WorldWideScience

Sample records for beech fagus sylvatica

  1. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to bark-stripp

  2. Signals from beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in response to precipitation extremes - flowering induction and reduced foliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    Reduced foliation in older (but also young) beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands was observed in Denmark in the mid 1990ies and culminated with the 1996 summer drought and heat wave. Large differences in the degree of reduced foliation between regions and within stands were observed e.g. reflecting ......) caused by poor internal drainage and minor depressions in micro relief ....

  3. Variation in Ecophysiological Traits and Drought Tolerance of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Seedlings from Different Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, L'ubica; Marino, Stefano; Maiuro, Lucia; Alvino, Arturo; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Bolte, Andreas; Tognetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and intensity of heat waves and drought events are expected to increase in Europe due to climate change. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important native tree species in Europe. Beech populations originating throughout its native range were selected for common-garden experiments with the aim to determine whether there are functional variations in drought stress responses among different populations. One-year old seedlings from four to seven beech populations were grown and drought-treated in a greenhouse, replicating the experiment at two contrasting sites, in Italy (Mediterranean mountains) and Germany (Central Europe). Experimental findings indicated that: (1) drought (water stress) mainly affected gas exchange describing a critical threshold of drought response between 30 and 26% SWA for photosynthetic rate and Ci/Ca, respectively; (2) the Ci to Ca ratio increased substantially with severe water stress suggesting a stable instantaneous water use efficiency and an efficient regulation capacity of water balance achieved by a tight stomatal control; (3) there was a different response to water stress among the considered beech populations, differently combining traits, although there was not a well-defined variability in drought tolerance. A combined analysis of functional and structural traits for detecting stress signals in beech seedlings is suggested to assess plant performance under limiting moisture conditions and, consequently, to estimate evolutionary potential of beech under a changing environmental scenario. PMID:27446118

  4. Changes Caused by Heat Treatment in Color and Dimensional Stability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Barboutis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal modification of wood permanently alters several of its chemical and physical properties. Beech wood is one of the most important hardwoods in Central and Eastern Europe and is extensively used in furniture production. In this study the effects of thermal modification of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L. on hygroscopic properties were examined and the color changes of the treated wood were determined. Beech wood has been subjected to a heat treatment at the temperature of 180 °C for five different durations ranging from 2 to 10 h. A more intense, gradual color change of the treated samples was observed after 4-h treatment, whereas in some other cases the recorded alterations were less intense. The most pronounced color differentiations compared to untreated samples occurred in 8-h and 10-h treatments. Dimensional stability and absorption were measured after 1-h, 3-h, 6-h, 1 day and 3 days immersion in water. The 8-h treatment duration exhibits the greatest reduction of swelling and absorption percentage.

  5. A double-entry tree volume table for beech (Fagus sylvatica L. coppices in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to fill a gap in the collection of available algorithms for the estimation of standing tree volume. The deficiency of such tools is especially marked when their object is represented by stands undergoing strong or rapid changes in forest structure. Such is the case of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. coppices in Piedmont, once managed mainly for firewood, i.e., with fast rotations and a mean tree size much smaller than what observed in current stands. In addition, the structure of most of these stands was heavily impacted by selection cuttings in the early '90s, aimed at the conversion of coppices to high forests in the long run. A single tree volume table (inclusive of branches and bark volumes has been prepared according to the following steps: (1 selection of relevant stands, representative in their extent, density and merchantability (13 alpine valleys in 6 provinces; (2 computation of sample size according to the observed variability in the selected study areas (1085 model trees for height and volume; (3 tree measurement and data mining (statistical detection of outliers and selection of the most suitable model form for a double-entry tree volume table. The main output of the study is the volume table itself. The paramount importance of such tool for forest management is confirmed by the abundance of beech forests (136000 hectares, i.e., the second most represented forest cover type in the study region, 90% of which is still managed as coppice stands.

  6. Mapping beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Sobhan, Istiak

    2009-06-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.). Airborne HyMap images and data on forest structural attributes were collected from the Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive performances of vegetation indices (VI) derived from all possible two-band combinations (VI ( i, j) = ( Ri - Rj)/( Ri + Rj), where Ri and Rj = reflectance in any two bands) were evaluated using calibration ( n = 33) and test ( n = 20) data sets. The potential of partial least squares (PLS) regression, a multivariate technique involving several bands was also assessed. New VIs based on the contrast between reflectance in the red-edge shoulder (756-820 nm) and the water absorption feature centred at 1200 nm (1172-1320 nm) were found to show higher correlations with the forest structural parameters than standard VIs derived from NIR and visible reflectance (i.e. the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). PLS regression showed a slight improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes (prediction errors of 27.6%, 32.6% and 46.4% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively) compared to VIs using linear regression models (prediction errors of 27.8%, 35.8% and 48.3% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively). Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error of prediction = 5.12 cm, i.e. 25% of the mean). The predicted map of mean DBH revealed high heterogeneity in the beech forest structure in the study area. The spatial variability of mean DBH occurs at less than 450 m. The DBH

  7. Effect of CO2 enhancement on beech (Fagus sylvatica L. seedling root rot due to Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora cactorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is associated with higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The ongoing changes are likely to have significant, direct or indirect effects on plant diseases caused by many biotic agents such as phytopathogenic fungi. This study results showed that increased CO2 concentration did not stimulate the growth of 1-year-old beech Fagus sylvatica L seedlings but it activated pathogenic Phytophthora species (P. plurivora and P. cactorum which caused significant reduction in the total number of fine roots as well as their length and area. The results of the greenhouse experiment indicated that pathogens once introduced into soil survived in pot soil, became periodically active (in sufficient water conditions and were able to damage beech fine roots. However, the trees mortality was not observed during the first year of experiment. DNA analyses performed on soil and beech tissue proved persistence of introduced Phytophthora isolates.

  8. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  9. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  10. Parametric identification of a functional-structural tree growth model and application to beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    CERN Document Server

    Letort, Veronique; Mathieu, Amélie; De Reffye, Philippe; Constant, Thiéry

    2010-01-01

    Functional-structural models provide detailed representations of tree growth and their application to forestry seems full of prospects. However, owing to the complexity of tree architecture, parametric identification of such models remains a critical issue. We present the GreenLab approach for modelling tree growth. It simulates tree growth plasticity in response to changes of their internal level of trophic competition, especially topological development and cambial growth. The model includes a simplified representation of tree architecture, based on a species-specific description of branching patterns. We study whether those simplifications allow enough flexibility to reproduce with the same set of parameters the growth of two observed understorey beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of different ages in different environmental conditions. The parametric identification of the model is global, i.e. all parameters are estimated simultaneously, potentially providing a better description of interactions between sub...

  11. Sap flow for beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in a natural and a managed forest-effect of spatial heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Lise; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is an important species in natural and managed forests in Europe. This drought-sensitive species dominates even-aged stands as well more natural stands composed of a mixture of tree species, age and size classes. This study evaluates the extent that heterogeneity...... in spacing and tree diameter affect the seasonal availability and use of water. Two stands were evaluated: (i) a heterogeneous forest remnant (NAT) with trees up to similar to 300 years old, a mean top height of 28.4 m and a total of 733 stems ha(-1)with stem diameters averaging 18 cm and (ii) an even......(s-sum)) for trees growing in the evenly spaced MAN stand and trees in canopy and closed forest positions in NAT stand decreased as the availability of soil moisture was reduced. In the heterogeneous NAT stand, SWC in a recently formed canopy gap remained high throughout the vegetation period. Based on regression...

  12. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) a...

  13. Temporally resolved intra-annual wood density variations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by climate and aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst van der Maaten

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal variability of intra-annual wood density variations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in a valley in southwestern Germany. Samples were collected from 11 beech trees growing at north-west (NW and south-west (SW exposed slopes. High-frequency densitometry was used to obtain wood density profiles. We converted radial positions within these profiles to a seasonal time scale over automatic point dendrometer data for the period 2001–2006. Temporally resolved wood density data was analyzed both visually and statistically, using correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions. Water availability was found to be of major importance for wood formation. Further, our results suggest that climatic forcing of wood density is not necessarily restricted to the late growing season only, but that strong associations may exist during a major part of the growing season. Combining wood property data with point dendrometer measurements was demonstrated to be valuable for increasing the understanding on the effects of changing environmental conditions on wood formation

  14. Temporally resolved intra-annual wood density variations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by climate and aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst van der Maaten

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal variability of intra-annual wood density variations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in a valley in southwestern Germany. Samples were collected from 11 beech trees growing at north-west (NW and south-west (SW exposed slopes. High-frequency densitometry was used to obtain wood density profiles. We converted radial positions within these profiles to a seasonal time scale over automatic point dendrometer data for the period 2001-2006. Temporally resolved wood density data was analyzed both visually and statistically, using correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions. Water availability was found to be of major importance for wood formation. Further, our results suggest that climatic forcing of wood density is not necessarily restricted to the late growing season only, but that strong associations may exist during a major part of the growing season. Combining wood property data with point dendrometer measurements was demonstrated to be valuable for increasing the understanding on the effects of changing environmental conditions on wood formation.

  15. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.braun@iap.c [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sangrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland); Leuzinger, Sebastian [Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zurich, Universitaetsstr. 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO{sub 3}SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  16. Projected effects of climate change on the carbon stocks of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Zala County, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somogyi Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change will lead to the local extinction of many tree species from large areas during this century, affecting the functioning and ecosystem services of many forests. This study reports on projected carbon losses due to the assumed local climate change-driven extinction of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Zala County, South-Western Hungary, where the species grows at the xeric limit of its distribution. The losses were calculated as a difference between carbon stocks in climate change scenarios assuming an exponentially increasing forest decline over time, and those in a baseline scenario assuming no climate change. In the climate change scenarios, three different sets of forest management adaptation measures were studied: (1 only harvesting damaged stands, (2 additionally salvaging dead trees that died due to climate change, and (3 replacing, at an increasing rate over time, beech with sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb. after final harvest. Projections were made using the open access carbon accounting model CASMOFOR based on modeling or assuming effects of climate change on mortality, tree growth, root-to-shoot ratio and decomposition rates. Results demonstrate that, if beech disappears from the region as projected by the end of the century, over 80% of above-ground biomass carbon, and over 60% of the carbon stocks of all pools (excluding soils of the forests will be lost by 2100. Such emission rates on large areas may have a discernible positive feedback on climate change, and can only partially be offset by the forest management adaptation measures.

  17. Structure and management of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Nocentini S

    2009-01-01

    Beech forests characterise the landscape of many mountain areas in Italy, from the Alps to the southern regions. This paper analyses the relationship between stand structure and the management history of beech in Italy. The aim is to outline possible strategies for the sustainable management of these forest formations. The present structure of beech forests in Italy is the result of many interacting factors. According to the National Forest Inventory, more than half the total area covered by ...

  18. Competition for nitrogen sources between European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J; Waldhecker, P; Brüggemann, N; Rennenberg, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the short-term consequences of direct competition between beech and sycamore maple on root N uptake and N composition, mycorrhizal seedlings of both tree species were incubated for 4 days (i.e. beech only, sycamore maple only or both together) in an artificial nutrient solution with low N availability. On the fourth day, N uptake experiments were conducted to study the effects of competition on inorganic and organic N uptake. For this purpose, multiple N sources were applied with a single label. Furthermore, fine roots were sampled and analysed for total amino acids, soluble protein, total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium content. Our results clearly show that both tree species were able to use inorganic and organic N sources. Uptake of inorganic and organic N by beech roots was negatively affected in the presence of the competing tree species. In contrast, the presence of beech stimulated inorganic N uptake by sycamore maple roots. Both the negative effect of sycamore maple on N uptake of beech and the positive effect of beech on N uptake of sycamore maple led to an increase in root soluble protein in beech, despite an overall decrease in total N concentration. Thus, beech compensated for the negative effects of the tree competitor on N uptake by incorporating less N into structural N components, but otherwise exhibited the same strategy as the competitor, namely, enhancing soluble protein levels in roots when grown under competition. It is speculated that enhanced enzyme activities of so far unknown nature are required in beech as a defence response to inter-specific competition.

