed as traits of the calf fitting a multivariate linear mixed model. Estimates of heritability (+/-SE) for the direct genetic effects (CEd, GLd, and CSd) were 0.325 +/- 0.022, 0.331 +/- 0.026, and 0.226 +/- 0.018, respectively, whereas the estimates for maternal genetic effects (CEm, GLm, and CSm) were 0.066 +/- 0.018, 0.066 +/- 0.017, and 0.034 +/- 0.011. The estimates for the ratio of permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance were CEc 0.090 +/- 0.011, GLc 0.066 +/- 0.011, and CSc 0.024 +/- 0.007. Genetic correlations between direct, maternal genetic, or permanent environmental effects involving CE and GL were, in general, positive and moderate, whereas those involving CE and CS were high. All were significant except for the pair CEm-GLm (0.277 +/- 0.172). Correlations between GL and CS were nonsignificant. Genetic correlations for CEd-CEm, GLd-GLm, and CSd-CSm were negative and high, ranging from -0.461 +/- 0.120 for GLd-GLm to -0.821 +/- 0.145 for CSd-CSm. The genetic correlations for CEd-CSm and for CSd-CEm were negative, significant, and high, whereas that for GLd-CEm was moderate (-0.323 +/- 0.124) and that for GLd-CSm was nonsignificant. The genetic correlations for GLm with the direct effects of the other traits were non-significant. Strong selection for CE will result in a significant correlated response in CS. Therefore, CE can be considered an early indicator of CS performance. The benefit of using GL as a correlated trait in a genetic evaluation with CE and CS seems limited. PMID:19749015

  10. Bayesian evaluation of clinical diagnostic test characteristics of visual observations and remote monitoring to diagnose bovine respiratory disease in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Amrine, David E; Booker, Calvin; Wildman, Brian; Perrett, Tye

    2016-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle is a critical facet of therapeutic programs through promotion of prompt treatment of diseased calves in concert with judicious use of antimicrobials. Despite the known inaccuracies, visual observation (VO) of clinical signs is the conventional diagnostic modality for BRD diagnosis. Objective methods of remotely monitoring cattle wellness could improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little information exists describing the accuracy of this method compared to traditional techniques. The objective of this research is to employ Bayesian methodology to elicit diagnostic characteristics of conventional VO compared to remote early disease identification (REDI) to diagnose BRD. Data from previous literature on the accuracy of VO were combined with trial data consisting of direct comparison between VO and REDI for BRD in two populations. No true gold standard diagnostic test exists for BRD; therefore, estimates of diagnostic characteristics of each test were generated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Results indicate a 90.0% probability that the sensitivity of REDI (median 81.3%; 95% probability interval [PI]: 55.5, 95.8) was higher than VO sensitivity (64.5%; PI: 57.9, 70.8). The specificity of REDI (median 92.9%; PI: 88.2, 96.9) was also higher compared to VO (median 69.1%; PI: 66.3, 71.8). The differences in sensitivity and specificity resulted in REDI exhibiting higher positive and negative predictive values in both high (41.3%) and low (2.6%) prevalence situations. This research illustrates the potential of remote cattle monitoring to augment conventional methods of BRD diagnosis resulting in more accurate identification of diseased cattle. PMID:26879058

  11. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Eilish M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d 0 in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementary concentrates. Twenty-six days prior to weaning and housing, 20 singled suckled, pure-bred Simmental male (non-castrated, (n = 10, m and female (n = 10, f calves were assigned to one of two treatments (i concentrate supplement (CS: n = 10 (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (12.8 d, mean weight (s.d. 258 (20.2 kg or (ii no concentrate supplement (controls (NCS: n = 10, (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (13.4 d, mean weight (s.d. 257 (19.6 kg pre-weaning. Results There was a treatment × sampling time interaction (P + and WC1+ (γδ T cells lymphocytes and concentration of plasma globulin. On d 2, percentage CD4+ lymphocytes decreased (P + lymphocytes increased (P + lymphocytes in NCS did not differ (P > 0.05 from d 0. On d 2, WC1+ lymphocytes decreased (P P 0.05 in NCS than CS. Subsequently, percentages did not differ (P > 0.05 from pre-weaning baseline. On d 2, the increase in concentration of globulin was greater (P Conclusions Calves supplemented with concentrate prior to weaning had a lesser reduction in WC1+ lymphocytes, increased percentage CD4+ lymphocytes and concentration of total protein, and spent more time lying post-weaning, compared with non-supplemented calves.

  12. Calving sub-season and reproductive efficiency of beef cows Subépoca de parição e eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Reinher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated in this work the effect of calving sub-season on the pregnancy rate of 7,726 multiparous Hereford beef cows grazing on natural pastures in southern Brazil, from 1994 to 2007. Calving sub-season periods were divided in 20-day intervals from August 12th to 31st; from September 1st to 20th; from September 21st to October 10th; from October 11th to 31st; from November 1st to 20th. Calving in each sub-season and pregnancy rate (PR were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Overall means of each sub-season were 92.7% (from August 12th to 31st, 90.6% (from September 1st to 20th, 82.1% (from September 21st to October 10th, 77.7% (from October 11th to 31st, and 70.6% (from November 1st to 20th. Calving sub-season significantly influenced pregnancy rate. Cows which calved in the initial sub-season showed higher pregnancy rates than cows which calved from the fourth calving sub-season. However this difference did not occur in 1999 and in 2007 since calving rates did not statistically differ among the five sub-seasons. In 1998 and 2004, calving rates were lower and the effects of calving sub-season on pregnancy rates were higher, possibly due to climate variations. In general, pregnancy rate decreases as calving occurs later in the year, particularly in years when the weather adversely affects pasture growth.Avaliou-se o efeito da subépoca de parição sobre a taxa de prenhez de 7.726 vacas de corte multíparas Hereford mantidas em campo natural no Sul do Brasil, entre os anos de 1994 e 2007. As subépocas foram divididas em intervalos de 20 dias: de 12 a 31 de agosto; de 1 a 20 de setembro; 21 de setembro a 10 de outubro; 11 a 31 de outubro; e 1 a 20 de novembro. Foram analisados os partos ocorridos na subépoca de parição e a taxa de prenhez (PR pelo qui-quadrado. As médias gerais de cada subépoca foram 92.7% (12 a 31 de agosto, 90.6% (1 a 20 de setembro, 82.1% (21 de setembro a 10 de outubro, 77.7% (11 a 31 de outubro e 70.6% (1 a 20 de

  13. Evaluation of multiple ancillary therapies used in combination with an antimicrobial in newly received high-risk calves treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Step, D L; Maxwell, C L; Wagner, J J; Richards, C J; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-07-01

    Ancillary therapy (ANC) is commonly provided in conjunction with an antimicrobial when treating calves for suspected bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in an attempt to improve the response to a suspected BRD challenge. The first experiment evaluated the effects of 3 ANC in combination with an antimicrobial in high-risk calves treated for BRD during a 56-d receiving period. Newly received crossbred steers (n = 516; initial BW = 217 ± 20 kg) were monitored by trained personnel for clinical signs of BRD. Calves that met antimicrobial treatment criteria (n = 320) were then randomly assigned to experimental ANC treatment (80 steers/experimental ANC treatment): intravenous flunixin meglumine injection (NSAID), intranasal viral vaccination (VACC), intramuscular vitamin C injection (VITC), or no ANC (NOAC). Animal served as the experimental unit for all variables except DMI and G:F (pen served as the experimental unit for DMI and G:F). Within calves treated 3 times for BRD, those receiving NOAC had lower (P risk calves receiving antimicrobial treatment for suspected BRD. PMID:26440032

  14. Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

  15. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( carcass characteristics. PMID:26523577

  16. Effect of early weaning on the performance of three-year-old, first-calf beef heifers and calves reared in the subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, J D; Kalmbacher, R S

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of early weaning fall-born calves on heifer and calf performance in Florida. Over two consecutive years, 3-yr-old Braford and Brahman x Angus first-calf heifers were assigned randomly to one of two treatments; early-weaned (EW, n = 20 and 30 for yr 1 and 2, respectively) and normal-weaned (NW, n = 20 and 38 for yr 1 and 2, respectively). Calves were EW on January 23 and 3 for yr 1 and 2, respectively. Following EW, all first-calf heifers were returned to bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures with the mature cowherd. Early-weaned calves were maintained on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) pastures at 8.2 and 10.7 calves/ha for yr 1 and 2, respectively, and were provided supplemental grain mixture (14% CP) at 1.0% of BW daily. Normal-weaned calves remained with their dams in the mature cowherd on bahiagrass. Final calf BW was collected on April 17 (d 84) and April 24 (d 111) for yr 1 and 2, respectively. Early-weaned calves had a greater (P < 0.001) ADG (0.17 kg/d) in yr 1, but a lower (P < 0.001) ADG (-0.24 kg/d) in yr 2 compared with NW calves. Early weaning resulted in heavier first-calf heifers with greater BCS at the time of normal weaning (August 1; 491 vs. 452 kg, with BCS = 6.34 vs. 4.75 for EW and NW heifers, respectively; SEM = 5.0 and 0.07). Heifers with EW calves had a higher (P < 0.07) pregnancy rate during both years than normal-weaned heifers (89.5 vs. 50.0 and 96.7 vs. 80.0% pregnant during yr 1 and 2, respectively). Early-weaned, first-calf heifers also had a lower (P < 0.05) calving interval in yr 2 (384 vs. 404 d; SEM = 6.0). These data suggest that EW will improve body condition of first-calf heifers resulting in an increased pregnancy rate. Early-weaned calves maintained on winter ryegrass provide producers with the ability to optimize early-weaned calf performance, while capitalizing on low cost of gain and favorable spring markets. PMID:12772839

  17. Comparison of Slaughter Performance and Beef Quality between Dairy Bull Calves and Fattening Cattle%奶公牛犊与育肥牛的屠宰性能及肉品质比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉杰; 孙芳; 王君才; 李红宇; 王嘉厚

    2011-01-01

    Four 6-month-old fattening dairy bull calves and four fattening cross-breeding adult beef cattle were selected to study the difference of beef production performance and quality between them. The results indicated that the percentage of bone of carcass was 4.45 percentage points higher than fattening cattle; the percentage of top grade parts of the meet was 0.35 percentage points higher than fattening cattle; the percentage of rump and hind legs meet was 1.67 percentage points higher than fattening cattle. The moisture content of calves was 75.39%, and protein content was 19.36%, which were 2.73 and 1.20 percentage points significantly higher than fattening cattle, and the fat content was 0.85%, which was 1.22 percentage points lower than fattening cattle. The shear force of the meet (outside ridge) of 72-hour cooling and 96-hour cooling were significant comparing with fattening cattle(p 〈0.01).The a* of meat color 3.88 lower than fattening cattle, and L* of meat color 6.55 higher than fattening cattle after 72-hour cooling, and the indexes of statistical analysis were significantly different(p〈0.01); the drop loss in indexes of WHC was significant difference(p〈0.05), and the cooked meet percentage was no difference(p〉0.05). Therefore, the percentage of the beef production of fattening calves were lower than adult beef cattle's, and the beef of calves were delicate and soft, fulling of juice, high protein, low fat and the meat color were pale on the beef quality, but the water-binding capacity of calves were significantly poorer than of adult beef cattle's.%选择6月龄育肥奶公牛犊和成年育肥杂交改良肉牛各四头,通过屠宰性能和肉品质比较,研究育肥奶公犊与杂交改良育肥肉牛的产肉性能和牛肉品质差异,为肉牛屠宰企业开发犊牛肉市场提供技术参数。结果表明,屠宰率为55.38%的犊牛胴体较屠宰率56.38%的育肥牛胴体,出肉率低6.25

  18. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Oxidation of protein (OXP), carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was investigated with 12 growing bulls treated with beta-agonist (L-644, 969) during two 6 weeks trials (Section A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg. Heat production and nutrient oxidation was calculated from gas exchange......, with CO2 reduced for CO2 from fermentation processes, and nitrogen excretion in urine. The beta-agonist had no effect on the level of rumen fermentation as indicated by the same methane production for control and treated animals. Heat Production (HE, RQx) increased by the treatment of beta......-agonist corresponding to the increment in the protein retention. OXP/HE,RQx was reduced to about 10% in treated animals, indicating that in order to supply amino acids for an increased protein deposition oxidation of protein is decreased. OXF/HE,RQx were markedly higher in treated animals, but as indicated by the same...

  19. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  20. Relationships of milk yield and quality of six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality to calf preweaning average daily gain (ADG) of beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvie...

  1. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardon Bart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk, ruminal disorders (0.7%, idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%, enterotoxaemia (0.5% and enteritis (0.4%. Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.

  2. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  3. Relationships of milk yield and quality from six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Mays, A R; Turner, K E; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-04-01

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality of beef cows to calf preweaning ADG in beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano and from Brangus dams to determine whether the relationships were homogeneous across cow breed group. Approximately 50 cows/yr were milked monthly for 6 mo in each of the 7 yr of this study. Milk traits were included in models as linear and quadratic covariates along with interactions of the covariates with sire breed. Tests for curvilinearity and homogeneity of regression coefficients indicated the relationship of calf preweaning ADG to milk yield and quality was quadratic and homogeneous across Charolais and Gelbvieh; linear and homogeneous across Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano; and linear and different from other sire breeds in Herefords (P Brangus (P 0.05) of a relationship in Bonsmara, Charolais, Hereford, or Romosinuano. There was little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship of calf preweaning ADG to MUN in any of the sire breed groups. Results from this study confirmed the importance of the influence of milk yield and quality on calf preweaning growth but indicated this influence can depend on the breed composition of the cow. Furthermore, results suggest that breed origin or adaptation may have influenced the relationships of calf preweaning ADG to cow milk yield and quality. PMID:26020207

  4. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY TITER AND RECTAL TEMPERATURE IN RESPONSE TO A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRAL VACCINE IN NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  5. Association of selenocysteine transfer RNA fragments with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to identify transfer RNA fragments (tRFs) associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected...

  6. Fontes energéticas para bezerros de corte desmamados aos 80 dias de idade Energy supplements for beef calves weaned at 80 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2006-06-01

    ão alimentar nos tratamentos com GM (4,21 foi melhor que naqueles com CS (4,80.In this study different energy supplements for feedlot calves weaned at 80 days of age and averaging 90 kg of body weight were evaluated. The following energy sources were used: corn grain (CG, rice bran (RB, soybean hulls (SH, corn grain + rice bran (CG + RB, soybean hulls + rice bran (SH + RB or corn grain + soybean hulls (CG + SH. The diets were isonitrogenous (13% crude protein with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sorghum silage (AG-2005E constituted the forage portion of the diet. No significant differences were observed for dry matter intakes (DMI expressed in kg (4.43 kg, per 100 kg of body weight (3.17% or per unit of metabolic weight (109.10 g. Calves fed SH showed greater intake of NDF than those fed CG expressed in kg per day, per 100 kg of body weight and per unit of metabolic weight (2.41 kg, 1.73% and 59.46 g vs. 1.44 kg, 1.02% and 35.01 g, respectively. Daily digestible energy intake (DEI was similar among treatments as well as the average daily weight gain (.986 kg, feed conversion (4.52 kg DMI/kg of weight gain and energy efficiency (12.23 Mcal DEI/kg of weight gain. However, when compared by contrast analyses both diets with SH (SH and SH + RB and both diets with CG (CG and CG + RB, it was observed that animals receiving diets with soybean hulls consumed more DM than animals fed corn grain expressed either per 100 kg of body weight (3.28 vs. 3.06% or per unit of metabolic weight - MW (112.67 vs. 105.59 g. It was also observed differences in DEI, being greater for diets containing corn grain (12.47 Mcal/day and .304 Mcal/MW compared to those containing SH (11.67 Mcal/day and .288 Mcal/MW. Feed conversion improved on calves fed diets with CG (4.21 than on those fed soybean hulls (4.80.

  7. Produtividade e eficiência biológica de sistemas pecuários de cria diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto e na taxa de natalidade do rebanho no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and biological efficiency of beef cow-calf systems differing in age at first calving and herd calving rate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Beretta

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada por intermédio da simulação a produtividade e eficiência de sistemas de criação de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto (IP, anos e na taxa de natalidade (TN: "Sistema Tradicional" (ST IP=4; "Sistema Melhorado" (SM IP=3; e o "Sistema Um Ano" (SU IP=2. Em cada sistema foi avaliado o efeito da TN variando entre 50 e 90%. Foi usado um modelo estático determinístico. A resposta em produtividade e eficiência à redução na IP foi dependente da TN. No SM e SU foi determinada resposta curvilinear a aumentos na TN, atingindo uma produção máxima de 83,9 e 77,9 quilos de bezerro desmamado (BD/ha com TN de 82,5 e 92,3%, respectivamente. No ST a resposta foi linear, com aumentos de 6,1 kg BD/ha a cada 10% de aumento na TN. O custo energético por quilo BD produzido diminuiu linearmente, na medida em que a TN aumentou.A simulation model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of beef cow-calf systems in Rio Grande do Sul State with different heifers first calving age (CA, years and calving rates (CR: "Traditional System" (TS CA=4; "Improved System (IS" CA=3; "One Year System (OYS" CA=2. In each system it was studied the effect of CR varying from 50 to 90%. A statistic deterministic model was used. The effect of reducing CA on productivity and efficiency was dependent of CR. IS and OYS showed a quadratic response curve, with maximum production of 83,9 and 77,9 kg of weaned calf (WC/ ha for CR of 82,5 and 92,3%, respectively. TS response was linear, with increments of 6,1 kg WC/ha for each 10% increase in CR. Energetic cost per quilogram of WC was reduced linearly with increments in CR.

  8. Efeitos do manejo pós-parto de vacas primíparas no desempenho de bezerros de corte até um ano de idade Effects of post-partum management of primiparous cows on growth of beef calves up to one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-04-01

    weaning at 100 (EW and at 180 (CW days of age, were evaluated using 92 beef calves from Hereford and Braford primiparous cows. The sex of the calves affected significantly the birth weight, and no effect was observed for the breed of cow. The treatments and breed of cow did not affect the average daily gain (ADG of the calves from birth to early weaning (GEW. Calves born from Braford cows had higher LW at EW (WEW than calves born from Hereford cows, while the WEW was not affected by the treatments. Calves born from Braford cows on T2 had ADG up to 180 days (ADG180 and LW at 180 days (LW180 greater than calves born from Braford cows on T1 and Hereford cows on T2. Calves from CW had greater LW180 and ADG180 than calves from EW. However, treatments and weaning ages did not affect the LW at 365 days and the ADG up to 365 days of age. The three cows post-partum management schemes and the two calves weaning ages evaluated did not affect the calves performance up to one year of age.

  9. FONTES ENERGÉTICAS PARA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE BEZERROS DESMAMADOS PRECOCEMENTE, MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM. ENERGETIC SOURCES FOR SUPPLEMENTATION OF EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES KEPT ON ELEPHANT GRASS PASTURE (Pennisetum pupureum, SCHUM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas sobre o desempenho de bezerros, desmamados precocemente, submetidos ao pastejo contínuo em capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv Taiwan A-146. As fontes energéticas testadas foram a casca de soja, o grão de milho moído e o farelo de arroz integral, além da mistura múltipla desses três alimentos, fornecidos ao nível de 1% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca. A pastagem apresentou em média massa de forragem da planta inteira de 7286 kg de MS/ha, com 34,31% de folhas. O ganho de peso médio diário (GMD não foi influenciado significativamente pela fonte energética, sendo 0,867; 0,841; 0,753 e 0,817 kg para a casca de soja, grão de milho, farelo de arroz integral e mistura múltipla, respectivamente. O GMD apresentou comportamento quadrático (1,119-0,024X+0,00034X2 frente aos períodos experimentais. O peso final dos bezerros suplementados com grão de milho (162 kg foi maior que os suplementados com farelo de arroz integral (156 kg, ambos não diferindo dos suplementados com casca de soja (160 kg ou mistura múltipla (158 kg. O estado corporal final foi maior nos animais que receberam a casca de soja ou a mistura múltipla (3,62 e 3,64 pontos, respectivamente em relação àqueles que receberam milho ou farelo de arroz integral (3,48 e 3,43 pontos, respectivamente como suplemento. Palavras chaves: Casca de soja, estado corporal, farelo de arroz integral, ganho de peso, grão de milho ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effect of different energetic sources on the performance of early weaned beef calves, submitted to continuous grazing on pasture of Elephant Grass Taiwan A146. The energetic sources tested were ground corn grain, soybean hulls and rice bran, besides a mixture of the three energetic sources. The amount offered was equivalent to 1% of the live weight, dry matter basis

  10. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  11. Selection and Development of Replacement Beef Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Stenquist, Norris J.; Bennett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Selection, development, management, and nutrition of heifer calves to be used as herd replacements are key factors in maintaining beef herd productivity. A cow/calf producer, to be successful, must have some goals or criterion for heifer selection and development. For practically all Utah cattle production areas, economics dictate that heifers must calve as two-year-olds. Heifers must be properly developed and managed to permit this. The following factors are important: Heifers should 1) beco...

  12. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  13. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  14. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the o...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior to the...... outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested that the...

  15. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) pneumonia in beef calf herds despite vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tegtmeier, C.; Pedersen, E.

    2001-01-01

    to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested......The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine 2 months prior...... beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later....

  16. Treatment of hypernatremia in neonatal calves with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Petrie, Lyall

    2007-01-01

    Five hypernatremic, diarrheic, neonatal calves were treated mainly by the intravenous administration of 5% dextrose alone or with isotonic sodium bicarbonate. All calves recovered without complications. The average reduction rate of serum sodium concentration was about 4 times that recommended and has not been tried successfully before in hypernatremic scouring calves.

  17. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Beef production without mature cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G E; Whittier, J C

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients in animal feed get partitioned to growth, lactation, pregnancy, fat accretion, and/or maintenance. For mature beef cows, >80% of nutrients consumed annually go to unproductive maintenance. Integrated over the entire U.S. beef cattle production system, nearly one-half of the nutrients consumed go to maintenance of cow herds. This accounts for much of the inefficiency of beef production and can be minimized by the single-calf heifer system, in which heifers are fattened and slaughtered after having their first calf. We propose a modification, use of sexed semen, so that most heifers replace themselves with a heifer calf. This greatly decreases the size of the inherently inefficient cow herd required for beef production and greatly increases efficiency of beef production in terms of nutrients consumed and waste produced, such as methane, by increasing the ratio of nutrients used for growth to those used for maintenance. Additional management is required including AI, early weaning, and the attention required when calving 2-yr-old heifers. Low conception rates with sexed semen and less efficient growth of females than males also must be considered. However, these issues seem greatly outweighed by the benefits of increased efficiency from decreasing cow herd size while eliminating the need for breeding back lactating first-calf heifers, the need for castration, and health problems inherent in older cows such as mastitis and lameness. Moreover, the decreased generation interval can greatly accelerate genetic progress. PMID:26440323

  18. Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Miller, J E; Monlezun, C J; LaMay, D; Navarre, C; Ensley, D

    2013-10-18

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n=42) and heifers (n=31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O+M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M+O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O+M and O) or moxidectin (M+O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (Pparasite control and improve animal gains for stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures. PMID:23953143

  19. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature and serum proinflammatory cytokine and haptog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare immun...

  20. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef consum...

  1. Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV Pneumonia in Beef Calf Herds Despite Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen E

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the clinical, pathological, serological and virological findings in calves from 2 larger Danish beef herds experiencing outbreaks of pneumonia. The calves had been vaccinated with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV vaccine 2 months prior to the outbreak. The clinical signs comprised nasal discharge, pyrexia, cough and increased respiratory rates. A total of 28 calves died in the 2 herds. The laboratory investigations revealed that BRSV was involved and probably initiated both outbreaks. Furthermore, the serological results suggested that the vaccine induced only sparse levels of antibodies probably due to the presence of maternally derived antibodies at the time of vaccination. Necropsy findings in 5 calves revealed changes typical for infectious pneumonia with involvment of BRSV. In conclusion, vaccination of calves against BRSV in 2 Danish beef herds failed to protect the calves against severe or even fatal BRSV mediated respiratory disease 2 months later.

  2. Experimental selection for calving ease and postnatal growth in seven cattle populations. I. Changes in estimated breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental selection was used to create beef cattle lines with similar yearling weight direct and weaning weight maternal EBV and either lower 2-yr-old heifer calving difficulty score EBV or proportionally average birth weight EBV. Select (low heifer calving difficulty score EBV) and control line...

  3. DOWN MARKET EFFECTS IN BEEF COW-CALF HERDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Stephen L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, prices for weaned calves were at the lowest point for the current cattle market cycle. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Beef ,97 Study examined the effects of the down market on beef cow-calf herd management practices. Most producers did not alter management practices in response to the down market. Among producers who made changes, costs were cut largely in the area of herd health management. Specific management practices in which costs were cut included...

  4. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  5. Wintering Fall-Calving Cow Pairs by Grazing Standing Corn Plants vs. Mechanically Harvested Feeds such as Hay or Straw, A Comparison of the Performance and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    ZoBell, Dale R.; Synder, Donald L; Wiedmeier, R D; Meek, Dale; Schimt, P R; McNiven, T D

    2005-01-01

    This publication compares alternataive methods to wintering fall calving beef cows. Traditionally, harvested grass hay has been fed but usually at a cost that is higher than non-traditional approaches of those reported.

  6. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    OpenAIRE

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  7. Descriptive study of 32 cases of doxycycline-overdosed calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Brihoum, Mounir; Amory, Hélène; Desmecht, Daniel; Cassart, Dominique; Deleuze, Stefan; Rollin, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports of doxycycline-induced toxicity are limited despite common use of this antibiotic to treat infectious respiratory disorders in calves. OBJECTIVE: To describe previously unreported kidney lesions and diagnostic test results in doxycycline-overdosed calves and to compare these results with other findings reported previously. ANIMALS: Thirty-two calves that presented with adverse effects after receiving high doses of doxycycline as a treatment for mild respiratory disor...

  8. Calving Performance in the Endangered Murboden Cattle Breed: Genetic Parameters and Inbreeding Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A.e. Eaglen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calving is a key event on any cattle farm, with both economic and animal welfare consequences when complications arise. Although mostly reported in highly selected breeds, problematic calving performance is also a worry to the unselected dualpurpose Murboden breed, local to Austria. This study presents genetic parameter estimates for calving ease and stillbirth in Murboden cattle. Furthermore, a potential effect of inbreeding on the breeds’ calving performance is evaluated. Results show a moderate direct and maternal heritability (0.18±0.04; 0.11±0.02 and a significant negative direct-maternal genetic correlation for calving ease (-0.41±0.10. Heritabilities of stillbirth are low yet significant (0.048±0.01; 0.018±0.007. A significant effect of inbreeding was detected on maternal calving ease i.e. the ease with which a dam calves. By categorizing the inbreeding coefficients of the dam in six ascending classes it was shown that calving ease worsens as inbreeding coefficients become larger. Results of this study reveal significant genetic variation in calving performance of the Murboden breed which opens doors for genetic selection. An additional important aspect of this study is that its result on inbreeding depression gives counterweight to the general intuitive notion in literature that high selection for production traits is the major contributor to calving difficulty in dairy and beef cattle breeds worldwide.

  9. Genetic analyses of days to calving and their relationships with other traits in a Canchim cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Buttarello Mucari; Maurício Mello de Alencar; Pedro Franklin Barbosa; Rogério Taveira Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations in a Canchim beef cattle herd were estimated using data on the following traits: male scrotal circumference at twelve months (SC12); days to first calving (DFC) for heifers; days to calving (DC) for cows; male and female weight (W) at twelve months (W12); heifer weight at the start of the first breeding season (WFBS) and at first calving (WFC); and cow weight at the start of the breeding season (WBS) and at calving (WC). Analyses of the DFC and DC trait...

  10. Efeitos do peso vivo sobre a comercialização de bezerros de corte em leilões Effects of the live weight on the commercialization of beef calves in auction barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Christofari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se os efeitos da média de peso vivo de 1.880 lotes de bezerros comercializados em 13 leilões, no Rio Grande do Sul, sobre o valor de venda final por unidade de peso, e caracterizou-se a frequência dos lotes conforme a classe de peso durante as estações de outono e primavera, no período de 2004 a 2006. Os dados foram corrigidos pelo índice geral de preços - disponibilidade interna e analisados por meio de histogramas de frequência e análises de regressão e correlação. O peso vivo influenciou o preço dos bezerros, e a magnitude do efeito foi maior nos anos de grande demanda. Observou-se correlação negativa entre preço e peso dos bezerros na primavera, reflexo da oferta de animais mais pesados, devido aos efeitos de estação do ano ou à maior idade dos bezerros, comparados aos ofertados no outono. Não se observou maior liquidez dos bezerros comercializados no outono em relação aos da primavera. A conjuntura da cadeia da carne bovina e os preços de outras categorias têm grande relação com os preços pagos. A aquisição de animais de menor ou maior peso na ocasião da transação comercial pode auxiliar na redução dos custos que a reposição representa na produção.The effects of the live weight of 1,880 lots of calves marketed in 13 auctions in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on the value of final sale per unit of weight were evaluated, as well as the frequency of the lots according to the weight class during the autumn and spring seasons, in the period from 2004 to 2006, was characterized. The data were analyzed by frequency histograms, regression, and correlation analyses. The live weight is one of the characteristics that influenced the price of the calves; however, the magnitude of the effect was higher in years of great demand. A negative correlation was observed between price and weight of the calves in spring, which were results of the offer of heavier animals, due to the season effects or the

  11. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha)gene promoter polymorphisms with hyper-responsiveness to endotoxin (LPS)in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we identified a subpopulation of beef calves that failed to develop normal immune tolerance as defined by the patterns and magnitude of changes in plasma TNF-alpha concentration after 2 repeated LPS challenges. In these hyper responding calves (HRC), impaired LPS tolerance was related to...

  12. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for...... effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...... grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the...

  13. Efeitos da taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmama de bezerras de corte e do nível nutricional pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre a produção e composição do leite e o desempenho de bezerros Preweaning gain rate of beef heifers and postpartum nutritional level, as cows, on milk production and composition and performance of their calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de ganho de peso de bezerras de corte na fase de aleitamento, do nascimento aos sete meses, e seu reflexo sobre o desempenho posterior, enquanto vacas. As taxas de ganho de peso avaliadas quando bezerras, durante o período pré-desmame, foram: baixa (menor que 350 g/dia e moderada (maior que 350 g/dia. Quando vacas e após o parto, foram mantidas com seus bezerros até o desmame, em pastagem nativa (PN ou pastagem cultivada (PC. As vacas, quando bezerras, foram pesadas ao nascer e aos sete meses de idade (desmame e, quando vacas, foram pesadas, com seus bezerros nas primeiras 24 horas pós-parto; aos 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 dias; e ao desmame, que ocorreu com idade média dos bezerros de 228 dias. As avaliações da produção de leite e a coleta de amostras para avaliação da composição do leite foram realizadas nas mesmas datas das pesagens, com exceção do nascimento. Taxas de ganho de peso inferiores a 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade não foram prejudiciais ao futuro peso das bezerras, em razão da compensação no peso que apresentaram na fase pós-desmama. Bezerras com taxas de ganho de peso menores que 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade, enquanto vacas produziram maiores quantidades de leite (4,83 vs 3,71 L/dia, total de gordura (47,4 vs 35,9 kg, lactose (52,6 vs 39,7 kg, extrato seco total (140,4 vs 107,2 kg e extrato seco desengordurado (94,8 vs 71,2 kg, e bezerros com maiores ganhos de peso (717 vs 617 g/dia e mais pesados ao desmame (189,0 vs 166,1 kg que as vacas que, quando bezerras, apresentaram taxas de ganho de peso acima de 350 g/dia.The preweaning weight gain rate of beef heifers and its effects on their subsequent performance as cows, was studied. The weight gain rates evaluated as heifer calves before weaning were low (below 350 g/day and moderate (above 350 g/day. As cows and after calving, they were kept together with their calves until weaning on native (NP or cultivated pasture (CP

  14. The susceptibility differences of buffalo and Ongole calves against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P

  15. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M;

    2003-01-01

    treated experimental cows according to expected date of calving and parity. The experimental cows were fed between 0.5 and 1.0 kg of zeolite A per day during the last 2 to 4 weeks of the dry period. Blood samples were drawn on the day of calving and day one and two after calving (all experiments), three...