  19. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, F., E-mail: fleischmann@wzw.tum.d [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Raidl, S. [Department Biology I and GeoBioCenterLMU, Systematic Mycology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Menzinger Strasse 67, 80638 Muenchen (Germany); Osswald, W.F. [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO{sub 2}- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO{sub 2}-treatment, whereas elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO{sub 2} and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. - Susceptibility of Fagus sylvatica to the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola increased under elevated CO{sub 2}

  20. Frost Crack Impact on European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Wood Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile R. CÂMPU; Radu DUMITRACHE

    2015-01-01

    Frost crack represents one of the main defects which affect European beech wood quality. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to improve the knowledge regarding both the impact of frost crack on European beech wood quality and the frost crack characteristics which affect wood quality. In order to do this, nineteen European beech trunks with frost crack have been studied. Each trunk has been cross-cut every 1 meter and the characteristics of frost crack and frost crack star-shaped heart hav...

  1. Occurrence of tannins in leaves of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) along an ecological gradient, detected by histochemical and ultrastructural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerophylly and synthesis of phenolic compounds are active responses of plants subjected to environmental stress (drought, low nutrient supply, u.v.-B radiation, ozone). Here we describe the morphological and histochemical alterations occurring in field-grown leaves of Fagus sylvatica L. from three sites located along an ecological gradient: from a site in cool and protected conditions to one located on a mountain ridge, where the trees grow on a thin layer of soil and are exposed to the wind and to intense solar radiation in summer. The morphological data show that, as the ecological conditions of the stand worsen, individual leaf surface decreases, while the thickness of the leaves and their specific d. wt (i.e. d. wt per unit leaf area) increases. Histochemical and ultrastructural tests show a marked increase of phenolics during the course of the year. These substances, present primarily in the leaves of trees growing in stress conditions, have been identified mainly as tannins. They accumulate in the vacuoles, especially those of the upper epidermal layer and the palisade mesophyll; at a later stage they appear to be solubilized in the cytoplasm and retranslocated, eventually impregnating the outer wall of the epidermal cells amidst the cellulose fibrils, where they cluster together and form an electron-opaque layer between the wall and the cuticle. Observation of the epidermal cells also reveals that the outer cell wall is thicker. The paper discusses the roles of secondary metabolites in protection and detoxification processes; the possible ecological significance of these alterations in the ecophysiology of beech trees. (author)

  2. Structure and management of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocentini S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Beech forests characterise the landscape of many mountain areas in Italy, from the Alps to the southern regions. This paper analyses the relationship between stand structure and the management history of beech in Italy. The aim is to outline possible strategies for the sustainable management of these forest formations. The present structure of beech forests in Italy is the result of many interacting factors. According to the National Forest Inventory, more than half the total area covered by beech has a long history of coppicing. High forests cover 34% of the total beech area and 13% have complex structures which have not been classified in regular types. Coppices are very widespread mainly because of the past, but also present importance of firewood and charcoal for mountain populations. A particular type of beech coppice, the selection coppice (or uneven aged coppice, was traditional in Tuscany and in some alpine areas. Starting from the fifties, following the widespread use of other low cost energy sources and the depopulation of mountain areas, many beech coppices have been progressively abandoned. Forest policies have been increasingly directed to favouring beech coppice conversion to high forests, which are considered more productive and ecologically more functional. Beech high forests have a very interesting management history which is a very good example of the separation between classical forest management, i.e., forest management systems defined by “scientific forestry”, described in text books and usually prescribed in forest regulation plans, and real life forest management, i.e., how forests have been, and mostly still are, actually managed. The analysis of the management history of beech high forests in Italy shows that management systems which favour simplified stand structure and composition according to rigid, predetermined models have been rarely applied. However, the traditional silviculture of beech stands in Southern

  3. Gap formation in Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests of low management intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Vesterdal, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Soil moisture content (0-90 cm depth) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil solution (90 cm depth) were monitored after gap formation (diameter 15-18 m) in three Danish beech-dominated forests on nutrient-rich till soils. NO3-N drainage losses were estimated by the water balance mod...

  4. Frost Crack Impact on European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Wood Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile R. CÂMPU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Frost crack represents one of the main defects which affect European beech wood quality. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to improve the knowledge regarding both the impact of frost crack on European beech wood quality and the frost crack characteristics which affect wood quality. In order to do this, nineteen European beech trunks with frost crack have been studied. Each trunk has been cross-cut every 1 meter and the characteristics of frost crack and frost crack star-shaped heart have been measured in each cross-cut section. The defects which accompany frost crack have also been identified in each cross-cut section. Moreover, the possibility of determining these defects using the IML RESIF500 – S Resistograph has been tested. The research has emphasized the existence of statistical correlations between frost crack star-shaped heart expansion, frost crack rib prominence and frost crack length. These correlations are expressed by multiple linear regressions. The presence of defects which affect wood structure leading to a decrease in penetration resistance can be determined accurately with the resistograph. Decay (in frost cracks older than 8 years and ring shake have been identified as the most frequent defects which accompany frost crack. The measurements made on the frost cracks studied have been gathered in a graph which shows frost crack impact on European beech wood quality. The results obtained lead to the improvement of the criteria of European beech wood quality assessment by expanding the already existent knowledge and by identifying new aspects which may complete standing wood quality determination and sorting methods.

  5. Types of ectomycorrhizae on beech seedlings (Fagus sylvatica L.) in rhizotrons

    OpenAIRE

    Štraus, Ines; Bajc, Marko; Grebenc, Tine; Mali, Boštjan; Kraigher, Hojka

    2011-01-01

    Natural processes or human activities affect environmental conditions, as reflected in the structure of the communities and the level of ectomycorrhizalfungi. The aim of the study was to determine the potential impacts of several temperature regimes of air and soil (substrate) on the occurrence and species diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis and in the substrate. For this purpose, we analyzed the occurrence of types of ectomycorrhizae on beech seedlings in rhizotrons exposed to fo...

  6. Influence of litter chemistry and stoichiometry on glucan depolymerization during decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Sonja; Wanek, Wolfgang; Wild, Birgit; Haemmerle, Ieda; Kohl, Lukas; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Glucans like cellulose and starch are a major source of carbon for decomposer food webs, especially during early- and intermediate-stages of decomposition. Litter quality has previously been suggested to notably influence decomposition processes as it determines the decomposability of organic material and the nutrient availability to the decomposer community. To study the impact of chemical and elemental composition of resources on glucan decomposition, a laboratory experiment was carried out using beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) litter from four different locations in Austria, differing in composition (concentration of starch, cellulose and acid unhydrolyzable residue or AUR fraction) and elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P ratio). Leaf litter was incubated in mesocosms for six months in the laboratory under controlled conditions. To investigate the process of glucan decomposition and its controls, we developed an isotope pool dilution (IPD) assay using (13)C-glucose to label the pool of free glucose in the litter, and subsequently measured the dilution of label over time. This enabled us to calculate gross rates of glucose production through glucan depolymerization, and glucose consumption by the microbial community. In addition, potential activities of extracellular cellulases and ligninases (peroxidases and phenoloxidases) were measured to identify effects of resource chemistry and stoichiometry on microbial enzyme production. Gross rates of glucan depolymerization and glucose consumption were highly correlated, indicating that both processes are co-regulated and intrinsically linked by the microbial demand for C and energy and thereby to resource allocation to enzymes that depolymerize glucans. At early stages of decomposition, glucan depolymerization rates were correlated with starch content, indicating that starch was the primary source for glucose. With progressing litter decomposition, the correlation with starch diminished and glucan depolymerization rates were

  7. Transfer Analysis of Provenance Trials Reveals Macroclimatic Adaptedness of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASZTOVITS, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse provenance tests of beech situated close to theSoutheastern-continental limits of the species, in order to develop a response model of adaptation andplasticity of populations on evolutionary-ecological basis, following sudden climatic changes as aresult of transplanting. Modelling of juvenile height was performed with the help of ecodistancevariables. The concept of transfer analysis and ecodistance is based on the hypothesis that phenotypicresponse to macroclimatic changes depends on the inherited adaptive potential of the population andon the magnitude and direction of experienced environmental change. In common garden experiments,the transfer to the planting site is interpreted as simulation of environmental change. The applicationof ecodistance of transfer for evaluating common garden experiments provides much neededquantitative information about response of tree populations to predicted climatic changes.The analysis of three field experiments of European beech in SE Europe invalidate earlier doubtsabout the existence of macroclimatic adaptation patterns in juvenile growth and justify restrictions ofuse of reproductive material on the basis of evolutionary ecology. The presented model illustrates thatresponse to climatic change is regionally divergent, depending on testing conditions and on hereditarytraits. In particular, climatic warming in the central-northern part of the range may lead to productionincrease. However, under the stressful and uncertain conditions at the lower (xeric limit of thespecies, growth depression and vitality loss are predicted. The deviating behaviour of higher elevationprovenances support their separate treatment.The results may be utilised in climate change adaptation and mitigation policy in forestry andnature conservation, to revise rules for use of reproductive material and also for validatingevolutionary and ecological hypotheses related to climate change effects.

  8. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

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    Nicolas Latte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L. were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old. The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate, mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity, mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1 before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition; and (2 since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.

  9. Tipi ektomikorize pri sadikah bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.) v rizotronih: Types of ectomycorrhizae on beech seedlings (Fagus sylvatica L.) in rhizotrons:

    OpenAIRE

    Bajc, Marko; Grebenc, Tine; Kraigher, Hojka; Mali, Boštjan; Štraus, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Natural processes or human activities affect environmental conditions, as reflected in the structure of the communities and the level of ectomycorrhizalfungi. The aim of the study was to determine the potential impacts of several temperature regimes of air and soil (substrate) on the occurrence and species diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis and in the substrate. For this purpose, we analyzed the occurrence of types of ectomycorrhizae on beech seedlings in rhizotrons exposed to fo...

  10. Seasonal dynamics of δ(13) C of C-rich fractions from Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Fagus sylvatica (European beech) fine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Alex M; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bauerle, Taryn L

    2016-09-01

    The (13/12) C ratio in plant roots is likely dynamic depending on root function (storage versus uptake), but to date, little is known about the effect of season and root order (an indicator of root function) on the isotopic composition of C-rich fractions in roots. To address this, we monitored the stable isotopic composition of one evergreen (Picea abies) and one deciduous (Fagus sylvatica), tree species' roots by measuring δ(13) C of bulk, respired and labile C, and starch from first/second and third/fourth order roots during spring and fall root production periods. In both species, root order differences in δ(13) C were observed in bulk organic matter, labile, and respired C fractions. Beech exhibited distinct seasonal trends in δ(13) C of respired C, while spruce did not. In fall, first/second order beech roots were significantly depleted in (13) C, whereas spruce roots were enriched compared to higher order roots. Species variation in δ (13) C of respired C may be partially explained by seasonal shifts from enriched to depleted C substrates in deciduous beech roots. Regardless of species identity, differences in stable C isotopic composition of at least two root order groupings (first/second, third/fourth) were apparent, and should hereafter be separated in belowground C-supply-chain inquiry. PMID:27155532

  11. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations on leaf carbon assimilation in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, I.; Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Robson, T. M.; Cano, F. J.; Alte, L.; Sanchez-Gomez, D.

    2012-07-01

    Limitations to diffusion and biochemical factors affecting leaf carbon uptake were analyzed in young beech seedlings (Fagus sylvtica L.) growing in natural gaps of a beech-wood at the southern limit of the species. Half of the seedlings received periodic watering in addition to natural rainfall to reduce the severity of the summer drought. Plant water status was evaluated by measuring predawn water potential. Basic biochemical parameters were inferred from chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-CO{sub 2} curves (A-C{sub c}) under saturating light. The curves were established on three dates during the summer months. The main variables studied included: stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO{sub 2} (g{sub s} and g{sub m} respectively), maximum velocity of carboxylation (V{sub c}max) and maximum electron transport capacity (J{sub m}ax). The gm was estimated by two methodologies: the curve-fitting and J constant methods. Seedlings withstood moderate water stress, as the leaf predawn water potential ({Psi}{sub p}d) measured during the study was within the range -0.2 to -0.5 MPa. Mild drought caused gs and gm to decrease only slightly in response to {Psi}{sub p}d. However both diffusional parameters explained most of the limitations to CO{sub 2} uptake. In addition, it should be highlighted that biochemical limitations, prompted by V{sub c}max and J{sub m}ax, were related mainly to ontogenic factors, without any clear relationship with drought under the moderate water stress experienced by beech seedlings through the study. The results may help to further understanding of the functional mechanisms influencing the carbon fixation capacity of beech seedlings under natural conditions. (Author) 68 refs.

  12. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. PMID:23379310

  13. Age-related variation in carbon allocation at tree and stand scales in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) using a chronosequence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, H; Bréda, N; Dufrêne, E

    2010-02-01

    Two types of physiological mechanisms can contribute to growth decline with age: (i) the mechanisms leading to the reduction of carbon assimilation (input) and (ii) those leading to modification of the resource economy. Surprisingly, the processes relating to carbon allocation have been little investigated as compared to research on the processes governing carbon assimilation. The objective of this paper was thus to test the hypothesis that growth decrease related to age is accompanied by changes in carbon allocation to the benefit of storage and reproductive functions in two contrasting broad-leaved species: beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.). Age-related changes in carbon allocation were studied using a chronosequence approach. Chronosequences, each consisting of several even-aged stands ranging from 14 to 175 years old for beech and from 30 to 134 years old for sessile oak, were divided into five or six age classes. In this study, carbon allocations to growth, storage and reproduction were defined as the relative amount of carbon invested in biomass increment, carbohydrate increment and seed production, respectively. Tree-ring width and allometric relationships were used to assess biomass increment at the tree and stand scales. Below-ground biomass was assessed using a specific allometric relationship between root:shoot ratio and age, established from the literature review. Seasonal variations of carbohydrate concentrations were used to assess carbon allocation to storage. Reproduction effort was quantified for beech stands by collecting seed and cupule production. Age-related flagging of biomass productivity was assessed at the tree and stand scales, and carbohydrate quantities in trees increased with age for both species. Seed and cupule production increased with stand age in beech from 56 gC m(-)(2) year(-1) at 30 years old to 129 gC m(-2) year(-1) at 138 years old. In beech, carbon allocation to storage and

  14. Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Germund

    2004-08-15

    The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared. PMID:15262169

  15. Age-related changes in protein metabolism of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during alleviation of dormancy and in the early stage of germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa M; Pukacka, Stanislawa

    2015-09-01

    The long-term storage of seeds generally reduces their viability and vigour. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of long-term storage on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds at optimal conditions, over 9 years, on the total and soluble protein levels and activity of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases, as well as free amino acid levels and protein synthesis, in dry seeds, after imbibition and during cold stratification leading to dormancy release and germination. The same analyses were conducted in parallel on seeds gathered from the same tree in the running growing season and stored under the same conditions for only 3 months. The results showed that germination capacity decreased from 100% in freshly harvested seeds to 75% in seeds stored for 9 years. The levels of total and soluble proteins were highest in freshly harvested seeds and decreased significantly during storage, these proportions were retained during cold stratification and germination of seeds. Significant differences between freshly harvested and stored seeds were observed in the activities of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, and in the levels of free amino acids. The neosynthesis of proteins during dormancy release and in the early stage of seed germination was significantly weaker in stored seeds. These results confirm the importance of protein metabolism for seed viability and the consequences of its reduction during seed ageing.

  16. Long-term effects of gap creation and liming on understory vegetation with a focus on tree regeneration in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of gap creation and liming on tree regeneration and understory competition were examined in a mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica stand on a nutrient-poor site. In 1989, trees were felled to create four 30 m wide circular gaps, and 3 t ha-1 fine dolomite was applied to two of these gaps and the surrounding area, whereas the remaining two gaps and most parts of the stand remained untreated. In 2010, the stand density was 153 trees x ha-1 and the basal area was 29.51 m2 x ha-1. Testing a factorial combination of two levels of canopy cover (gap and stand and two levels of lime application (limed and unlimed, the results of the case study partly support our initial hypothesis that the combined or single effects of liming and canopy removal on understory plant communities last for more than 20 years. Some effects disappeared slowly over time, while others did not. Understory vegetation of the unlimed gaps and thelimed and unlimed stands was rapidly dominated by beech regeneration, whereas limed gaps were dominated by fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium, bramble (Rubus fruticosus agg. and raspberry (Rubus ideaus for around 14 years. There, the density of the beech regeneration was reduced by competitive ground vegetation species. Plant species richness (n/100 m² was still significantly different after 23 years, with an average 10 species per 100 m² in the limed stand area, 5 species in the unlimed stand area, 25 species in the limed gaps, and only 5 species in the unlimed gaps. Only the combination of liming and canopy removal enhanced the species richness in the long run. On our study site, this combination of liming and canopy opening had a long lasting influence on the ground vegetation in terms of retarding the beech regeneration and enhancing species’ richness.

  17. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The seasonality of woody plants in cold and temperate climates is adapted to the annual course of temperature and photoperiod in order to maximise the length of the active growing season and, at the same time, avoid damages by frost events, especially by late spring frosts. Winter chilling, spring warming and finally photoperiod trigger the timely bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) which as a climax species is quite sensitive to winter frost and also as seedling to late spring frosts. However, due to relatively late and less varying dates of leaf unfolding, damages by late spring frosts should not occur each year. In case of a total loss due to a late frost event, F. sylvatica trees produce a new set of leaves which guarantees survival, but diminishes carbon reserves. With a phenological camera we observed the phenological course of such an extreme event in the Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald in May 2011: Spring leaf unfolding, an almost complete loss of fresh green leaves after the frost event in the night 3rd to 4th May, a subsequent leafless period followed by re-sprouting. We modeled this special leaf development from day 80 to 210, observed as green% from the repeated digital camera pictures, using the Bayesian multiple change point approach recently introduced by Henneken et al. (2013). The results for more than 30 trees predominantly suggested a model with five change points: firstly, start of the season, abrupt ending before the frost event, the loss by the frost event and after a longer period of recovery the second leaf unfolding (St. John's sprout) ending in full leaf maturity. Analyzing the results of these models the following questions were answered (1) how long is the period of recovery till the second green-up? (2) does the temporal course of the second leafing differ from the first one? (3) what are the individual factors influencing damage and recovery? (4) are individuals with early or late bud burst more prone to damage? The five

  18. Does reduced precipitation trigger physiological and morphological drought adaptations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)? Comparing provenances across a precipitation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Global warming and associated decreases in summer rainfall may threaten tree vitality and forest productivity in many regions of the temperate zone in the future. One option for forestry to reduce the risk of failure is to plant genotypes which combine high productivity with drought tolerance. Growth experiments with provenances from different climates indicate that drought exposure can trigger adaptive drought responses in temperate trees, but it is not well known whether and to what extent regional precipitation reduction can increase the drought resistance of a species. We conducted a common garden growth experiment with five European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from a limited region with pronounced precipitation heterogeneity (816-544 mm year(-1)), where phylogenetically related provenances grew under small to large water deficits. We grew saplings of the five provenances at four soil moisture levels (dry to moist) and measured ∼30 morphological (leaf and root properties, root : shoot ratio), physiological (leaf water status parameters, leaf conductance) and growth-related traits (above- and belowground productivity) with the aim to examine provenance differences in the drought response of morphological and physiological traits and to relate the responsiveness to precipitation at origin. Physiological traits were more strongly influenced by provenance (one-third of the studied traits), while structural traits were primarily affected by water availability in the experiment (two-thirds of the traits). The modulus of leaf tissue elasticity ϵ reached much higher values late in summer in plants from moist origins resulting in more rapid turgor loss and a higher risk of hydraulic failure upon drought. While experimental water shortage affected the majority of morphological and productivity-related traits in the five provenances, most parameters related to leaf water status were insensitive to water shortage. Thus, plant morphology, and root

  19. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eMenzel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L. at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: i start of the first greening between DOY (day of the year 108 to 119 (mean 113, ii end of greening and iii visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123, 124, iv re-sprouting 19 to 38 days after the frost, and v full maturity around DOY 178 (166 to 184 when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L. were not affected by the low temperatures of −5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage and recovery

  20. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand

  1. Content of Total Phenols in Red Heart and Wound-Associated Wood in Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Vek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of wound-associated wood has been relatively well studied in beech, but only a little information about the occurrence of extractives and particular classes of compounds in these tissues is available. We examined the content of total phenols and variability in their distribution in sapwood, wound-wood and the reaction zones walling-off typical red heart and xylem altered by wounding in two beech trees, using spectrophotometric method. Significant differences in total phenols in different types of beech wood, as well as differences between trees, were confi rmed. Concentrations of total phenols were markedly lower in red heart than in reaction zones and sapwood extracts. The content of total phenols was highest in extracts of the reaction zones formed as a direct response of sapwood to wounding. Differences in the content of total phenols in reaction zones walling-off typical red heart and directly wounded xylem indicate differences in their formation process, in alterations to surrounding tissues and in the characteristics of individual trees.

  2. Mode I Critical Stress Intensity Factor of Beech Wood (Fagus Sylvatica in a TL Configuration: A Comparison of Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Merhar, Dominika Gornik Bučar, Bojan Buča

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between various methods of mode I critical stress intensity factor KIC calculations of beech wood in the TL configuration. The first method is the stress intensity factor extrapolation to the distance of 0 mm from the crack tip; the second method is the use of the J integral; and the third method is based on the differences in deformation energies from which the strain energy release rate per unit of crack propagation length was obtained. The fourth method is the calculation of material deformation around the crack or the displacement of the triangle element node; and the fifth method uses a generally known equation for the CT specimen for plane-strain conditions in isotropic material. Using the finite element method, it was found that the J integral was least sensitive to the size and shape of the elements. It was used to calculate the critical stress intensity factor KIC for beech wood in a TL configuration. The average value is 0.56 MPa√m with a standard deviation of 0.047 MPa√m.

  3. Unraveling carbohydrate transport mechanisms in young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea) by 13CO2 efflux measurements from stem and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Gavrichkova, Olga; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Transport mechanisms of soluble carbohydrates and diurnal CO2 efflux from tree stems and surrounding soil are well studied. However, the effect of transport carbohydrates on respiration and their interaction with storage processes is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments on young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea). We labeled the whole tree crowns in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 30 min. In one experiment, only a single branch was labeled and removed 36 hours after labeling. In all experiments, we continuously measured the 13CO2 efflux from stem, branch and soil and sampled leaf and stem material every 3 h for 2 days, followed by a daily sampling of leaves in the successive 5 days. The compound specific δ 13C value of extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaf and stem material was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). The 13CO2 signal from soil respiration occurred only few hours after labeling indicating a very high transport rate of carbohydrates from leaf to roots and to the rhizosphere. The label was continuously depleted within the next 5 days. In contrast, we observed a remarkable oscillating pattern of 13CO2 efflux from the stem with maximum 13CO2 enrichment at noon and minima at night time. This oscillation suggests that enriched carbohydrates are respired during the day, whereas in the night the enriched sugars are not respired. The observed oscillation in stem 13CO2 enrichment remained unchanged even when only single branches were labelled and cut right afterwards. Thus, storage and conversion of carbohydrates only occurred within the stem. The δ13C patterns of extracted soluble carbohydrates showed, that a transformation of transitory starch to carbohydrates and vice versa was no driver of the oscillating 13CO2 efflux from the stem. Carbohydrates might have been transported in the phloem to

  4. Juvenile growth response of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. to sudden change of climatic environment in SE European trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasztovits E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse provenance tests of beech situated close to the south-eastern continental limits of the species, in order to develop a response model of adaptation and plasticity of populations on evolutionary-ecological basis, following sudden climatic changes, as a result of transplanting. Modelling of juvenile height was performed with the help of ecodistance variables. The concept of transfer analysis and ecodistance is based on the hypothesis that phenotypic response to macroclimatic changes depends on the inherited adaptive potential of the population and on the magnitude and direction of experienced environmental change. In common garden experiments, the transfer to the planting site is interpreted as simulation of environmental change. The application of ecodistance of transfer for evaluating common garden experiments provides much needed quantitative information about response of tree populations to predicted climatic changes. The analysis of three field experiments of European beech in SE Europe indicates that macroclimatic adaptation patterns exist in juvenile growth and justify restrictions of use of reproductive material on the basis of evolutionary ecology. The presented model illustrates that response to climatic change is regionally divergent, depending on testing conditions and on hereditary traits. In particular, climatic warming in the central-northern part of the range may lead to production increase. However, under the stressful and uncertain conditions at the lower (xeric limit of the species, growth depression and vitality loss are predicted. The deviating behaviour of higher elevation provenances support their separate treatment. The results may be utilised in climate change adaptation and mitigation policy in forestry and nature conservation, to revise rules for use of reproductive material and also for validating evolutionary and ecological hypotheses related to climate change effects.