  16. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. PMID:27180327

  17. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune; de Smet, Stefaan; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-01-01

    investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... and beef technologies. Information becomes either less relevant when the product is actually tasted, as indicated by the findings in Norway, or more relevant when information is confirmed by own experience during tasting, as indicated by the findings in Belgium....

  18. Effect of slaughter age on meat qualitative traits of veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bergero; C. Russo; G. Preziuso; A. Schiavone; M.I. Tarantola

    2011-01-01

    Veal calves breeding holds an important of bovine meat production part over all our country, as for the appreciation by the consumers for its pale coloured flesh, believed to be more digestible, than for favourable use of Frisian males that are slaughtered because they exceed the restocking of beef (Balasini, 2000)...

  19. Whole Genome Analysis of Response to BVDV2 Vaccinations in Angus Calves Using Bayesian Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of environmental factors and genetic controls on response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) in Purebred American Angus beef cattle. This study utilized 245 Angus calves born in the spring (n = 139) and fall (n = 106) of 2...

  20. Fluid therapy in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geof W; Berchtold, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Early and aggressive fluid therapy is critical in correcting the metabolic complications associated with calf diarrhea. Oral electrolyte therapy can be used with success in calves, but careful consideration should be given to the type of oral electrolyte used. Electrolyte solutions with high osmolalities can significantly slow abomasal emptying and can be a risk factor for abomasal bloat in calves. Milk should not be withheld from calves with diarrhea for more than 12 to 24 hours. Hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate can be used effectively for intravenous fluid therapy on farms when intravenous catheterization is not possible. PMID:24980729

  1. Endometrial cytology as a diagnostic tool for subclinical endometritis in beef heifers

    OpenAIRE

    MOSCUZZA, Carlos; ALVAREZ, Guadalupe; GUTIERREZ, Betiana; ZURITA, Marcelo; TROPEANO, Marcelo; PERNA, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The obstetric assistance of dystocia in field conditions promotes greater bacterial contamination of the uterus, causing subclinical endometritis. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of subclinical endometritis in beef heifers receiving professional calving assistance, and to evaluate endometrial cytology as a diagnostic technique compared to uterine biopsy. A group of 829 Angus heifers were assisted at calving. Dystocia was classified based on difficulty at assistance, whi...

  2. Pre- and postpartum nutritional effects on milk production, milk composition, calf weaning weight and postpartum reproductive performance of commercial beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kearnan, Jeffrey Mark

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum and postpartum nutrition on milk production of commercial beef cows. Forty-three Angus or Angus X Holstein females, ranging in age from 2 to 6 yr, were randomly assigned by age and percentage Holstein within age to one of two prepartum grazing treatments (PRE). All females, regardless of PRE, were assigned at calving to receive the same post-calving nutritional energy. Females were assigned at calving by ag...

  3. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16......The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  4. Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2016-04-01

    Standard practice in the dairy industry is to separate the calf and dam immediately after birth and raise calves in individual pens during the milk-feeding period. In nature and in extensive beef systems, the young calf lives in a complex social environment. Social isolation during infancy has been associated with negative effects, including abnormal behavior and developmental problems, in a range of species. Here, we review empirical work on the social development of calves and the effects of social isolation in calves and other species; this evidence indicates that calves reared in isolation have deficient social skills, difficulties in coping with novel situations, as well as specific cognitive deficits. We also review the practices associated with group housing of dairy calves, and discuss problems and suggested solutions, especially related to cross-sucking, competition, aggression, and disease. The studies reviewed indicate that social housing improves solid feed intakes and calf weight gains before and after calves are weaned from milk to solid feed. Evidence regarding the effects of social housing on calf health is mixed, with some studies showing increased risk of disease and other studies showing no difference or even improved health outcomes for grouped calves. We conclude that there is strong and consistent evidence of behavioral and developmental harm associated with individual housing in dairy calves, that social housing improves intakes and weight gains, and that health risks associated with grouping can be mitigated with appropriate management. PMID:26874423

  5. Crevassing and calving of glacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneally, James Patrick

    Calving of ice is a relatively new area of research in the still young field of glaciology. In the short time that calving has been studied, it has been mainly treated as an afterthought, with the predominant mode of thinking being that it will happen so to concern oneself with why is not important. Many studies dealt with observations of calving front positions over time vs. ice velocity in an attempt to quantify the calving rate as the difference between the two, while others have attempted to deduce some empirical relationship between calving rate and variables such as water depth or temperature. This study instead addresses the question of why, where, and when ice will first become crevassed, which is an obviously necessary condition for a later calving event to occur. Previous work examining the causes of calving used ideas put forth from a variety of fields, including civil engineering, materials science, and results from basic physics and mechanics. These theories are re-examined here and presented as part of a larger whole. Important results from the field of fracture mechanics are utilized frequently, and these results can be used as a predictor of ice behavior and intrinsic properties of ice, as well as properties like back stresses induced by local pinning points and resistive shears along glacial ice boundaries. A theory of fracture for a material experiencing creep is also presented with applications to ice shelves and crevasse penetration. Finally, a speculative theory regarding large scale iceberg formation is presented. It is meant mainly as an impetus to further discussion on the topic, with the hope that a model relating crevasse geometries to flow parameters can result in crevasse spacings that could produce the tabular icebergs which are so newsworthy. The primary focus of this thesis is to move away from the "after the fact" studies that are so common in calving research, and instead devote energy to determining what creates the conditions that

  6. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-02-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  7. Comparison of production characteristics from birth through slaughter of calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Lunt, D K

    1990-06-01

    Birth, weaning, growth and carcass records for calves sired by Angus, Charolais or Piedmontese bulls were used to evaluate the potential contribution of Piedmontese to beef production in the U.S. Bulls were mated by AI to Hereford and crossbred cows and heifers. Calves were born during fall 1985 or spring 1986. Statistical models used to analyze the importance of sire breed used sire nested within sire breed as a random effect. Effects of sex, birth season, contemporary group, dam breed and parity were considered fixed and tested with the residual error. Piedmontese-sired calves had the longest gestation length, followed by Charolais and Angus-sired calves (287.5, 285.0 and 282.8 d, respectively). Breed of sire was not significant for birth weight, but Piedmontese- and Charolais-sired calves had longer cannon bones than Angus-sired calves. Differences were found for weaning hip height, but weaning weights, weaning muscle scores and ADG during the preweaning period were similar for calves by the three sire breeds. When fed to a similar fat thickness, Angus-sired calves required fewer days on feed, produced lighter carcasses and gained less per day than Charolais- or Piedmontese-sired calves. Piedmontese-sired calves required more days on feed than Charolais-sired calves when slaughtered at a similar subcutaneous fat thickness. Piedmontese-sired calves produced carcasses with a larger average rib eye area, higher dressing percentage and lower (more desirable) yield grade than Charolais- or Angus-sired calves. No significant sire breed differences were detected for tissue cholesterol content. PMID:2384357

  8. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  9. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were

  10. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  11. Desenvolvimento intestinal de bezerros recém-nascidos aleitados com colostro de vacas tratadas com rbST Intestinal development of new-born calves fed colostrum of cows treated with rbST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Bagaldo

    2007-08-01

    , samples from liver, jejunum and ileum were collected. Calves from rbST group showed lower levels of DNA and protein in jejunum at seven days of age, while protein concentration increased at two days of age. Similar response was observed for the ratio of protein/RNA in jejunum. In the control group, the increase in protein concentration was observed in the seventh day of age. The indicators of cellular activity measured in this trial suggested that greater IGF-I concentration in colostrum of rbST treated cows promoted intestinal cellular maturation by affecting behavior of first generation enterocytes.

  12. Studies on post-partum anoestrus in Alentejano beef cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-partum ovarian activity in Alentejano beef cows maintained on natural pastures was monitored by measuring plasma progesterone levels using the radioimmunoassay method. Post-partum anoestrus was compared in cows calving in two different seasons (winter and summer). Differences between primiparous and multiparous cows, the effect of short term nursing interruption (72 hours by the 20th day post-partum) and the dam's body weight at calving (BWC) were also considered with respect to their influence on the onset of post-partum ovarian activity. Fertility after two breeding seasons of natural mating (April-May) and November-December) was also studied. Post-partum anoestrus was significantly longer in winter calving cows than in those calving in summer, in both multiparous and primiparous cows (73.9 versus 33.1 and 111.1 versus 35.6 days, respectively; P2=0.41; P<0.03). Because of a longer post-partum anoestrus, fertility was reduced in cows calving during the winter season compared with those calving in summer in all three years of the study (63.9 versus 76.9%, 57.8 versus 62.9% and 36.5 versus 60.6%, for 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively). The results presented show that the winter period in Portugal impairs the return to ovarian activity post-partum in this breed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagea, Mihai I; Bateman, Kenneth G; van Dreumel, Tony; McEwen, Beverly J; Carman, Susy; Archambault, Marie; Shanahan, Rachel A; Caswell, Jeff L

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots. PMID:16566254

  14. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls. PMID:9331860

  15. Desempenho de novilhas de corte até o parto recebendo diferentes níveis de suplementação durante o período reprodutivo, aos 14 meses de idade Performance of beef heifers until calving receiving different levels of supplementation during the breeding season, at 14 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2012-03-01

    íodo reprodutivo. A suplementação durante o período de acasalamento aumenta o desempenho reprodutivo de novilhas aos 14 meses de idade.The objective was to evaluate the performance of beef heifers until calving receiving different levels of supplementation on native pasture during the first breeding season, from 14 to 17 months: no supplementation; 3.5 g/kg of body weight; and 7.0 g/kg of body weight. Ninety-eight Charolais, Nellore and their crosses, with average initial weight of 255 kg, were used. Weight at the end and average daily weight gain during the supplementation period were higher for 7.0 g/kg of supplement heifers (322 and 0.701 kg compared to those with 3.5 g/kg of supplement (302 and 0.464 kg and heifers without supplementation (288 and 0.425 kg, which did not differ from each other. Body condition score at the end of the supplementation was different between the three treatments, being 3.03, 3.33 and 3.47 points for heifers without supplementation; 3.5 g/kg of body weight; and 7.0 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Pregnancy rate was significantly affected by supplementation level, being 35.0, 34.2 and 70.0%, respectively. Heifers of the two supplementation treatments had higher conception rate at the first half of the reproductive period. Average heifer ages at calving were of 785, 778 and 761 days, respectively. The average daily weight and body condition of the heifers of the two genetic groups were similar; however, the initial and final weight of the supplementation period was higher for Charolais bulls daughters, compared with Nellore bulls daughters, reflecting on the heat (68.8 vs. 38.2% and pregnancy (60.9 vs. 26.5% rates. Characteristics related to calving were not affected by the supplementation levels during the reproductive period. The supplementation during the first breeding season increases reproductive performance of heifers at 14 months of age.

  16. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  17. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: considerations on puberty in replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, C L

    2013-03-01

    Many important changes occur throughout reproductive development in beef heifers, including during the prenatal, early postnatal, and peripubertal periods. Wave-like patterns of follicular development have been observed in heifer calves as early as 2 wk of age. Some dramatic changes occur from about 2 to 5 mo of age, most notably the transient increase in LH secretion. Most components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are fully competent by approximately 5 to 6 mo of age. Peripubertal changes include increases in LH secretion, estradiol production, follicular development, and reproductive tract size. Eventually, the process reaches the point that the initial ovulation is achieved. Heifers that reach puberty and experience multiple estrous cycles before the onset of their initial breeding season have a greater probability for early conception and optimal lifetime productivity. Attainment of puberty typically occurs at around 12 to 14 mo of age in beef heifers but varies greatly. Genetic differences and environmental factors contribute to this variation. In typical U.S. cow-calf operations, calves are generally weaned at approximately 200 d of age. The impact of postweaning management on age at puberty in heifers has been demonstrated, and there is considerable flexibility in the timing of gain from weaning to breeding. However, even when heifers are grown to the desired BW before the start of breeding, there remains a pronounced variation in the timing of puberty, which impacts pregnancy rates. Less attention has been focused on the impact of preweaning management on age at puberty. Heifer calves with increased growth rates from birth to weaning have reached puberty at earlier ages. Precocious puberty has also been induced in a majority of heifers with early weaning and feeding a high-concentrate diet. Nutritional control during early maturation in heifers exerts a substantial influence on the timing of puberty. Understanding the mechanisms involved in

  18. A comparison of prophylactic efficacy of tilmicosin and a new formulation of oxytetracycline in feedlot calves

    OpenAIRE

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.; Jacobsen, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Two replicated-pen field studies were performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the administration of long-acting oxytetracycline at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) versus tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW to feedlot calves upon arrival at the feedlot. Ten thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine, recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef steer and bull calves were randomly allocated upon arrival at the feedlot to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: oxytetra...

  19. An evaluation of the relative efficacy of a new formulation of oxytetracycline for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Schunicht, Oliver C.; Booker, Calvin W.; Guichon, P. Timothy; Jim, G. Kee; Wildman, Brian K.; Hill, Bruce W.; Ward, Tracy I.; Bauck, Stewart W.

    2002-01-01

    A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the efficacy of a new formulation of long-acting oxytetracycline (LA 30) to a standard long-acting oxytetracycline formulation (LA 20) and florfenicol (FLOR) for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot. Seven hundred and ninety-seven recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred, beef calves suffering from UF were a...

  20. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon Bart; De Bleecker Koen; Hostens Miel; Callens Jozefien; Dewulf Jeroen; Deprez Piet

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by t...

  1. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 – 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was...... Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was...... followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced the...

  2. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  3. Clinical disease and lung lesions in calves experimentally inoculated with Histophilus somni five days after metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Anthony W; Snider, Timothy A; Taylor, Jared D; Montelongo, Marie; Sorensen, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare clinical disease and lung lesions in calves experimentally inoculated with Histophilus somni 5 days after metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin. ANIMALS Twenty-four 3-month-old Holstein and Holstein-crossbreed steers. PROCEDURES Calves were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 8 calves. On day 0, calves in group 1 received tildipirosin (4 mg/kg, SC), calves in group 2 received tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg, SC), and calves in group 3 received isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/45 kg, SC; control). On day 5, calves were inoculated with 10 mL of a solution containing H somni strain 7735 (1.6 × 10(9) CFUs/mL, intrabronchially; challenge). Calves were clinically evaluated on days 5 through 8 and euthanized on day 8. The lungs were grossly evaluated for evidence of pneumonia, and bronchial secretion samples underwent bacteriologic culture. RESULTS The mean clinical score for each group was significantly increased 12 hours after challenge, compared with that immediately before challenge, and was significantly lower for tildipirosin-treated calves on days 6, 7, and 8, compared with those for tulathromycin-treated and control calves. The mean percentage of lung consolidation for tildipirosin-treated calves was significantly lower than those for tulathromycin-treated and control calves. Histophilus somni was isolated from the bronchial secretions of some tulathromycin-treated and control calves but was not isolated from tildipirosin-treated calves. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin to calves 5 days prior to H somni challenge prevented subsequent culture of the pathogen from bronchial secretions and was more effective in minimizing clinical disease and lung lesions than was metaphylactic administration of tulathromycin. PMID:27027834

  4. Comparison of two- and three-way rotational crossing, beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss composite breed production: postweaning growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, J J; Pahnish, O F; Knapp, B W; Reynolds, W L; Milmine, W L

    1989-10-01

    Data collected from steer and bull progeny, fed to a constant final feedlot weight over 11 yr, were used to estimate heterosis in post-weaning feedlot growth and carcass traits in two-way and three-way rotational crossing systems and a breed composite from crossing Hereford, Angus and Charolais breeds. Steer and bull progeny from matings of beef x Brown Swiss-cross sires and dams also were compared with the straight beef breeds and beef crosses. Growth traits evaluated were initial weight on test, 112-d weight, total feedlot average daily gain and total days from initial to final weight. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, yield grade and marbling score. Heterosis estimates for calves of all crossing systems were significant for initial and 112-d weight and for saving of days in the feedlot, but not for average daily feedlot gain. Heterosis estimates were small and nonsignificant for most carcass traits except for fat traits in specific crosses. Males from Hereford and Angus sires mated to Angus x Hereford dams had higher (P less than .10) backfat than did the parental average. Male progeny from Charolais ranked higher (P less than .10 to P less than .01) than calves from Hereford and Angus sires for most growth traits. Progeny from Charolais sires were more desirable (P less than .10 to P less than .01) for traits related to cutability, but they had less (P less than .05 to P less than .01) marbling than calves of Angus sires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2808166

  5. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to deter

  6. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver;

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  7. Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, C; Hammon, H; Rossi, G L; Blum, J W

    1998-03-01

    The effects of feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer and the effects of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered s.c. or orally; 50 microg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d), and of s.c. injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d) on small intestinal mucosal morphology in newborn calves were studied by histomorphometry. Neonatal calves fed colostrum six times exhibited greater (P Long-R3-IGF-I had no significant influence on small intestinal morphology, and rbGH in supraphysiological amounts even reduced small intestinal mucosal variables after 1 wk of treatment. The study demonstrated enhanced postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract by prolonged colostrum feeding, but not by Long-R3-IGF-I or GH. PMID:9535335

  8. The Virginia Beef Cattle Simulation Model: A bio-economic simulation program modeling the interactions among reproduction, forage availability, nutrition, growth, and marketing in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Schick, James Henry

    1999-01-01

    The Virginia Beef Cattle Simulation Model (VBCSM) is a user-friendly, dynamic, stochastic computer program whose objective is to serve as a decision-aid for Virginia cattlemen dealing with complex management issues such as whether to retain weaned calves through the stocker growth stage. Its five source-code modules are reproduction, forage, nutrition, marketing, and a tool that randomly assigns values to variables from appropriate statistical distributions. The VBCSM contains production stat...

  9. Greenhouse gas and alcohol emissions from feedlot steers and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Kimberly R; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Livestock's contributions to climate change and smog-forming emissions are a growing public policy concern. This study quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) and alcohol emissions from calves and feedlot steers. Carbon dioxide (CO) methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ethanol (EtOH), and methanol (MeOH) were measured from a total of 45 Holstein and Angus steers and 9 Holstein calves representative of four different growth stages commonly present on calf ranches and commercial feedlots. Individuals from each animal type were randomly assigned to three equal replicate groups of nine animals per group. Steers were fed a high concentrate diet and calves a milk replacer and grain supplement. Cattle and calves were housed in groups of three animals in an environmental chamber for 24 h. The CO, NO, EtOH, and MeOH concentrations from the air inlet and outlet of the chamber were measured using an INNOVA 1412 monitor and CH using a TEI 55C methane analyzer. Emission rates (g head h) were calculated. The GHGs were mainly produced by enteric fermentation and respiration and differed across life stages of cattle. Compared with dairy cows, feedlot steers produce relatively less GHG. In general, ethanol and methanol, the most important volatile organic compound (VOC) group in the dairy sector, were below the lower limit of detection of the gas analyzer. The present data will be useful to verify models and to enhance GHG emission inventories for enteric fermentation, respiration, and fresh excreta for numerous cattle life stages across the beef industry. PMID:21546675

  10. OBSERVATIONS ON CLINICAL TREATMENT TRIALS OF INDUCED ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN BUFFALO NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Javed, A. Khan, Abid Hussain and Babar Niaz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 24 calves of one week-age, randomly divided into four groups, of six calves each. First three groups were experimentally infected with E. coli and given treatment in various combinations, while group four was taken as uninfected untreated control. Results obtained on different parameters were, green to yellow-white diarrhoea with variable consistency from watery to semisolid. Generally in all groups during first two days, calves passed faeces around 6-10 times a day and this frequency lowered in about 2-4 days. During first 3-4 days of treatment, all calves appeared weak, dull, depressed with cold skin and wetness of the muzzle, while oral mucosa was pale and eyes were sunken. Overall mean respiration rate of treatment groups was slower (P<0.05 than control group. However, pulse rate showed no difference between treatment and control group. Overall mean rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic alone and with antibiotic + electrolytes, while body weight was higher (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic but was lower along with creatinine (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic + electrolytes and those treated with electrolytes alone.

  11. New approach for the strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazed beef cattle during the growing phase in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, R P; Borges, D G L; Vieira, M C; Conde, M H; Green, M; Amorim, M L; Echeverria, J T; Oliveira, T L; Moro, E; Van Onselen, V J; Borges, F A

    2016-05-15

    We evaluated the effect of different treatment protocols against gastrointestinal nematodes in Nelore beef cattle during the growing phase in the municipality of Terenos, MS, in central Brazil from May 2013 to April 2014 and from May 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-six Nelore calves were kept on Brachiaria brizantha grass during each trial period and were distributed into six experimental groups (replicate paddocks for each group) based on live weight and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG): T1 (control)-treated in May, July and September with a saline solution; T2-treated in May and November with 700μg/kg doramectin; T3-treated in May (doramectin), July (4.7mg/kg levamisole phosphate) and September (doramectin); T4-treated in May (doramectin), July (200μg/kg moxidectin) and September (doramectin); T5-treated in May (doramectin), August (levamisole phosphate) and November (doramectin) and T6-treated in May (doramectin), August (moxidectin) and November (doramectin). The calves were weighed and feces were collected (for faecal culture and EPG counts) from calves every 28days, concomitantly with the collection of forage samples. The efficacies of doramectin, moxidectin and levamisole were low, at 69.2, 65.9 and 69.4% in the first and 13.8, 92.6, and 76.5% in the second experimental periods, respectively, but only the untreated animals lost weight during the dry season. Final weight gains did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the animals in T2 (120.8kg), T3 (131.4kg), T4 (131.2kg) and T5 (134.4kg). T6 was the only group with a significantly higher final weight gain (140.9kg) compared to the protocol with two annual dosages (T2). The weight gain was 31.9% higher in T6 than in the untreated animals (T1). None of the protocols affected the number of larvae on the pasture. Body weight was significantly and negatively (r=-0.65) correlated with EPG counts, which were significantly lower in June (T2, T3, T4 and T6), August (T3), September (T5 and T6), October (T5

  12. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  13. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, C M; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Kachman, S D; Snelling, W M; Spangler, M L

    2016-05-01

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first-parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was transformed from the USMARC scores to corresponding -scores from the standard normal distribution based on the incidence rate of the USMARC scores. Breed fraction covariates were included to estimate breed differences. Heritability estimates (SE) for BWT direct, CD direct, BWT maternal, and CD maternal were 0.34 (0.10), 0.29 (0.10), 0.15 (0.08), and 0.13 (0.08), respectively. Calving difficulty direct breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.13 to 0.77 and maternal breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.27 to 0.36. Hereford-, Angus-, Gelbvieh-, and Brangus-sired calves would be the least likely to require assistance at birth, whereas Chiangus-, Charolais-, and Limousin-sired calves would be the most likely to require assistance at birth. Maternal breed effects for CD were least for Simmental and Charolais and greatest for Red Angus and Chiangus. Results showed that the diverse biological types of cattle have different effects on both BWT and CD. Furthermore, results provide a mechanism whereby beef cattle producers can compare EBV for CD direct and maternal arising from disjoined and breed-specific genetic evaluations. PMID:27285683

  14. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  15. ANIMAL PERFORMANCE, CARCASS QUALITY, AND TISSUE RESIDUES WITH BEEF STEERS FED FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGES GROWN ON SOIL TREATED WITH LIQUID DIGESTED SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed sewage sludges are a renewable resource which have potential as a fertilizer material on agricultural land. Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) silages, grown on soil treated with Pensacola liquid digested sludge (LDS) turned under prior to planting, were fed as the main i...

  16. Genotype by environment interaction for the interval from calving to first insemination with regard to calving month and geographic location in Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Strandberg, Erling; Berglund, Britt; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate genotype by environment interaction effects, with environments defined as calving month and geographic location, on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) of Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden. The data set included 811,285 records on CFI for first-parity cows from January 2010 to January 2014 housed in 7,458 herds. The longest mean CFI was 84.7 d for cows calving in April and the shortest was 76.3 d for cows calving in September. The longest mean CFI of 87.1 d was recorded at the northernmost location (LOC-8), whereas the shortest mean CFI of 73.5 d was recorded at the southernmost location (LOC-1). The multiple trait approach, in which CFI values in different calving months and different geographic locations were treated as different traits, was used to estimate the variance components and genetic correlations for CFI by using the average information (AI)-REML procedure in a bivariate sire model. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability were highest for January calvings and 3 times smaller for June calvings. Location 2 had the highest heritability and LOC-8 the lowest, with heritability estimates decreasing from LOC-2 to LOC-8. Genetic correlations of CFI between calving months were weakest between cold months (December and January) and warm months (June, August, and September); the lowest estimate was found between January and September calvings. Genetic correlations of CFI between the different geographic locations were generally strong, and the weakest correlation was between LOC-3 and LOC-8. These results indicate a genotype by environment interaction for CFI primarily regarding seasons described by calving months. The effect of geographic location was less important, mostly producing a scaling effect of CFI in different locations. We concluded that CFI is more sensitive to seasonal effects than geographic locations in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:27085411

  17. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which...

  18. Health promoting values of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Migdał W.; Živković B.; Migdał Ł.

    2009-01-01

    The beef meat is mainly used as culinary cuts. The culinary value of beef and veal meat is determined by tenderness and palatability. 23% of meat produced in Europe (about 7,5 mln ton) is beef, veal production is estimated about 800 000 ton per year. Biggest producers of beef and veal are France (30%), Netherlands (26%), Italy (18%) Belgium (7%) and Germany (6%). 70% of beef and veal produced in Europe is consumed by French and Germans. Beef contains proteins (18 -23%) which have high biologi...

  19. Progesterone receptor up-regulation: a diagnostic tool for the illicit use of oestrogens in adult beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divari, S; Mulasso, C; Uslenghi, F; Cannizzo, F T; Spada, F; De Maria, R; Brina, N; Biolatti, B

    2011-12-01

    The monitoring of gene regulation via mRNA levels to detect anabolic sex steroid administration in cattle is a novel approach to detecting the illicit treatment of livestock in meat production. A previous study revealed that progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression levels were increased in the bulbourethral glands and prostates of 17β-oestradiol-treated prepubertal calves, suggesting that the PR can be used as a specific molecular biomarker for oestrogen treatment. The aim of this study was to verify the specificity and applicability of the PR to detect the illegal use of 17β-oestradiol in sexually mature beef cattle. Accessory sex glands were sampled from 42 male beef cattle that were divided into six experimental groups, including two control groups, K1 and K2. Group A cattle were treated with 17β-oestradiol (five weekly intramuscular doses of 20 mg), and group B cattle were treated with dexamethasone (40 daily doses of 0.7 mg per os). Group C cattle received an implant of Revalor-200 (200 mg of trenbolone acetate and 20 mg of 17β-oestradiol), and group D cattle received Revalor-200 plus dexamethasone (0.7 mg daily per os). 17β-Oestradiol, either alone or in combination with other steroids, up-regulated the PR gene and protein expression, even in the absence of detectable histological changes in the accessory sex glands, confirming the high sensitivity of PR gene expression as an indirect diagnostic screening tool to detect illicit oestrogen treatment in sexually mature male bovine. PMID:22014147

  20. Evaluation of thymus morphology and serum cortisol concentration as indirect biomarkers to detect low-dose dexamethasone illegal treatment in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vascellari Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticosteroids are illegally used in several countries as growth promoters in veal calves and beef cattle, either alone or in association with sex steroids and β-agonists, especially at low dosages and primarily through oral administration, in order to enhance carcasses and meat quality traits. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the reliability of the histological evaluation of the thymus, as well as the serum cortisol determination, in identifying beef cattle, treated with two different dexamethasone-based growth-promoting protocols and the application of different withdrawal times before slaughter. Results Our findings demonstrate that low dosages of dexamethasone (DXM, administered alone or in association with clenbuterol as growth promoter in beef cattle, induce morphologic changes in the thymus, resulting in increase fat infiltration with concurrent cortical atrophy and reduction of the cortex/medulla ratio (C/M. In fact, the C/M value was significantly lower in treated animals than in control ones, with both the protocols applied. The cut off value of 0.93 for the cortex/medulla ratio resulted to be highly effective to distinguish control and treated animals. The animals treated with DXM showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, as well as at the slaughterhouse, 3 days after treatment suspension. The animals treated with lower doses of DXM in association with clenbuterol, showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, but serum cortisol concentration was restored to physiological levels at slaughterhouse, 8 days after treatment suspension. Conclusions The histological evaluation of thymus morphology, and particularly of the C/M may represent a valuable and reproducible method applicable to large-scale screening programs, due to the easy sampling procedures at slaughterhouse, as well as time and cost-saving of the analysis. Serum cortisol determination could be

  1. Regucalcin Expression as a Diagnostic Tool for the Illicit Use of Steroids in Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Sereno, Alessandra; Cannizzo, Francesca T

    2015-06-17

    It has been previously demonstrated that sex steroid hormone treatment down-regulates regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of prepubertal and adult male bovines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low doses of sex steroid hormones combined with other drugs significantly affect regucalcin gene expression in the accessory sex glands and testis of veal calves. The regucalcin expression was down-regulated in the bulbo-urethral glands of estrogen-treated calves, whereas it was up-regulated in the prostate of estrogen-treated calves. Only the testis of androgen-treated calves showed a down-regulation of the regucalcin expression. Thus, the administration of sex steroid hormones, even in low doses and combined with other molecules, could affect regucalcin expression in target organs. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests regucalcin expression in this organ as a first molecular biomarker of illicit androgen administration in bovine husbandry. PMID:26016660

  2. Targeting therapy to minimize antimicrobial use in preweaned calves: effects on health, growth, and treatment costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, A C B; Moore, D A; Besser, T E; Sischo, W M

    2009-09-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial use in food animals is questioned because of the potential for development of resistant bacteria and future inability to use some antimicrobials for human or animal disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of raising preweaned dairy calves without antimicrobials in the milk and minimizing therapeutic antimicrobial treatment on morbidity, mortality, weight gain, and treatment costs. Newborn calves (n = 358) were allocated to 1 of 4 groups, housed outdoors in individual hutches, and monitored for 28 d. Calves in the conventional therapy (CT) group were treated as per dairy protocol with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, spectinomycin, penicillin, and bismuth-pectin for diarrhea. The targeted therapy (TT) group included bismuth-pectin for diarrhea and antimicrobial treatment only in cases of fever or depressed attitude. Within CT and TT groups, calves were equally assigned to receive neomycin and tetracycline in their milk for the first 2 wk of life (AB-milk) or no antimicrobials (NoAB-milk). Daily health evaluations included fecal consistency, respiratory disease, attitude, and hydration status as well as milk and grain consumption. A negative binomial model evaluated the total number of days with diarrhea days in each group. General linear models were used to assess average daily weight gain and grain consumption. Conventionally treated calves had 70% more days with diarrhea than TT calves, and AB-milk calves had 31% more days with diarrhea compared with NoAB-milk calves. The TT calves tended to have a higher average daily gain by 28 d and consumed more grain compared with CT calves. If antimicrobials were used only for diarrhea cases with fever, inappetence, or depression and no in-milk antimicrobials were used, a $10 per calf savings could be realized. Targeting antimicrobial therapy of calf diarrhea cases is prudent not only to save the drugs for future use but also to prevent the potential for

  3. Effect of whole linseed and protected CLA enriqued diet on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Barahona, M.; Campo, M. M.; Olleta Castañer, José Luis; Sañudo Astiz, Carlos; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Realini, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four feeding batches: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), CLA (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed + CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at approximately 450 kg live weight. The inclusion of linseed, protected CLA and both showed lower pH values than the control at 48 h post mortem. Meat from CLA fed animals showed higher cooking losses than the other treatments except for linseed. Beef from linseed f...

  4. Spatial Market Integration in the EU Beef and Veal Sector: Policy Decoupling and Export Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Rico, 1979-; Brümmer, Bernhard, 1969-; Thompson, Stanley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy of the Euro-pean Union allowed for discretionary implementation among member states. Discretion was allowed with respect to the timing and the degree of decoupling of policy support. Differences among member states were particularly apparent in the European beef and veal sector. Using weekly data from 2003 to 2009, we assess the consequences of different national implementation strategies of the reforms on market integration for young calves,...

  5. Efeito da pastagem, da produção e da composição do leite no desempenho de bezerros de diferentes grupos genéticos Effect of pasture, milk yield and composition on the performance of beef calves from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2004-06-01

    para o peso ao nascimento, desmame e GMD foi, respectivamente, de 3,4; 11,8; e 10,2%.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the performance of Charolais (CH and ½Nellore (NE ½CH (produced by CH cows, NE and ½CH ½NE (produced by NE cows calves, mantained with the cows until weaning, on native pasture (NP or winter (oat + italian rye grass and summer (alexander grass cultivated pasture (CP. Sixty straigthbred or crossbreds calves were used, and weighted at birth; 14; 42; 70; 98; 126; 154; 182 days; and at weaning. The cows milk yield was evaluated at the same date of the calves weighing, with exception at birth. Calves mantained on CP showed higher average daily weight gain (ADG (733 vs 440 g and were heavier at weaning (191,8 vs 128,6 kg than calves mantained on NP. Quadratic effect was observed for calves ADG (y=489.89 + 3.96DAY - 0.0198DAY², being the ADG maximum point (571 g at 85 days of age for those mantained on NP and at 107 days (848 g for those mantained on CP. Average daily milk yield explained 45% of calves weaning weight and 38% of the ADG. The correlations between the milk yield and calves ADG and weight were significant even in the advanced stages of lactation. The correlation between the average daily milk yield during the whole lactation period and the ADG was higher in animals mantained on CP (.54 than on NP (.44 and for F1 animals (.73 in relation to straigthbreds (.47. The lowest correlation between milk yield and ADG was observed for straigthbred NE calves (.31, for the other groups the correlation were .60; .71; and .84, for CH; ½CH ½NE and ½NE ½CH, respectively. Fat, lactose, nonfat dry extract and total dry extract contents did not show significant correlation with the ADG. However, when the total production of these components were considered, the correlations with ADG were significant. F1 calves were heavier at birth and weaning than straigthbreds. The heterosis for birth weight, weaning weight and ADG was, respectively, 3

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug. PMID:27227502

  7. Effect of an artificial sweetener and yeast product combination on immune function measurements, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred ninety-nine crossbred beef heifer calves (205 ± 7.9 kg initial BW) were used in a 44-d receiving trial with 2 dietary treatments (9 pens/treatment) in a completely random design. Diets were a steam-flaked corn and alfalfa hay-based control (CON) diet or the same diet (ADD) with added art...

  8. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  9. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was...... first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 – 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was...

  10. Prevalência de rotavírus do grupo A em fezes diarréicas de bezerros de corte em sistema semi-intensivo de produção Prevalence of group A rotavirus in diarrheic feaces of beef calves in semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Buzinaro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a prevalência de rotavírus durante surto de diarréia em bezerros de um rebanho de corte, criado em regime semi-intensivo de produção. Analisaram-se, por meio de técnicas de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (EGPA e ensaio imunoenzimático (kit EIARA - Fiocruz, 69 amostras de fezes de bezerros, entre 30 e 60 dias de idade, colhidas em três estações de parição consecutivas (agosto a novembro/1999, janeiro a abril e agosto a novembro/2000. Pelo EIARA foram detectadas 63,8% (44/69 de amostras positivas. Na primeira estação de parição foi detectado rotavírus em 82,4% (14/17 dos bezerros que apresentaram quadro clínico de diarréia. No ano de 2000 a presença de rotavírus foi detectada em 41,7% (5/12 e 62,5% (25/40 do total de amostras examinadas. A análise do perfil eletroforético do genoma indicou grande diversidade, com quatro eletroferótipos distintos, todos com perfil longo, característico de rotavírus do grupo A.During three successive seasons of calving (August to November 1999, January to April and August to November 2000 69 fecal samples were collected from calves between 30 and 60 days of age presenting diarrhea, to account for the detection and prevalence of rotavirus. Samples were submited to an immunoenzymatic assay for rotavirus and adenovirus (kit EIARA-Fiocruz and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. Of the 69 samples tested, 63.8% (44/69 were positive by EIARA. At the first calving season rotavirus was detected in feces from 14 of 17 calves (82.4% with clinical signals of diarrhea. For the year 2000 seasons, rotavirus was detected in 5 of 12 (41.7% and 25 of 40 (62.5% of samples, respectively. The analysis of the eletrophoretic pattern of the positive samples showed four distinct group A rotavirus genome eletropherotypes.

  11. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  12. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  13. Molasses as a possible cause of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome" in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgoret, M S; Botha, C J; Myburgh, J G; Naudé, T W; Prozesky, L; Naidoo, V; Van Wyk, J H; Pool, E J; Swan, G E

    2009-06-01

    During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an "endocrine disruptive syndrome". The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1), which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches of molasses had no

  14. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  15. Microbiome Development in Neonatal Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial colonization of eukaryotic hosts by microbial populations is poorly understood, yet this remains a critical time for growth and development. The goals of this study were to characterize the microbiome of neonatal calves. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis...

  16. Efeitos do livre acesso de bezerros ao creep-feeding sobre os esempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas Effects of free access of beef calves to creep-feeding on productivity and reproductive performance of primiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do livre acesso ao creep-feeding sobre os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas mantidas em pastagem nativa melhorada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., trevo branco (Trifolium repens Lam. e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel foram avaliados nesta pesquisa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado composto por quatro tratamentos segundo esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois sexos: vacas amamentando bezerros ou bezerras; dois sistemas de alimentação: vacas amamentando bezerros (as com ou sem acesso a creep-feeding, totalizando 16 unidades experimentais. As vacas primíparas do sistema com creep-feeding apresentaram peso corporal e escore de condição corporal, no final do experimento, mais altos que as do sistema sem creep-feeding (412 kg e 3,94 vs. 399 kg e 3,77, respectivamente. Vacas do sistema com creep-feeding tiveram ganho de peso médio diário mais elevados que o de vacas com bezerros não-suplementados (0,549 vs. 0,449 kg/dia. O creep-feeding e o sexo dos animais não influenciaram a taxa de prenhez das vacas primíparas.The research evaluated the effects of the creep-feeding on the productive and reproductive performance of the primiparous cows, maintained on improved natural pasture with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., white clover (Trifolium repens Lam. and cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel. A completely randomized experimental design composed by four treatments according to 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two sex: cows suckling male or female calves; two systems of feeding: cows suckling male or female with or without access creep-feeding, totalizing 16 experimental units. The primiparous cows of the creep-feeding system showed body weight and corporal condition, in the end of the experiment, higher in relation to the ones without creep-feeding system (412 kg and 3.94 versus 399 kg and 3.77, respectively. Cows in the creep-feeding system showed average

  17. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results indica...

  18. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  19. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  20. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  1. Less pressure at Calve (food industry); Calve onder lagere druk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2002-04-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the Dutch food industry Calve applies a sophisticated compressed air system for the production of peanut butter, mayonnaise and sauces in the Delft factory. Parent company Unilever hopes the new system will reduce energy consumption by nearly 400,000 kWh. In a business where product quality is crucial, and where compressed air is critical for quality, pressure reduction is a daring move. [Dutch] De productie van pindakaas, mayonaise en sauzen van Calve in Delft verloopt sinds 1 januari met een uitgekiendere persluchtregeling. Zo hoopt moederbedrijf Unilever jaarlijks bijna 400.000 kWh op de energienota te besparen. In een bedrijf waar de kwaliteit van het product zeer kritisch is en sterk afhankelijk is van perslucht, is drukverlaging een gedurfde onderneming.

  2. Genetic analyses of days to calving and their relationships with other traits in a Canchim cattle herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Buttarello Mucari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heritabilities and genetic correlations in a Canchim beef cattle herd were estimated using data on the following traits: male scrotal circumference at twelve months (SC12; days to first calving (DFC for heifers; days to calving (DC for cows; male and female weight (W at twelve months (W12; heifer weight at the start of the first breeding season (WFBS and at first calving (WFC; and cow weight at the start of the breeding season (WBS and at calving (WC. Analyses of the DFC and DC traits were carried out excluding and including penalized (DFC P and DC P non-calving females. The restricted maximum likelihood method was used, applying one-trait models for the DFC and DC analyses and two-trait models for analyses of DFC and DC combined with the other traits studied. Statistical models included fixed and additive direct random effects for all traits, maternal permanent environmental random effect for SC12 and W12, and the animal permanent environmental random effect for DC P, WBS and WC. We found that DFC and DC values can be improved by selecting for an increase in the SC12. Genetic correlations between DFC and W12 and between DC and W12 indicated that selection for increased W12 may increase DFC but does not produce significantly correlated responses in DC. Associations of the other body weight traits with DC and DFC suggest that heavier females experience lower reproductive performance.

  3. Salvage of Theileria infected calves with clinical manifestation of exophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Sudan, Vikrant; Sachan, Pratibha; Srivastava, Ashish

    2015-09-01

    Two crossbred female calves aged between 30 and 35 days were presented with bilateral exophthalmia, inappetence, pyrexia and cachexia since last 15 days. Clinical examination revealed mainly bilateral exophthalmia with dry and pulpy cornea, generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, petechiae, high rectal temperature and sternal recumbency. The calves were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks and thin layer blood smears revealed presence of piroplasm in the RBCs, while lymph nodes aspirate smear examination revealed presence schizonts in the mononuclear cells. The calves were treated with buparvaquone; meloxicam, nandrolone decanoate and vitamins A, D3, E and H. From day second post-therapy a remarkable improvement in the clinical condition was noticed and substantial reduction in the both protruded eyeballs was noticed by 7 days post-therapy in the both calves. Further at day 47 post-therapy the one calf was free from the parasite on blood smear examination and right eye was retracted in its orbits with full of sight. Moreover the left eye was also retracted in its orbit but there was loss of sight and opacity developed in this eye. While, the other calf also revealed remarkable improvement in the clinical condition and both eye balls retracted completely into the orbit at day 30 post-therapy. But, at day 86 the calf developed microphthalmia and complete loss of sight in both eyes. It can be concluded that adjunction of antioxidants and hematopoietic agents may salvage the calves suffering from fatal theileriosis. PMID:26345050

  4. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  5. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplemention on periparturient serum mineral concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess;

    2008-01-01

    the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a...... cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without...... parturient drop in blood Ca was seen in group A as well as group C. In group A, one cow was hypocalcaemic at calving, and developed milk fever. In group C, 12 blood samples, representing six cows, were hypocalcaemic, and three of these cows were treated for milk fever. All groups remained normomagnesaemic...

  6. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... or through the anus. Adults and children with pork tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor ...

  7. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  8. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of the calves (solid feed supply reduce abnormal oral behaviors in veal calves; Van Putten, 1982; Veissier et al., 1998); however, no specifications were made about the type and source of feed.Rumen dev...

  9. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in calves in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Geurden, T

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis mainly occurs in calves younger than 1 month, and causes a mild to profuse diarrhea. In contrast, a Giardia infection is most frequently diagnosed in calves older than 1 month and clinical symptoms comprise a chronical and intermittent diarrhea, and ill thriving. Cattle are considered as a possible reservoir for zoonotic transmission. The objectives of the present thesis were to estimate the prevalence of both parasites in calves younger than 10 weeks, to evaluate common dia...

  10. Experimental Infection of Calves by Two Genetically-Distinct Strains of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Davis, A. Sally; Gaudreault, Natasha N.; Faburay, Bonto; Trujillo, Jessie D.; Shivanna, Vinay; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Balogh, Aaron; Endalew, Abaineh; Ma, Wenjun; Drolet, Barbara S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Morozov, Igor; McVey, D. Scott; Richt, Juergen A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in ruminant livestock, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in neonates, have raised international interest in improving vaccine control strategies. Previously, we developed a reliable challenge model for sheep that improves the evaluation of existing and novel vaccines in sheep. This sheep model demonstrated differences in the pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection between two genetically-distinct wild-type strains of the virus, Saudi Arabia 2001 (SA01) and Kenya 2006 (Ken06). Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity of these two RVFV strains in mixed breed beef calves. There was a transient increase in rectal temperatures with both virus strains, but this clinical sign was less consistent than previously reported with sheep. Three of the five Ken06-infected animals had an early-onset viremia, one day post-infection (dpi), with viremia lasting at least three days. The same number of SA01-infected animals developed viremia at 2 dpi, but it only persisted through 3 dpi in one animal. The average virus titer for the SA01-infected calves was 1.6 logs less than for the Ken06-infected calves. Calves, inoculated with either strain, seroconverted by 5 dpi and showed time-dependent increases in their virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Consistent with the results obtained in the previous sheep study, elevated liver enzyme levels, more severe liver pathology and higher virus titers occurred with the Ken06 strain as compared to the SA01 strain. These results demonstrate the establishment of a virulent challenge model for vaccine evaluation in calves. PMID:27223298

  11. Passive seismology reveals biannual calving periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Larsen, C. F.; West, M. E.; Oneel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Iceberg calving is a large and variable component of the total mass loss from marine-terminating glaciers worldwide. However, the processes that control the size and variability of calving fluxes are poorly understood. Even more basic descriptions of iceberg calving, such as its seasonality, are uncertain. Here, we present nearly two years of automatically-estimated calving fluxes at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier whose terminus flows at ~7 km/yr towards the Gulf of Alaska. At the terminus, ice losses to calving and submarine melt total approximately 1.5 km^3/yr. In order to identify temporal variability in this mean rate, we develop a statistical model of calving size based on characteristics of calving-generated icequakes. These characteristics include 4 amplitude-based variables and 5 variables related to the shape of the icequake envelope. We build our model by combining automatically-detected icequakes (O'Neel et al., 2007) located at the terminus of Yahtse Glacier (Jones et al., 2013) with a training set of 1400 icequakes produced by visually-observed calving events (Bartholomaus et al., 2012). In each of the models tested (regression trees, multinomial logistic regression and multiple linear regession), icequake duration emerges as the single best predictor of iceberg size, consistent with past studies (Qamar, 1988; O'Neel et al., 2007). Additional predictors, such as the mean icequake amplitude and the kurtosis of the icequake envelope improve the predictive capability of the model and reduce the mean squared error to well-within the error of the in-person classification. Once validated, we apply our model to ~ 400,000 icequakes produced by calving events at Yahtse Glacier between June 2009 and September 2011. These results reveal fluctuations in calving rate at a range of timescales, including twice per year. We suggest that the roughly 50%, biannual variation in calving rate is the result of the trade-off between two competing processes at the

  12. A comparison of gamma-irradiation and microwave treatments on the lipids and microbiological pattern of beef liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma-irradiation treatments (0, 2.5, 5 and, 10 kGy) and microwaves generated from an oven at low and defrost settings for 0.5, 1 and 2 min on the chemical composition and microbiological aspects of beef liver samples were studied. The chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the non-treated and treated beef liver immediately after treatments and during frozen storage (-18 degree) for 3 months. The chemical analyses of beef liver lipids showed that acid, peroxide and TBA ( Thiobarbituric acid) values were slightly increased after irradiation treatments and also during frozen storage (-18 degree c). On the contrary, iodine value of the treated beef liver was decreased. Irradiation treatments remarkably reduced the total bacterial counts in beef liver. The percent reduction of bacterial load for beef liver exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at defrost mode for 2 min and after 3 months at (-18 degree c) was 62%. The bacterial load for beef liver exposed to gamma-irradiation at 10 kGy after 3 months at -18 degree c was decreased by 98%. Hence, gamma-irradiation treatment was far better than microwave treatment for inhibiting the multiplication of the associated microorganisms with beef liver. Salmonellae was not detected in non-irradiated and irradiated beef liver throughout the storage period

  13. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on pregnancy rates in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ropstad

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 1990, a total of 69 calves with a minimum body weight of 46 kg were allocated into two groups, one treated with a single injection of 75 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (N = 35, the other serving as control (N=34. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis in December 1990 and 1991. Udder palpation was performed in July and September 1990. Treated animals had significantly lower plasma progesterone levels in December 1990. The pregnancy rate as determined by udder palpation was 16.7% for treated animals and 48.3% for controls (P<0.01. All animals which were found to be pregnant had high progesterone levels (>5 ng/ml the following winter. The mean body weight increase was 5.1 kg lower in females which kept their calves until September than in barren females (P<0.05. More than 50% of the pregnant females lost their calves during the summer.

  14. Neonatal diarrhea by bovine coronavirus (BCoV in beef cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Lorenzetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.

  15. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  16. The use of plant-tissue preparation for the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal infections in calves in the ural region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Petrova

    2014-04-01

    Imurium Use of the drug to treat colibacillosis and salmonellosis calves reduces treatment time and improves blood hematological parameters .Based on the studies recommend the use of plant-tissue drug with immunomodulating effect for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases , mainly colibacillosis and salmonellosis calves.

  17. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to hire a Federal Grader to certify the quality of its product. Beef grades are USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, ... beef within 2 days after purchase for maximum quality. What is the safe food ... (not ready-to-eat) meat and poultry packages. The label tells the consumer ...

  18. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss. PMID:16357301

  19. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  20. Behaviour of calves in the first weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech NEJA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations were conducted on 20 calves (10 bull calves and 10 heifer calves. The first series of observations was made in the first 4 days of life, and the second after a month (within 30 to 33 days of calving. Time from birth to first unassisted standing (standing on all extended legs ranged from 16 minutes (heifers to 158 minutes (bulls for normal calving. Calves born from normal parturitions stood up after an average of 81 minutes and those born from difficult parturitions after 302 minutes. Calves that required assistance at calving showed shorter standing and longer lying time. In the first 4 days of life and after a month, both male and female calves were more often in left lateral recumbency when resting. Heifer calves more often visited the feeder while bull calves more often consumed concentrates, water and hay.

  1. Abomasal ulceration and tympany of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Tessa S

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of abomasal ulcer formation and abomasal tympany in calves. The development of ulcers and bloat has been attributed to many factors, including coarse feed, environmental stress, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and bacterial infections. This article discusses various factors thought to play a role in the development of these abomasal conditions in calves. PMID:19174290

  2. Clostridial abomasal disease in Connecticut dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, Herbert J; Nyaoke, Carol A; Sidor, Inga F; Fabis, Jaroslaw J; Hinckley, Lynn S; Lindell, Kevin A

    2009-08-01

    Over 2 years, 24 dairy calves died of emphysematous abomasitis and abomasal bloat. Anaerobic cultures of necrotic abomasal mucosa yielded Clostridium perfringens from 10 of 15 calves. Sarcina were observed in 17 of 22 examined histologically. A change in the antibiotic regimen for newborns and improved sanitizing of feeding utensils eliminated further losses. PMID:19881926

  3. STUDY OF SOME PRODUCTION TRAITS IN SAHIWAL COWS AND THEIR CALVES AFTER IMMUNOSTIMULATION OF PREGNANT DAMS DURING LATE GESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sattar, L. A. Lodhi1, I. Ahmad, Z. I. Qureshi1 and N. Ahmad1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two Sahiwal cows (Bos indicus in the last trimester of pregnancy were used to evaluate the effect of immunostimulation on some production traits in the control and treated dams and calves born to them. The cows were divided into four equal groups. Group-I served as untreated control while groups-II, III and IV were treated with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5 mg/Kg body weight orally, vitamin E-selenium (10 ml intramuscularly per cow and BCG (Bacille Calmette Guerin vaccine (0.5 ml subcutaneously per cow, respectively. These immunostimulants were given twice with one week interval at about 60 days prior to expected date of calving. Some production traits, i.e., milk yield and lactation length of the control and treated dams while birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate upto weaning of calves born to these dams were determined. Milk yield in Sahiwal cows was the lowest (1032.63 litres in control group and highest (1341.63 litres in levamisole treated group while lactation length in both these groups was 224.63 and 266.00 days, respectively. The birth weight was the lowest (21.38 kg in the calves born to control group of cows while weaning weight and growth rate were the lowest (48.33 kg and 0.302 kg/day in the calves born to BCG treated group of cows. The highest values of birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate (24.38 kg, 53.86 kg and 0.330 kg/day were observed in the calves born to levamisole treated group of Sahiwal cows. The differences between all the groups for all the production traits recorded were statistically non-significant except one trait, i.e., growth rate which was significantly higher in the calves born to levamisole treated cows as compared to those born to BCG treated dams.

  4. Effects of the supplementation with yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of water buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13 received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13 don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under same milking system. All animals were weighed and measured weekly. During the test the animals gain 11,38 +/- 5,2 Kgr y 13.92 +/- 5,0 Kgr by treated and non treated calves, respectively. The increase of the corporal measures during the test was (cm: Toraxic Circumference 7,0 +/- 5,58 Vs 9,23 +/- 4,02, Height 5,77 +/- 6,81 Vs 5,92 +/- 4,5 and Length 2,92 +/- 8,17 Vrs 0,54 +/- 4,86 by treated and no treated calves, respectively. No statistic difference was found between groups. In conclusion, the feeding with yeast culture didn’t increase significantly the weight gain and development in water buffalo calves.

  5. Beef Quality Assurance Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V, DVM

    1997-01-01

    Most of us have felt that injections given to a calf early in its life would be of little problem by the time it went to slaughter. We were WRONG!!! Colorado State University has provided the data and the pictures to prove it. In fact, 90% of the lesions found at slaughter originated during the cow-calf, stocker or early feeding periods. And, injections given while the calf is young caused greater lesions than those given when it was older. The study followed calves injected at branding or we...

  6. Concurrent Infestation of Buffalo Calves with Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and Piroplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Sohail Sajid*, Muhammad Kasib Khan and Zeeshan Furhaad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes four cases of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus infestation in buffalo calves of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. The infested animals were suffering from pyrexia, alopecia, hyperkeratinization, accelerated pulse, tachypnea, depression, anemic mucous membranes and ataxia (n=3. Flea infestation was generalized with higher infestation in hairy areas of body especially legs, flank and mane. Microscopic examination of the peripheral blood revealed moderate (n=2 to high (n=2 numbers of piroplasms. All four calves were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial, France; 0.02mg/kg twice at 15 days intervals. The treated calves were found aparasitemic on day 10th post treatment. The three cases recovered in 10 days after completion of the second round of treatment. One calf died 8 days after second treatment on day 11. However, the vector role of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus may be better studied on conventional/ molecular grounds using salivary glands of the specimens.

  7. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (d) Fabricated steak. Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef..., Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped—Molded—Cubed—Frozen, Hydrolyzed...

  8. Ichthyosis in two Chianina calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, S; Zappulli, V; Gentile, A

    2006-09-01

    The occurrence of ichthyosis in two Italian Chianina calves is described for the first time. Both animals, affected by ichthyosis fetalis and ichthyosis congenita, respectively, showed diffuse cutaneous thickening which had been present since birth. The first patient was a three-month-old female calf; inelastic leather cuirass-like skin associated with generalized hypotrichosis and local alopecia, delay of the physiologic change of coat colour, stiff movement and growth retardation were the most prominent clinical characteristics. The patient was kept under observation for almost one year. The second case occurred in a 18-day-old female calf which was referred to our clinic after it had already died; the presence of irregular hyperkeratotic plates separated by deep fissures over the entire cutaneous surface and the slight eversion of the mucocutaneous junction (eclabium and ectropion) were the most characteristic alterations. In both cases, the major histopathological feature was a diffuse lamellar orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. An underlying genetic defect was strongly suspected on the basis of a common ancestor for the two sires of the affected calves and of the current scientific knowledge. PMID:17009813

  9. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Gavin F.; McNiven, Mary A.; Petit, Hélène V.; Duynisveld, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 1...

  10. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...

  11. Rebuilding the US beef herd: rethinking the way industry develops replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David J; Brown, D Scott

    2013-11-01

    Use of existing and emerging management technologies enable beef producers to improve breeding performance of heifers during the first breeding season and during subsequent calving and rebreeding periods as 2 year olds. These practices ensure that heifers that enter the herd as raised or purchased replacements contribute to the general performance and productivity of an entire cowherd immediately, and cumulatively long-term. Rebuilding the US cowherd requires careful consideration and use of these newer management technologies. Veterinarians will play a crucial role in influencing the technologies used during the rebuilding process. PMID:24182429

  12. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Granberg Malin; Andersson Ann-Christin; Englund Stina; Knutsson Rickard; Ehrs Sara; Norström Agneta; Hartzell Lisbeth; Westermark Therese; Elvander Marianne; Lewerin Susanna; Bäckman Stina; Wikström Per; Sandstedt Karin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The c...

  13. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  14. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  15. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taponen Juhani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL were rejected (20.7% while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg. Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130. The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d. Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable.

  16. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( calves from CON cows. Liver Cu and Zn concentrations at birth were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows. Weaning BW was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in calves from AAC cows compared with cohorts from CON cows, and this difference was maintained until slaughter. In the growing lot, calves from AAC cows had reduced ( disease compared with

  17. Effect of gamma-irradiation on some microbial, organoleptic and chemical aspects of fresh meat, ground beef and beef burgers stored at 5 degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the microbial aspects, organoleptic quality and chemical composition of fresh beef, ground beef, and beef burgers were investigated. High bacterial counts were recorded for beef burger samples than fresh and ground beef. Treatment with gamma radiation at doses of 1.0 and 1.50 Kgy, resulted in an immediate reduction in total bacterial numbers during 2 weeks of storage at 5 degree C. No pseudomonal-like organisms survived irradiation (0.50-1.50 Kgy). The 1.50 kGy treated samples were judged brighter (redder) in surface colour than raw (unirradiated) and irradiation did not affect the internal colour until the end of storage (day 15).Spoilage odours were not detected in 1.50 kGy-treated samples after 15 days of storage at 5 degree. However, irradiation odours were detectable at 1.0 and 1.50-kGy levels, when samples were exposed to air. Irradiation did not cause an increase in free fatty acids but significantly increased the peroxide values in fresh, ground beef and burgers stored at 5 degree for 2 weeks

  18. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  19. Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guides Reports Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ) Originally posted August 9, 2010; Updated August ... as a result of the outbreak. “Natural” pet treats , such as pig ears and dehydrated/dried beef ...

  20. Management of Calving in Norwegian Cubicle-Housed Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simensen E

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixty of the 65 dairy farms with cubicle houses in the Norwegian county of Oppland were included in a field study of the management of calving in 1990. The farmers recorded the location of the cow when giving birth, farmer presence and whether assistance was given during calving, occurrence of suckling, and time after birth when cow and calf were separated. Such data were recorded for a total of 1125 calvings. About 10% occurred on pasture, while 78% of the remaining calvings took place in the cubicle-equipped section. Thirteen percent calved in a calving pen, the remaining cows being tethered at the time of calving. Thirty-two percent of the calvings took place in houses lacking a calving pen altogether. Farmers were present during 41% of the calvings. Suckling most frequently occurred after pasture calvings, and was least frequent after calvings within the cubicle-equipped section of the cowhouse. Injuries to the calf caused by trampling or contact with fittings etc. were rare, and no more common in association with calving in the cubicle-equipped section than with calving taking place with the cow isolated from the rest of the herd. All calves were removed from their dams within 24 h after birth.

  1. Haematological Studies of Gaolao Calves

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Kapale; D. G. Jagtap; D. M. Badukale and S.K.Sahatpure

    2008-01-01

    The hematological study in fifteen healthy Gaolao calves ranging from birth to 12 months of age indicate the mean ± S.E. value of TEC (11.00± 0.20 million/cu.mm), Hb (14.27±0.43 gm%), PCV (35.00±0.79%), MCV (31.70±0.92 cu.μ), MCH (13.04±0.84 μ. μgm), MCHC (41.16±1.76%), TLC (07.49±0.39 thousand/cu.mm), Lymphocytes (71.87 ±1.45%), Neutrophil (23.27±1.27%), Monocyte (1.3 ...

  2. Designing a Voluntary Beef Checkoff

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Winn, Chris; Chung, Chanjin; Ward, Clement E.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court considered whether the mandatory fees imposed by the beef checkoff violates the First Amendment. As a precaution, many states began forming voluntary beef checkoffs, where funds would be raised through voluntary contributions. This study conducted a survey of Oklahoma cattle producers to determine what type ofvoluntary checkoff design would receive the greatest support. The most popular checkoff placed a large emphasis on advertising and a slightly lower check...

  3. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Doherty; Jim Grant; Cosme Sánchez-Miguel; Mee, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Mortality of full-term calves at calving is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. Multiple herd management factors contribute to such losses. This case-control study identified factors which differed between herds with high and low calf mortality. These included breeding, dietary, health and calving factors. It was concluded that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality. Thi...

  4. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  5. Short communication: analysis of health and survival in a population of Ontario Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorquodale, C E; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kelton, D; Robinson, A; Koeck, A; Leslie, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate health and survival in heifer calves, from 16 farms in southwestern Ontario. Research technicians visited the farms on a weekly schedule for 16 mo, starting in January 2008, and collected blood samples and various measurements to determine the overall health status of the calves. Data of 1,588 Holstein heifer calves from birth until 90 to 120 d of age were analyzed. Initially, a survival analysis was carried out to determine which factors surrounding birth increased a calf's risk of mortality. The factors examined were type of birth, calving ease, season of birth, serum total protein, weight during first week of life, treatment status during first week of life, total number of treatments, and bovine respiratory disease status. In general, calves born in fall (October-December), low serum total protein, low weight, and calves treated for illness during the first week of life, increasing number of treatments, and being treated for bovine respiratory disease all increased a calf's risk of mortality. Genetic parameters for requiring treatment for illness, survival, bovine respiratory disease, other diseases, height, and weight were estimated. Heritabilities for treatment, survival, and diseases were low, ranging from 0.04 to 0.07, and were not significant. Moderate and significant heritabilities were found for height (0.33 to 0.45) and weight (0.24 to 0.44). Treatment and survival to 90 to 120 d of age were favorably correlated, indicating that calves requiring less treatment have a higher survival rate and vice versa. Further, body weight was found to have a tendency of favorable genetic correlation (-0.22 to -0.53) with treatment for diseases, indicating that calves with higher body weight in their first month of life were genetically more resistant to diseases than those with average body weight. Overall, our results show the potential of using data on calfhood disease and survival in future dairy cattle breeding

  6. USING SAFFRON CAKE IN FEEDING CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev S. I.; Kucherova I. A.; Chehranova S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article proves a positive effect of feeding with saffron cake and premix based this substance on growth and development, nutrient utilization ration, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood of calves of black-motley breed

  7. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greif Gisela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  8. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  9. A comparison of γ-irradiation and microwave treatments on the lipids and microbiological pattern of beef liver

    OpenAIRE

    Daw, Z. Y.; Mahmoud, Ebtesam A.; El-Wahab, Safaa A. E. ABD; Farag, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation (0, 2.5, 5 and, 10 kGy) and microwaves (generated from an oven at low and defrost settings for 0.5, 1 and 2 min) treatments on the chemical composition and microbiological aspects of beef liver samples were studied. The chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the non-treated and treated beef liver immediately after treatments and during frozen storage (-18ºC) for 3 months. The chemical analyses of beef liver lipids showed that acid, peroxide and T...