  5. Differences in soil fungal communities between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dominated forests are related to soil and understory vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Wubet

    Full Text Available Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54% and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p≤0.001 among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa.

  6. Diverzita ektomykorhizních hub na buku \\kur{(Fagus sylvatica)}

    OpenAIRE

    HEJNA, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work described here were to summarize and evaluate current knowledge in ectomycorrhizal fungi with the intention at the colonization of root system beech Fagus sylvatica to ectomycorrhizal fungi. This work mainly was targeted at diversity of these ectomycorrhizal fungi in beech forest affected positive and negative by environmental and anthropogenic factors. Last part of this work describes qualitative and quantitative methods used in investigation of ectomycorrhizal fu...

  7. Greater accumulation of litter in spruce (Picea abies) compared to beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands is not a consequence of the inherent recalcitrance of needles

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Torsten W.; Berger, Pétra

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Replacement of beech by spruce is associated with changes in soil acidity, soil structure and humus form, which are commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. M...

  8. Inter-specific competition in mixed forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) under climate change – a model-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyer, C.; Lasch, P.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sterck, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed forests feature competitive interactions of the contributing species which influence their response to environmental change. • We analyzed climate change effects on the inter-specific competition in a managed Douglas-fir/beech mixed forest. • Therefore, we initialised the process-based forest

  9. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  10. Modelling exploratio of the future of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under climate change - Range, abundance, genetic diversity and adaptive response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Degen, B.; Buschbom, J.; Hickler, T.; Thuiller, W.; Sykes, M.T.; Winter, de W.P.

    2010-01-01

    We explored impacts of climate change on the geographic distribution of European beech by applying state of the art statistical and process-based models, and assessed possible climate change impacts on both adaptive capacity in the centre of its distribution and adaptive responses of functional trai

  11. Transformation of even-aged European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to uneven-aged management under changing growth conditions caused by climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Erik; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Transformation from even-aged to uneven-aged forest management is currently taking place throughout Europe. Climate change is, however, expected to change growth conditions—possibly quite radically. Using a deterministic approach, it was the objective of this study to investigate the influence...... of such changes on optimal transformation strategies for an even-aged stand of European Beech in Denmark. For a range of growth change scenarios, represented by changes in site index, optimal harvest policies were determined using a matrix modelling approach and a differential evolution algorithm. Transition...

  12. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  13. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: m.ferretti@linnaea.it; Calderisi, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: calderisi@chemiometria.it; Bussotti, Filippo [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: filippo.bussotti@unifi.it

    2007-02-15

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O{sub 3} (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R {sup 2} = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R {sup 2} = 0.55; p < 0.0001) was used to calculate expected defoliation on the basis of the previous year's defoliation, and model predictions were used as an estimate of expected defoliation under constant site and environmental condition. Residuals (predicted-measured) plotted against current AOT40 shows that a possible effect of ozone occurs only at very high AOT40 (>35,000 ppbh). O{sub 3}-like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O{sub 3} exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R {sup 2} = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation.

  14. Xylem Phenology of Fagus sylvatica in Rarău Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca SEMENIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cambium activity and the tree ring formation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from the Rarău Mountains was monitored during 2009, 2010 and 2011 in a beech - coniferous stand, representative for Eastern Carpathian mixed forests. Wood microcores were collected weekly from five trees and prepared in order to describe the different phases of wood formation. Four phases of tree ring development were quantified, in number of cells and phase duration: cambial phase, cell enlargement, cell wall thickening and cell maturation. The onset of the cambial activity took place in the first week of May 2009, one week later in 2010 and in the last week of April 2011. The beech tree ring development period varies between 127 days in 2009 and 137 days in 2011.

  15. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.F.D. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail: vera.thomas@iap.ch; Braun, S. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Flueckiger, W. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O{sub 3}). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive.

  16. Assessing the use of delta C-13 natural abundance in separation of root and microbial respiration in a Danish beechFagus Sylvatica¤ L.) forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formanek, P.; Ambus, P.

    2004-01-01

    analysed in a fully automatic mode with an experimental standard error +/- 0.11parts per thousand. We observed that the CO2 derived from root-free mineral soil horizons (A, B-W) was more enriched in C-13 (delta(13)C range -21.6 to -21.2parts per thousand) compared with CO2 derived from root-free humus...... layers (delta(13)C range -23.6 to -23.4parts per thousand). The CO2 evolved from root respiration in isolated young beech plants revealed a value intermediate between those for the soil humus and mineral horizons, delta(13)C(root) = -22.2parts per thousand, but was associated with great variability (SE...... +/- 1.0parts per thousand) due to plant-specific differences. delta(13)C Of CO2 from in situ below-ground respiration averaged -22.8parts per thousand, intermediate between the values for the humus layer and root respiration, but variability was great (SE +/- 0.4parts per thousand) due to pronounced...

  17. The role of the organic layer for phosphorus nutrition of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) at two sites differing in soil Phosphorus availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Simon Hauenstein1, Thomas Pütz2, and Yvonne Oelmann1, 1 Geoecology, Department of Geosciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany 2 Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany The accumulation of an organic layer in forests is linked to the ratio between litterfall rates and decomposition rates with decomposition rates being decelerated due to acidification and associated nutrient depletion with proceeding ecosystem development. Nevertheless, the nutrient pool in the organic layer might still represent an important source for Phosphorus (P) nutrition of forests on nutrient-poor soils. Our objective was to assess the importance of the organic layer to P nutrition of young beech trees at two sites differing in soil P availability. We established a mesocosm experiment including plants and soil from a Phosphorus depleted forest site on a Haplic Podzol in Lüss and a Phosphorus rich forest site on a Eutric Cambisol in Bad Brückenau either with or without the organic layer. After 1 year under outdoor conditions, we applied 33P to the pots. After 0h, 24h, 48h, 96h, 192h, 528h we destructively harvested the young beech trees (separated into leaves, branches, stems) and sampled the organic layer and mineral soil of the pots. In each soil horizon we measured concentrations of resin-extractable P, plant available P fractions and total P. We extracted the xylem sap of the whole 2-year-old trees by means of scholander pressure bomb. 33P activity was measured for every compartment in soil and plant. The applied 33P was recovered mainly in the organic layer in Lüss, whereas it was evenly distributed among organic and mineral horizons in pots of Bad Brückenau soil. Comparing pots with and without an organic layer, the specific 33P activity differed by 323% between pots with and without an organic layer present in the Lüss soil. For both sites, the presence of the organic layer increased 33P activity in xylem sap compared to the treatment without

  18. Effects of increased UV-B radiation and elevated levels of tropospheric ozone on physiological processes in European beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the ongoing reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer, the vegetation is exposed to increasing levels of UV-B radiation (280–320 nm). In addition ozone in the troposphere is a pollutant and also capable of affecting the photosynthetic machinery. In this study, 5-year-old European beech trees were exposed from 1 July to October 1993 to two levels of UV-B radiation and two levels of ozone, alone and in combination, in open-top chambers equipped with lamps. The simulated UV-B levels corresponded to either clear sky ambient level or a 14% decrease in the stratospheric ozone column over eastern Denmark, resulting in a 23% difference in biologically effective UV-B (UV-BBE) irradiance. The maximum UV-BBE given was 8.61 kJ m−2 day−1. The ozone levels were either the ambient (average 32 nl l−1) or ambient with ozone addition (average resulting concentration 71 nl l−1). Compared to the control treatment (ambient UV-B, ambient O3) the elevated levels of UV-B and O3 affected the trees negatively, expressed as declines in net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and acceleration of senescence, measured as yellowing of the leaves. The UV-B treatment induced stomatal closure before the other treatments did. The magnitude of the decreases in Pn and Fv/Fm occurred in the order: control

  19. Environmental stress on establishment and growth in Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus robur L. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loef, Magnus [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, the growth response to different environmental stresses in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings was studied in relation to site preparation and use of shelterwood. Growth and survival were compared between beech, oak and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings under similar conditions. In a field experiment, with herbicide, herbicide plus fertilization and mowing as treatments, interference from herbaceous vegetation was mainly below ground. Furthermore, soil water is probably the growth factor of greatest importance for establishing beech and oak on fertile sites in southern Sweden. In pot experiments carried out in a climatic chamber both previous and current-year drought influenced growth in beech in the current year, and it was concluded that previous environmental conditions must be taken into consideration to understand growth of seedlings in the current year. Episodic drought resulted in long recovery periods in beech transpiration after rewatering, but also after-effects on transpiration. Thus, short periods of drought may still influence growth afterwards when the soil is rewetted. In field experiments, soil disturbance by patch scarification, mixing of humus with mineral soil and deep cultivation of soil did not increase growth in seedlings compared to untreated soil or where chemical vegetation control was carried out. When, vegetation was efficiently controlled by using a shelterwood of Norway spruce, survival of beech, oak and Norway spruce seedlings planted under the shelterwood trees was high. There was no difference in growth between beech and oak seedlings under the shelterwood. On an open site, oak had a shorter period of transplanting shock, higher growth during interference from vegetation and deeper roots than beech. Thus, beech need more intense site preparation for successful establishment. Herbivory by pine weevil was lower on beech and oak than on Norway spruce. Less efforts are therefore

  20. Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R Pluess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microevolution is essential for species persistence especially under anticipated climate change scenarios. Species distribution projection models suggested that the dominant tree species of lowland forests in Switzerland, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., might disappear from most areas due to expected longer dry periods. However, if genotypes at the moisture boundary of the species climatic envelope are adapted to lower moisture availability, they can serve as seed source for the continuation of beech forests under changing climates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With an AFLP genome scan approach, we studied neutral and potentially adaptive genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica in three regions containing a dry and a mesic site each (n(ind. = 241, n(markers = 517. We linked this dataset with dendrochronological growth measures and local moisture availabilities based on precipitation and soil characteristics. Genetic diversity decreased slightly at dry sites. Overall genetic differentiation was low (F(st = 0.028 and Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all populations together suggesting high (historical gene flow. The Bayesian outlier analyses indicated 13 markers with three markers differing between all dry and mesic sites and the others between the contrasting sites within individual regions. A total of 41 markers, including seven outlier loci, changed their frequency with local moisture availability. Tree height and median basal growth increments were reduced at dry sites, but marker presence/absence was not related to dendrochronological characteristics. CONCLUSION AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE: The outlier alleles and the makers with changing frequencies in relation to moisture availability indicate microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances. The general genetic similarity among sites suggests that 'preadaptive' genes can easily spread across the landscape. Yet, due to the long live span of

  1. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (fagus sylvatiga L.) and their potential impact on the European VOC budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindorf, T.; Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Holzke, C.; Köble, R.; Seufert, G.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2006-01-01

    By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of

  2. Estudio de tratamientos pregerminativos en semilla de Fagus sylvatica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbao Larringan, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    La propuesta para llevar a cabo un estudio sobre la reproducción sexual de la especie Fagus sylvatica, vino de la mano de Asociación de Viveristas Forestales de Euskadi, motivada principalmente por un previsible aumento en la demanda de plantas de dicha especie y por la heterogeneidad en la obtención del material vegetal de propagación (vecería). Esta vecería tan acusada, obliga a realizar un buen manejo en general de la semilla que se recoge, para poder tener material de repro...

  3. Root vitality of Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea Liebl. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in mature mixed forest stand

    OpenAIRE

    Grygoruk, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The main task of the present study was to investigate the root vitality of common beech Fagus sylvatica L., sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. and sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the optimal growth conditions in south-western Poland. The study was carried out in 130-year-old mixed stand located within natural range of studied tree species. The density of roots (g/100 cm3 of soil) and biomass of fine roots (g/m2) in topsoil layers (0–5 cm, 5–15 cm) were determined in the tree biogroup...

  4. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  5. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    uptake capacity of Rb+ and NH4+ by these fine roots under standardized conditions in the laboratory. The study was performed in monocultures of oak (Quercus robur L.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] on sandy soil in a tree species trial in Denmark. The...