  10. [Feeding of milk from cows with diseased udders to calves from the viewpoint of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M

    1999-01-01

    Milk that cannot be brought to the market is often given to calves. While some authors recommend avoidance of the feeding of such milk, others do not see problems related to their use if this milk is treated and supplemented correctly. When altered milk is fed, the producer of calves is responsible for the risk that the calf could contract a disease and to a lesser extent that the health of the consumer of veal could be endangered. Because the owner of the calves is responsible for the risk associated with the feeding of altered milk, he should be informed on the danger and consequences. The consumer whose wishes control the market wants a product that is free from bacteria and drugs. Therefore, the necessity exists for the implementation of similar withdrawal times for the use of altered milk in calves. Two questions related to public health are asked to the veterinarians:how long the flora of the gastrointestinal tract of the calf remains affected after feeding of altered milk and how long antimicrobials can be detected in the edible tissues of the calves? If these questions are answered, guidelines for the use of mastitis milk could be used. PMID:10095367

  11. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  12. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raies A Mir

    Full Text Available Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260 from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  13. An investigation into beef calf mortality on five high-altitude ranches that selected sires with low pulmonary arterial pressures for over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Joseph M; Gould, Daniel H; Garry, Franklyn B; Knight, Anthony P; Dargatz, David A; Holt, Timothy N

    2013-03-01

    Producer reports from ranches over 2,438 meters in southwest Colorado suggest that the mortality of preweaned beef calves may be substantially higher than the national average despite the selection of low pulmonary pressure herd sires for over 20 years. Diagnostic investigations of this death loss problem have been limited due to the extensive mountainous terrain over which these calves are grazed with their dams. The objective of the current study was to determine the causes of calf mortality on 5 high-altitude ranches in Colorado that have been selectively breeding sires with low pulmonary pressure (branding (6 weeks of age) in the spring to weaning in the fall (7 months of age). Clinical signs were recorded, and blood samples were taken from sick calves. Postmortem examinations were performed, and select tissue samples were submitted for aerobic culture and/or histopathology. On the principal study ranch, 9.6% (59/612) of the calves that were branded in the spring either died or were presumed dead by weaning in the fall. In total, 28 necropsies were performed: 14 calves (50%) had lesions consistent with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure, and 14 calves (50%) died from bronchopneumonia. Remodeling of the pulmonary arterial system, indicative of pulmonary hypertension, was evident in the former and to varying degrees in the latter. There is a need to better characterize the additional risk factors that complicate pulmonary arterial pressure testing of herd sires as a strategy to control pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23512918

  14. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  15. Breeding soundness evaluation of young beef bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    The overall aims were to learn more about factors affecting fertility in Swedish beef sires in general and in yearling beef bulls in particular, focusing mainly on sexual maturity and hind limb health finding useful tools in order to be able to routinely perform a complete bull breeding soundness evaluations in Swedish beef bulls. Semen was collected from yearling beef bulls, postmortem, and the sperm morphology was evaluated. Using a strict definition, based on sperm morphology, we could dem...

  16. Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on immunity, health, and growth of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A G V; Lima, F S; Bicalho, M L S; Kussler, A; Lima, S F; Felippe, M J; Bicalho, R C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 subcutaneous injections of a multimineral preparation, each containing 60 mg of zinc, 10mg of manganese, 5mg of selenium, and 15 mg of copper at 3 and 30 d after birth on immunity, health, and growth of dairy calves during the preweaning period. The study was conducted in upstate New York in 2 commercial dairy farms. A total of 790 Holstein heifer calves were randomly allocated at birth into 1 of 2 treatments: trace mineral supplement (TMS) treated or control. Blood samples were collected at 3, 14, and 35 d after birth to evaluate glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, haptoglobin, and neutrophil and monocyte function. Incidence of diseases and average daily gain was evaluated in the first 50 d of life. At 14 d of life, TMS-treated calves had increased neutrophil activity compared with control calves. Moreover, TMS-treated calves had greater GPx activity on d 14 after birth than control calves. The TMS treatment reduced the incidence of diarrhea (TMS=41.7% vs. control=49.7%) and combined incidence of pneumonia or otitis or both (TMS=41.7% vs. control=49.1%). Additionally, GPx was greater for calves diagnosed with otitis at d 35 after birth. However, calves diagnosed with pneumonia had decreased GPx activity at d 35 after birth. Serum SOD and haptoglobin concentrations were not affected by treatment or disease. Moreover, no effects were observed on average daily gain and survivability between TMS-treated and control calves during the preweaning period. Supplementation with trace minerals at 3 and 30 d of life increased neutrophil function and GPx activity and reduced the incidence of health disorders. PMID:24835970

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, E A; Mestorino, O N; Mariño, E L; Errecalde, J O

    2001-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) and its major metabolite albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were studied in six calves, after administration of RBZ (7.5 mg/kg), using a 10% experimental solution by the intravenous (i.v.) route, a 10% commercial solution by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, and a 10% experimental suspension by the intraruminal (i.r.) route. Blood samples were drawn during a 60-h period. Plasma drug and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic evaluation in each case was prepared by weighted least-squares nonlinear regression analysis. Ricobendazole i.v. data were best fitted by a two-compartment model. The best pharmacokinetic exponents and coefficients were estimated, and the pharmacokinetic variables for RBZ and ABZSO2 were calculated from them. Similar patterns of plasma disposition were found for RBZ after i.r. and s.c. administration, suggesting delayed release from the s.c. site resembling the slow release of the drug from the rumen. PMID:11442798

  18. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  19. Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Catarina; Lundborg, Karin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Olsson, Sven-Ove

    2003-05-15

    The health of 3081 heifer calves born in 122 dairy herds in the south-west of Sweden from 1 January to 31 December, 1998, was monitored from birth until 90 days of age. The calves were kept either in individual pens (n=2167), in group pens, with 3-8 calves to a pen and manual feeding of milk (n=440), in group pens with 6-30 calves per pen and an automatic milk-feeding system (n=431), or with their dams (n=43). Disease incidence was recorded by farmers and project veterinarians, who clinically examined the calves and auscultated their lungs every 2-3 months. A disease was graded as 'severe' if the general loss of condition or of appetite in the calf continued for >2 days or if the animal suffered severe weight loss due to the disease. The effects of season, breed, housing, and type of colostrum feeding, and time, place and supervision of calving on the incidences of diarrhea, severe diarrhea, respiratory disease, other infectious disease and moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds, were analyzed by logistic-regression models (with herd as a random effect). The total morbidity rate was 0.081 cases per calf-month at risk. Incidence rates of arthritis, diarrhea, omphalophlebitis, respiratory disease and ringworm were 0.002, 0.035, 0.005, 0.025 and 0.009 cases per calf-months at risk, respectively. The odds ratios for diarrhea and severe diarrhea were increased in Swedish Red and Whites (OR: 1.6, 2.3) and in calves that received colostrum from first-lactation cows (OR: 1.3-1.8), and for severe diarrhea in calves born in summer or that received colostrum through suckling (OR: 1.7, 1.8). The odds ratios for respiratory disease and increased respiratory sounds were increased in calves housed in large-group pens with an automatic milk-feeding system (OR: 2.2, 2.8). Supervision of calving was associated with a decreased odds ratio for respiratory disease (OR: 0.7) and birth in individual maternity pen or tie stalls with a decreased odds ratio for increased

  20. Influence of production and postmortem technologies on composition and palatability of USDA Select grade beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, A Y; Gomide, L A; Mills, E W; Lemenager, R P; Judge, M D

    1994-05-01

    Improvement of USDA Select grade beef is essential for consumer acceptance of leaner beef. Seventy-two large- and medium-framed steer calves of mixed breeding were used in two experiments to evaluate feedlot performance, carcass composition, and beef palatability. Interactions of dietary energy level (corn concentrate or corn silage), breed type (Angus or Simmental), carcass electrical stimulation (ES) voltage (low or high), and chilling rate (normal or delayed) were determined. Grain-fed cattle had similar initial and slaughter weights, heavier carcasses, more marbling, higher quality grades, and higher dressing percentages (Exp. 2) compared with silage-fed cattle, even though all cattle were visually selected for a constant grade end point. Simmental cattle had heavier initial slaughter and warm carcass weights, larger loin eye area, less fat depth, and lower yield grade than Angus cattle. Percentage of lean in the 9-10-11th rib was lower and percentage of fat was higher for grain-fed and Angus steers than for silage-fed and Simmental steers, respectively. Neither diet nor breed influenced chemical composition of the edible portion, except that separable lean in Angus steers was higher in ether extract. No differences in palatability existed between Angus and Simmental steaks. High ES voltage compared with low voltage improved some tenderness characteristics and reduced some juiciness scores. The USDA Select grade beef of accepted palatability can be produced on either corn-grain or corn-silage diets, and only minor differences in beef palatability in such cattle are caused by ES voltage. PMID:8056667

  1. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  2. Frequency of Neospora caninum infections in beef cow-calf operations under extensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A M; Maresca, S; Cano, D B; Armendano, J I; Combessies, G; Lopéz-Valiente, S; Odriozola, E R; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Campero, C M; Moore, D P

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Neospora caninum horizontal and vertical transmissions in beef cow-calf operations under three different extensive management systems: group A: 0.75 head per hectare pasturing on natural grass; group B: 1.1 head per hectare on natural grass and improved cultured pastures; and group C: 2 head per hectare on natural grass, improved cultured pasture and whole corn silage. Serum samples from 72 multiparous cows assigned to each beef cow-calf operations were obtained every 3 months during 2 years. A group of 30 replacement heifers from each group were tested similarly since they were 10-21 months old. Twenty four, 20 and 34 calves from groups A, B and C respectively, were bled before colostrum intake and again 6 months later. The samples were analyzed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for detection of total IgG against N. caninum at a serological titre ≥200 for multiparous cows and replacement heifers, and a serological titre ≥25 for calves. Serum samples from seropositive cows were assessed by ELISA to evaluate the avidity of their specific antibodies. There were no differences in the proportion of seropositive cows from groups A, B and C at the beginning of the trial (p>0.05). Interestingly, the lowest serological titres in seropositive cows from all groups were observed during the first trimester (p<0.05). Although seropositive cows had medium to high avidity antibodies, suggesting chronic infection; seroconversion associated with low antibody avidity was found in 2, 3 and 3 seropositive cows from groups A, B and C. All replacement heifers remained seronegative. No abortions were recorded but 2, 1, and 2 calves from groups A, B and C were seropositive before colostrum intake, respectively. Seropositive calves born from cows having intermediate or high avidity remained with the same serostatus at 6 months of age. Even under varying extensive management conditions, both N. caninum horizontal and

  3. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  4. Fractal Feature Analysis Of Beef Marblingpatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunjie; Qin, Chunfang

    The purpose of this study is to investigate fractal behavior of beef marbling patterns and to explore relationships between fractal dimensions and marbling scores. Authors firstly extracted marbling images from beef rib-eye crosssection images using computer image processing technologies and then implemented the fractal analysis on these marbling images based on the pixel covering method. Finally box-counting fractal dimension (BFD) and informational fractal dimension (IFD) of one hundred and thirty-five beef marbling images were calculated and plotted against the beef marbling scores. The results showed that all beef marbling images exhibit fractal behavior over the limited range of scales accessible to analysis. Furthermore, their BFD and IFD are closely related to the score of beef marbling, suggesting that fractal analyses can provide us a potential tool to calibrate the score of beef marbling.

  5. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  6. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  7. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...... variables, and these were proposed to reflect fearfulness, activity, exploration, and attention towards the environment. These hypothesised underlying temperamental traits were consistent with findings of previous studies using larger numbers of calves. Two learning PCs were extracted from the PCA on...

  8. Associations of serum haptoglobin in newborn dairy calves with health, growth, and mortality up to 4 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Windeyer, M C; Duffield, T F; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L; Waalderbos, K M; Leslie, K E

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate factors associated with serum haptoglobin (Hp) levels in newborn calves. In addition, the associations between serum Hp levels in newborn calves with growth, morbidity, and mortality in calves heifer calves from 15 dairy farms were enrolled in this study from January to December, 2008. Following calving, a birth record was completed, including information on the calving event, colostrum administration, and other details. During weekly farm visits, each calf was assessed at 1 to 8 d, 15 to 21 d, 36 to 42 d, and 90 to 120 d of age. At these sampling times, each calf was assessed using a standardized clinical score for general health, and height and weight were measured. At 1 to 8 d of age, a blood sample was collected to measure serum total protein and Hp concentrations. Treatment events and death loss were recorded throughout the study by the farm staff. Serum Hp concentration in the first week of life was not significantly associated with the degree of calving difficulty. However, serum Hp was higher in calves with a higher rectal temperature and depressed attitude at the first sampling time. Furthermore, the association between serum Hp and the severity of nasal discharge varied by age at first sampling time. Calves with higher Hp in their first week of life had significantly higher total health scores throughout the entire sampling period. Haptoglobin was not significantly associated with average daily gain or treatment for bovine respiratory disease. Yet, for every 1 g/L increase in serum Hp in the first week of life, the odds of being treated for any other disease during the study period increased by 7.6 times. Treatment for bovine respiratory disease, diarrhea, or any other disease resulted in increased odds of calf mortality. In addition, Hp concentration in the first week of life was associated with mortality in calves <4 mo of age. The optimal cut point for Hp was determined to be 0.13 g/L for the prediction

  9. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  10. Stress, immunity, and the management of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Moisá, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    Despite many advances in management and housing of dairy calves, 1 in 10 US dairy heifers die before weaning. A better understanding of the internal and external stimuli that contribute to the physiological and behavioral responses of calves to stressors is needed to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality. Feeding calves their first meal is crucial, as successful passive transfer reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity. Sexually dimorphic immune and stress responses appear to be present in young cattle, but more research is needed to determine if this is caused by human bias for female calves. After that first feeding, 1 in 10 heifers and most bull calves in the United States are transported to specialized calf-raising facilities, yet information is lacking on the newborn calf stress response during transit. Whether calves are raised on site or at a calf ranch, individual housing systems are commonly used in the United States to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure and provide individual feeding and healthcare. However, health, growth, and social implications may be present for calves in alternative systems with greater space allowance than conventional systems or group housing. Disbudding and castration are typically performed at an early age for dairy calves during the pre-wean stage. These stressors often take place when the calf has decreased passive transfer of Ig and immunity is developing. Availability of pain mitigation through anesthetics and analgesics is limited, but evidence indicates that analgesics attenuate suppressed leukocyte function during these procedures. Solid-feed intake is a primary measure for determining weaning readiness, but some milk replacer formulas may influence the calf's oral behaviors before weaning; therefore, alternate weaning methods may need to coincide with alternate milk replacer formulas. The calf's behavioral and stress response at weaning may influence its immunity during the transition from individual to group

  11. A Highly Effective Protocol for the Rapid and Consistent Induction of Digital Dermatitis in Holstein Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Adam C; Cooper, Vickie L; Coatney, John W; Shearer, Jan K; Gorden, Patrick J; Plummer, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves. PMID:27119564

  12. A Highly Effective Protocol for the Rapid and Consistent Induction of Digital Dermatitis in Holstein Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Adam C.; Cooper, Vickie L.; Coatney, John W.; Shearer, Jan K.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves. PMID:27119564

  13. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to determine whether pre-breeding RTS in heifers is a valid tool to predict long-term reproductive performance. Outcomes measured were failure to show oestrus during the first 24 days of the first 50-day AI season (24-day anoestrus), failure to become pregnant during each yearly artificial insemination (AI) season (reproductive failure), number of days from the start of each AI season to calving, and number of years to reproductive failure. The effect of RTS on each outcome was adjusted for year of birth, pre-breeding age, BW and body condition score (BCS), and for 24-day anoestrus, bull, gestation length, previous days to calving and previous cow efficiency index, the latter two in the case of the 2nd to the 5th calving season. During their first breeding season, heifers with RTS 1 and 2 combined were more likely to be in anoestrus for the first 24 days (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.5, 6.4, P=0.003), and were also more likely to fail to become pregnant even after adjusting for 24-day anoestrus (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9, P=0.025), compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined. Animals with RTS 1 and 2 combined were at increased risk of early reproductive failure compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined (HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, P=0.045) although RTS was not associated with calving rate or days to calving after the second calving season. Low RTS at a threshold of 1 had consistent specificity of ≥94% for both 24-day anoestrus and pregnancy failure, however its predictive value was lower in the age cohort with a higher prevalence of anoestrus. We conclude that RTS is a valid management tool for culling decisions intended to improve long-term reproductive success in a seasonal breeding system

  14. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  15. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki Hong; Hwang, Yoon Seon; Kim, Young Boong; Kim, Eun Mi; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP ratios, the L and b values for color decreased, while the a value increased, from that in the control. The hardness of the noodles treated with BG increased with increasing mixture ratios, but hardness decreased in the BC and BP treatments with increasing mixture ratios (pnoodles with the largest beef composition in the mixtures of each treatment exhibited the highest turbidity scores, which was believed to be because the solid contents would be transferred to the soup during heating. In the sensory evaluation of cooked noodles, the BG 10%, BC 9%, and BP 1% treatments exhibited the best color. In an overall preference test, 20% of BG and 3% of BP could be added to the noodles. The best palatability was exhibited by the BG 10%, BC 13%, and BP 3% treatments. PMID:26761675

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus Okine; Karen Haugen-Kozyra; Óscar López-Campos; John Basarab; Jennifer Aalhus; Vern Baron

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary A spring calving herd (~350 beef cows) over two production cycles was used to compare the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems, with and without growth implants. Farm GHG emissions initially included enteric CH4, manure CH4 and N2O, cropping N2O, and energy use CO2. The carbon footprint ranged from 19.9–22.5 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Including soil organic carbon loss from annual cropping and carbon sequestration from...

  17. An Inventory of Beef Slaughter & Processing Facilities for Virginia Direct Marketers of Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Y. Mainville; Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of producers in Virginia are seeking facilities where they can have their beef slaughtered and processed. This inventory provides information about the availability of beef slaughter and processing facilities to help meet this need.

  18. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra;

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness......, United Kingdom and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with...... insights obtained from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating...

  19. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  20. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishersOvarian tumour in a calfAbortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herdParasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheepOutbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheepThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26993450

  1. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of th

  2. Coccidiosis in suckled calves at grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Prepatent burden in calves with low coccidial oocyst counts, Lead poisoning in cattle, Suspect Ureaplasma species infection in a day-old calf, Lamb dysentery in a five-week-old lamb, Oedema disease in pigs. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for June from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26429821

  3. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  4. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960?s with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef's share of...... total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand analyses...... can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  5. Occurrence of congenital cerebral theileriosis in a newborn twin Holstein calves in Iran: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolouei Kaleibar, Mohammad; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2014-01-01

    An 8-day-old newborn female twin Holstein calves with a history of weakness, anorexia, emaciation and convulsion were presented to Tabriz University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. On admission, the calves were febrile and recumbent. Physical examination revealed many ticks from the external body surface of the animals, right and left prescapular lymphadenopathy, severe opisthotonos, nystagmus, pedaling, blindness, hyperpnea and hypersthenia. Buccal and vaginal mucous were pale and no other physical abnormalities were diagnosed. Fecal flotation, complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, necropsy and histopathological examination were performed. Fecal flotation showed no helminth eggs or coccidial oocysts. On blood smears obtained from the earlap, >70 percent of erythrocytes were infected with piroplasms organisms and schizonts were obvious in smears of lymphocytes lymph node. Blood count revealed a lymphopenia, poikilocytosis, anisocytosis and non-regenerative anemia (packed cell volume; mean, 16%). Histopathological examination revealed Arthus reaction through the walls of cerebral blood vessels, which resulted in local necrosis of the brain. Analysis of CSF showed no abnormality in appearance or biochemical and cell counts. Although the calves were treated with a single intramuscular injection of buparvaquone and oxytetracycline once daily they did not respond to the treatment and died. In conclusion, the present cases showed a rare cerebral form of theileriosis by vertical transmission that confirmed by the presence of piroplasms on blood films and multinuclear schizonts on lymph node aspiration smears, gross and histopathological examinations and unsuccessful treatment in a newborn twin Holstein calves. PMID:25568725

  6. ECONOMICS OF PURCHASING GENETICALLY SUPERIOR BEEF BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Clary, Gregory M.; Jordan, Johnny W.; Thompson, Carl Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Net present value analysis is used to derive the marginal bid price for a beef herd sire from after-tax net revenues and cash flow influenced by genetic improvements. Marginal bid price represents the additional amount a producer could pay, above the present value of the current beef herd sire, for a sire expected to exhibit superior performance as reflected by increased average weaning weights of offspring. An analysis of the profitability of purchasing a breeding bull for a commercial beef ...

  7. Organic Beef Production - Sire Breed Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Leavy, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The results to date, from this sire breed comparison study indicate that with the contrasting Aberdeen Angus and Charolais sire breeds that is possible to achieve animal performance data comparable to well managed conventional suckler calf to beef systems (300 kg carcass for heifers in Nov and 400 kg carcass for steers in March). Similarly the responses to sire breed type, sex and date of slaughter for the organic beef animals are biologically compatible. Organic beef is produced under organi...

  8. Consumer Reaction to Beef Safety Scares

    OpenAIRE

    Saghaian, Sayed H.; Reed, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two beef safety scares on retail-level meat per capita consumption and prices in Japan. The objective is to investigate the Japanese consumer reactions to the news of FMD and BSE discoveries, as reflected in the quantity and price changes in the immediate neighborhood of each event. Better understanding of consumer reactions to beef safety scares helps the beef industry restore consumer confidence after food safety crises and provides opportunities for nation...

  9. Physiological And Blood Biochemical Responses To Dried Live Yeast Plus Vitamin E As A Dietary Supplement To Bovine Baladi Calves Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was designed to study the effect of supplemented dried live yeast (DLY) + vitamin E to the diet of growing calves under hot summer conditions in Egypt. Six bovine Baladi calves with 115 kg initial body weight and 8-10 months old were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the concentrated basal diet only for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g dried live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) + 600 IU vitamin E (alpha- tocopherol) per calf daily for one month and considered as a treated period. Body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of each period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the end of each period to determine some blood biochemical parameters and T3 and T4 concentrations as well as some immunological indices.The results showed that supplementation of DLY + 600 IU vitamin E to the diet of calves reduced significantly (P3 and T4 levels and improved feed efficiency and daily gain. It is concluded that supplementation of growing calves with 15 g DLY + 600 IU vitamin E / calf / day under Egyptian hot summer conditions reduced the effect of heat stress as shown by a decline in RT and modified most blood constituents and thyroid function which leads to an improvement in growing calves

  10. Confirmation of the progesterone receptor as an efficient marker of treatment with 17β-estradiol in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolato, Marzia; Botta, Mario; Baioni, Elisa; Richelmi, Guia Benedetta; Pitardi, Danilo; Varello, Katia; Caramelli, Maria; Bozzetta, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Under current European Union legislation the use of anabolic steroids in food-producing livestock is banned because of their long-term adverse effects on human health. We examined the expression profile of the immunohistochemical marker progesterone receptor in veal calves' sex accessory glands following experimental administration of anabolic compounds. The aim was to confirm the accuracy of the immunohistochemical approach in the detection of the over-expression of the progesterone receptor induced by the administration of sexual steroids at low levels (17β-estradiol and nandrolone alone or in combination). A total of 217 male veal calves were randomly divided into four groups: group A (104 calves) treated with 17β-estradiol (5 mg/head; 4 weekly injections); group B (20 calves) treated with nandrolone (50 mg/head; 4 weekly injections); group C (20 calves) treated with the association of the two steroids (5 mg estradiol + 50 mg nandrolone; 4 weekly injections); and group K (73 calves) kept as a control. All the sexual accessory glands were collected at the slaughterhouse (15 days after the last administration) and subjected to immunohistochemical staining with anti-progesterone receptor antibody. All the calves treated with 17β-estradiol alone or in association with nandrolone (groups A and C) showed strong positivity, while nandrolone-treated calves and controls (groups B and K) gave negative results to the immunohistochemical investigation. The statistical analysis showed that the progesterone receptor is a significant predictor of 17β-estradiol treatment alone or in association with nandrolone (p < 0.001): the immunohistochemical study resulted in 100% sensitivity (CI = 95%: 97.1-100%) and specificity (CI = 95%: 95.1-100%) for prostate and 99% sensitivity (CI = 95%: 95.6-100%) and 100% specificity (CI = 95%: 95.1-100%) for bulbo-urethral glands. The data confirm that this innovative biological approach offers a reliable tool to enhance the efficacy of

  11. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  12. Relationships of milk production of beef cows to postweaning gain of thier calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk yield from 157 Brangus cows bred to 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 3-yr period with a single-cow milking machine to estimate the relationship of actual milk yield of cows and their calves’ postweaning average daily gain on two postweaning man...

  13. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doherty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case or low (control calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality.

  14. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE LAW OF CATTLE AND BEEF TRACEABILITY IN MARKETING CHANNELS ON THE DOMESTIC HANWOO BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Sanggon; Lee, Jungmin; Chai, Sanghyen; Lee, Hyungwoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability in marketing channels on the domestic Hanwoo beef industry. The Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability might affect the demand and supply of Hanwoo beef. After introducing the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability into the marketing channels, the price of Hanwoo beef has increased a lot in the Korean beef market. Domestically produced Hanwoo beef has a price premium compared with the imported b...

  15. Antibiotic resistance gene abundance in feces of calves fed pirlimycin-dosed whole milk

    OpenAIRE

    Littier, Heather Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to antibiotics has the potential to increase the incidence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the gut and fecal microbiome. Non-saleable, antibiotic-containing milk from cows treated with antibiotics (waste milk) is commonly fed to dairy calves but the effects of ingestion of antibiotics at an early age on the gut microbiome and the development of ARG in the naive gut are not well understood. Pirlimycin, a lincosamide antibiotic acting against Gram positive bac...

  16. 76 FR 6572 - Non-Ambulatory Disabled Veal Calves and Other Non-Ambulatory Disabled Livestock at Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... provision that permits veal calves that are tired or cold to be set aside and treated (74 FR 11465... Slaughter'' (72 FR 38700)). The Agency had prohibited the slaughter of non-ambulatory disabled cattle for...-Ambulatory Disabled Following Ante-Mortem Inspection'' (74 FR 11464)). In that rulemaking the Agency...

  17. Systemic effects of zoledronic acid in children with traumatic femoral head avascular necrosis and Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Jesper; Briody, Julie; McQuade, Mary; Little, David G; Cowell, Christopher T; Munns, Craig F

    2009-01-01

    normal children and adolescents with femoral head AVN. Material and methods: 37 children (age 10.8+/-2.76 years) diagnosed with avascular necrosis AVN (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE), N=20 or Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), N=17) were treated with at least 12 months of ZA. Bone mineral...

  18. Effect of sample pre-treatment on the determination of steroid esters in hair of bovine calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of three sample pre-treatment steps, washing, cutting and grinding on the determination of steroid esters in hair is studied. The study is performed by using hair samples obtained after pour-on application of steroid esters to bovine calves. After sample pre-treatment the hair is treated

  19. Long-term follow-up of a patient cohort with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Christensen, Finn; Pedersen, Niels W; Overgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic risk factors related to a poor radiological outcome. The study consisted of 74 patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease treated using a Thomas splint. The modified Herring lateral pillar classification and the reviewed Stulberg classification s...

  20. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.;

    2000-01-01

    , of which 23 were experimentally infected with BRSV and five were given a mock inoculum. The presence of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BAL fluids was detected and quantified by a capture ELISA. TNF-alpha was detected in 21 of the infected animals. The amount of TNF...... levels of TNF-alpha appeared on the days where severe lung lesions and clinical signs were obvious and the amounts of BRSV-antigen were at their greatest. Although Pasteurellaceae were isolated from some of the BRSV-infected calves, calves treated with antibiotics before and through the whole period of...

  1. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  2. Differentiation of stress load resistant calves by the help of insulin-like growth factor–I (IGF–I in serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Petrák

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals do not respond uniformly to stress load. It leads to energy losses and body damage during stressor exposure. One of the hormones activated by stress, providing the repair of the body during and after load, is growth hormone. It acts directly on cells, but mainly through insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, which protects cells from apoptosis and promotes their growth and proliferation. Changes in concentrations of IGF-I in the circulation during psychical load at individual excitatory types of calves (EHb+ highly reactive, EHb° medium reactive and EHb- low reactive are not known. Calves type EHb+ and EHb° are more resistant to stress than EHbtype calves. The aim of our study was to measure the levels of IGF-I immediately after the application of psychical form of load with the calves differentiated according to different types of excitation. Differentiation of excitatory types of calves was done after 20 minute habituation test. Habituation test was performed in habituation chamber. Immediately before and after habituation calves were taken blood from jugular vein by syringe. Blood sampling was allowed to clot in a refrigerator at 4 °C and after 4 to 6 hours, it was centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 10 min. Then serum was drawn in from the syringe and frozen in aliquots volume in eppendorf vessel until further processing at -20 °C. Serum samples of calves were treated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA - test. The highest levels of IGF-I in all types of calves were in the resting blood collection. Within of individual type of excitation in a concentration IGF-I before and after load significant difference was not found. After application of psychical form of stress the concentration of IGF-I in blood of the calves declined.