  6. Identification and molecular characterization of LTR and LINE retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliani G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposable elements are important and peculiar genetic components derived from ancient retrovirus insertion inside plants genome. Their ability to move and/or replicate inside the genome is an important evolutionary force, responsible for the increase of genome size and the regulation of gene expression. Retrotransposable elements are well characterized in model or crop species like Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, but are poorly known in forest tree species. In this paper the molecular identification of retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L. is reported. Two retrotransposons, belonging to the two major classes of LTR and non-LTR elements, were characterized trough a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region strategy. The analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple copies of retrotransposable elements inside the genome of beech, in accordance with the viral quasi-species theory of retrotransposon evolution. The cloning and sequencing of amplification products and a Cleaved Amplified Polymorphisms (CAPs approach on the identified retrotransposons, showed a high level of diversity among the multiple copies of both elements. The identification of retrotransposable elements in forest trees represents an important step toward the understanding of mechanisms of genome evolution. Furthermore, the high polymorphism of retrotransposable elements can represent a starting point for the development of new genetic variability markers.

  7. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Torsten W; Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. PMID:27344089

  8. Root vitality of Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea Liebl. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in mature mixed forest stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the present study was to investigate the root vitality of common beech Fagus sylvatica L., sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. and sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the optimal g rowth conditions in south-western Poland. The study was carried out in 130-year-old mixed stand located within natural range of studied tree species. The density of roots (g/100 cm3 of soil and biomass of fine roots (g/m2 in topsoil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm were determined in the tree biogroups of the same species. The mean total root density ranged from 0.248 to 0.417 g/100 cm3 in the 0-5 cm soil layer, and it decreased in the deeper soil layer (5-15 cm. There were found no statistically significant differences of total root densities between tree biogroups in topsoil layers. Diversity of fine root biomass was comparable in the tree biogroups (H’ = 1.5, but common beech showed more intensive growth of fine roots in the topsoil 0-15 cm when compared to sessile oak and sycamore maple. The results of the study point out the stability of the multi-species structure of the mixed stand studied, and consequently - the ability of beech, sessile oak and sycamore maple trees to coexist in the mixed stands - in the area of natural range of these species.

  9. Recovery of soil pH, cation-exchange capacity and the saturation of exchange sites from stemflow-induced soil acidification in three Swedish beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemflow water acidifies the soil in beech stands impacted by atmospheric deposition. To investigate whether the soil recovers from acidification, stemflow was experimentally removed. A horizon material was sampled at a distance of 10-250 cm from the stems. Before the onset of the experiment, there were stemflow-induced gradients in the saturation of exchange sites with K+, H+ and Na+ that were larger near the stems, while the pHKCl, the cation-exchange capacity, and the saturation with Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ were smaller. After 8 yrs of recovery, the pHKCl and the saturation with Ca2+ and Mg2+ had increased close to the stems, while the saturation with Na+, H+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ and the C/N ratio had decreased. With some exceptions, e.g. base saturation, the recovery was not complete after 8 yrs. Soil far from stems had also changed similarly, probably because of the ongoing decrease in overall deposition in southern Sweden

  10. Assessment of CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Danish Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest and an adjacent N-fertilised barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, J.M.; Prieme, A.;

    2001-01-01

    Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured regularly in an agricultural field treated with 280 g m(-2) of sewage sludge. In a nearby beech forest N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured in a well-drained (dry) area and in a wet area adjacent to a drainage canal. We observed brief increases of both CH4 and N2O...... emissions immediately following soil applications of digested sewage sludge. Cumulated values for CH4 emissions over the course of 328 days after sludge applications indicated a small net source in sludge treated plots (7.6 mg C m(-2)) whereas sludge-free soil constituted a small sink (-0.9 mg C m(-2......)). The CH4 emission amounted 0.01% of the sludge-C. Extrapolated to current rates of sludge applications in Danish agriculture this amounts to 0.1% of the total agricultural derived CH4. Sludge applications did not affect cumulated fluxes of N2O showing 312 mg N2O-N m(-2) and 304 mg N m(-2) with and without...

  11. Ecology and Control of Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) in Turkish Eastern Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Forests

    OpenAIRE

    ESEN, DERYA

    2000-01-01

    Purple-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) and yellow-flowered rhododendron (R. flavum Don.) are two dominant shrub species of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.) understories in the eastern and western Black Sea Region (BSR), respectively. These invasive woody species significantly reduce beech growth and can preclude tree regeneration. The ecological consequence is an aging beech overstory with little or no regeneration to replace the mature trees. Great rhododendron (R. ...

  12. Composición, estructura y diversidad de la comunidad de Ácaros Mesostigmata de un hayedo natural (Fagus sylvatica del sur de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraza, M. L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, structure and diversity of the soil Mesostigmatid mite’s community was studied in European beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L. in Navarra (Spain, southern Europe. Twelve samples were taken and 653 mites were identified. They represented to 41 species from 14 families, the most abundant species being Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Veigaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 and Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. Haft part of the mites community inhabits the humic layer of the soil. The value of the Shannon’s diversity index (H´ log2 in the forest studied is 4,42, and the equitability (J´ is 0,82.Se estudia la composición específica de la comunidad de ácaros Mesostigmata en una hayedo (Fagus sylvatica L. de Navarra (España, Sur de Europa. Se han identificado 653 ácaros procedentes de 12 muestras. Estos representan a 41 especies de 14 familias y las especies más abundantes son Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Vegaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 y Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. La mitad de la comunidad habita en el horizonte húmico del suelo. En este hayedo el valor de la diversidad de Shannon (H´ log2 es 4,42 y el de la equitabilidad (J´ 0,82.

  13. Production and turnover of organic matter in three southern European Fagus sylvatica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Regina, I.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Above-ground biomass, litterfall and litter accumulation and decomposition at the soil surface were studied within three Mediterranean beech forests from Italy, France and Spain in order to better understand the recycling of elements associated with the turnover organic matter Above-ground tree biomass amounted to 131.9 Mg ha-1 at Etna (Italy, 134.2 Mg ha-1 at Sierra de la Demanda (Spain and 223.9 Mg ha-1 at Mont Lozère (France. The highest amount of total litterfall was observed at Sierra de la Demanda (4.7 Mg ha-1 year-1, followed by the Mont Lozère (4.4 Mg ha-1 year-1 and Etna (3.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. Total organic matter accumulated on the soil surface in the three beech forests amounted to 25.8 Mg ha-1 at Mont Lozère, 14.4 Mg ha-1 at Sierra de la Demanda and 12.6 Mg ha-1 at Etna. The relative proportions of leaf litter versus total litter were nearly the same in the Etna and Sierra de la Demanda forests (72 - 70%, and close to these values for Mont Lozère (65%. All the studied Mediterranean Fagus sylvatica stands appeared very similar concerning the organic matter distribution and fluxes, even if local climate and soil differences can be noticed.

    [fr] Les biomasses aériennes, les retombées de litières, leur accumulation à la surface du sol et leur décomposition, ont été étudiées dans trois hêtraies méditerranéennes d'Italie, de France et d'Espagne, pour mieux connaître la restitution au sol des bioéléments par l'intermédiaire de la matière organique. Les biomasses aériennes s'élevaient respectivement à 131.9 Mg ha-1 dans la hêtraie de l'Etna (Italie, 134.2 Mg ha-1 dans celle de Sierra de la Demanda (Espagne et à 223.9 Mg ha-1 au Mont Lozère (France. Les retombées de litière les plus fortes sont observées dans la hêtraie de la Sierra de la

  14. Is there a Future for the Isolated Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky Forests in Southern Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YILMAZ, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky is mainly found in the northern region of Turkey.There is also an approximate 40,000 ha of isolated relict oriental beech forest in southern Turkey. Thisrelict population differs somewhat from the northern distribution in terms of average altitudinaldistribution, health conditions, and reactions to climate change. Beech forest distribution in southernTurkey starts at about 1000 m, contrary to the northern distribution, which begins at about 150-200 m. Insouthern Turkey, the average temperature is higher, and summer drought occurs due to irregular rainfall.Beech trees in the south decay at earlier ages due to their sprout origins and higher temperatures than in thenorth. In recent decades, some part of the beech forests have shed leaves during the summer in response tosevere drought. Therefore, these relict populations are on the verge of extinction under unfavorableconditions.

  15. A Study of the Ultrastructure and Chemistry of Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) Normal Wood Rays and Tension Wood Rays

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tension wood and normal wood rays of American Beech Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. were examined by microscopy and chemical means and no significant differences were...

  16. RPV Model Parameters Based on Hyperspectral Bidirectional Reflectance Measurementsof Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Biliouris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bidirectional reflectance parametric and semi-empirical Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (RPV model was inverted based on Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF measurements of 60 Fagus sylvatica L. leaves in the optical domain between 400 nm and 2,500 nm. This was accomplished using data retrieved from the Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG with an azimuth and zenith angular step of 30 and 15 degrees, respectively. Wavelength depended RPV parameters describing the leaf reflectance shape (rho0, the curve convexity (k and the dominant forward scattering (Θ were derived using the RPVinversion-2 software (Joint Research Centre package with Correlation Coefficient values between modelled and measured data varying between 0.71 and 0.99 for all wavelengths, azimuth and zenith positions. The RPV model parameters were compared with a set of leaves not participating in the inversion procedure and presented Correlation Coefficient values ranging between 0.64 and 0.94 suggesting that RPV could be also used for simulating single canopy elements such as leaves.

  17. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family. PMID:24893289

  18. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Inácio

    Full Text Available The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS, a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  19. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  20. Influence of soil temperature on growth traits of European beech seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Peter C Frederick; Štraus, Ines; Mrak, Tanja; Hylton, Becky; Heath, Julie; Ferlan, Mitja; Spalding, Marilyn; Železnik, Peter; Kraigher, Hojka

    2014-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is an economically and ecologically important forest tree species in Europe. Expected future temperature increases due to global climate change may significantly affect growth of beech trees and consequently influence carbon cycling in beech forests. We tested the hypothesis that soil temperature influences the growth of both belowground and aboveground parts of beech seedlings. One-year-old seedlings were transferred into rhizotrons and subjected ...

  1. Biomass equations for European beech growing on dry sites

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty T; Saha S; Reif A

    2016-01-01

    Biomass equations for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees growing on dry sites have not been published, although such equations are needed for a proper estimation of the biomass of beech trees growing naturally at their drought limit in dry forests. We aimed to: (1) develop new allometric above-ground biomass equations for European beech trees growing on dry sites; (2) compare these equations with existing biomass equations. We harvested 86 plants, ranging from saplings to trees, from f...

  2. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD

  3. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role

  4. Unraveling the growth determinism of Fagus sylvatica: a hybrid data-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas; Delpierre, Nicolas; François, Christophe; Soudani, Kamel; Restoux, Gwendal; Dufrêne, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The physiological processes underlying the limitation of forest growth are still under debate. Growth has long been considered as a carbone (C) limited process (Sala et al., 2012). As a matter of facts, a recent global meta-analysis has shown good agreements between assimilated C and forest productivity (Litton et al., 2007). Consequently, a majority of the process-based productivity models considers growth as a fraction of the net primary production (NPP) (Lacointe et al., 2000; Sitch et al., 2003. However, investigations at the stand scale report conflicting results (Rocha et al., 2006, Mund et al., 2010) and are not systematically consistent with a strict C limitation of growth, thus challenging the C-centric paradigm. The mechanisms that potentially degrade the link between NPP and growth include: i) the direct effect of environmental factors on growth (Zweifel et al., 2006, Körner et al., 2003), ii) the temporal variability of the growth allocation coefficient, due either to ontogeny (Genet et al., 2009), or to the initial physiological state of the tree i.e. to the reaction to past conditions. Indeed, many dendrochronological and ecological studies have shown a correlation between growth and climatic factors of the previous years (e.g. Lebourgeois et al., 2005; Richardson et al., 2012). In this work, we used a hybrid data model approach in order to assess the determinant of Fagus sylvatica stem growth along a spatial gradient across France. Despite they could brought essential insight on tree functioning, intra-specific studies across contrasted sites are still lacking in the current debate. Standardized annual growth data series at the stand scale were calculated using circumference inventories and dendrochronological series on 17 plots of the RENECOFOR network. We used the process-based model CASTANEA, thoroughly validated in long term flux simulation across Europe (e.g. Delpierre et al. 2009), to simulate the annual NPP of the corresponding periods. We

  5. SOME SITE CHARACTERISTICS OF EASTERN BEECH (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) FORESTS ON TÜRKMEN MOUNTAIN (EVKONDU HILL)

    OpenAIRE

    GÖL, Ceyhun; ÇELİK, Nejat; ÇAKIR, Meriç; GÜL, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate some site conditions of eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests and to determine some relationships between soil, plant and forest floor on Evkondu hill located on Türkmen Mountain of Eskişehir province. This study was carried out at 20x10 m size sample plots on upper, middle and bottom slopes of hill at north aspect. Soil, and forest floor samples were collected from these sample plots. It was observed that distribution of Fagus oriental...