  3. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O

    2016-09-01

    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  4. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  5. A comparison of surgical outcomes of perineal urethrostomy plus penile resection and perineal urethrostomy in twelve calves with perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis, ultrasonographic findings, surgical management, outcome, and survival rate of perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation in 12 male calves are described. All calves were crossbred and intact males. The most noticeable clinical presentations were perineal (n= 10 or prescrotal (n= 2 swellings and micturition problems. The main ultrasonographic findings were oval shaped dilatation of the urethra in all animals with dimensions of 40-75 X 30-62 mm. The calves with perineal urethral dilatation were treated by perineal urethrostomy (n= 4 and partial penile transection including the dilated urethra and urethral fistulation (n= 6. Prescrotal urethral dilatations were treated by penile transection proximal to the dilatation site (n= 2. Cystitis and stricture of the urethra were recorded postoperatively for two of the calves that underwent perineal urethrostomy. Nine animals were slaughtered at normal body weight approximately 6-8 months after the surgical treatment. Three animals were slaughtered after approximately three to four months, two of them having gained insufficient body weight. Our study shows that ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of urethral dilatation in bovine calves. Our study also shows that the partial penile transection may be a suitable and satisfactory choice of surgical treatment for correcting the urethral dilatation in bovine calves.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  7. Antimicrobial drug use and risk factors associated with treatment incidence and mortality in Swiss veal calves reared under improved welfare conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Steiner, A; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-one Swiss veal farms producing under a label with improved welfare standards were visited between August and December 2014 to investigate risk factors related to antimicrobial drug use and mortality. All herds consisted of own and purchased calves, with a median of 77.4% of purchased calves. The calves' mean age was 29±15days at purchasing and the fattening period lasted at average 120±28 days. The mean carcass weight was 125±12kg. A mean of 58±33 calves were fattened per farm and year, and purchased calves were bought from a mean of 20±17 farms of origin. Antimicrobial drug treatment incidence was calculated with the defined daily dose methodology. The mean treatment incidence (TIADD) was 21±15 daily doses per calf and year. The mean mortality risk was 4.1%, calves died at a mean age of 94±50 days, and the main causes of death were bovine respiratory disease (BRD, 50%) and gastro-intestinal disease (33%). Two multivariable models were constructed, for antimicrobial drug treatment incidence (53 farms) and mortality (91 farms). No quarantine, shared air space for several groups of calves, and no clinical examination upon arrival at the farm were associated with increased antimicrobial treatment incidence. Maximum group size and weight differences >100kg within a group were associated with increased mortality risk, while vaccination and beef breed were associated with decreased mortality risk. The majority of antimicrobial treatments (84.6%) were given as group treatments with oral powder fed through an automatic milk feeding system. Combination products containing chlortetracycline with tylosin and sulfadimidine or with spiramycin were used for 54.9%, and amoxicillin for 43.7% of the oral group treatments. The main indication for individual treatment was BRD (73%). The mean age at the time of treatment was 51 days, corresponding to an estimated weight of 80-100kg. Individual treatments were mainly applied through injections (88.5%), and included

  8. Pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J F; Poole, D H; Hughes, L; Dejarnette, J M; Inskeep, E K; Dailey, R A

    2009-09-01

    Reduced capability of the uterus to support pregnancy in the absence of its interaction with secretions from male accessory glands has been demonstrated in rodents and to some extent in pigs. However, in cattle, the role of postmating inflammatory response on pregnancy success has not been studied. The current study examined the influence of uterine presensitization with seminal antigens at breeding on pregnancy outcome in cows. Lactating beef (n=1090) and dairy (n=800) cows received 0.5 mL seminal plasma (SP), 40 ng recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1), or 0.5 mL bovine serum albumin (BSA), or were left untreated before or at insemination. Semen was deposited into the anterior cervix using a second insemination gun. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 35 to 40 d postinsemination by transrectal ultrasonography or from records of calves born the subsequent calving season. Pregnancy rates in beef cows did not differ among treatments but differed among trials (69.8%, 52.5% vs. 40.3%; Pplasma on pregnancy outcome in lactating dairy or beef cows but realized marginal improvements when pregnancy rates were below 50% (compromised fertility). PMID:19501392

  9. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  10. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, C. B.; Holland, B. P.; McMillen, G.; Step, D. L.; Krehbiel, C. R.; Namjou, K.; McCann, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07 cm-1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be ˜330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

  11. Systemic and enteric salmonellosis in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical manifestation of different Salmonella serovars in dairy calves. S. typhimurium was identified in faecal samples of a calf with rectal prolapse and in faecal samples and mesenteric lymph nodes of a calf with necrosis at the tip of the tail. S. agona was identified in faecal samples of a calf with diarrhoea but no other clinical manifestation, and S. dublin was observed in faecal and organ samples from a calf with neurological symptoms. Assays to differentiate between the main enteric pathogens (Enteropathogenic E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus were performed and were negative. Due to the negative impact of salmonellosis and occurrence of different serovars and clinical manifestations in calves, the correct diagnosis is important to identify control and prophylactic measures in a dairy herd.

  12. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  13. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or...

  14. Epidemiological investigation of rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh was carried out to detect its association with diarrhoea. An overall 28% incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was recorded in rural buffalo calves. Rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from both diarrhoeic (12%) and non-diarrhoeic (3%) calves by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An association between diarrhoea and rotavirus infection was recorded in buffalo calves below 1 month of age in both diarrhoeic (27%) and non-diarrhoeic (7%) calves. Rotavirus infection in diarrhoeic buffalo calves was found to be highest in winter (16.7%), followed by summer (9.1%) and lowest in the rainy season (7.7%). Further studies on the epidemiological and prophylactic aspects of rotavirus infection should be conducted to control this infection in Bangladesh. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Briefing note on the beef industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Sheep and beef farmers around the UK were interviewed to find out if they would adopt a range of technologies to reduce methane emissions.* Beef farmers produced a diverse range of outputs including environmental management as well as food production. Farmers worked in a range of different environments and are influenced by a variety of values.

  16. Housing and Environment for Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Many cases of poor health in calves have been traced to bad management and inadequate ventilation in the calf nursery. Important management principles for improved calf health include calf housing isolated from the adult herd and periodic depopulation and sanitizing of the calf nursery area. In good weather, low-cost calf rearing portables such as the “calf hutch” can provide alternative housing during the cleanup period.

  17. POPONA FOR COMFORT AND HEALTH OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremenko O. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk productivity of cows is largely dependent on the efficiency of their own genetic potential. For the successful solution of this question it this essential the creation of proper technological conditions for high live stock process of ontogeny beginning from the neonatal period. One of the significant factors that influence the growth, development and safety of young grows in early of young grows in early postembryonic period are zoo-hygienic conditions of calves. Currently the "cold" method of keeping calves in individual houses is developed and widely used. It promotes the increase in the intensity of growth by 8,1%, prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract improving hygienic conditions and rising of profitability of their growing by 4,2%. It is now that calves kept individual houses in the face of increasing wind and decreasing temperatures as well as high humidity of air environment in winter, feel discomfort, move less, stay lying on the litter in the house. For the purpose of warming the animals in cold frosty days keeping outside in the houses, increasing their viability, growth intensity and the guarantee of prevention gastrointestinal tract and pulmonary system diseases development the staff of the Department of private zoo techniques (animal genetics and pig-keeping from Kuban State Agrarian University have developed Popona - blanket-clothes for calves, which will allow to redirect received from feed energy to a calf growth. It will happen by reducing energy consumption for heating the body and prevent the development of colds due to the formation and preservation of the heat in the body in the absence of wet wool on with the external precipitation

  18. Alopecia in calves associated with milk substitute feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, G C; Hill, M R; Slater, A J

    1983-04-30

    Outbreaks of alopecia with unusually high morbidity occurred among calves reared on milk substitutes on two unrelated farms in Suffolk. On one farm alopecia occurred for three consecutive years; during the winter of 1981-82 there were also clinical signs of muscular dystrophy among the same calves. On the second farm calves with alopecia also showed signs of muscular dystrophy. The apparent relationship between alopecia and milk substitute feeding is discussed together with the possible involvement of vitamin E. PMID:6868307

  19. Metabolic Acidosis Without Clinical Signs of Dehydration in Young Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Kasari, T R; Naylor, J M

    1984-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis without clinical signs of dehydration was diagnosed in four calves between nine and 21 days of age. In each calf either coma or depression with weakness and ataxia was observed. Two calves had slow deep respirations. Treatment with intravenous administration of solutions of sodium bicarbonate was accompanied by a rise in blood pH and a return to normal demeanor, ambulation and appetites, allowing these calves to return to their respective herds.

  20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  1. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VNcolostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk enriched in BRV-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent BRV

  2. Controls on Helheim Glacier calving rates from 2001-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, L. A.; Foga, S. C.; Hamilton, G. S.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.; van der Veen, C. J.; Oltmanns, M.; Schild, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Iceberg calving is an efficient mechanism for ice mass loss. While the physical controls on calving are not well understood, recent field and remote sensing observations from Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland, suggest calving is dependent on both glacier and fjord conditions. This presentation investigates the sensitivity of calving rates to ice velocity, ocean temperature and mélange composition using a combination of in situ and satellite observations. Ocean properties in Sermilik Fjord for 2009-2014 are reconstructed using mooring data, and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) that inventories icebergs, sea-ice and small icebergs quantifies mélange composition several times a season. Ice velocity from InSAR and optical imagery is used to calculate calving rates and investigate the role of longitudinal gradients on calving. Ice velocity appears to be the dominant control on calving rates at Helheim Glacier. However, calving rates exhibit a complex pattern of seasonal and interannual variability, which does not simply mimic ice velocity patterns. We explore the relative roles of ocean properties, glacier geometry, and mélange composition on calving rates from 2001-2014 in order to improve physically-based glacier models.

  3. Effects of Dietary Chitosan on Hormone Level in Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Li; Xiuming Mu; Jian Ge; Chunwang Yue; Maohong Sun; Qiang Hao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan on serum GH, T3 and T4 in and to determine the appropriate supplemental dosage level of chitosan in dairy calves diet. A 30 days trial of dietary chitosan supplementation was reported. Twenty dairy calves were allotted at random to four groups at 10 days of age. Calves in the control group were fed the basal diet alone and calves in treatment groups I-III were fed the basal diet supplemented with 200, 400, 600 mg/day/h...

  4. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  5. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  6. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement is an undesirable contact between acetabular rim and femoral neck and presents abnormality of proximal femoral part and acetabulum, as well. Two forms may appear: cam impingement and pincer impingement. Femoroacetabular impingement related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease may be caused by various reasons, as the consequence of the disease itself, and as the consequence of its treatment. Coxa magna deformity (large femoral head and neck and coxa brevis deformity (shortened femoral neck may produce cam femoroacetabular impingement during hip flexion. After the disease, the flattened femoral head (coxa plana may persist. Chiari pelvic osteotomy is the only treatment option for such femoral head deformity. Acetabular labrum squeezed continuously between the femoral head and the non-articular part of the cut iliac bone lead to cam femoroacetabular impingement, as well. If Salter or triple pelvic osteotomy is used that may cause a very large iatrogenic acetabular retroversion, we can also refer to radial type pincer femoroacetabular impingement. Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease should be conducted according to the natural course of the disease and prognosis. Treatment should start on time, well before a crushed femoral head develops, because it is the easiest way to establish hip spherical congruency at the end of treatment. This is the best option to prevent secondary hip arthrosis caused by femoroacetabular impingement or by insufficient head coverage at the end of remodelling. In each case of delayed hip pain, followed by a limited range of movements, femoroacetabular impingement should be taken into consideration, confirmed, and treated by some of the available therapeutic methods.

  7. Effect of ferrous sulphate on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Lobna S. Elgebaly; Adel M.A. Eisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of iron on haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in neonatal calves was studied. Ten calves from a private farm in Gharbia Governorate were used. Calves were separated from their dams immediately after birth and received colostrum during the first hours after calving and twice daily for 48 h. Thereafter, they received whole milk. Calves were divided into two equal groups. The first group was kept as controls. Calves of the second group were...

  8. Optimal management of replacement heifers in a beef herd: a model for simultaneous optimization of rearing and breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R; Makulska, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide farmers an efficient tool for supporting optimal decisions in the beef heifer rearing process. The complexity of beef heifer management prompted the development of a model including decisions on the feeding level during prepuberty (age breeding (age, BW, and calendar month). The model was formulated as 3-level hierarchic Markov process. A founder level of the model has 12 states resembling all possible birth months of a heifer. Based on the birth month information from the founder level, for the indoor season (November to April) and outdoor season (May to October), feeding and breeding costs (natural service cost in the outdoor and AI cost in the indoor season) were applied. The optimal rearing strategy was found by maximizing the total discounted net revenues from the predicted future productivity of the Polish Limousine heifers defined as the cumulative BW of calves born from a cow calved until the age of 5 yr, standardized on the 210th day of age. According to the modeled optimal policy, heifers fed during the whole rearing period at the ADG of 810 g/d and generally weaned after the maximum suckling period of 9 mo should already be bred at the age of 13.2 mo and BW constituting 55.6% of the average mature BW. Based on the optimal strategy, 52% of all heifers conceived from May to July and calved from February to April. This optimal rearing pattern resulted in an average net return of EUR 311.6 per pregnant heifer. It was found that the economic efficiency of beef operations can be improved by applying different herd management practices to those currently used in Poland. Breeding at 55.6% of the average mature BW, after a shorter and less expensive rearing period, resulted in an increase in the average net return per heifer by almost 18% compared to the conventional system, in which heifers were bred after attaining 65% of the mature BW. Extension of the rearing period by 2.5 mo (breeding at the age 15.7 mo), due to a

  9. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  10. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (Pbeef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total annual accumulated CH4 when applied to the 4 diverse beef production systems. Overall, despite the small number of animals used it was demonstrated that there is a biological impact of using more specific CH4 prediction equations. Based on this approach, farm and national carbon budgets will be more accurate, contributing to reduced uncertainty in assessing mitigation options at farm and national level. PMID:24174549

  11. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...

  12. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  13. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, H; Bowker, B C; Eastridge, J S; Solomon, M B

    2013-11-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). Control and HDP samples were obtained immediately post-treatment and after 14days of aging for SEM and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis. Immediately post-treatment, HDP treated samples exhibited lower (Ptenderization of HDP. PMID:23803280

  14. The Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership Approach to the Adoption of New Beef Industry Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Garry R.; Clark, R.E.; Parnell, Peter F.; Timms, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Technology adoption in the Australian beef industry has been low and slow compared to the intensive livestock and cropping industries. The principles of accelerated adoption provide an innovative solution to this problem. In the Beef CRC, Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership (BPP) members will meet regularly to measure their current performance, set targets for future productivity increases, and use a profitability framework to assess the potential impact of new technology. Capacity building a...

  15. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  16. An optimal cut-off point for the calving interval may be used as an indicator of bovine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The bovine abortion surveillance system in France aims to detect as early as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification and testing of each aborting cow, but under-reporting is high. This research uses a new and simple approach which considers the calving interval (CI) as a "diagnostic test" to determine optimal cut-off point c and estimate diagnostic performance of the CI to identify aborting cows, and herds with multiple abortions (i.e. three or more aborting cows per calving season). The period between two artificial inseminations (AI) was considered as a "gold standard". During the 2006-2010 calving seasons, the mean optimal CI cut-off point for identifying aborting cows was 691 days for dairy cows and 703 days for beef cows. Depending on the calving season, production type and scale at which c was computed (individual or herd), the average sensitivity of the CI varied from 42.6% to 64.4%; its average specificity from 96.7% to 99.7%; its average positive predictive value from 27.6% to 65.4%; and its average negative predictive value from 98.7% to 99.8%. When applied to the French bovine population as a whole, this indicator identified 2-3% of cows suspected to have aborted, and 10-15% of herds suspected of multiple abortions. The optimal cut-off point and CI performance were consistent over calving seasons. By applying an optimal CI cut-off point to the cattle demographics database, it becomes possible to identify herds with multiple abortions, carry out retrospective investigations to find the cause of these abortions and monitor a posteriori compliance of farmers with their obligation to report abortions for brucellosis surveillance needs. Therefore, the CI could be used as an indicator of abortions to help improve the current mandatory notification surveillance system. PMID:26318526

  17. Fecal microbial diversity in pre-weaned dairy calves as described by pyrosequencing of metagenomic 16S rDNA. Associations of Faecalibacterium species with health and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Oikonomou

    Full Text Available In this study, we use barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the fecal microbiota of neonatal calves and identify possible relationships of certain microbiota profiles with health and weight gain. Fecal samples were obtained weekly from 61 calves from birth until weaning (seventh week of the calves' life. Firmicutes was the most prevalent phylum, with a prevalence ranging from 63.84% to 81.90%, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.36% to 23.93%, Proteobacteria (3.72% to 9.75%, Fusobacteria (0.76% to 5.67%, and Actinobacteria (1.02% to 2.35%. Chao1 index gradually increased from the first to the seventh postnatal week. Chao1 index was lower during the third, fourth, and fifth week of life in calves that suffered from pneumonia and were treated with antibiotics. Diarrhea incidence during the first four weeks of the calves' life was also associated with a reduction of microbial diversity during the third week of life. Increased fecal microbial diversity after the second week of life was associated with higher weight gain. Using discriminant analysis we were able to show differences in the microbiota profiles between different weeks of life, between high and low weight gain groups of calves, and between calves affected and not affected with diarrhea during the first four weeks life. The prevalence of Faecalibacterium spp. in the first week of life was associated with weight gain and the incidence of diarrhea, with higher prevalence being associated with higher weight gain and less diarrhea. Representative sequences from Faecalibacterium spp. were closely affiliated to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results presented here provide new information regarding the intestinal microbiota of neonatal calves and its association with health and growth. Fecal microbial diversity was associated with calf age, disease status and growth rates. Results suggesting a possible beneficial effect of Faecalibacterium spp. on health and growth are promising.

  18. The effect of age at first calving and calving interval on productive life and lifetime profit in korean holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Changhee; Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, Kwanghyun; Choi, Yunho; Choi, Taejeong; Park, Byungho; Lee, Donghee

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45) of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (-0.080 and -0.265, respectively). Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6) from 800,000 Won ($727.3) when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month) from (32.8 month). Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present trend of increase

  19. Clinical trial on type of calving pen and the risk of disease in Holstein calves during the first 90 d of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithua, Patrick; Wells, Scott J; Godden, Sandra M; Raizman, Eran A

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of single cow calving pens that are cleaned between calvings vs. multiple cow calving pens for the prevention of calf diarrhea (scours), respiratory disease (pneumonia) and morbidity attributable to any cause. Every other pregnant cow or heifer was moved to either the single cow calving pen (treatment) or the multiple cow calving pen (control) within 48-72 h prior to actual calving. The calves born in the single cow calving pens were assigned to the treatment group while the calves born in the multiple calving pens were assigned to the control group. Fecal materials, placental remains, and any other conspicuous dirt were removed from the single cow calving pens between each calving prior to the introduction of the next pregnant cow. The calves were then separated from their dams within 2h of birth. Multiple cow calving pens were managed as usual at the producers' discretion. Upon birth, the calf managers monitored each enrolled calf for signs of diarrhea, pneumonia plus other morbidity up to 90 d of age. The effects of single cow calving pens (vs. multiple cow calving pens) that are cleaned between calvings on the risk of neonatal calf diseases were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Risk of diarrhea (OR=0.93, P=0.75), pneumonia (OR=1.23, P=0.64), and morbidity due to any cause (OR=0.93, P=0.74) were not significantly different between calves born in single cow vs. multiple cow calving pens. The current study found that, given the management situation evaluated, calves born in single cow calving pens were no different than calves born in multiple cow calving pens with respect to calf diseases risk. Long-term follow-up of the calves enrolled in the present study is ongoing to determine the efficacy of single cow calving pen use for the possible prevention of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Holstein calves. PMID:19193464

  20. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole;

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte...

  1. Feeding & Management of Dairy Calves & Heifers. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Walt

    This guide is designed to assist postsecondary and secondary teachers of agriculture in their use of the University of Wisconsin bulletin "Raising Dairy Replacements" in their dairy science instructional program. Eight lessons are provided in this unit: breeding decisions, management of cows from breeding to calving, care at calving time, the…

  2. The effect of milk feeding method on calves' behavioural sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, L.; Hepola, H.; Raussi, S.; Sariola, J.; Khalili, H; Saloniemi, H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to study how calves' sleep could be affected by the milk feeding and housing methods. We concluded that possibility to suck milk increased the amount of calves' behavioural quiet sleep and sleepiness after feeding, possibly due to suck-induced hormonal effects.

  3. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  4. Expression Marker-Based Strategy to Improve Beef Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    For beef cattle research, a main objective is to control concomitantly the development of muscles and the qualities of beef cuts. Beef quality is a complex phenotype that is only detectable after slaughter and is highly variable. The beef industry is in need of tools to estimate beef quality of live cattle or online in abattoirs, with specific attention towards sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, and colour). Identification of relevant genetic and genomic markers is ongoing, especially for tenderness—a top priority quality attribute. In this paper, we describe the steps of an expression marker-based strategy to improve beef sensory quality, from the discovery of biomarkers that identify consistent beef and the biological functions governing beef tenderness to the integration of the knowledge into detection tests for desirable animals. These tools should soon be available for the management of sensory quality in the beef production chain for meeting market's demands and assuring good quality standards. PMID:27066527

  5. Irradiation inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in low- and high-fat, frozen and refrigerated ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of two levels of fat (11.1 to 13.9% [low-fat] and 27.1 to 27.9% [highfat]) and temperature (frozen [-17 to -15 degrees C] and refrigerated [3 to 5 degrees C]) on gamma irradiation (60Co) inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in raw ground beef patties was investigated. Ground beef patties inoculated with stationary growth phase cells of five-strain mixtures of L. monocytogenes or S. aureus were treated with seven mean gamma irradiation doses up to 2.062 or 2.147 kGy, respectively. D10 values ranged from 0.507 to 0.610 kGy and 0.435 to 0.453 kGy for L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, respectively. Neither the fat content of beef nor the temperature during irradiation treatment influenced inactivation rates of the two pathogens. Regression coefficients were high for all treatment conditions, the lowest being 0.984 for L. monocytogenes and 0.990 for S. aureus in high-fat frozen beef. Based on the highest D10 value obtained, a dose of 2.50 kGy would theoretically kill 4.10 log10 L. monocytogenes and 5.12 log10 S. aureus per gram of ground beef. The fact that this investigation was done under commercial processing and irradiation treatment conditions, to the extent possible, makes the significance of the results more meaningful to the beef industry

  6. Requirement of energy and protein of beef cattle on tropical pasture - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.21143

    OpenAIRE

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Edenio Detmann; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Isabela Fernanda Teixeira Dias

    2013-01-01

    Protein and energy requirements of beef cattle, aged between 4 and 18 months old, on tropical pastures, were estimated. Forty-six Nellore calves (138.3 ± 3.4 kg BW and 90-150 days old), kept on pasture, were distributed in a maintenance group (restricted feeding) or in nutritional plans, receiving a supplements with different amounts of protein and carbohydrate or non-supplemented. The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg) was obtained by linear regression of logarithm of retained ener...

  7. ESTIMATES OF BREED DIRECT, MATERNAL AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE HUMID TROPICS OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Mario M. Osorio-Arce; José C. Segura-Correa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the breed-direct, breed-maternal and heterosis effects for weaning and yearling weights of Brahman cattle and its crosses with Charolais, Simmental and Brown Swiss breeds in a beef cattle system in Tabasco, Mexico. The climate of the region is tropical humid. Data were obtained on 1217 calves born from 1995 to 2007; among the 16 breed-group combinations one was purebred mating (Brahman), 3 two-breed static crosses, 7 three-breed static crosses and ...

  8. Effect of polymorphisms linked to LEP gene on its expression on adipose tissues in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, D T; Hepp, D; Moraes, J C F; Weimer, T A

    2007-06-01

    In cattle, genetic markers at the leptin (LEP) gene and at those linked to the gene have been described as affecting calving interval (markers LEPSau3AI and IDVGA51), or daily weight gain (BMS1074 and BM1500). This work investigated the effect of these alleles on LEP mRNA levels in cattle subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. A sample of 137 females of a Brangus-Ibage beef cattle herd was analysed to evaluate the distribution of the polymorphisms; then, animals having at least one of the IDVGA51*181 (allele 181 at marker IDVGA51; six animals), LEPSau3AI*2 (four), BMS1074*151 (13), BM1500*135 (six) alleles and a control group composed of animals without any of these alleles (four animals) were submitted to surgery to obtain omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Leptin mRNA expression was quantified by TaqMan RT-PCR, using 18S rRNA as internal control and adjusted for the effect of body condition score, through regression analysis. Omental fat had LEP gene expression 33% lower than the subcutaneous tissue. Carriers of IDVGA*181 and BMS1074*151 showed subcutaneous fat leptin mRNA levels higher than the controls. Leptin controls feed intake and coordinates reproduction; therefore, animals with higher LEP gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and probably will also have longer calving interval. PMID:17550358

  9. Desempenho e saúde de bezerras alimentadas com leite sem resíduo de drogas antimicrobianas ou leite de vacas tratadas contra mastite adicionado ou não de probiótico Performance and health of calves fed milk without antimicrobials residue or milk from mastitis treated cows with or without probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Batista

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e oito bezerras da raça Holandesa, de um a 60 dias de idade, foram utilizadas para avaliar os efeitos da adição ou não de Lactobacillus acidophillus, Bifidobacterium bifidum e Enterococus faecium ao leite sem resíduo de antimicrobiano (L e ao leite de vacas em tratamento de mastite (LTM, sobre o consumo de alimentos, ganho de peso e incidência e duração de diarréia. O consumo de concentrado e água foi medido diariamente, e o ganho de peso semanalmente. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com 12 repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (L ou LTM e ausência ou presença de probiótico. A adição de probiótico reduziu o número de dias com diarréia no grupo de animais que recebeu leite sem resíduo de antimicrobiano (PForty-eight Holstein calves from birth until 60-day-old were used to evaluate the effect of commercial probiotic Biobac® (Lactobacillus acidophillus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Enterococcus faecium in addition to milk without antimicrobials residue or milk from mastitis treatead cows on theoccurrence and the length of diarrhea. Consumption of concentrate and water were daily measured and the weight was weekly measured. The experiment was carried out according to a random sample design with 12 repetitions for each treatment, arranged in a split plot. The plots were composed by four treatments combined in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. Subplots were composed by the evaluation times. The addition of probiotic was beneficial to reduce the diarrhea period in the calves fed milk without antimicrobial residue. The consumption of concentrate, water, and the weights of the calves were not different among the groups, irrespectively of probiotic supply.

  10. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM. PMID:16183219

  11. New indicators of beef sensory quality revealed by expression of specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Carine; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Le Cunff, Martine; Dubroeucq, Hervé; Renand, Gilles; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2007-06-27

    To identify new molecular markers of beef sensory quality, the transcriptomes of Longissimus thoracis muscle from 25 Charolais bull calves were analyzed using microarrays and compared between high and low meat quality groups; 215 genes were differentially expressed according to tenderness, juiciness, and/or flavor. Among these, 23 were up-regulated in the tenderest, juiciest, and tastiest meats, and 18 were highly correlated with both flavor and juiciness (e.g., PRKAG1), explaining up to 60% of their variability. Nine were down-regulated in the same meats, but only DNAJA1 [the results relating to DNAJA1 and its relationship with tenderness have been patented (Genomic marker for meat tenderness; Patent EP06300943.5, September 12, 2006)], which encodes a heat shock protein, showed a strong negative correlation with tenderness that alone explained 63% of its variability. This protein, known for its anti-apoptotic role, could be involved in meat aging. Thus, DNAJA1 could constitute a new marker of beef sensory quality. PMID:17547415

  12. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  13. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    different countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960's with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows are...... instrumental measures of these characteristics has made the sorting int consumer-relevant quality categories impossible. Recently, schemes have been set up in several countries to produce beef under certain controlled conditions with the aim of assuring a certain quality. These schemes involve participation of...

  14. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... quality; 4) marinating by submerging aiming for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement and restructuring through enzyme binding; 6) shock wave treatment and 7) thermal processing. Participants' attitudes towards beef, their innovativeness and risk aversion were also assessed. In total, 65...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  15. Determination of trenbolone in urine and faeces of calves by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunological methods were established for the determination of residues of trenbolone acetate (TBA) in urine and faeces of calves treated with TBA. Both methods are easy to handle (about 60-80 samples within 2 days). Their reliability has been demonstrated by means of examining specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. The lower limit of sensitivity is around 0.024-0.032 ng TBOH/ml urine and 0.034-0.048 ng TBOH/g faeces. Both RIAs could be applied for routine control of illegal treatment of veal calves with TBA. For the first time the excretion of TBOH after implantation with TBA was measured radioimmunological in 2 veal calves. Residues of TBA are measurable in urine and in faeces during the whole fest period (up to 61 days after implantation). The major part of TBOH is excreted with the faeces. Until the substances needed for the RIA of TBOH are available commercially, thin-layer-chromatography (Vogt 1977) can alternatively be used for the determination of residues of TBA. (orig.)

  16. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A

    2012-10-01

    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise. PMID:23060515

  17. ESTIMATING CROSS ELASTICITIES OF DEMAND FOR BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which observed changes in per capita beef consumption can be accounted for by changes in relative prices and per capita real income. Particular attention was given to specifying the functional form by focusing on the nature of demand shifts over time. These considerations led to selection of the Fourier flexible form with a Fourier series expansion in relative meat prices. The results support the hypothesis that recent shifts in demand for beef can be attribu...

  18. ROMANIAN BEEF & VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  19. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  20. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  1. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  2. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  3. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  4. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

  6. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  7. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50 and B (n: 60, depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubitus on the housing surface, body hygiene as well as that of the resting area and the thermal comfort. The assessment was made by direct observation and numerical estimation, based on the Welfare Quality ® 2009 protocol (Assessment protocol for cattle as well as by means of a calves safety and welfare evaluation chart according to the European and national legislation on minimum calves safety and protection standards. Data collected and processed have shown the fact that not all housing conditions completely answer calves physiological requirements. Thus the appropriate housing criterion in the present study was met at B lot of 85 % and to a much smaller degree by the A lot (76 %. The assessment carried out by means of the safety chart have indicated that only the minimum criteria for calves rearing were met, which does not translate into a high level of their welfare.

  8. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  9. Consumer impressions of Tender Select beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Meade, M K; Reagan, J O; Byrnes, B L; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-10-01

    With the recent development of technology to classify beef for tenderness, it is now possible for packers and retailers to market brands of beef known to be consistently tender. The present experiment was conducted to determine consumer impressions of Tender Select, a model beef brand comprised of cuts from tender U.S. Select carcasses. A telephone survey was conducted in metropolitan Denver, CO, to recruit consumers (n = 1,036) for this study. Consumers who met minimal limits for household income, age, and beef consumption were invited to participate in a beef shopping and usage study in a local supermarket. Point-of-purchase material was developed that described Tender Select as "the only steak guaranteed tender and lean." When shown a copy of the Tender Select concept card, 89% of participating consumers (n = 759) indicated that they would definitely or probably buy that product. Of those consumers that said they would buy the product, 35% indicated that their purchases of Tender Select would be in addition to their current fresh meat purchases. Most consumers (54.1%) indicated that if Tender Select was available at their grocery store, 1 or 2 of their next 10 purchases of beef cuts would be Tender Select. Sixty-five percent of consumers indicated that if a grocery store carried a line of beef cuts guaranteed to be tender, they would buy all of their beef at that store. Both strip loins from 104 U.S. Select beef carcasses, representing a broad range (8.7 to 43.4 kg; CV = 42%) in slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem, were used to determine the effect of SSF classification on consumer satisfaction and the correlation among trained sensory panel descriptive attribute ratings and in-home consumer ratings of beef longissimus steaks. Both trained sensory panelists and consumers rated low-SSF steaks higher than the high-SSF steaks for all traits (P premium to purchase guaranteed-tender U.S. Select steaks. PMID:11721839

  10. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Klarić; Drago Bagarić; Zvonko Antunović; Marcela Šperanda; Pero Mijić; Matija Domaćinović

    2009-01-01

    Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were...

  11. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Andronie; Monica Parvu; Viorel Andronie

    2013-01-01

    The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50) and B (n: 60), depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubit...