  6. Variability of half-sib progeny properties as the base of Moesian beech (Fagus moesiaca (Maly) Czeczott) breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ocokoljić Mirjana; Anastasijević Nebojša

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of several morphological features and phenotype characteristics of seedlings in the juvenile test with 10 half-sib lines of Moesian beech (Fagus moesiaca (Maly) Czeczott), this paper gives the guidelines for further breeding and production of planting material for urban coenoses and the establishment of special purpose plantations of this species. The comparative analysis enabled the identification of the extreme planting material for further breeding programs aiming at ...

  7. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition for nitrogen (N, particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With interspecific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to interspecific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with interspecific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech.

  8. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness develops progressively in Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of ozone and leaf senescence on steady-state stomatal conductance and stomatal response to light variation. Measurements were carried out in a free-air ozone exposure experiment on a representative deciduous broadleaved tree species in Japan (Fagus crenata). Both steady-state and dynamic stomatal response to light variation varied intrinsically with season due to leaf senescence. Ozone induced the decrease in steady-state leaf gas exchange and the sluggish stomatal closure progressively. These findings suggest that ozone reduces the ability of plants to adapt to a fluctuating light environment under natural conditions, and therefore impairs plant growth and ability to control water loss. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of ozone and leaf senescence on stomatal response to light variation. ► Measurements were carried out in a free-air ozone exposure experiment on Siebold's beech. ► Stomatal response to light variation varied intrinsically with season due to leaf senescence. ► Steady-state stomatal conductance was reduced under elevated ozone. ► Ozone increased time for stomatal closing and reduced light-saturated photosynthesis progressively. - Ozone progressively induces a sluggishness of stomatal light response.

  9. Phenological development of fagus sylvatica L. and Aesculus hipocastanum L. in relation to mean monthly temperatures for the Kočevje locality during 1961-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhar, Urša; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2003-01-01

    Long-term phenological development of forest trees and shrubs is an important indicator of changes in the onset of specific phenological phase at different sites in relation to meteorological conditions. Correlation analysis and linear multiple regression were used to establish relationship between phenological phases for Fagus sylvatica and Aesculus hippocastanum and mean monthly air temperatures for the Kočevje locality in the period 1961-1990. Correlation coefficients between the onset of ...

  10. Shading and root-shoot relations in saplings of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, van A.F.M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) can regenerate successfully under a canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Shading reduces plant growth and modifies plant form, two related aspects. This study focuses on the effects of shadin

  11. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during late springtime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schade, Gunnar W.; Solomon, Sheena J.; Dellwik, Ebba;

    2011-01-01

    In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Denmark. Fluxes of methanol were bidirectional: Emission...

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameter...

  13. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  14. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  15. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Sterck, F.J.; Wegner, L.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Arx, von G.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica

  16. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...

  17. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Sobhan, I.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters includ

  18. Regions of provenance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aunon, F.J.; Garcia del Barrio, J.M.; Mancha, J.A.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Alia, R.

    2011-01-01

    The European Council Directive 1999/105/CE, concerning the marketing of forest reproductive material, establishes a Region of Provenance as the basic unity for trading tree reproductive materials (fruits, seeds or plants) and defines it as “the area or group of areas subjected to sufficiently unifor

  19. Soil solution chemistry at one mountain beech (Fagus sylvatica L. CONECOFOR plot, 1999 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guia Cecchini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil solution monitoring aims to understand various temporal scales of soil processes. The first eight years of observation in ABR1 Level II site have brought significant elements of understanding about the shorter temporal scales. It is suggested that certain solutes, regularly produced by forest floor microbial processes, are transferred to the highly mobile portion of the soil solution by a non linear process, producing irregular pulses and creating a strong high frequency component. Seasonal processes remain nonetheless detectable after simple and rough filtering. A multi-year trend of diminished nitrate mineralization and increased pH of forest floor solutions is possible. It is estimated that much more accurate analysis will be possible in a relatively short time span of further monitoring.

  20. Optimization of a formic/acetic acid treatment of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) for delignification

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Mathilde; Richel, Aurore; Vanderghem, Caroline; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Lignin is a promising molecule constituting a renewable alternative to some petrochemical industry products. Lignin is an aromatic cross-linked heteropolymer composed of three phenylpropanoids (p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl and syringyl units) linked together via radical coupling reactions by specific ether or carbon-carbon bonds. With this phenylpropanoid structure, lignin is a rich resource of biobased products that could find high-valued applications in a lot of different areas like petrochemi...

  1. Different Atmospheric Methane-Oxidizing Communities in European Beech and Norway Spruce Soils▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Degelmann, Daniela M.; Borken, Werner; Drake, Harold L; Kolb, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests exhibit lower annual atmospheric methane consumption rates than do European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. In the current study, pmoA (encoding a subunit of membrane-bound CH4 monooxygenase) genes from three temperate forest ecosystems with both beech and spruce stands were analyzed to assess the potential effect of tree species on methanotrophic communities. A pmoA sequence difference of 7% at the derived protein level correlated with the species-level d...

  2. Visualizing carbon and nitrogen transfer in the tripartite symbiosis of Fagus sylvatica, ectomycorrhizal fungi and soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Werner; Dietrich, Marlies; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gabriel, Raphael; Gorka, Stefan; Wiesenbauer, Julia; Martin, Victoria; Schweiger, Peter; Reipert, Siegfried; Weidinger, Marieluise; Richter, Andreas; Woebken, Dagmar; Kaiser, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Translocation of recently photoassimilated plant carbon (C) into soil via root exudates or mycorrhizal fungi is key to understand global carbon cycling. Plants support symbiotic fungi and soil microorganisms with recent photosynthates to get access to essential elements, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus. While a 'reciprocal reward strategy' (plants trade C in exchange for nutrients from the fungus) has been shown for certain types of mycorrhizal associations, only little is known about the mechanisms of C and N exchange between mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and soil bacteria. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the fact that C and N transfer between plants, mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria takes place at the micrometer scale, which makes it difficult to explore at the macro scale. In this project we intended to analyse carbon and nitrogen flows between roots of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica), their associated ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacterial community. In order to visualize this nutrient flow at a single cell level, we used a stable isotope double labelling (13C and 15N) approach. Young mycorrhizal beech trees were transferred from a forest to split-root boxes, consisting of two compartments separated by a membrane (35 μm mesh size) which was penetrable for hyphae but not for plant roots. After trees and mycorrhizal fungi were allowed to grow for one year in these boxes, 15N-labelled nitrogen solution was added only to the root-free compartment to allow labelled nitrogen supply only through the fungal network. 13C- labelled carbon was applied by exposing the plants to a 13CO2 gas atmosphere for 8 hours. Spatial distribution of the isotopic label was visualised at the microscale in cross sections of mycorrhizal root-tips (the plant/mycorrhizal fungi interface) and within and on the surface of external mycorrhizal hyphae (the fungi/soil bacteria interface) using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Corresponding

  3. DECLINE IN SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FOLLOWING TREE GIRTLING IN MATURE BEECH AND SPRUCE STANDS IN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were undertaken to estimate the contribution of autotrophic respiration to total soil CO2 efflux in stands of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Five mature trees of each species were girdled to eliminate carbo...

  4. Recent losses of base cations from soils of Fagus sylvatica L. stands in northeastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, in order to assess changes in soil acidity, we resampled the mineral soil from 95 plots in beech forests distributed throughout northeastern France, ca 20 years after a first sampling in 1970-1973. Changes between the two sampling dates were more conspicuous for acidic soils than for mesotrophic or calcareous soils. We observed a significant decrease in base saturation, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, and potassium in the whole profile of the acidic soils. Median cation losses calculated for these soils down to a depth of 80 cm were 18.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 for calcium, 2.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 for magnesium, and 2.4 kg ha-1 yr-1 for potassium. This loss was not reflected by changes in soil pH (measured in water extracts). The intensity of the cation losses and the analysis of the pollution climate over the last 20 years suggest that atmospheric deposition could have contributed to the observed changes

  5. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  6. Macromycetes of beech forests within the eastern part of the Fagus area in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisiewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the author's view on the habitat if individual forest communities based on the fungi she has collected and gives a comparison of the mycoflora of beech forest in Poland and in south and central Europe. The beech forest were studied by the phytosociological method. Fruit bodies occurring on the soil, in the litter and on rotten wood were studied.

  7. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respira...

  8. Fagus dominance in Chinese montane forests: natural regeneration of Fagus lucida and Fagus hayatae var. pashanica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, K.F.

    1995-01-01

    Fagus species are important components of certain mesic temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Of eleven Fagus species distinguished, five are found in China. Chinese beeches are restricted to the mountains of southern China. In the montane zones of the northern subtropics beeches (Fagus engl

  9. Canopy carbon budget of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata) sapling under free air ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of ozone (O3) on the canopy carbon budget, we investigated photosynthesis and respiration of leaves of Siebold's beech saplings under free air O3 exposure (60 nmol mol−1, during daytime) in relation to the within-canopy light gradient; we then calculated the canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain (PCG) and respiratory carbon loss (RCL) using a canopy photosynthesis model. Susceptibilities of photosynthesis and respiration to O3 were greater in leaves of upper canopy than in the lower canopy. The canopy net carbon gain (NCG) was reduced by O3 by 12.4% during one growing season. The increased RCL was the main factor for the O3-induced reduction in NCG in late summer, while contributions of the reduced PCG and the increased RCL to the NCG were almost the same in autumn. These results indicate contributions of changes in PCG and RCL under O3 to NCG were different between seasons. -- Highlights: • Upper canopy leaf of Siebold's beech is sensitive to ozone. • The net carbon gain of canopy was reduced by ozone. • Enhanced respiration by ozone highly contributes to net carbon gain in late summer. -- Contributions of ozone-induced reduction in photosynthesis and increase in respiration to canopy net carbon gain of beech sapling were different between seasons

  10. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  11. Heterogeneous genetic structure in a Fagus crenata population in an old-growth beech forest revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuka, Y; Tomaru, N; Nisimura, N; Tsumura, Y; Yamamoto, S

    2004-05-01

    The within-population genetic structure of Fagus crenata in a 4-ha plot (200 x 200 m) of an old-growth beech forest was analysed using microsatellite markers. To assess the genetic structure, Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. Correlograms of Moran's I showed significant positive values less than 0.100 for short-distance classes, indicating weak genetic structure. The genetic structure within the population is created by limited seed dispersal, and is probably weakened by overlapping seed shadow, secondary seed dispersal, extensive pollen flow and the thinning process. Genetic structure was detected in a western subplot of 50 x 200 m with immature soils and almost no dwarf bamboos (Sasa spp.), where small and intermediate-sized individuals were distributed in aggregations with high density because of successful regeneration. By contrast, genetic structure was not found in an eastern subplot of the same size with mature soils and Sasa cover, where successful regeneration was prevented, and the density of the small and intermediate-sized individuals was low. Moreover, genetic structure of individuals in a small-size class (diameter at breast height large-size class (diameter at breast height >/= 12 cm). The apparent genetic structure detected in the 4-ha plot was therefore probably the result of the structure in the western portion of the plot and in small and intermediate-sized individuals that successfully regenerated under the favourable environment. The heterogeneity in genetic structure presumably reflects variation in the density that should be affected by differences in regeneration dynamics associated with heterogeneity in environmental conditions.