  12. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  13. Southern Section Interdisciplinary Beef Cattle Symposium: Forage and co-product systems for stockers in the South: have fundamental shifts in markets changed the optimal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D L; Prevatt, J W

    2013-01-01

    Stockering calves in the southern United States has been an economically viable enterprise for decades. Historically, the system that yielded the best opportunity for profitability was to purchase lightweight calves (130 kg to 220 kg) in autumn, add 100 to 200 kg of BW gain, and sell them in the spring. In most years, the value of the BW gain was worth more than the cost of BW gain in this system. With the exponential price increases in feed, fuel, and fertilizer during 2008 and the significant increase in cattle prices, it is prudent to assess the potential for continued profitability in this segment of the beef industry. Evaluation of 37 grazing experiments indicated that the forage systems most likely to result in inexpensive costs of BW gain for stocker calves involve tall fescue with legumes or ryegrass with small grains. Even with increased input prices, these systems still yield economical BW gain for stocker calves. Likewise, many diets can be blended to produce ADG of 1 kg using co-products that are abundant across the South. With many of these co-products, the most important performance factor in determining their value is G:F. In several experiments, DMI has exceeded 3% of BW in stocker calves, and the resulting G:F has been less than desirable. Several experiments have reported G:F of 0.13 to 0.16, resulting in economical BW gain, whereas some experiments have reported G:F as low as 0.09, which could result in BW gain that costs more to produce than it is worth. From 1979, the value of BW gain for stocker calves in Alabama has averaged US$1.05/kg. However, in the last 3 yr, the value of BW gain has risen to $2.32/kg. Fundamental shifts in feed, fuel, and fertilizer prices experienced in the United States between 2005 and 2010 have markedly changed the amount of capital needed to purchase several hundred stocker calves and to provide adequate feedstuffs for BW gain. However, the value of BW gain associated with producing feeder calves from those stockers

  14. Impact of Free Trade Agreements on the Colombian Beef Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Miguel I.; Frank, Julieta; Parra, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Colombia negotiated bilateral Trade Agreements (TAs) with the United States and with the MERCOSUR region (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). Colombian cattle and beef interest groups argue that TAs hurt the local beef supply chain. We employ a partial equilibrium framework to assess the impact of these TAs on the welfare of cattle producers, beef marketers and meat consumers in Colombia. Our results suggest that with free imports of chicken parts from the U.S, beef consumption and ret...

  15. Beef duis brisket pariatur cow veniam tempor filet hhh

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Beef duis brisket pariatur cow veniam tempor filet mignon mollit aute ham hock culpa drumstick. Dolor in jerky beef ribs consectetur andouille ham swine aliquip mollit beef fugiat nostrud et. Eiusmod consequat pork, turducken capicola ham hock tongue sint ribeye officia. Irure in ex swine duis kevin tenderloin incididunt meatball cillum doner enim strip steak short ribs pork chop. Swine duis irure rump, exercitation jerky capicola aliqua kevin pancetta shankle. Ullamco chuck corned beef, ut b...

  16. Beef Marbling Image Segmentation Based on Homomorphic Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Pang; Xiao Sun; Deying Liu; Kunjie Chen

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of uneven illumination and reflect light for beef accurate segmentation, a beef marbling segmentation method based on homomorphic filtering was introduced. Aiming at the beef rib-eye region images in the frequency domain, homomorphic filter was used for enhancing gray, R, G and B 4 chroma images. Then the impact of high frequency /low frequency gain factors on the accuracy of beef marbling segmentation was investigated. Appropriate values of gain factors were ...

  17. Parâmetros nutricionais de novilhas de corte alimentadas com cana-de-açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio e diferentes níveis de concentrado Nutritional parameters of beef heifers fed sugarcane treated with calcium oxide and different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Andreatta Kling de Moraes

    2008-07-01

    ruminal parameters of beef heifers, fed sugarcane treated or not with calcium oxide (CaO - 1.0% and different concentrate levels (CL, in feedlot. Six animals (170.0 kg BW were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (sugarcane in nature treated or not with 1.0% CaO and three CL 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0% BW. No interaction was observed between forage and CL for nutrients intake and total digestibilities. With exception for DM and NDF intakes (% BW and of EE and NDF total digestibilities, sugarcane treated with CaO prejudice the intake and digestibility of others nutrients. NDF intake was unaffected by CL, however the intake of the other nutrients showed a positive linearly behavior as CL increased. The total apparent digestibilities of nutrients linearly as CL increased. Ruminal digestibilities were unaffected by sugarcane treated with CaO. The increase of CL showed a positive linear behavior for DM, OM, CP, NDF ruminal digestibilities. There was no effect of sugarcane treated or not CaO on microbial nitrogen and microbial DM, which increased as CL increased in the diet. The lesser nitrogen retention was observed in animals fed sugarcane treated with CaO. Sugarcane treated with 1.0% CaO, fed after 24 hours of storage, prejudice the intake of most nutrients. Nitrogen balance and CL up to 1.0% BW improve DM intake, digestibility of most nutrients and nutrient balance.

  18. Hyaluronic acid in calves defects correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Rosset

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Since the advent of fillers, new techniques are continuously developed for different uses. In this study, we evaluated the use of hyaluronic acid for calf augmentation. Methods: A total of 42 patients were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent augmentation procedure in our centers under local anesthesia, the operations were completed within 1 h with a prompt correction of the defects. Results: Thirty-nine patients were satisfied with the treatment (93%, while three had complications, local infection, and lumps, that were resolved quickly (7%. Conclusion: Macrofillers can be injected into the calf to correct any defects. The advantages include short duration of treatment; the procedure performed under local anesthesia and limited side-effects that resolve promptly. This study suggests the use of biocompatible macrofillers for the augmentation of not only calves, but also for augmentation of breast and buttocks.

  19. The legg-calve-perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip during early childhood. It is characterized by different stages with the main risk of persisting hip deformation, dysfunction of the joint movement, and the potential for early osteoarthritis. For the evaluation of prognosis and therapy planning patients age and extent of the necrotic area of the epiphysis are important factors. For an early diagnosis and sufficient therapy all radiological efforts have to be performed. MR imaging is an ideal method for the assessment of osteonecrotic changes of the Morbus Perthes. Compared to plain radiography by MR imaging pathologic alterations can be detected earlier and with higher specificity. However, conventional radiograms have to be still used as basic imaging modality. Nowadays x-rays and MR imaging should be the main methods for the evaluation of children suffering from Perthes disease. (orig.)

  20. Topical treatment of calves with synthetic pyrethroids: effects on the non-target dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    2001-01-01

    Dung from calves treated with synthetic pyrethroids negatively influenced, in varying degrees, survival, reproduction and size of the common dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Fabricius). This was documented in assays where the coprophagous larvae and adults of N. cornicina were exposed to dung collecte...

  1. Effect of Heat-treatment on Quality and Microbiology of Colostrum and on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to describe the effect of heat-treatment on microbial counts and IgG levels in colostrum and describe serum IgG concentrations in newborn calves fed heat-treated vs raw colostrum. Six farms, ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 cows, enrolled in the study. First milking ...

  2. Comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment is being conducted by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, a contractor to the beef checkoff, to develop better scientific understanding of the sustainability of beef. This includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions along with other environmental, ...

  3. Willingness to Pay for Tennessee Beef among Tennessee Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Leah; Jensen, Kimberly; Leffew, Megan; English, Burton; Lambert, Dayton; Clark, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines willingness to pay among consumers in five metropolitan areas in Tennessee for steaks and ground beef produced in Tennessee. Consumers are willing to pay a positive premium for Tennessee beef. The choice of shopping outlets for Tennessee beef is also examined. Demographics, prior shopping patterns, and product preferences influence shopping outlet choices.

  4. Food safety issues and the microbiology of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    World demand for high-quality animal protein presents opportunities for growth and expanded trade which is predicted to increase more than 6% for major beef producing countries and their beef industries. Contingent upon an increased consumer demand for beef is the production of high quality and mic...

  5. A farm survey on the presence of dioxins and dl-PCB in beef production systems in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess, HD.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, new maximum levels for the concentration of dioxins (PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB in food entered into force in the European Union [Regulation (EC No 199/2006]. The Swiss Confederation decided to adopt these values from the 1 January 2009 on (RS 817.021.23. A previous appraisal showed that beef from extensive production systems in Switzerland may exceed the new maximum level of 4.5 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. In order to identify the reasons of the presence of dioxins (PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in Swiss beef, a detailed survey was conducted on eight farms in 2008. Depending on the production system, on each farm several suckler cows and their calves or fattening bulls and heifers were selected and followed over several months. Samples of soil, milk, forages, concentrates and meat were taken and analyzed according to standard protocols. The sum of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs in soil averaged 1.4 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 dry matter (DM across all farms. The mean value found in feed samples was 0.25 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 feed (88% DM, which is considerably lower than the legal maximum level of 1.25 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 feed. The mean value of milk from suckler cows was 2.75 pg, and the one of milk from dairy cows was 2 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. Although two individual beef samples (out of 36 slightly exceeded the legal limit of 4.5 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat, the mean value of all beef samples was 2.3 pg WHO97-TEQ·g-1 fat. The results did not allow to establish direct relationships between the presence of contaminants in feeds and milk or beef and they showed that variation in PCDD/F and dl-PCB contamination of meat within the same farm was very high. It can be concluded that the situation in Switzerland seems not to be alarming and that no particular measures have to be taken. Nevertheless farmers should be aware that extensive production coupled with absence of delay between weaning and slaughtering may induce some risk for producing non compliant beef.

  6. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  7. Postpartum interval to estrus and patterns of LH and progesterone in first-calf suckled beef cows exposed to mature bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, E E; Berardinelli, J G; Short, R E; Wehrman, M; Adair, R

    1990-05-01

    Two trials were conducted in which Angus x Hereford first-calf cows were assigned randomly at calving to one of two treatments: exposure to mature penile-blocked bulls (BE) or isolation from bulls (NE). In Trial 1 (BE, n = 38; NE, n = 37), cow to bull ratio increased from 12:1 to 19:1 over a 14-d period; in Trial 2 (BE, n = 25; NE, n = 24), this ratio was maintained at 13:1. In both trials, blood samples were collected weekly for progesterone and ovaries and uteri of cows were examined rectally. Cows were observed for estrus twice daily (am:pm) beginning 10 d after calving. In Trial 2, intensive blood sampling for LH began 10 d after calving (eight cows per treatment) and continued at weekly intervals until estrus or the end of the trial. Postpartum weight change, condition score change and time to uterine involution did not differ (P greater than .10) between treatments in either trial. Interval to estrus was shorter (P less than .05) for BE cows than for NE cows in both trials. A greater proportion (P less than .05) of BE cows exhibited estrus by 60 and 90 d after calving and showed an increase in progesterone before first estrus. Mean and baseline LH concentrations and amplitude, frequency and duration of LH pulses were not altered (P greater than .10) by bull exposure. In conclusion, exposing first-calf suckled beef cows to bulls after calving hastened resumption of estrous cycles. Bull exposure did not alter patterns of LH concentrations but did increase proportions of cows that showed increased progesterone before first estrus. PMID:2365649

  8. Severe renal oxalosis in five young Beefmaster calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyan, J C; Sartin, E A; Powers, R D; Wolfe, D F; Dowling, P M; Spano, J S

    1992-12-15

    Severe renal oxalosis was diagnosed in 4 male and 1 female purebred Beefmaster calves from herds in southeastern and northwestern United States. Clinical signs included weakness, anorexia, lethargy, alopecia, dehydration, and diarrhea. Results of serum biochemical analysis for 2 calves were consistent with end-stage renal disease. Calves died 2 days to 6 weeks after birth. At necropsy, renal calyces were dilated and contained pale yellow granular calculi. Histologically, there was renal interstitial fibrosis, and cortical and medullary tubules were distended with calcium oxalate crystals. Oxalate crystals were also in the tracheal glands of 1 calf. Severe renal oxalosis in young purebred calves, on widely varied diets, with no known exposure to exogenous oxalates is suggestive of an inherited metabolic defect resulting in primary hyperoxaluria. PMID:1483914

  9. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen. PMID:27342094

  10. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  11. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  12. Efficacy of florfenicol and intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in newborn calves Eficácia do florfenicol e da fluidoterapia parenteral no tratamento da salmonelose experimental em bezerros neonatos

    OpenAIRE

    D.G. Silva; P.R.L. Silva; J.J. Fagliari

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of florfenicol associated or not to intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of Salmonella Dublin-infected calves was determined. Twenty-four healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into four groups, with six animals each: control (group 1); infected with 10(8)CFU Salmonella Dublin and not treated (group 2); infected with 10(8)CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfenicol (group 3); and infected with 10(8)CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfeni...

  13. A Two-Station Seismic Method to Localize Glacier Calving

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, M. Jeffrey; Holland, David M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Zheng, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    A method of determining glacier calving location using seismic wave arrival times from paired local seismic stations is presented. The difference in surface wave arrival times for each pair is used to define a locus (hyperbola) of possible origin. With multiple pairs, this can be used to triangulate for the origin of the seismic wave, which is interpreted as the calving location. This method is motivated by difficulties with traditional seismic location methods that fail due to the emergent n...

  14. Photosensitivity in feedlot calves apparently related to cocoa shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Avidar, Y; Perl, S

    2003-10-01

    Primary photosensitization was observed in 11/78 cross-breed calves. The skin lesions were diffuse dermatitis with thickening and wrinkling with areas of alopecia. The severe photosensitivity dermatitis was associated with cocoa shell ingestion. The lesions resolved after removal of the cocoa shells from the feed ration and prevention of exposure to sunlight. Cocoa shells may contain photodynamic agents that cause photosensitization in calves. PMID:14513893

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin transfusion in colostrum-deprived dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, A; Belloli, A; Biffani, S; Locatelli, V; Dall'Ara, P; Filipe, J; Restelli, I; Proverbio, D; Pravettoni, D

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin transfusion is employed in the management of the failure of passive transfer (FPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) needed to reach a protective concentration (>10 g/L) in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian newborn male calves were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a treatment group (PG). Calves in the CG received 4 L of high quality colostrum within 12 h of birth. Calves in the PG received 62.7 ± 3.1 g of IgG IV in 2.6 ± 0.3 L of plasma within 6 h after birth. Serum immunoglobulin G (sIgG) and serum total protein (sTP) concentrations were assayed before and after (24 h, 72 h and 1 week after birth) plasma transfusion or colostrum ingestion. Serum (s) IgG and sTP concentrations increased in both groups throughout the period of observation. Mean sIgG and sTP concentrations after colostrum ingestion or plasma transfusion were higher in the CG than in the PG (P calves developed diarrhoea during the study and four were humanely euthanased due to progressive clinical deterioration. None of the calves in the CG showed signs of disease or died during the study. The dose of IgG used in this trial effectively provided an adequate sIgG concentration in colostrum-deprived calves (>10 g/L). Calves in the CG had significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates compared to those in the PG, suggesting that plasma transfusion alone is ineffective in providing complete protection against neonatal disease. PMID:26831168

  16. Addition of gut active carbohydrates to colostrum replacer does not improve passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Godden, S M; Haines, D M; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L

    2014-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing a commercial colostrum replacer (CR) with gut active carbohydrates (GAC) on passive transfer of IgG in commercial dairy calves. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment on preweaning health and growth. A total of 240 newborn Holstein dairy calves on a commercial dairy farm were enrolled in this study. Newborn heifer and bull calves were weighed and then randomly assigned to either the treated group [GAC: 30g of GAC mixed into 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of commercial colostrum replacer; n=119] or the control group [CON: 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of CR; n=121]. The assigned CR treatment was fed within 3.5h of birth using an esophageal tube feeder. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 and 24h of age and used to measure serum IgG (mg/mL) and serum total protein (g/dL) concentrations and to estimate the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (%). The 129 heifers calves enrolled (CON=60; GAC=69) were also followed until weaning to assess the effect of GAC addition on preweaning health and growth. Multivariable linear regression showed that the addition of GAC to CR did not influence passive transfer of IgG, as measured by apparent efficiency of absorption at 24h of age (CON=54.0 vs. GAC=54.3%), serum IgG (CON=20.3 vs. GAC=20.2mg/mL), and serum total protein (CON=5.69 vs. GAC=5.68g/dL). Although study sample sizes were not originally derived to evaluate health outcomes, treatment had no effect on weight gain or incidence of health events (diarrhea, pneumonia, mortality) for heifer calves between birth and 7 wk of age. PMID:25022688

  17. Anaerobically fermented colostrum: an alternative for feeding calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Helena Saalfeld

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk or commercial milk replacer blends are the most expensive components in final costs of calves breeding. Colostrum is available and it is the appropriate sources for calves' nutrition, being an excellent option as milk substitute. Besides having both nutritional and immunological characteristics that are superior to milk, colostrum represents no costs to the producer. However, difficulties in preservation of colostrum generate controversy results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaerobically fermented colostrum (colostrum silage as liquid diet for dairy calves. We evaluated the microbiological and physicochemical properties of silage, and performance of 31 animals up to 60 days age. From 21 days until 360 days of fermentation we isolated only bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus spp. The physicochemical evaluation of colostrum silage revealed a tendency to maintain the protein, dry matter and fat values during the evaluation period. The average weight gain of calves fed with milk was 0.6kg day-1 for female and 0.6g day-1 for males while those fed with colostrum silage was significantly higher (P<0.05 with a mean of 0.7kg day-1 for female and 0.7kg day-1 for males. The results of this study demonstrated that colostrum silage keeps the properties necessary for the development of the calves and is a suitable replacement for calves' milk.

  18. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  19. Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citek Jindrich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison. Results Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves. Conclusions The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  1. Calving seismicity from iceberg-sea surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, C.F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Iceberg calving is known to release substantial seismic energy, but little is known about the specific mechanisms that produce calving icequakes. At Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier on the Gulf of Alaska, we draw upon a local network of seismometers and focus on 80 hours of concurrent, direct observation of the terminus to show that calving is the dominant source of seismicity. To elucidate seismogenic mechanisms, we synchronized video and seismograms to reveal that the majority of seismic energy is produced during iceberg interactions with the sea surface. Icequake peak amplitudes coincide with the emergence of high velocity jets of water and ice from the fjord after the complete submergence of falling icebergs below sea level. These icequakes have dominant frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz. Detachment of an iceberg from the terminus produces comparatively weak seismic waves at frequencies between 5 and 20 Hz. Our observations allow us to suggest that the most powerful sources of calving icequakes at Yahtse Glacier include iceberg-sea surface impact, deceleration under the influence of drag and buoyancy, and cavitation. Numerical simulations of seismogenesis during iceberg-sea surface interactions support our observational evidence. Our new understanding of iceberg-sea surface interactions allows us to reattribute the sources of calving seismicity identified in earlier studies and offer guidance for the future use of seismology in monitoring iceberg calving.

  2. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  3. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn;

    and novel beef products and processes. Method: Eight focus groups, each with between 7 and 9 participants were conducted in the capital cities of Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom in May 2008. In total 65 individuals aged between 19 and 60 years took part in the discussions. The focus group...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...

  4. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  5. Spring migration, calving and post-calving distribution and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued collection of information regarding calving and postcalving distribution, and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd is important for...

  6. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  7. Radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. The results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. The diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. The clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. Radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, corresponding morphologically with bullous emphysema, and infiltrations roughly corresponding in distribution with atelectatic and, or, pneumonic areas. Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging revealed no perfusion shifts between the left and right lungs and a normal perfusion pattern in five of the nine diseased calves. The abnormalities in the perfusion patterns of three calves were probably caused by anatomical disorders such as cysts and pleural adhesions, but no cause of the abnormality could be found in one calf. These findings suggest that in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, the normal perfusion pattern is maintained until anatomical disorders occur. The pathological examination and radiography revealed that the cranioventral lung fields were particularly poorly ventilated. This finding and the normal perfusion pattern indicate that these parts of the lungs are probably the sites where shuntings and perfusion-ventilation mismatchings occur

  8. A methodological approach to estimate the lactation curve and net energy and protein requirements of beef cows using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, T Z; Medeiros, S R; Torres, R A A; Zocchi, S S; Oltjen, J W; Strathe, A B; Lanna, D P D

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods to predict the secretion of milk and net energy and protein requirements of beef cows (Bos indicus and B. taurus) after approximately 1 mo postpartum using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NLME). Twenty Caracu × Nellore (CN) and 10 Nellore (NL) cows were inseminated to Red Angus bulls, and 10 Angus × Nellore (AN) were bred to Canchim bulls. Cows were evaluated from just after calving (25 ± 11 d) to weaning (220 d). Milk yield was estimated by weighing calves before and after suckling (WSW) and by machine milking (MM) methods at 25, 52, 80, 109, 136, 164, 193, and 220 ± 11 d of lactation. Brody and simple linear equations were consecutively fitted to the data and compared using information criteria. For the Brody equation, a NLME model was used to estimate all lactation profiles incorporating different sources of variation (calf sex and breed of cow, cow as a nested random effect, and within-cow auto-correlation). The CV for the MM method (29%) was less than WSW (45%). Consequently, the WSW method was responsible for reducing the variance about 1.5 times among individuals, which minimized the ability to detect differences among cows. As a result, only milk yield MM data were used in the NLME models. The Brody equation provided the best fit to this dataset, and inclusion of a continuous autoregressive process improved fit (P energy and protein yield at the beginning of lactation were affected by cow genotype and calf sex (P energy and net protein requirements for milk yield followed a similar ranking. Male calves stimulated their dams to produce 11.7, 11.4, and 11.9% more milk, energy and protein, respectively (P energy and protein requirements. The NLME is a powerful tool to describe differences in the secretion of milk due to heterosis and cell mammary external stimulus in beef cows. PMID:22665632

  9. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm. PMID:26685846

  10. Are consumers beef quality perceptions in accordance with objective beef quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Banović, Marija; Cristina Monteiro, Ana; Lemos, Jose Pedro Cardoso; Madalena Barreira, Maria; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    The consumer has the final word in food choice, which is determined by his perceived quality. Within a project coordinated by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine we tried to relate objective quality with the consumer quality evaluation. To do so, we have measured the expected and experienced quality of a sample of Portuguese consumers towards three types of beef (PDO, national and imported) at the shop, and compared this subjective evaluation with the beef objective quality. Results at the con...

  11. Adapting sampling plans to caribou distribution on calving grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Crête

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1988, the size of the two caribou herds in northern Québec was derived by combining estimates of female numbers on calving grounds in June and composition counts during rut in autumn. Sampling with aerial photos was conducted on calving grounds to determine the number of animals per km2, telemetry served to estimate the proportion of females in the census area at the time of photography in addition to summer survival rate, and helicopter or ground observations were used for composition counts. Observers were able to detect on black and white negatives over 95 percent of caribou counted from a helicopter flying at low altitude over the same area; photo scale varied between = 1:3 600 and 1:6 000. Sampling units covering less than 15-20 ha were the best for sampling caribou distribution on calving grounds, where density generally averaged » 10 individuals-km"2. Around 90 percent of caribou on calving grounds were females; others were mostly yearling males. During the 1-2 day photographic census, 64 to 77 percent of the females were present on the calving areas. Summer survival exceeded 95 percent in three summers. In autumn, females composed between 45 and 54 percent of each herd. The Rivière George herd was estimated at 682 000 individuals (± 36%; alpha = 0.10 in 1988. This estimate was imprecise due to insufficiens sample size for measuring animal density on the calving ground and for determining proportion of females on the calving ground at the time of the photo census. To improve precision and reduce cost, it is proposed to estimate herd size of tundra caribou in one step, using only aerial photos in early June without telemetry.

  12. MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF CROSSBRED SHEEP CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyar A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the control slaughter of purebred and crossbred lambs. It was found that the index of compactness and the main killer performance superiority had two or three breed lambs obtained from crosses involving sheep southern meat breed. The experimental animals were taken measurements of carcasses, which give a fairly complete and objective view of the differences in the length of the torso, hips, mascara and hip girth. There are specific differences in the yield of the most valuable cuts of the first grade the rams depending on the origin. The superiority of crossbred calves over the control for this indicator amounted to 16.4 and 33.4%. The chemical composition of the meat fine-wool lambs contained more moisture and less fat and less calories than meat crossbred animals. Increasing the hybrids values of the protein quality index indicates an increase in meat share of muscle proteins and the reduction of connective tissue, and consequently, improving the quality of the raw meat. Animals obtained by crossing, have wide and deep body, well-developed muscles of the thighs, the best quality characteristics of meat productivity

  13. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Thomsen, Peter; Burow, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-hou...... milk. The hypothesis about fewer health problems could only be confirmed with regard to fewer primiparous cows being treated for ketosis....... no effect on mortality or reproductive efficiency. In primiparous cows, the number of medical treatments for ketosis was reduced by separate housing [hazard ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.83]. Clinical evaluations showed that separate housing decreased the scores for hock lesions in...

  14. Heifer calving date positively influences calf weaning weights through six parturitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, R A; Kill, L K; Funston, R N; Mousel, E M; Perry, G A

    2013-09-01

    Longevity and lifetime productivity are important factors influencing profitability for the cow-calf producer. Heifers that conceive earlier in the breeding season will calve earlier in the calving season and have a longer interval to rebreeding. Calves born earlier in the calving season will also be older and heavier at weaning. Longevity data were collected on 2,195 heifers from producers in South Dakota Integrated Resource Management groups. Longevity and weaning weight data were collected on 16,549 individual heifers at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Data were limited to heifers that conceived during their first breeding season. Heifers were grouped into 21-d calving periods. Heifers were determined to have left the herd when they were diagnosed not pregnant at the end of the breeding season. Heifers that left the herd for reasons other than reproductive failure were censored from the data. Heifers that calved with their first calf during the first 21-d period of the calving season had increased (P heifers that calved in the second 21-d period, or later. Average longevity for South Dakota heifers that calved in the first or later period was 5.1 ± 0.1 and 3.9 ± 0.1 yr, respectively. Average longevity for USMARC heifers that calved in the first, second, or third period was 8.2 ± 0.3, 7.6 ± 0.5, and 7.2 ± 0.1 yr, respectively. Calving period as a heifer influenced (P heifers but did not differ between heifer calving periods in subsequent calving seasons. In summary, heifers that calved early in the calving season with their first calf had increased longevity and kilograms weaned, compared with heifers that calved later in the calving season. PMID:23825337

  15. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  16. Executive summary of effects of air emissions from sour gas plants on the health and productivity of beef and dairy herds in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of licensed emissions into air from sour gas processing plants and oilfield batteries on the health and productivity of beef cow-calf and dairy herds was investigated. Four distinct atmospheric dispersion models were used to assess historical exposures at 1,382 dairy and 5,726 beef cow-calf farm sites from 1985 through 1994 to three exposure variables: (1) emissions into air from licensed sour gas processing plants, (2) sulphur dioxide from all larger industrial sources, or (3) solution gas flaring. In the dairy study, none of the emissions were found to have harmful association with herd culling or mortality, milk production, milk somatic cell count, stillbirths or twin births. The beef cow-calf study showed no significant negative association between the sour gas or sulphur dioxide exposure variables and herd culling, the calf-crop delivered, stillbirth, calf mortality, or calf-crop weaned. Some negative association was found to exist between the level of exposure to sulphur dioxide from large industrial sources, which increased the number of twin births and produced an increased calving season profile. However, this finding does not directly implicate the sour gas industry as a cause

  17. Genomics and the global beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    After two decades of developing DNA-based tools for selection, we are at an interesting juncture. Genomic technology has essentially eliminated the potentially large negative impact of spontaneous single mutation genetic defects as the management of recent examples of beef defects has demonstrated....

  18. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  19. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  20. Production of transgenic calves by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guochun; WAN Rong; HUANG Yinghua; LI Ning; DAI Yunping; FAN Baoliang; ZHU Huabing; WANG Lili; WANG Haiping; TANG Bo; LIU Ying; LI Rong

    2004-01-01

    Bovine fetal oviduct epithelial cells were transfected with constructed double marker selective vector (pCE-EGFP-IRES-Neo-dNdB) containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neomycin-resistant (Neor) genes by electroporation, and a transgenic cell line was obtained. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was carried out using the transgenic cells as nuclei donor. A total of 424 SCNT embryos were reconstructed and 208 (49.1%) of them developed to blastocyst stage. 17 blastocysts on D 7 after reconstruction were transferred to 17 surrogate calves, and 5 (29.4%) recipients were found to be pregnant. Three of them maintained to term and delivered three cloned calves. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of transgene in all of the three cloned calves. In addition, expression of EGFP was detected in biopsy isolated from the transgenic cloned calves and fibroblasts derived from the biopsy. Our results suggest that transgenic calves could be efficiently produced by SCNT using transgenic cells as nuclei donor. Furthermore, all cloned animals could be ensured to be transgenic by efficiently pre-screening transgenic cells and SCNT embryos using the constructed double marker selective vector.

  1. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  2. Effects of Dietary Chitosan on Hormone Level in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan on serum GH, T3 and T4 in and to determine the appropriate supplemental dosage level of chitosan in dairy calves diet. A 30 days trial of dietary chitosan supplementation was reported. Twenty dairy calves were allotted at random to four groups at 10 days of age. Calves in the control group were fed the basal diet alone and calves in treatment groups I-III were fed the basal diet supplemented with 200, 400, 600 mg/day/h Chitosan (CTS, respectively for 30 days. The trial demonstrated that dietary chitosan supplementation significantly increased serum T3 level (p<0.05, when comparing chitosan groups I, II with the control group. Dietary supplementation of chitosan at 400 mg/day/h significantly increased serum T3 (p<0.05. Treatments with various levels of chitosan supplementation showed a tendency of increase in serum T4 and GH levels. So, the appropriate supplemental dosage of chitosan in the diets of dairy calves was 400 mg/day/h Chitosan (CTS.

  3. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  4. Ricobendazole kinetics and availability following subcutaneous administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, C E; Virkel, G L; Sanchez, S F; Alvarez, L I; Lifschitz, A L; Imperiale, F; Monfrinotti, A

    1998-01-01

    The plasma and abomasal fluid disposition kinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves, and the comparative plasma availability after s.c. injection of RBZ and that obtained after oral treatment with albendazole (ABZ), were characterised. Six parasite-free Holstein calves received RBZ (solution 150 mg ml(-1)) by s.c. injection at 3.75 mg kg(-1) (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 was conducted in two experimental phases; in phase I, five calves (Group A) received RBZ by s.c. injection and five animals (Group B) were orally treated with ABZ (suspension 100 mg ml(-1)), at 5 mg kg(-1). Drug treatments were reversed for each group in phase II and given at 7.5 mg kg(-1). Samples of abomasal fluid (via cannula) and jugular blood were collected over 72 hours post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. RBZ and its sulphone metabolite were detected in plasma following its s.c. administration. RBZ was rapidly absorbed, reaching the plasma Cmax at 4.5 hours post-dosing. The sulphone metabolite followed a similar kinetic pattern. Both molecules were rapidly and extensively distributed into the abomasum, being detected in abomasal fluid between 30 minutes and 36 hours post-administration. An extensive plasma/abomasum exchange process, with ionic-trapping in the abomasum, accounted for the higher AUC value (>200 per cent) obtained for RBZ in abomasum compared with plasma. The s.c. treatment with RBZ formulated as a solution resulted in a significantly greater plasma availability (measured as ABZ sulphoxide) than the oral treatment with ABZ (suspension) given at the same dose rates. PMID:9769065

  5. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation in the......The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...