  12. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during springtime

    OpenAIRE

    Schade, G. W.; Solomon, S. J.; E. Dellwik; K. Pilegaard; A. Ladstätter-Weissenmayer

    2008-01-01

    In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Denmark. Emission fluxes of methanol occurred dominantly late at night, which was supported by highest mixing ratios in the crown region, and is in line with recent controlled laboratory experiments. Also confirming previous measurements, mono...

  13. Effects of planted European beech on the understory in Scots pine forests of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Marozas V; Augustaitis A; Armolaitis K; Kliucius A; Pilkauskas M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the planting of non-native species impacts native vegetation is of most importance for forest management, as introduced species may alter environmental conditions with respect to soil composition, light intensity, and species composition. Here, we compared the stand structure, understory vegetation and site properties of a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as the second tree lay...

  14. Evaluating the species- and site-specific differences in the physiological response of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Rothe, Andreas; Treydte, Kerstin

    2013-04-01

    Sensitive regions like the Alps are very vulnerable to climate change. Especially warmer temperatures and a higher frequency of drought periods may imply strong effects on mountain ecosystems. In the Northern Limestone Alps, temperatures were already 1 °C higher (compared to the reference period 1941-1970) in the last two decades. Within a Bavarian-Austrian EU-project (INTERREG program) we investigated long-term growth patterns of mountain tree species and a possible growth effect caused by climate change using a dendroecological approach. In total we measured the ring widths of ~1300 living, on average 180 year old trees. The samples were taken along altitudinal gradients, ranging from 500 up to 1700 m a.s.l., in five different regions in the Northern Austrian and Bavarian Limestone Alps, covering the most prevalent coniferous (Picea abies, Abies alba, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris) and broad-leafed (Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus) mountain forest species. To get more detailed information about the physiological response to climate and especially drought events of different tree species, an additional study was conducted in the Kalkalpen Nationalpark, Austria. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua tree-rings (8 trees per species and site) were analysed at three different sites. The sites are located at the montane elevation level (900 m a.s.l.) on a south-facing and a north-facing slope as well on a plateau situation with deeper soils. Our main focus deals with the following questions: i) Is it possible to identify "drought events" in a region like the Alps with generally humid precipitation conditions (1400 mm/a), by analysing stable isotopes in tree rings? ii) Are there species- and/or site-specific differences in the isotopic signatures - also with respect to the trees' climate response? We will present (i) the isotopic signatures for the common period 1970-2010, (ii) their response to climate conditions

  15. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  16. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  17. FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, PHY SIOGNOMIC AND STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF THE FAGUS SYLVATICA L. FORESTS OF THE MT. ETNA NATURAL PARK (SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. PUZZOLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on all the Etna beech distribution area and consists of a phytosociological analysis. Moreover data relating to various pysiognomical and structural aspects was collected from 12 sample areas selected on the different expositions of the volcano. From the phytosociological analysis it emerged that it is very difficult to define the Etna beech forests syntaxonomically: in most cases it can be seen that they belong to the class Querco-Fagetea, but it is not always possible to identify the association, the alliance and the order. Some communities seem to belong to the Quercetalia pubescentis rather than to the Fagetalia sylvaticae. Other communities do not even belong to the class Querco-Fagetea. These are in fact relict forests surviving in extreme life conditions. They are at the southern limit of its distribution area and are subject to unfavorable environmental conditions: a volcanic substrata, the Mediterranean climate, the high level of man’s intervention. The study of the tree and stump density, stem diameter, basal area, litter cover and litter thickness and seedling density, carried out on 12 sample areas, shows that these forests have a very variable physiognomy and structure. The forests with a more balanced physiognomy and structure are made up of forests with high trunks of different ages. The seedling density, correlated with the litter thickness and cover, was found to be significant in areas located on the east side of Etna, where there are better light conditions and greater rainfall. This study brought to light the presence of a species: Monotropa hypopytis L. not previously reported as having been found on Mt. Etna.

  18. Girdling Affects Ectomycorrhizal Fungal (EMF) Diversity and Reveals Functional Differences in EMF Community Composition in a Beech Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, R.; Offermann, C.; Simon, J.; Naumann, P. S.; Gessler, A.; Holst, J; Dannenmann, M.; Mayer, H.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Rennenberg, H.; Polle, A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between plant carbon resources, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity in a monospecific, old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest were investigated by manipulating carbon flux by girdling. We hypothesized that disruption of the carbon supply would not affect diversity and EMF species numbers if EM fungi can be supplied by plant internal carbohydrate resources or would result in selective disappearance of EMF taxa because of differences...

  19. VOC emissions from beech, birch, and oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, J.; Folkers, A.; Koch, N.; Kleist, E.

    2003-04-01

    VOC emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula pendula), and oak (Quercus robur) were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors. Oak emitted nearly exclusively isoprene. The dependence of these isoprene emissions on temperature and photosynthetic radiation (PAR) could quite well be described with existing algorithms and the emission factors were fairly constant. Beech and birch emitted mainly short chained oxygenated VOC and monoterpenes. Temperature and PAR dependence of monoterpene emissions were superimposed by a slow frequency modulation. Hence, descriptions of these emissions with existing algorithms were not successful. Moreover, in some cases the emission pattern switched drastically. For birch it was observed that the plant switched from a sesquiterpene emitter to a monoterpene emitter. emission pattern plants. Emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and methanol were not affected by PAR. Here, the emission factors are determined by other factors not included in existing algorithms.

  20. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Otmar; Klem, Karel; Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Šprtová, Mirka; Teslová-Navrátilová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal V; Grace, John

    2014-02-01

    It has been suggested that atmospheric CO2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit.

  1. Utjecaj različitih sjetvenih supstrata i vrsta sporotopivih gnojiva na rast i fiziološke parametre sadnica obične bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.) u rasadniku i nakon presadnje

    OpenAIRE

    Seletković, Ivan; Potočić, Nenad; Jazbec, Anamarija; Čosić, Tomislav; JAKOVLJEVIĆ, TAMARA

    2009-01-01

    U radu su prikazani rezultati pokusa u kojemu se ispitivao utje caj različitih supstrata (Litvanski treset, supstrat Humofin, supstrat Stender A400) i vrsta sporotopivih gnojiva (Osmocote Exact Standard 5-6 M i 12-14 M) na rast i fiziološke parametre sadnica obične bukve (Fagus sylvaticaL.) u ra sad niku i nakon presadnje na teren. Pokus je postavljen u rasadniku Šumarskog instituta, Jastrebarsko, kao randomizirani blok s osam tretiranja i četiri ponav lja nja. Sadnicama je određena koncentra...

  2. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Coppin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light

  3. Effects of different silvicultural measures on plant diversity - the case of the Illyrian Fagus sylvatica habitat type (Natura 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutnar L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the Natura 2000 network covers more than 37% of the country. Forests dominate more than 70% of this area, and forest management is a significant driver of diversity. Depending on the options applied, forest management may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity. Dinaric fir-beech forests (part of Natura 2000 habitat type with remarkable nature-conservation interest and timber production functions were selected for this study. With the aim of testing the effects of different silvicultural measures on plant diversity in these forests, and consequently on biodiversity in a broader sense, three sites in the Slovenian part of a Dinaric fir-beech forest range were studied. The plant species diversity was assessed before and after the implementation of silvicultural measures of three intensities: (1 control plots - no logging; (2 logging of 50% of the growing stock; and (3 logging of 100% of the growing stock. Before the implementation of the silvicultural measures, the mean number of plant species per 400 m² vegetation plots was 48.8, and the mean value of the Shannon’s diversity index was 2.41. Two years after the measures were implemented, different magnitudes of plant species turnover were observed. There were no significant changes in plant diversity status and vegetation composition in the control plots. Two years after 50% of the growing stock was logged, the mean number of species was 73.3, and the mean value of the Shannon index was 3.21. In the plots where all the trees were removed, the mean number of species was 87.4, and the mean value of the Shannon index was 3.42. In parallel with the increases in the diversity parameters, the cover of the herbaceous layer increased significantly with an increase in the silvicultural intensity, indicating that short-term species turnover can mostly be attributed to herbaceous plant species. As a result of changed stand and ecological conditions, an increased plant diversity, a greater

  4. INVASION OF BEECH AND E STABLISHMENT OF BEECH FORESTS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. POTT

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When studying the natural development in the evolution of beechwood forests in Central Europe after the last glaciation, it is necessary to look at the warm periods prior to the last Weichselian glaciation. The Eem interglacial period has already been studied in great detail in Europe; it is evidend with similar climatic conditions as the current Holocene. At that time nearly all of Europe was more or less completely covered with forests. As laminated sediments and datings indicate, the Eem interglacial period lasted from approximately 125000 to 113000 years before today. The types of trees were generally the same as those of the present, except for the beech (Fagus which was missing due to its delayed re-migration and was replaced by the hornbeam (Carpinus. It was not until the present time following the glaciation-periods that Fagus sylvatica could be found again widespread throughout the woodland vegetation covering Central Europe. The Holocene expansion and re-colonisation of Fagus sylvatica from its refuges during the glacial periods will be described in great detail, based on the most recent pollen analytic proofs.

  5. Over-mature beech trees (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and close-to-nature forestry in northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Moradi; Mohammad R.Marvie Mohadjer; Kiomars Sefidi; Mahmoud Zobiri; Ali Omidi

    2012-01-01

    Oriental Beech is the most important commercial tree species in northern Iran.In recent years wood production companies interested in felling large beech trees for profit have challenged advocates of close-to-nature silviculture who favor conservation.Our study objective was to assess the economic value of over-mature beech trees by relating tree diameter (DBH) to amount of decay.Based on the location of onset of decay,we categorized three types of decay as stump,stem,and crown decay.Trees of greater diameter (age) typically showed greater decay in the stem.Percent of decayed volume,diameter of decayed tissue,and length of decay in tree stems varied between 0.5%-64.3%,15 cm-75 cm,and 2.0-19.5 m,respectively.With increasing trunk diameter,the proportion of truck decay increased.Red heart and dark red heart constituted 25% and 14.3% of sampled trees,respectively.However,we found no correlation between intensity of stem decay and morphological characteristics of trees.Seedlings were not abundant around the bases of over-mature trees,suggesting that the trees did not contribute to regeneration of the stand.Beech trees of diameter >1 m do not provide valuable round wood for industries and cause to raise wood production costs.We recommend that these trees >1 m DBH should be retained in forest stands because of their low commercial value but high ecological and conservational values such as maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems.

  6. Effect of livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diver-sity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests, Guilan, Masal, northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sepide Sadat Ebrahimi; Hassan Pourbabaei; David Potheir; Ali Omidi; Javad Torkaman

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity plays key ecological roles in forest ecosystems, including influencing succession, resilience and nutrient cycling. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diversity. We surveyed 50 ha of pro-tected area and 50 ha of unprotected area to evaluate herbaceous species diversity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests in northern Iran. We calculated and compared three indices each of diversity and evenness, and species richness between the two areas. Herbaceous cover was higher in the unprotected area while leaf litter depth and tree canopy cover were higher in the protected area. The diversity indices, H (Shan-non-Wiener index ), N1 (McArthur index), N2 (Hill΄s index), EQ (Modified Nee index), Evar (Smith-Wilson index), E5 (modified index of Hill) and R=S (species richness) and species richness R=S were greater in the protected area than in the unprotected area, suggesting that protection from grazing results in increased numbers of plants and species. The effect of land protection on plant diversity was more pronounced for evenness than for species richness and the positive correlation between diversity and even-ness indices was higher than that between diversity and richness.

  7. Dead wood characteristics influencing macrofungi species abundance and diversity in Caspian natural beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiomars Sefidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aimed to examine the dead wood inhabiting macrofungi communities occurring on dead beech and hornbeam trees in Caspian forests. Area of study: The Kheiroud forest in the north of Iran. Material and Methods: Data from 205 sampling dead tree were analyzed by means of Generalized Linear Models (GLM to test the effects of decay stage, DBH, Length or Height on macrofungi diversity. Additionally, tree species, dead wood size, log position, decay stage were used as predictor factors for the number of sporocarps species (NSS as a fungal species richness and diversity in each dead log using analysis of variance Main results: The number of sporocarps species (NSS varied in different dead wood size and decay classes. The different stages of decay and the different size classes of dead wood had significantly different species richness of macrofungi. Deadwood in the high-decayed stages contained the highest diversity of fungi. Most of fungi identified on both logs and snags belonged to Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. The highest value for richness and evenness indices calculated in large diameter dead wood in decay class III. The results indicated the size and decay class of dead wood describe the greatest variance of the model that means the highest number of sporocarps species inhabited on the large dead wood in advanced stage of decaying. Research highlights: Macrofungi diversity varied significantly across pieces of dead wood with downed logs, larger pieces, and wood in later stages of decay having the highest macrofungi diversity.