  6. Efficiency of UV-irradiated autotransfusion in treatment of calves' diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of UV-irradiated autotransfusion on content of cation proteins and myeloperoxidase in blood granulocytes of different age calves is studied. High efficiency of irradiated blood autotransfusion in case of dyspepsia and bronchopneumonia of calves is demonstrated

  7. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models. PMID:24398839

  8. PRESERVING THE QUALITY AND PROLONGATION THE SHELF-LIFE OF BEEF PACKED UNDER VACUUM OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE USING TERNARY ANTIOXIDANT BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stoyanov Staykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the quality and prolongation the shelf-life of stored at 0  0.5ºC packed under vacuum or modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere beef m. semimembranosus sprayed with 0.02% solution, containing 10 g.l-1 dihydroquercetin from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, 5 g.l-1 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract and 1 g.l-1 L-ascorbic acid was studied. The experiments were carried out with five samples: control - air packaged; vacuum packaged; vacuum packaged and treated with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend; packaged under modified atmosphere (80%O2/20%CO2; and packaged under rich in oxygen modified atmosphere, after spaying with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend. Samples were stored 28 days (to 32 d post mortem at 0  0.5ºC. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend preserve the sensory scores and colour properties of beef, and inhibited total microbial growth, and development of Brochothrix termosphacta and pathogens to the end of storage (28 d at 0  0.5ºC, was found. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend was not main factors which can affect the pH and free amino nitrogen changes in fresh beef. The pre-treatment of beef with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend may be successfully used for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf-life of beef m. semimembranosus packed under modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere. The shelf-life can extend with 75% compared to air packed meat, and with 7 days against only vacuum- or modified atmosphere packed beef.

  9. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  10. Pretreatment of serum samples to reduce interference of colostrum-derived specific antibodies with detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by ELISA in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Reichel, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected (BVDV PI) cattle; however, colostrum-derived antibodies may interfere with antigen detection in serum from young PI calves. Our study aimed to assess serum pretreatment methods for reducing such interference. Dilution of PI serum with serum containing specific antibody showed that antibody levels equivalent to those observed in colostrum-fed calves were able to eliminate all antigen signals in a serum sample. Serum was treated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid at pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5, then boiled, centrifuged, and the supernatant-recovered. BVDV antibody was undetectable by ELISA in supernatants from treated samples, and the antigen ELISA signal was improved. Maximum antigen signal recovery of >90% was achieved at pH 5 ± 0.5. When this optimal treatment method was applied to field samples from 3 PI calves (which were negative in the antigen-capture ELISA without treatment), the antigen signal improved and gave a positive result in each case. Pretreatment may provide an improvement in the detection of young PI calves. PMID:27016723

  11. A TARGET CONSUMER PROFILE AND POSITIONING FOR PROMOTION OF A NEW LOCALLY BRANDED BEEF PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Thulin, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the consumer profile and positioning for a new locally branded beef product. The research involves 413 beef consumers in California. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are approximately one-third of beef consumers in the local area. They are older, married, and from higher dual-income households. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are likely to have purchased other branded beef products. Approximately one-half of the...

  12. Estimating the Value of Retail Beef Product Brands and Other Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper finds wide variation in brand premiums and discounts across types of branded beef cuts, ranging from -98 cents for a brand of ground beef targeting cost-conscious consumers to $4.15 for a brand of steak produced by a family-operated beef alliance. Other factors affecting beef cut prices include package size, price promotions, store format, ground beef leanness, type of steak cut, and geographic region where the beef was purchased.

  13. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bahr, Sabry M.; Wael M. EL-Deeb

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP), lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg) were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total pr...

  14. The utility of ketoprofen for alleviating pain following dehorning in young dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Barry N.; Duffield, Todd; Lissemore, Kerry

    2004-01-01

    To determine if ketoprofen, in addition to local anaesthesia, reduces pain following dehorning, we experimentally dehorned dairy calves, less than 2 weeks of age, with (20 calves) or without (20 calves) intramuscular injections of ketoprofen. All calves received a local anesthetic (lidocaine) prior to dehorning and were dehorned with heat cauterization. Cortisol concentration was measured via jugular blood samples taken immediately before dehorning and at 3 and 6 hours following dehorning. Ca...

  15. Evaluation of subclinical endometritis and consequences on fertility in piedmontese beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Gallo, S; Molinaro, F; Dondo, A; Zoppi, S; Vincenti, L

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical endometritis (SEM) is poorly investigated in beef cows, as stated in the literature. This project aims to evaluate the rate and the consequences of SEM in Piedmontese cows, with a focus on bacteriological findings and fertility parameters. Uterine cytology was performed for 97 subjects; a total of 31% of the cows were diagnosed as being positive for SEM and as having an 8% neutrophil (PMN) presence on the slide, which is considered as the best cut-off to diagnose the pathology. Only 13% of the cows positive for SEM were pregnant within 130 dpp and generally showed increases of 40 days in the partum to conception interval compared with the negative cows (142 vs 182, p = 0.01). Cows positive for both bacteriology and cytology showed a lower fertility than cows with only inflammation or only a bacterial presence (p = 0.0004). Bacterial isolation detected different species, but no difference in regard to the impact of these bacteria on SEM was shown. Parity, presence of calves, hygiene condition, age and number of service did not affect whether a cow was positive for subclinical endometritis (p cows; cows bred in tie stalls were more likely to be positive for SEM (OR = 2.2; p = 0.04). In conclusion, cytology seems to be a good technique for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in beef cows, and as in dairy cows, subclinical endometritis has a detrimental effect on fertility, causing an increase in partum to conception and a decrease in the rate of cows who become pregnant within 130 dpp, particularly for those cows housed in a tie stall. PMID:25598020

  16. Effect of feeding system on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers, steer calves and heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, M L; Fox, D G; Black, J R

    1980-03-01

    Three types of cattle (Angus x Hereford yearling steers, Charolais x British breed steer calves and Hereford heifer calves) were evaluated for their response to different feeding systems utilizing high moisture corn, corn silage and soybean meal as major feed ingredients. Feeding ing systems for steers included: A = 85% concentrate; B = 40% concentrate; C = two phase, with switch from all corn silage to 85% concentrate in the middle of the feeding period; D = same as C except switch occurred late in the feeding period; E = all corn silage continuously. Heifer diets consisted of the following ratios of corn silage to concentrate: low energy = 89:11; medium energy = 67:33; and high energy = 100 fed at a moderate (10.9% for low energy and medium energy, and 11.7% for high energy) and high (13.8%) crude protein level. Treatments within each experiment were terminated at approximately the same final weight. Increasing percentage corn added to the total diet increased ADG in most comparisons. Adjusted to a constant carcass weight, increasing dietary energy increased fat thickness and reduced percentage retail product with no effect on quality grade in yearling steers and heifer calves. In Charolais cross-steer calves, increasing energy level increased quality grade with no effect on yield grade or percentage retail product. Energetic efficiency slightly favored system C in yearling steers while steer calves maximized efficiency on A. Hereford heifers were the most energetically efficient on medium energy diets. PMID:7364676

  17. Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia and dyskeratosis in Australian Poll Hereford calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, A E; Hanshaw, D M; Finnie, J W; Nosworthy, P

    2012-12-01

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) is a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders that in humans is characterised by ineffective haematopoiesis with morphological abnormalities in erythroid precursor cells and secondary iron overload. In the 1990s, a syndrome of CDA with dyskeratosis and progressive alopecia was reported in Poll Hereford calves in Canada and the USA. We report the clinical and pathological findings in two Poll Hereford calves with this syndrome from separate properties in South Australia. The animals had a variably severe anaemia, associated with abnormal nucleated red blood cells in peripheral blood, and large numbers of rubricytes and metarubricytes with a characteristic nuclear ultrastructure in the bone marrow. Both calves were born with a wiry hair coat and a progressively 'dirty-faced' appearance associated with hyperkeratosis and dyskeratosis (apoptosis). PMID:23186092

  18. Ruminal pH and temperature, papilla characteristics, and animal performance of fattening calves fed concentrate or maize silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bodas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding systems can play an important role, not only in beef farm profitability but also in animal health and performance. Fourteen Avilena-Negra Iberica bulls, with an initial weight of 270 kg (SE 22.6 kg and aged 223 d (SE 16.2 were used to study the effect of two feeding systems on ruminal pH and temperature and animal performance when calves were kept in loose housing conditions. Feeding systems were barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grain-based concentrate plus barley straw (CONC and maize (Zea mays L. silage-based total mixed ration (TMR. Internal wireless boluses were used to collect pH and temperature values every 10 min throughout the measurement period (15 d. Diet did not modify (P > 0.10 average daily gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, ruminal mucosa color, or papilla counts. Papilla width and papilla width/lamina propria thickness were significantly lower (P 0.10. Although animal performance is not affected, feeding fattening calves on a concentrate plus barley straw diet can result in better rumen conditions than using maize silage-based TMR.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  20. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves,...

  1. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M;

    2002-01-01

    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show...

  2. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  3. Development of social behaviour and importance of social relations in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Suvi; Raussi, Satu; Veissier, Isabelle; Kaihilahti, Jutta; Hänninen, Laura; Hepola, Helena; Jauhiainen, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    We concluded that the preference for peers met at two weeks of age can be seen in proximity of the calves. However, calves can form stable relations at least until the age of 14 weeks. These relations reduce aggressive behaviour, activity and frequency of vocalization, and help calves to cope with new and potentially stressful situations.

  4. Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie H. Thames

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning, and 12 (5 weeks after weaning. ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX, macrolide (ermB, ermF, and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies/ g wet manure of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onwards, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P<0.10, even in control calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional

  5. Surgical Management of Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Diseases of Feedlot Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David E; Miesner, Matt D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries, infections, and disorders of the musculoskeletal system are common in feedlot calves. These conditions often are amenable to surgical treatment with return of the calf to productivity. Weight gain and carcass quality are expected to be significantly adversely affected by pain and debilitation. The goal of surgical management of disorders of the joints, muscles, and feet should be resolution of the inciting cause, mitigation of pain, and restoration of form and function. If these are achieved, calves should return to acceptable, if not normal, feed intake, rate of gain, and carcass quality. PMID:26210767

  6. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R. D.; Sarita Devi; S. R.Gondaliya; S.K. Bhavsar and A.M. Thaker

    2009-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1) after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg). Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC), blood biochemical ...

  7. Addition of tea catechins and vitamin C on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability during chilled storage in cooked or raw beef and chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Mitsuru; O'Grady, Michael N; Kerry, Joe P; Joe Buckley, D

    2005-04-01

    The effects of addition of tea catechins (TC) and vitamin C (VC) on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability in cooked or raw beef and chicken meat patties during refrigerated storage were studied. Fresh beef striploin and chicken breast muscles were minced, following removal of external fat and connective tissue. Following mincing, beef and chicken were assigned to one of the following five treatments: control (meat treated with no antioxidant); TC200, meat plus 200 mg TC/kg muscle; TC400, meat plus 400 mg TC/kg muscle; VC200, meat plus 200 mg VC/kg muscle, VC400, meat plus 400 mg VC/kg muscle. Sodium chloride (1%) was added to all samples. Patties (125 g portions), formed from the above-treated minced meat, were oven cooked, cooled, and packaged in 30% CO(2):70% N(2). Fresh raw beef and chicken patties were packaged in 80% O(2):20% CO(2). All samples were stored for up to 7 days under fluorescent lighting at 4 °C. Sensory parameters (colour, flavour, taste, tenderness and overall acceptability) were evaluated on cooked beef and chicken patties after 1, 3 and 6 days of storage. Surface colour (Hunter L, a and b values), and lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured on days 1, 3 and 6 of storage for cooked meats and on days 2 and 7 for raw beef and chicken. Tea catechins addition (200 or 400 mg/kg) to minced meat caused (P<0.05) discolouration in cooked beef and chicken meat patties and significantly reduced (P<0.001) lipid oxidation in cooked or raw beef patties compared to the control. Beef, either raw or cooked, was more susceptible (P<0.01) to oxidation compared to chicken. Raw meat stored in high oxygen conditions was more susceptible to lipid oxidation than cooked meat stored in anaerobic conditions. Tea catechins treatments (TC200 and TC400) inhibited (P<0.05) lipid oxidation in raw beef to a greater extent than vitamin C treatments (VC200 and VC400). These results indicate that tea catechins are potent natural

  8. 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement: Forecast Simulation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Thomas I.; Williams, Gary W.; Dermot J. Hayes

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses dynamic simulation analysis to consider the likely consequences of the 1988 Japanese Beef Market Access Agreement (BMAA) on the Japanese livestock industry and beef imports. Using a simultaneous equations, econometric model of Japanese livestock markets, a forecast baseline up to 1997 was first established, asswning that the Japanese beef import quota continues to increase by 9,000 tons annually as under the 1984 agreement The restrictions of the new agreement were then impose...

  9. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  10. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in beef sold in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMDI ALIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in beef used in three regions of Kosovo. Total numbers of 89 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local meat shops for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. Among the beef samples, 14 (15.7% of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones. The mean levels (±SE of quinolones were found to be in average of 28.22 ± 1.11 µg/kg in samples respectively for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and flumequin. This study indicated that some beef meat sold in Kosovo contains residues of quinolone antibiotics. From the evaluation of tested samples is found positive the presence of enrofloxacin in 6 (6.7% beef meat samples and respectively for ciprofloxacin and fumequin in 3 (3, 35% and in 5(5, 6% beef meat samples. Study results confirmed quinolone residues in beef sold in Kosovo as constitute and serious risk for public health. Use of quinolones in treatment of cattle diseases in Kosovo remain an effective method of diseases control but are considered a common way of residues in beef produced and sold in Kosovo.

  11. Effect of housing type on health and performance of preweaned dairy calves during summer in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, G; Risco, C; Kunihiro, E; Thatcher, M-J; Pinedo, P J

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of housing type on health and performance of preweaned dairy calves. One hundred calves, Holsteins (HO) or Holstein-Jersey crosses (HJ), were randomly assigned to a Calf-Tel (L. T. Hampel Corp., Germantown, WI) polyethylene hutch exposed to direct sun light (n=25 for both HO and HJ) or a wire hutch with a plywood shade located under trees (n=24 and 26 for HO and HJ, respectively). Calf rectal temperature, respiratory rate, health scores, and weaning weight were compared by housing type. Rectal temperatures were higher in calves in Calf-Tel hutches compared with calves in wire hutches at 1500 h, at 40.1±0.28 and 39.1±0.22°C, respectively. Similarly, respiratory rates were higher in calves in Calf-Tel hutches compared with calves in wire hutches at 1500 h, at 90±15 and 65±10 breaths per minute, respectively. Frequencies of calves presenting abnormal ear scores did not differ between calves in Calf-Tel or wire hutches. Abnormal eye scores were less likely to occur for calves in the wire hutches. Frequencies of calves with signs of respiratory disease, such as nasal discharge and coughing, were higher in the wire hutches compared with the Calf-Tel hutches. No differences were noted in the incidence and time of first diarrhea event in calves between hutch types. Calves in wire hutches had 5.47 greater odds of receiving veterinary treatment compared with calves in the Calf-Tel hutches. Weaning weights were not different for calves in Calf-Tel or in wire hutches. The lower frequency of calves with abnormal health scores and receiving veterinary treatment in Calf-Tel hutches and the lack of difference in weight gain suggests that this housing system adapted well to the specific environmental conditions of this study. PMID:26686720

  12. Genetic differences based on a beef terminal index are reflected in future phenotypic performance differences in commercial beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S M; Cromie, A R; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    The increased demand for animal-derived protein and energy for human consumption will have to be achieved through a combination of improved animal genetic merit and better management strategies. The objective of the present study was to quantify whether differences in genetic merit among animals materialised into phenotypic differences in commercial herds. Carcass phenotypes on 156 864 animals from 7301 finishing herds were used, which included carcass weight (kg), carcass conformation score (scale 1 to 15), carcass fat score (scale 1 to 15) at slaughter as well as carcass price. The price per kilogram and the total carcass value that the producer received for the animal at slaughter was also used. A terminal index, calculated in the national genetic evaluations, was obtained for each animal. The index was based on pedigree index for calving performance, feed intake and carcass traits from the national genetic evaluations. Animals were categorised into four terminal index groups on the basis of genetic merit estimates that were derived before the expression of the phenotypic information by the validation animals. The association between terminal index and phenotypic performance at slaughter was undertaken using mixed models; whether the association differed by gender (i.e. young bulls, steers and heifers) or by early life experiences (animals born in a dairy herd or beef herd) was also investigated. The regression coefficient of phenotypic carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat on their respective estimated breeding values (EBVs) was 0.92 kg, 1.08 units and 0.79 units, respectively, which is close to the expectation of one. Relative to animals in the lowest genetic merit group, animals in the highest genetic merit group had, on average, a 38.7 kg heavier carcass, with 2.21 units greater carcass conformation, and 0.82 units less fat. The superior genetic merit animals were, on average, slaughtered 6 days younger than their inferior genetic merit

  13. Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on the concentration of some serum minerals in neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Maleki, M

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxin intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of some physiologic effects of clinoptilolite supplementation. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1, and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For group test 1, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48 h, and for group test 2, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12 h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth, and sixth weeks of life. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were determined in the serum. For statistical analysis of data, a repeated measures approach using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed linear models was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. The concentrations of Fe significantly higher in test group 2 than other trial groups (p < 0.05). Calcium concentrations were significantly higher in serum of clinoptilolite-treated than control calves (p < 0.05). The concentrations of phosphorus were significantly lower in test groups than control group (p < 0.05). Sodium concentrations were significantly higher in clinoptilolite-supplemented groups than control calves (p < 0.05). Potassium and magnesium concentrations were not affected by clinoptilolite supplementation. Clinoptilolite supplementation could promote iron levels in serum and better hemopoiesis and prevent pathologic or physiologic drop of red blood cell (RBC) parameters in supplemented calves during a first few weeks of life. According to higher need

  14. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  15. Extended lactation in dairy cows: effects of milking frequency, calving season and nutrition on lactation persistency and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D Donald; Knight, Christopher H

    2008-02-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but this was only evident up until the point of re-breeding, at around lactation week 33. Milk composition was measured in the spring-calving cows in both their first and second extended lactations. Composition altered during the course of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course of lactation but was not affected by supplementation; none of the cows became excessively fat. All cows remained healthy throughout the extended lactations and the majority (33/36) re-bred successfully. By demonstrating that lactation persistency is plastic and can be improved by simple management interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed. PMID

  16. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  17. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (Pcalving and colostrum management because this study has highlighted a number of areas which are below international standards, and may have repercussions for calf health. Furthermore, management practices on larger farms could be improved and, as these represent the future of dairy farming, a focus needs to be placed on them. Expanding herds are not a particular concern as herd expansion, independent of herd size, does not seem to be associated with calving and colostrum management practices on Irish spring-calving dairy herds. PMID:26857400

  18. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  19. EFFECT OF PREPARTUM TREATMENT OF VITAMIN E-SELENIUM ON POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF EXOTIC COWS AND THEIR CALVES UNDER SUBTROPICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SATTAR, R. H. MIRZA1 AND S. M. I. HUSSAIN2

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan. Forty exotic cows (20 each of Holstein Friesian and Jersey breed in their last trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected. These cows were divided into two equal groups. Animals of group-I served as control and were injected with 20 ml sterile normal saline intramuscularly, while each cow in group-II was treated with vitamin E-selenium (vitamin E acetate 50.0 mg and sodium selenite 0.5 mg/ml twice (20 ml at each time with one-week interval. First injection was given at about 40-60 days prior to the expected date of calving. Calves born to the experimental cows were monitored to study the carry over effect of treatment, if any, from dams to the calves. The reproductive parameters, viz. placental expulsion period, uterine involution period, postpartum insemination interval, service period and number of services per conception in the cows of treated group were significantly (P<0.05 lesser compared with those of the control group. However, the differences in production parameters, i.e., lactation milk yield, lactation length and wet average between the two groups were statistically non significant. The same was true for birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate upto weaning between calves of the two groups. In conclusion, it appears that administration of vitamin E-selenium before calving may be beneficial in improving the postpartum reproductive parameters in exotic cows. However, number of animals used in each group was too small to draw any definite conclusion.

  20. Optimal utilization of the beef chuck

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Delgado, Julian

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a prerigor CaC12 injection and blade tenderization on several sensory and physical characteristics of beef infraspinatus and longissimus muscles were determined. Blade tenderization resulted in increased tenderness (PO.05), sensory scores for postrigor longissimus muscle. However, no improvements (P>O.05) in tenderness of prerigor CaC12 injected muscles were observed due to blade tenderization. Objective and subjective measurements revealed that prerigor CaCl2 injected muscl...

  1. Valuing Beef Herd Dam Genetic Pedigree Management

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson-Carolan, Jessica; Parcell, Joseph L.; Patterson, David J.; Eakins, Roger; Franken, Jason R.V.

    2011-01-01

    An important component of the beef cow herd is the contribution of the dam to herd profitability. Yet, no research has contributed to valuing the dam’s genetic contribution to herd quality performance or profitability. This paper examines how managing for dam genetic pedigree quality grade affected the outcome of calf crop quality, and simulates the economic impact for different levels of quality premium. The results show that managing for dam pedigree genetics beyond three generations in t...

  2. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  3. Forecasting beef prices for military subsistence procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Borza, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Defense Subsistence Region Pacific (DSRPAC) is responsible for the acquisition of food products (meat, fresh fruit and vegetables, etc.) for military personnel located west of the Rocky Mountains. In the author's review of current DSRPAC operations, it was observed that capitalizing on price movements was not a consideration during acquisition cf beef products. Using time-series analysis, it was shown that significant...

  4. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  5. Genetic Parameters for Milk ,Fat Yield and Age at First Calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic parameters for milk,fat yield and age at first calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang were evaluated using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood procedures with an animal model. Data consisted of records of 2496 Chinese Holsteins first lactation cows collected from 1989 to 2000. The model included 21herd effects, four calving season effects, nine age at first calving effects, 6697 animal effects. (Co)variance components of milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving were estimated with the software package for variance component estimation(VCE) by an animal model. The heritabilities were 0. 14.0. 21,0. 38 for milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving ,respectively. ihe estimates of genetic correlation between milk yield and fat yield,age at first calving were 0. 96,-0.29.respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between fat yield and age at first calving was-0.28.

  6. On the role of buoyant flexure in glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Vella, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between glaciers and the ocean are key for understanding the dynamics of the cryosphere in the climate system. Here we investigate the role of hydrostatic forces in glacier calving. We develop a mathematical model to account for the elastic deformation of glaciers in response to three effects: (i) marine and lake-terminating glaciers tend to enter water with a nonzero slope, resulting in upward flexure around the grounding line; (ii) horizontal pressure imbalances at the terminus are known to cause hydrostatic in-plane stresses and downward acting torque; (iii) submerged ice protrusions at the glacier front may induce additional buoyancy forces that can cause calving. Our model provides theoretical estimates of the importance of each effect and suggests geometric and material conditions under which a given glacier will calve from hydrostatic flexure.We find good agreement with observations. This work sheds light on the intricate processes involved in glacier calving and can be hoped to improve our ability to model and predict future changes in the ice-climate system.

  7. [The aetiology of generalized alopecia in young calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, I; Mayr, S; Rademacher, G; Klee, W

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test for correlations between alopecia and ruminal drinking in young calves. 331 calves up to an age of 31 days were tested for evidence of generalized hair loss daily during their stay in the clinic. Incidence of diarrhoea and the results of ruminal fluid and blood analysis were compared between the groups with and without alopecia. Calves with alopecia showed a significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea and of ruminal acidosis persisting for at least 24 hours. Blood analysis revealed significant differences in degree of acidosis, in concentrations of D-lactate, urea, and creatinine in serum as well as in the activities of glutathione peroxidase, aspartate amino transferase, and creatine kinase. Alopecia in calves is correlated to longer periods of diseases, which are known to be accompanied by the production of D-lactate in the gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhoea and ruminal drinking. The question, whether alopecia is due to formation of toxic substances or to deficiency of essential substances can not be answered. PMID:17642324

  8. On the role of buoyant flexure in glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Vella, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between glaciers and the ocean are key for understanding the dynamics of the cryosphere in the climate system. Here we investigate the role of hydrostatic forces in glacier calving. We develop a mathematical model to account for the elastic deformation of glaciers in response to three effects: (i) marine and lake-terminating glaciers tend to enter water with a nonzero slope, resulting in upward flexure around the grounding line; (ii) horizontal pressure imbalances at the terminus are known to cause hydrostatic in-plane stresses and downward acting torque; (iii) submerged ice protrusions at the glacier front may induce additional buoyancy forces that can cause calving. Our model provides theoretical estimates of the importance of each effect and suggests geometric and material conditions under which a given glacier will calve from hydrostatic flexure. We find good agreement with observations. This work sheds light on the intricate processes involved in glacier calving and can be hoped to improve our ability to model and predict future changes in the ice-climate system.

  9. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.;

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  10. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Friis, N.F.

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  11. Genetic resistance to experimental Cooperia oncophora infections in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The variation in resistance of cattle to gastro-intestinal nematode infection was investigated in three experiments. Bull calves, aged three months and reared under uniform conditions, were artificially infected with infective larvae of Cooperia oncophora, a moderately pathogenic but very abundant p

  12. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two gr

  13. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.;

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined for the...

  14. Characterization of bifidobacteria suitable for probiotic use in calves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Domig, K. J.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Ročková, Š.; Rada, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), 166-168. ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Identification * calves Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2012

  15. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and renal clearance of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Guelen, P J; Jansen, T; De Grève, B

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old veal calves. A two-compartment model was used to fit the plasma concentration-time curve of flumequine after the intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg of a 10% solution. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) of the drug ranged from 6 to 7 h. The Vd beta and ClB of 1-week-old calves (1.07 l/kg, 1.78 ml/min/kg) were significantly lower than those of 5-week-old (1.89 l/kg, 3.23 ml/min/kg) and 18-week-old calves (1.57 l/kg, 3.10 ml/min/kg). After the oral administration of 10 mg/kg of a 2% flumequine formulation mixed with milk replacer, the Cmax was highest in 1-week-old (9.27 micrograms/ml) and lowest in 18-week-old calves (4.47 micrograms/ml). The absorption was rapid (Tmax of approximately 3 h) and complete. When flumequine itself and a formulation containing 2% flumequine and 20 X 10(6) iu of colistin sulphate were mixed with milk replacer and administered at the same dose rate, absorption was incomplete and Cmax was lower. The main urinary metabolite of flumequine was the glucuronide conjugate (approximately 40% recovery within 48 h of intravenous injection) and the second most important metabolite was 7-hydroxy-flumequine (approximately 3% recovery within 12 h of intravenous injection). Only 3.2-6.5% was excreted in the urine unchanged. After oral administration a 'first-pass' effect was observed, with a significant increase in the excretion of conjugated drug. For 1-week-old calves it is recommended that the 2% formulation should be administered at a dose rate of 8 mg/kg every 24 h or 4 mg/kg every 12 h; for calves over 6 weeks old, the dose should be increased to 15 mg/kg every 24 h or 7.5 mg/kg every 12 h. The formulation containing colistin sulphate should be administered to 1-week-old calves at a flumequine dose of 12 mg/kg every 24 h or 6 mg/kg every 12 h. PMID:2384907

  16. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  17. Comparative studies on gamma radiation and high pressure induced effects on minced beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total viable cell count of bacteria in vacuum-packaged chilled minced beef has been decreased equally, by approx. two log-cycles, as an effect of 1.5-2.0 kGy gamma radiation or 200-300 MPa high hydrostatic pressure (UHP) treatment for 20 min. Coliform bacteria could be eliminated to non-detectable levels by the same treatments. The shelf-life of both untreated and non-thermally pasteurised samples were limited mainly by growth of lactic acid bacteria. At about equal bactericidal effect, more drastic changes of texture and colour occurred in UHP-pasteurized minced beef samples than in the radiation-pasteurized ones. Whereas radiation pasteurisation caused minimal changes in appearance, texture and DSC-thermograms of minced beef, UHP-pasteurisation of the raw samples proved to be strongly discolouring by denaturing the muscle pigments and causing extensive denaturation of the myofibrillar proteins. The water holding capacity of irradiated samples decreased, while that of high pressure treated ones increased as compared to the untreated control. Near infrared spectrometry and electronic nose measurements gave promising results to make distinctions non-destructively on changes of various physical-chemical changes and quality parameters as a function of pasteurising treatments and/or storage

  18. Comparison of pregnancy rates in beef cattle after a fixed-time AI with once- or twice-used controlled internal drug release devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth-Spurlock, A M; Poole, D H; Whisnant, C S

    2016-02-01

    The use of fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) provides producers with numerous benefits including the use of superior genetics, shorter breeding and calving seasons, and a more uniform calf crop. However, the cost of implementing FTAI protocols is one of the several drawbacks hindering their use in the beef industry. Potential injection-site lesions from intramuscular injections of the hormones necessary for estrus synchronization are also a cause of concern for carcass quality. The objectives of this experiment were to (1) determine whether or not a twice-used controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device would be effective in an FTAI protocol without adversely affecting pregnancy rate and (2) whether or not the subcutaneous administration of PGF2α affects pregnancy rate. Nulliparous females (n = 99) between 13 and 27 months of age and multiparous cows (n = 43) between 48 and 74 months of age were synchronized for estrus using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. The females were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments: (1) a once-used CIDR (control) or (2) a twice-used CIDR device (treatment) incorporated into their synchronization protocol. The females were also randomly assigned to have their injection of PGF2α administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Blood was taken in a random subset of nulliparous females (n = 52) just before device removal and assayed for concentration of progesterone. The concentration of progesterone was higher (P = 0.01) in the animals that received once-used CIDR devices than that in those received twice-used CIDR devices (3.4 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.5 ng/mL, respectively). There was no significant effect of parity (P = 0.82), artificial insemination technician (P = 0.60), PGF2α administration (P = 0.83), or treatment (P = 0.67) on pregnancy rates to artificial insemination which were 75.4 ± 6.0% and 71.7 ± 6.4%, for animals that received once- and twice-used CIDR devices, respectively. This study provides

  19. A new predilection site of Mycoplasma bovis: Postsurgical seromas in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, L; Pilo, P; Valgaeren, B R; Van Driessche, L; Van Loo, H; Bodmer, M; Bürki, S; Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma bovis is a highly contagious bacterium, which predominantly causes chronic pneumonia, otitis and arthritis in calves and mastitis in adult cattle. In humans, Mycoplasma species have been associated with post-surgical infections. The present study aimed to identify the bacteria associated with three outbreaks of infected seromas after caesarian section in Belgian Blue beef cattle. A total of 10 cases occurred in three herds which were in close proximity of each other and shared the same veterinary practice. M. bovis could be cultured from seroma fluid in five of the six referred animals, mostly in pure culture and was isolated from multiple chronic sites of infection (arthritis and mastitis) as well. DNA fingerprinting of the isolates targeting two insertion sequence elements suggested spread of M. bovis from chronic sites of infection (udder and joints) to the postsurgical seromas. Identical genetic profiles were demonstrated in two animals from two separate farms, suggesting spread between farms. Mortality rate in the referred animals positive for M. bovis in a seroma was 80% (4/5), despite intensive treatment. A massive increase in antimicrobial use was observed in every affected farm. These observations demonstrate involvement of mycoplasmas in outbreaks of postsurgical seromas in cattle. PMID:27016759

  20. A field study of culling and mortality in beef cows from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I; Rosengren, Leigh; Clark, Edward G

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the pattern of losses through culling, sales of breeding stock, mortality, and disappearance, and to characterize the causes of mortality of cows and replacement heifers of breeding age from Western Canadian beef herds. Cows and replacement heifers from 203 herds were observed for a 1-year period starting June 1, 2001. Veterinarians examined dead animals on-farm using a standard postmortem protocol. The incidence of culling in cows and replacements heifers was 14.3 per 100 cow-years at risk, and the frequencies of sales for breeding stock, mortality, and cows reported missing per cow-years at risk were 4.0, 1.1, and 0.4, respectively. During the study, 355 animals died or were euthanized, 209 were examined postmortem, and the requested tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination from 184. A cause of death was determined for 70% (128/184) of the cows with complete gross postmortem and histopathologic examinations. Hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis), malignant neoplasia (cancer), calving-associated injury, rumen tympany (bloat), myopathy, and pneumonia accounted for 56% (72/128) of the animals where a cause of death was determined. Twenty-three other causes of death accounted for the remaining 44% (56/128). Factors relating to cow nutrition accounted for 25% of the deaths, emphasizing the importance of feeding management as a determinant of cow health in western Canada. PMID:19436634

  1. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with only simple preparation steps to determine flunixin plasma concentrations in healthy beef cattle was explored. Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin free acid in a cross-over design by subcutaneo...

  2. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  3. Surveying the Feasibility of a Voluntary Beef Checkoff

    OpenAIRE

    Winn, Chris; Norwood, F. Bailey; Chung, Chanjin; Ward, Clement E.

    2004-01-01

    With the possible elimination of the mandatory beef checkoff, some state are considering a voluntary beef checkoff. This study conducts a choice experiment to estimate the feasibility of a state and nationwide voluntary checkoff. Results indicate that a lower fee and a greater focus on advertising may produce a feasible voluntary checkoff.

  4. Yield of warm beef carcass meat from simmental breed

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of live weight upon yield of warm beef carcass meat from Simmental breed. Twenty 12 - 18 month-old male bullocks were assigned with average live weight 450,52 ± 4,68 kg. The yield of warm beef carcass meat, edible and non-edible by-products was determined

  5. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  6. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH3 ...

  7. An investigation of the toxicity of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol to calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, P A; Bedford, P G; Ingram, P L

    1979-11-01

    Two calves were treated with 15 micrograms/kg body weight of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol by intramuscular injection on four occasions at seven-day intervals. Anorexia and reduced water consumption persisted for 48 h after each treatment. No clinical signs of iridocyclitis or any other lesions of the eyes were present at any time either macroscopically or microscopically. After the first treatment serum GOT and GD activities increased, serum AP activity fell, serum concentrations of calcium and inorganic phosphate increased, and magnesium concentrations decreased. The reduced serum magnesium concentrations and increased calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations were maintained for the duration of the experiment, but there was no evidence of a cumulative effect of successive treatments. Blood urea concentrations increased after the third treatment. The gross pathology at post mortem examination was similar to that reported after vitamin D3 supplementation. PMID:542713

  8. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  9. Identification of an ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1/GRIA1 polymorphism in crossbred beef cows differing in fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, R A; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Nonneman, D; Echternkamp, S E

    2013-06-01

    A proposed functional polymorphism in the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1 (GRIA1) has been reported to influence antral follicle numbers and fertility in cows. Repeat breeder cows that fail to produce a calf in multiple seasons have been reported to have reduced numbers of small (1 to 3 mm) antral follicles in their ovaries. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this GRIA1 polymorphism was affecting antral follicle numbers in repeat breeder cows. Repeat breeder cows (n = 64) and control cows (n = 72) that had always produced a calf were housed in a dry lot and observed twice daily for behavioral estrus. Blood samples were collected, and cows were genotyped for this GRIA1 polymorphism and for a polymorphism in the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) that was proposed to influence age at puberty. On d 3 to 8 after estrus cows were slaughtered, and reproductive organs were collected to determine antral follicle count, ovary size, and uterine horn diameter. Repeat breeder cows were older at first calving than control cows (P = 0.006). The length (P = 0.03) and height (P = 0.02) of the ovary contralateral to the corpus luteum (CL) were greater in control cows than repeat breeder cows. The endometrial diameter in the horn ipsilateral to the CL was greater in the control cows than the repeat breeder cows. Repeat breeder cows had fewer small (1 to 5 mm) antral follicles than control cows (P = 0.003); however, there was no association between GRIA1 genotype and antral follicle number. The GnRHR polymorphism was associated with age at first calving because cows that were homozygous for the C allele had a greater age at first calving than heterozygous cows or cows that were homozygous for the T allele (P = 0.01). In the granulosa cells from small (1 to 5 mm) antral follicles, mRNA abundances of 2 markers of oocyte quality, anti-Müllerian hormone and pentraxin 3, did not differ between fertility groups (P ≥ 0.12). We conclude that this GRIA1 polymorphism exists in beef cows but

  10. Long-term follow-up of a patient cohort with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Christensen, Finn; Pedersen, Niels W; Overgaard, Soren

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic risk factors related to a poor radiological outcome. The study consisted of 74 patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease treated using a Thomas splint. The modified Herring lateral pillar classification and the reviewed Stulberg classification system were applied. A significant correlation between the Herring group and Stulberg was found (P=0.03). There was a significant correlation between age at onset of the disease and Stulberg outcome (P=0.05). The Herring classification correlated to the Stulberg outcome. An age of 7 years or more at onset was considered as a risk factor for a poor Stulberg outcome. PMID:21829143

  11. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan: consumers’ food safety perceptions and willingness to pay for tested beef

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Ouchi, Hiromi; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as ‘mad cow disease’, in Japan caused anxiety about consuming beef and beef products. As a result, there was a sudden fall in sales of beef that hurt the Japanese beef industry as well as major beef exporters to Japan. We analyse factors that affect Japanese consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) price premiums for BSE-tested beef and estimate the mean WTP for BSE-tested beef using data obtained from a consumer survey in Jap...

  12. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  13. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  14. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  15. Mortality and survival of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. calves in northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1999 to 2004 the reindeer calf survival and mortality were studied in two reindeer-herding cooperatives and in five herding-groups in northern Finland, where in total 1725 calves were fitted with mortality indicating radio-transmitters fixed on expandable neck collars. The calves were weighed and marked at the age of 2-5 days in calving corrals and also during earmarking in June/July, when the age of calves was 2-8 weeks. The rate, timing and causes of mortality of calves were investigated. In 1999-2001 in Ivalo reindeer-herding cooperative 4.6% of radiocollared calves and in 2002-04 in Käsivarsi reindeer cooperative 5.2% was found dead. The average mortality of the calves radio-collared during calving time in May, and monitored to the end of October, was 6.7% in Ivalo and 9.0% in Käsivarsi. From July on, the average mortality rates varied between 1.8-5.7% among reindeer herding-groups. On average 54 and 42% of all radio-collared calves found dead in Ivalo and Käsivarsi cooperatives were attributed to predation, and golden eagle was the most significant cause of death in both cooperatives killing 0-3.5% of radio-collared calves in different study areas and years. Golden eagle predation accounted for 33-43% of all radio-collared calves found dead, 55-59% of the cases with identified cause of death and 80% of all identified predation. Most of the calves killed by golden eagle were found during July and August mainly in the open areas, as in highlands, bogs and clear-cut forest areas. The mean body weight of the calves radio-collared in May (weights adjusted on June 1st and found dead during the summer was significantly (P<0.01 lighter than the mean weight of survivors both in Ivalo and Käsivarsi. Furthermore, the midsummer body weights of the calves (weights adjusted on July 1st killed by all predators and by golden eagles were significantly (P<0.001 lower than the mean weight of surviving calves in both cooperatives. However

  16. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  17. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  18. Differences in virulence between two noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F

    1992-11-01

    A noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), BVDV-890, isolated from a yearling heifer that died with extensive internal hemorrhages, was compared for virulence in calves with noncytopathic BVDV-TGAN, isolated from an apparently healthy persistently infected calf. After challenge exposure with BVDV-890, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C, diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Most calves (n = 6) died or were euthanatized by 19 days after challenge exposure. Challenge exposure with BVDV-890 did not induce disease in 2 calves that had congenital persistent infection with BVDV or in 3 calves that had neutralizing antibody titer > 4 against BVDV-890. After challenge exposure with BVDV-TGAN, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C and, rarely, diarrhea or lymphopenia. All of those calves survived challenge exposure. The average maximal titer of BVDV-890 isolated from serum was 1,000 times that of BVDV-TGAN. In calves infected with BVDV-890, the average maximal percentages of lymphocytes and platelets associated with virus were greater than those found in calves infected with BVDV-TGAN. Additional findings of epidemiologic significance were prolonged shedding of virus and delayed production of viral-neutralizing antibody in 1 calf challenge-exposed with BVDV-890. Also, after production of neutralizing antibody, mutant virus that was refractory to neutralization was isolated from calves challenge-exposed with BVDV-TGAN. PMID:1334641

  19. Hygienic quality and mutagenicity of minced meats and patties treated by ionizing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial safety of minced beef, minced pork, beef patties and pork patties irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam at an absorbed dose from 5 to 20 kGy. Also, the mutagenicity of minced beef, minced pork and patties treated with irradiation at 50 kGy was evaluated by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay). The results of the total aerobic bacteria of the minced beef, minced pork and patties showed that the sterilization effect of gamma irradiation was superior to that of electron beam irradiation. The results from Ames test showed that all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Also, no mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation

  20. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  1. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were divided into three equal groups (10 calves in each group. Experiment was carried out in the period from calving up to the 60th day of calf ’s age. All groups were given whole milk, however, duration of whole milk feeding differed among groups. Group 1 consumed whole milk from birth up to the 30th day of age, group 2 from birth up to the 20th day of age and group 3 from birth up to the 10th day of age. Afterwards, all groups were fed with milk replacement formula up to the 60th day of age. Suggested technological solutions in calves feeding within this experiment were analyzed through evaluation of basic fattening characteristics, monitoring of diarrhea occurrences and calculating costs per kg of weight gain per each group. Statistical analysis referring to calves body weight, daily gain and liquid feed conversion during the 1st month of experiment proved the best values for group 1, which were statistically highly significant (P<0.01 if compared to other groups. Examination of health status of calves determined that diarrhea occurred less frequently in group 1, which led to conclusion that feeding whole milk to calves should be given priority with respect to its nutritive and health benefits. By analyzing economic aspect of feeding whole milk to calves in their 1st month of age, the lowest costs were obtained for group 1, which supports the fact that feeding calves with whole milk is cost effective.

  2. Vertical Coordination in the Evolving High Quality Beef Market (PowerPoint)

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.

    2010-01-01

    Panelists will discuss vertical aspects of vertical coordination in the beef industry. Focus will include cow herd production management and genetics, calf market price incentives, costs of producing high quality beef, and retail marketing of high quality beef and premium brands. Together this complete vertical supply chain discussion will provide a comprehensive assessment of how the U.S. beef industry can improve beef quality and enhance consumer demand. Implicit in this overview is an asse...

  3. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  4. Alleviation of Oxidative Stress by Using Olive Pomace in Crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) Calves Under Hot Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten female crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) calves , 8 – 10 months old with average live body weight of 112 kg at the be ginning of experimental period were used to investigate the effect of olive pomace (OP) supplementation which contains phenolic compounds on oxidant and antioxidant agents and some blood constituents, and its relation with growth performance in heat stressed calves. The animals were maintained under hot summer environmental conditions, where, ambient temperature and relative humidity average d 37.48°C ± 0.32 and 64.58 % ± 0.77 , (equivalent to THI 91) during day, and 28.38 °C ± 0.22 and 78.23 % ± 0.69 , (equivalent to THI 80) during night, respectively. The animals were divided into two equal groups (5 calves each). The first group control (received 0 % OP of the concentrate mixture, while the second group) treated received 15 % OP of the concentrate mixture, for two months. Body weight o f calves was recorded twice at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were taken from each animal at the end of experimental period to determine antioxidant and oxidant indices, some blood constituents and T 3 concentration. Our results showed that supplementation of OP significantly increased antioxidant status including catalase enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid as a non-enzymatic antioxidant and copper as a specific antioxidant protecting macromolecules. More over, OP significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde as a lipid peroxidation marker, iron concentration which act as a pro-oxidant, lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL – cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL – cholesterol), triglycerides and phospholipids. Also, OP caused a significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea- N concentrations as well as AST activity. However, OP significantly elevated T3 level, and improved feed efficiency and daily

  5. PCR as a diagnostic test method for deduction of H. somni on trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid from clinically normal calves and calves with pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J. M. D.; Angen, Øystein; Thomsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    disease. Among diseased calves, 97% contained bacteria in the lower respiratory tract, all of them classified as pure culture or many pathogenic bacteria in mixed culture. BRSV was detected in 53% of the diseased calves. A comparison of H. somni specific PCR test to cultivation showed PCR to be most......The aim of the present field study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a species specific PCR test against Histophilus somni (earlier Haemophilus somnus). Trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) from 56 clinically normal healthy calves and 36 calves that developed pneumonia were...... 63% of the clinically normal calves harboured pathogenic bacteria (mainly P. multocida, M. haemolytica and H. somni) in the lower respiratory tract, and in 60% of these cases bacteria were found either in pure culture or as the predominant flora, something that could be expected to cause clinical...

  6. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barcellos Marcia D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain, each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  7. Effects of Plant-Derived Extracts, Other Antimicrobials, and Their Combinations against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beef Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Kee-Tae; Sofos, John N

    2015-06-01

    The antimicrobial effects of thyme oil (TO), grapefruit seed extract (GSE), and basil essential oil, alone or in combination with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium diacetate, or lactic acid, were evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a moisture-enhanced beef model system. The model system was composed of a nonsterile beef homogenate to which NaCl (0.5%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25%) were added, together with the tested antimicrobial ingredients. Beef homogenate treatments were inoculated (ca. 3 log CFU/ml) with rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (eight-strain mixture) and incubated at 15 °C (48 h). The most effective individual treatments were TO (0.25 or 0.5%) and GSE (0.5 or 1.0%), which immediately reduced (P tenderization. Beef cuts (10 by 8 by 3.5 cm) were inoculated (ca. 4 log CFU/g) on one side with the rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strain mixture and were then spray treated (20 lb/in(2), 10 s) with water, GSE (5 and 10%), lactic acid (5%), or CPC (5%). Untreated (control) and spray-treated surfaces were then subjected to double-pass blade tenderization. Surface contamination (4.4 log CFU/g) of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced (P tenderized sections were obtained in the untreated control and CPC-treated samples, respectively. PMID:26038897

  8. Preweaning performance and body composition of calves from straightbred Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Leme, P R; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to evaluate preweaning performance, body composition, and efficiency of calves representing straightbred Nellore (NL), F(1), and 3-breed-cross systems. Energy requirements, milk production, and efficiency of 39 cow-calf pairs were recorded from straightbred NL calves from NL cows (10), crossbred (Angus-sired) calves from NL cows (ANL: 9), and crossbred calves (CC; Canchim-sired: 5/8 Charolais, 3/8 Zebu) from ANL (10) and Simmental x NL (10) cows. Cows and their respective calves were individually fed from birth to weaning (17 to 190 d postpartum). At 38 d of age, corn silage (7.8% CP, 2.19 Mcal of ME/kg of DM) was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was recorded by weighing calves before and after suckling. The ratio between GE and ME of milk was considered 1:0.93. Calves were slaughtered at weaning and the 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-rib section was removed for body composition estimation. The ANL calves were lighter (P body energy - birth body energy) than the NL calves (388 +/- 23 for ANL, and 438 +/- 15 for CC vs. 312 +/- 22 Mcal for NL calves). Percentages of water (P = 0.74) and chemical fat (P = 0.51) were similar among groups (63.7 +/- 0.6 and 14.3 +/- 0.7% for ANL calves, 63.1 +/- 0.4 and 14.7 +/- 0.5% for CC calves, and 63.3 +/- 0.6 and 13.7 +/- 0.7% of empty BW for water and chemical fat, respectively, for NL calves). Energetic efficiency (kcal of retained energy/Mcal of ME intake) was similar (P = 0.52) among groups (358 +/- 22 for ANL calves, 355 +/- 14 for CC calves, and 327 +/- 22 for NL calves). The greater BW gains and the differences in empty body composition at weaning were not enough to compensate for the greater ME intake of crossbreds. In this study, the crossbreeding systems evaluated increased preweaning calf performance but did not affect gross or energetic calf efficiency. PMID:19122045

  9. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  10. Pedigree analysis of Italian beef cattle breeds.

    OpenAIRE

    O. Franci; Forabosco, F.; F. Sirtori; Bozzi, R.

    2003-01-01

    Trend in inbreeding is the most frequently used method to quantify the rate of genetic drift but, as pointed out by Maignel et al. (1996), it relies on some assumption that could be not fully satisfied in cattle populations. In fact, trend in inbreeding is very sensitive to the quality of the available pedigree information and some beef cattle populations might have a large amount of missing information. An alternative way to quantify the genetic drift is to utilise the method based on probab...

  11. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  12. Canadian beef quality audit 1998-99.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Bygrove, S; Gillis, K; Malchow, D.; McLeod, G.

    2001-01-01

    The second beef quality audit was conducted in Canada in 1998-99 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in slaughtered cattle and to monitor changes since the first audit in 1995. Approximately 0.6% of the number of cattle processed annually in Canada were evaluated. Brands were observed on 49% and tag was observed on 43% of the hides. Both brands and tag had increased from 1995. Seventy percent of the cattle were polled and 5% had full horns; thus, the number of horned cattle had dec...

  13. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  14. MR imaging in staging of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has been shown to have advantages over radiography in identifying fat, hyaline cartilage, and fluid. The author discusses how on the basis of MR images (at 1.5 T, spin-echo technique) of 18 affected femoral heads, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease was classified into three stages, and the relationship between MR imaging and radiography was analyzed. In stage I disease, MR imaging showed the epiphysis of low signal intensity, which was compressed bone on radiography. In stage II disease, MR findings included the enlarged epiphysis of geographic or honeycomb pattern corresponding to fragmentation and rarefaction. In stage III disease, MR imaging showed high signal intensity of fatty marrow. MR imaging aided significantly in the assessment of necrosis and regeneration in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

  15. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study. The...... values of sires, and genetic trend. Fixed effects included in the model were herd-year class, month of birth, parity of mother, and whether the calf was sold to another farm in the first 6mo. Both direct and maternal genetic effects were included in the model; however, the maternal genetic effect was....... The best and the worst sires differed by about 8% in their estimated breeding values of mortality in the first 180d. Based on the results obtained in this study, genetic selection for reducing calf mortality should be possible....

  16. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1 after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg. Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AKP, ACP, AST, ALT, LDH, Total bilirubin, Serum Creatinine, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin and Blood glucose parameters. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 105-107

  17. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F; Hindhede, Jens; Nielsen, Tine Rousing

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two syste....../days). The prevalence of both diarrhoea and respiratory disease were more than twice as high among calves in dynamic groups compared to calves in stable groups.......The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two systems...

  18. Use of natural feed supplements that help to improve health status of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš ZÁBRANSKÝ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis for each cattle farming are healthy and strong individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which of the given feed supplements have the greatest effect on liveweight gain of calves in the early period after weaning from mother to infant milk substitutes. The research was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014. After the birth calves were weaned into individual boxes in the barn, where during the first 21 days of life their feeding ration was enriched with feed supplements. On the basis of the added supplement calves were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. First weighing of calves was done after birth and the second after 30 days. From the results of observations it can be concluded that feed supplements are accepted positively by calves in the first days of life and have a positive beneficial effect on weight gain and general health of calves.

  19. Cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular xylazine-ketamine in calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Rings, D M; Muir, W W

    1982-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of an intramuscular xylazine (0.088 mg/kg)-ketamine (4.4 mg/kg) drug combination were evaluated in calves. Heart rate, central venous and mean pulmonary artery blood pressures, and cardiac output did not change after drug administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) 15 minutes after drug administration. Respiratory frequency increased significantly (P less than 0.05) whereas arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decre...

  20. Oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Jansen, T; Guelen, P J; de Grève, B

    1989-10-01

    The oral absorption and bioavailability of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old calves following intravenous and oral administration of different formulations of flumequine (Flumix, Flumix C and pure flumequine). Increasing age had a negative influence on the Cmax after the administration of Flumix, based on a larger VD in the older calves. The Cmax decreased from 5.02 +/- 1.46 micrograms/ml in the first week to 3.28 +/- 0.42 micrograms/ml in the 18th week. Adding colistin sulfate to the flumequine formulation and administring pure flumequine mixed with milk replacer had a negative effect on the Cmax of flumequine after oral administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight. The bioavailability of the orally administered flumequine formulations was 100% in all cases except after the administration of Flumix C, for which it was 75.9 +/- 18.2%. The urinary recovery of flumequine after intravenous injection of a 10% solution varied from 35.2 +/- 2.3% for Group B, to 41.2 +/- 6.3% for Group C. The dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight Flumix twice daily in 1-week-old veal calves is sufficient to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations, based on a MIC value of 0.8 micrograms/ml of the target bacteria. In older calves it is advisable to increase the dosage 7.5 or 10 mg/kg body weight every 12 hours. In combination with colistin sulfate it is also advisable to increase the dosage slightly because of the negative effect of the colistin sulfate on the Cmax of flumequine. PMID:2603356

  1. Effect of tetracycline administration on serum amylase activity in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Zendehbad, Bamdad; Alipour, Adeleh; Zendehbad, Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Tetracycline and related compounds are used extensively as broad spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections in ruminants. Tetracycline may cause acute pancreatitis which may result in increased serum amylase activity. However, it has been shown that administration of oxytetracycline in human results in decrease serum amylase activity. In this study changes in serum amylase activity were measured in 20 clinically healthy calves following intravenous injection of oxytetracycl...

  2. Experimental pneumonia in gnotobiotic calves produced by respiratory syncytial virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, L. H.; Slott, E. J.; Collins, A. P.; Jebbett, J.

    1984-01-01

    A bovine isolate of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), when inoculated intranasally into eight gnotobiotic calves produced significant macroscopic lesions of the lung (2-25% consolidation) but failed to produce any clinical signs of disease. The microscopic lesions comprised proliferative and exudative bronchiolitis with accompanying alveolar collapse and infiltration by mononuclear cells of the peribronchiolar tissue and alveolar walls. Virus was recovered from the nasopharynx between days 2...

  3. Pathological evidence of ehrlichiosis among calves inoculated with Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    OpenAIRE

    delos Santos, Jose R. C.; Oglesbee, Michael; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Stich, R W

    2008-01-01

    An immunocompetent animal disease model based on infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis would facilitate research toward understanding mechanisms responsible for the broad range of clinical signs associated with human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). Adaptability to experimental feeding of various tick species and stages and to testing therapies comparable to those for human diseases are additional advantages of large animal models. Herein we summarize pathology reports for calves that developed f...

  4. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns. PMID:22063690

  5. Pimply gut condition in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuah, J K; Pegu, S R; Raina, O K; Siju, S J; Sakhrie, A; Deka, Anil; Rajkhowa, C

    2016-06-01

    The present observation was recorded at National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani from May 2010 to September 2012. A total of 15 mithun calves, which died in and around Jharnapani, were attended and detailed post-mortem examination was carried out. Out of these, five calves (33.33 %) aging between 1 and 1.5 years exhibiting the condition of chronic wasting and diarrhoea were found positive for pimply gut condition based on gross and microscopic examination. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule formation on the wall of the rectum; however, the entire lumen did not reveal any of adult parasites. In all the cases, there were congestion in the mucous layer and thickening of the intestinal wall. Histopathological examination revealed chronic enteritis with mononuclear cell infiltration comprising mostly of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In the muscularis mucosae, encysted larvae were found along with fibrous tissue proliferation. These lesions gave the intestine a nodular appearance as they thickened the wall and projected from the serosal surface. These extensive numbers of nodules in the intestine might have interfered with peristalsis and intestinal absorption which led to chronic wasting and diarrhoea in the calves. PMID:27413288

  6. Meat quality of calves obtained from organic and conventional farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare meat quality of organically and conventionally raised Simmental calves. Fifteen organic and fourteen conventional carcasses were considered, 8th rib and M. Longissimus thoracis were sampled on each carcass. Different tissues percentage of 8th rib were evaluated and meat colour, chemical and fatty acids composition of M. Longissimus thoracis were analysed. Fat percentage of 8th rib of organic calves was lower (P<0.01 than conventional ones. Cooking weight losses were lower (P<0.001 in organic meat compared to the conventional ones and red index was higher in organic calves due to the high content of heminic iron (P<0.001. Ether extract (P<0.001 and cholesterol content (P<0.05 was lower in organic meat with respect to conventional one. Positive value, from a nutritional point of view, were found in organic veal about n-3 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio and CLA content.

  7. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C. G.; Quinn, C. T.; Nielsen, S. G.; Raidal, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n = 5) or CPAP (Group 2, n = 5) as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations. PMID:26998379

  8. Numerical modelling of iceberg calving force responsible for glacial earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of geometric factors on the force history, amplitude and duration at the laboratory and field scales. We show first insights into the force and the generated seismic waves exploring different scenarios for iceberg capsizing.

  9. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-06-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (MC) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals.

  10. Septicaemic listeriosis in reindeer calves – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Nyyssönen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4 reindeer calves as a nearly pure growth from several internal organs, pointing to a septicaemic form of listeriosis. The calves were born in a calving corral. Silage feeding was considered the most probable source of the infection.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys poronvasoilla – tapausselostus Toukokuussa 2005 Suomen poronhoitoalueen kaakkoisosassa sijaitsevassa vasotustarhassa kuoli neljä poronvasaa pian syntymän jälkeen 5-11 päivän ikäisinä. Kaikkien vasojen kuolinsyyksi todettiin Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys. Tartunnan todennäköisin lähde oli vaatimien lisäruokinnassa käytetty säilörehu. Kyseessä on ensimmäinen poronvasoilla todettu Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys Suomessa. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tilfelle av sjukdomsfremkallende Listeriabakterie i reinkalver Listeria monocytogenes ble isolert fra 4 reinkalver som en nesten ren vekst fra flere indre organer, noe som antyder en sykdomsfremkallende form av listeriose. Kalvene nedkom i en kalveinnhegning, og man antok at dårlig silofôr var smittekilden.

  11. Effect of added Punica granatum peel fruits and Nigella sativa seeds on immunology and performance of suckling buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of feed additives is considered as a good source to improve the immunity status of newborn calves instead of chemical products because the residuals of chemical products may have side effects on human health on the long-run. Punica granatum fruits peel (Pg-p) has been shown to possess a significant antioxidant activity also valued for their therapeutic properties and used to remove intestinal tapeworm. On the other hand, seeds of Nigella sativa (NS) are rich in fatty acids (Linoleic and Linolenic acid), essential fatty acids and non-starch polysaccharide. Recently, clinical and animal studies have shown that extract of the NS seeds have many therapeutic effects such as immunomodilative, antibacterial, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Thirty-six suckling buffalo claves (18 males and 18 females) were used in this study with average live body weight 38.44 ± 0.62 kg. The calves were divided into 3 groups, each group allotted to receive one of 3 tested starters throughout 105 d. The starter was offered without additive in the control group (G1), while it was mixed with 2% Pg-p in group (G2) and with 2% Pg-p plus 3% NS in group (G3). Weekly faecal swabs were collected from the experimental animals for bacteriological examination. Immunoglobulins (Ig) and blood metabolites were determined in blood serum. Three sets of digestion trials were carried out using 3 male calves of each group that fed the same tested rations. Milk consumption was not significantly different among groups while, starter and clover hay intake was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 than those in groups G1 and G2. The total weight gain achieved by group G3 was greater than that of G1 and G2 groups by 25.60% and 7.80%, respectively. Blood TP was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 than that in G1. An albumin value was relatively higher in G1 compared with the treated G2 and G3. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen was significantly greater in G2 in comparison with G1 and

  12. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, J L; Lourens, D C; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2 l twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age. Adjusting for birth mass, birth date, dam parity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG), both pre-weaning (days 0-42) and overall (days 0-60), was higher in HMV than in RMV calves (P < 0.001). After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001). The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMV calves. Overall feed conversion rate of HMV calves was 9.6 % better than RMV calves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea. We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation. PMID:21826838

  13. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in calves with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; VanBik, D; Kim, H Y; Cho, A; Kim, J W; Byun, J W; Oem, J K; Oh, S I; Kwak, D

    2016-06-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeal faeces from calves that were reared in Korea using PCR and ELISA. Diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from 590 calves (giardiasis in calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea found in this study differed from previous studies. Therefore, researchers and veterinarians should be aware of the possible involvement of giardiasis in haemorrhagic diarrhoea. PMID:27162285

  14. Comparison of abomasal emptying in neonatal calves with a nuclear scintigraphic procedure.

    OpenAIRE

    Nappert, G; Lattimer, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that nuclear medicine technology allows observation of the effect that milk clotting has on abomasal emptying in the living neonatal calf. Scintigraphic evaluation of abomasal emptying was carried out in 6 healthy male Holstein calves. The calves were fed 10% of their body weight daily as whole cow's milk that was divided equally and consumed as 2 feedings via a nipple bottle. One day before the nuclear scintigraphic procedure, the calves we...

  15. Clinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Amory Hélène; Detilleux Johann; Desmecht Daniel; Rollin Frédéric; Brihoum Mounir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves. Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1) received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID) and the six others (group 2) received five times th...

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

    OpenAIRE

    F.R. El-Seedy; A.H. Abed; H.A. Yanni; S.A.A. Abd El-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7%) were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves we...

  17. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Gomes da Silva; Péricles Ricardo Lacerda e Silva; Paulo César da Silva; José Jurandir Fagliari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein concentrations in calves experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Dublin. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups, control and infected with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Dublin orally. The calves were subjected to physical evaluation and blood samples were collected shortly before administration of the bacteria and also 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 168 hours post-infection. The concentration of serum pro...

  18. The Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies and the “Accelerated Adoption through Sustainable Beef Profit Partnerships†Project

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Garry R.; Parnell, Peter F.; Clark, Richard A.; Timms, Janice; Hyland, Paul W.; Mulholland, Cynthia; Alford, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    Technology adoption in the Australian beef industry has been low and slow compared to that in the intensive livestock and cropping industries. Adoption needs to be higher and faster to fully capture the benefits from new beef genetic and other technologies. The principles of rapid improvement and innovation, and accelerated adoption, provide an innovative solution to this problem. In the Beef CRC, Sustainable Beef Profit Partnership (BPP) teams meet regularly to assess their current performan...

  19. THE DEMAND FOR WHOLESALE BEEF CUTS BY SEASON AND TREND

    OpenAIRE

    Namken, Jerry C.; Farris, Donald E.; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This study estimates demand during the 1980-90 period for wholesale beef cuts by season and by trend. A data set containing monthly nominal prices for wholesale cuts and average choice boxed beef from January 1980 to December 1990 was collected from multiple sources. The approach expressed the change in demand for wholesale cuts as the change in the price ratio of individual cuts relative to the price of boxed beef. This approach shows changes in amount by season and over time relative to the...

  20. Beef Meat Allergy in Cow’s Milk Allergic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maged Refaat; Amany Kamal; Mohamed Fares; Eman Ossman; Mohamed Attia; Alsayed Elokda

    2011-01-01

    Milk has been recognized as a leading cause of food allergy in children; however, studies on cow’s milk allergy (CMA) in adults are scanty. The known cross-reactivity of bovine serum albumin and bovine γ-globulin which are present in both milk and beef is recognized, so that, patients with allergy to cow’s milk are often instructed to avoid beef. Our Objective was to determine the prevalence of allergy to beef meat in adult patients with allergy to cow’s milk. Thirty adults with CMA were incl...