  8. Odvisnost med nastopom fenofaz pri bukvi in navadnem divjem kostanju v Kočevju ter povprečnimi mesečnimi temperaturami zraka v obdobju od leta 1961 do 1990: Phenological development of fagus sylvatica L. and Aesculus hipocastanum L. in relation to mean monthly temperatures for the Kočevje locality during 1961-1990:

    OpenAIRE

    Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Vilhar, Urša

    2003-01-01

    Long-term phenological development of forest trees and shrubs is an important indicator of changes in the onset of specific phenological phase at different sites in relation to meteorological conditions. Correlation analysis and linear multiple regression were used to establish relationship between phenological phases for Fagus sylvatica and Aesculus hippocastanum and mean monthly air temperatures for the Kočevje locality in the period 1961-1990. Correlation coefficients between the onset of ...

  9. Comparison of Decomposition Rates of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link) Litter in Pure and Mixed Stands of Both Species in Artvin, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARIYILDIZ, Temel; TÜFEKÇİOĞLU, Aydın; Küçük, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of spruce, beech and mixed litters of spruce and beech was investigated over 3.5 years in beech, spruce and mixed (beech/spruce) stands using less than 1.5 mm mesh litter bags. Initially, carbon, nitrogen, lignin and cellulose concentrations, and C:N and lignin:N ratios were determined in beech and spruce litters. For all sampling intervals, mixed litters showed higher decay rates than individual beech and spruce litters in both pure stands and mixed stands. Spruce decompose...

  10. Non-linear height-diameter models for oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky in the Hyrcanian forests, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between tree height and diameter is an important element in growth and yield models, in carbon budget and timber volume models, and in the description of stand dynamics. Six non-linear growth functions (i.e. Chapman-Richards, Schnute, Lundqvist/Korf, Weibull, Modified Logistic and Exponential were fitted to tree height-diameter data of oriental beech in the Hyrcanian mixed hardwood forests of Iran. The predictive performance of these models was in the first place assessed by means of different model evaluation criteria such as adjusted R squared (adjR2, root mean square error (RMSE, Akaike information criterion (AIC, mean difference (MD, mean absolute difference (MAD and mean square (MS error criteria. Although each of the six models accounted for approximately 75% of total variation in height, a large difference in asymptotic estimates was observed. Apart from this, the predictive performance of the models was also evaluated by means of cross-validation and by splitting the data into 5-cm diameter classes. Plotting the MD in relation to these diameter at breast height (DBH classes showed for all growth functions, except for the Modified Logistic function, similar mean prediction errors for small- and medium-sized trees. Large-sized trees, however, showed a higher mean prediction error. The Modified Logistic function showed the worst performance due to a large model bias. The Exponential and Lundqvist/Korf models were discarded due to their showing biologically illogical behavior and unreasonable estimates for the asymptotic coefficient, respectively. Considering all the above-mentioned criteria, the Chapman-Richards, Weibull, and Schnute functions provided the most satisfactory height predictions. However, we would recommend the Chapman-Richards function for further analysis because of its higher predictive performance.

  11. Wybrane zagadnienia z morfogenezy liści drzew. II. Występowanie młodocianych form liści w koronach drzew buka zwyczajnego (Fagus silvatica L. [Studies on the mohprogenesis of tree-leaves. II. The occurrence of juvenile forms of leaves in the crowns of beech trees (Fagus silvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Więckowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was fairly often observed that Fagus silvatica L. leafed twice during one vegetational season. This secondary growth occurred on all trees, when the first leaves underwent destruction, e.g. in consequence of late spring frost. The leaves of secondary growth differed pronouncedly from normally developed ones by their shape and irregular nervation and were similar to the juvenile leaves of one-year-old seedlings of beech. Observations of leaf buds showed that the nerves appeared in leaf-primordia of Fagus silvatica as late as the latter part of July and if the secondary leaves developed at the end of July, they were normal in shape and bad regular nervation. Leaf-primordia compelled to an earlier development gave leaves of different form and irregular nervation.

  12. Effects of relative irradiance on the leaf structure of Fagus sylvatica L. seedlings planted in the understory of a Pinus sylvestris L. stand after thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech seedlings were established in the understory of a Pinus sylvestris plantation close to one of the southernmost populations of beech in Europe, the beech-oak forest of Montejo de la Sierra. Four years later, the overstory was partially reduced by removing pine trees. Solar radiation in the understory was evaluated by hemispherical canopy photographic technique and the effects of relative irradiance increment on the leaf anatomy of beech seedlings were analyzed during the two years after opening the stand. The increase in specific leaf mass (SLM) in seedlings during both years runs in parallel with the increase in relative irradiance estimated by the global light factor (GLF) which expresses the proportion of global radiation relative to that in the open. There were significant relationships between the light index as a surrogate of light environment and the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the leaves. In the first year, SLM increase was more related to total blade thickness. In the second year, thickness of palisade parenchyma (PP) appears more relevant than that of spongy tissue (SP) as indicated by the absence of significance in the relationship between SP and SLM. Moreover, stomatal density was also higher according to increasing relative irradiance. The shift response of beech seedlings to the overstory opening makes evident their capability of acclimatization to light increase through changes in leaf anatomy. (author)

  13. Impacts of repeated timber skidding on the chemical properties of topsoil, herbaceous cover and forest floor in an eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Comez, Aydin; Yilmaz, Ersel

    2010-07-01

    In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction. PMID:21186723

  14. Summer drought impedes beech seedling performance more in a sub-Mediterranean forest understory than in small gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, T Matthew; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Aranda, Ismael

    2009-02-01

    Refugia of mixed beech forest persist in the central mountains of the Iberian Peninsula at the south-western limit of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) distribution. The lack of beech regeneration is a concern in this region that has experienced reduced rainfall and higher temperatures over the past 30 years. Beech is considered especially susceptible to climate change because of its conservative shade-tolerant growth strategy; hence seedling responses to drought stress in gaps and in the understory are of particular interest. During the summer of 2007, a watering treatment raised the soil water content by up to 5% in gap and understory plots of beech seedlings in a mixed beech forest. Root-collar diameter was increased by our watering treatment in understory seedlings. Neither drought-avoidance through stomatal closure nor physiological drought-tolerance mechanisms were able to mitigate the effects of water stress in the understory seedlings, whereas osmotic adjustment enhanced the ability of the gap seedlings to tolerate water stress. Overall, high photosynthetic rates in the gaps, despite the photoinhibitory effects of high radiation, allowed gap seedlings to survive and grow better than the understory seedlings irrespective of water availability. Our results indicate that further intensification of summer drought, predicted for the Iberian Peninsula, will hinder the establishment of a beech seedling bank in the understory because of the conflicting seedling trait responses to simultaneously withstand water stress and to tolerate shade. PMID:19203950

  15. Species Favourability Shift in Europe due to Climate Change: A Case Study for Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L. Karst. Based on an Ensemble of Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Falk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the main environmental driver determining the spatial distribution of most tree species at the continental scale. We investigated the distribution change of European beech and Norway spruce due to climate change. We applied a species distribution model (SDM, driven by an ensemble of 21 regional climate models in order to study the shift of the favourability distribution of these species. SDMs were parameterized for 1971–2000, as well as 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 using the SRES scenario A1B and three physiological meaningful climate variables. Growing degree sum and precipitation sum were calculated for the growing season on a basis of daily data. Results show a general north-eastern and altitudinal shift in climatological favourability for both species, although the shift is more marked for spruce. The gain of new favourable sites in the north or in the Alps is stronger for beech compared to spruce. Uncertainty is expressed as the variance of the averaged maps and with a density function. Uncertainty in species distribution increases over time. This study demonstrates the importance of data ensembles and shows how to deal with different outcomes in order to improve impact studies by showing uncertainty of the resulting maps.

  16. Coagulation-flocculation of beech condensate: particles size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmouli, Mohammed; Haluk, Jean Pierre

    2002-05-01

    Beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) condensate from a steaming operation was studied. The objective of our work was to study the precipitation of these wood extracts in presence of calcium ion after autoxidation at basic pH (8). The autoxidation was carried out at 250 rpm for 30 min, and flocculation was followed up for 30 min. An investigation with a laser sizer Mastersizer of Malvern has been done in order to study the influence of the agitation on the state of aggregation of the condensate. A negative correlation was observed between the mean size of particles and the agitation rate. Without stirring, flocculation rapidly occurred and the mean size of particles was high. Calcium-induced aggregation of the condensate was also found to be reversible toward agitation. PMID:16290593

  17. Priority effects during fungal community establishment in beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Jennifer; Savoury, Melanie; Müller, Carsten T; Lindahl, Björn D; Rogers, Hilary J; Boddy, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    Assembly history of fungal communities has a crucial role in the decomposition of woody resources, and hence nutrient cycling and ecosystem function. However, it has not been clearly determined whether the fungal species that arrive first may, potentially, dictate the subsequent pathway of community development, that is, whether there is a priority effect at the species level. We used traditional culture-based techniques coupled with sequencing of amplified genetic markers to profile the fungal communities in beech (Fagus sylvatica) disks that had been pre-colonised separately with nine species from various stages of fungal succession. Clear differences in community composition were evident following pre-colonisation by different species with three distinct successor communities identified, indicating that individual species may have pivotal effects in driving assembly history. Priority effects may be linked to biochemical alteration of the resource and combative ability of the predecessor. PMID:25798754

  18. Direct contribution of nitrogen deposition to nitrous oxide emissions in a temperate beech and spruce forest – a 15N tracer study

    OpenAIRE

    Eickenscheidt, N.; R. Brumme; Veldkamp, E.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in forest ecosystems is still unclear. Our study assessed the direct contribution of N deposition to N2O emissions in temperate forests exposed to chronic high N depositions using a 15N labelling technique. In a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies) and in a beech stand (Fagus sylvatica) at the Solling, Germany, we used a low concentrated 15N-labelled ammonium-nitrate solution to simulate N deposi...

  19. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzaghi, Mattia; Montagnoli, Antonio; Di Iorio, Antonino; Scippa, Gabriella S; Chiatante, Donato

    2013-01-01

    Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated six times in each stand during the same 2008 growing season. Fine-root sampling was conducted within three different soil depths (0-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm). Fine-root traits were measured by means of WinRHIZO software which enable us to separate them into three different diameter classes (0-0.5, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm). The data collected indicate that N concentration was higher in converted stands than in the coppiced stand whereas C concentration was higher in the coppiced stand than in converted stands. Consequently the fine-root C:N ratio was significantly higher in coppiced than in converted stands and showed an inverse relationship with fine-root turnover rate, confirming a significant change of fine-root status after the conversion of a coppice to high forest. PMID:23785374

  20. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia eTerzaghi; Antonio eMontagnoli; Antonino eDi Iorio; Gabriella Stefania Scippa; Donato eChiatante

    2013-01-01

    Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated 6 times in each s...

  1. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest

    OpenAIRE

    Terzaghi, Mattia; Montagnoli, Antonio; Di Iorio, Antonino; Scippa, Gabriella S.; CHIATANTE, DONATO

    2013-01-01

    Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated six times in each...

  2. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzaghi, Mattia; Montagnoli, Antonio; Di Iorio, Antonino; Scippa, Gabriella S; Chiatante, Donato

    2013-01-01

    Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated six times in each stand during the same 2008 growing season. Fine-root sampling was conducted within three different soil depths (0-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm). Fine-root traits were measured by means of WinRHIZO software which enable us to separate them into three different diameter classes (0-0.5, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm). The data collected indicate that N concentration was higher in converted stands than in the coppiced stand whereas C concentration was higher in the coppiced stand than in converted stands. Consequently the fine-root C:N ratio was significantly higher in coppiced than in converted stands and showed an inverse relationship with fine-root turnover rate, confirming a significant change of fine-root status after the conversion of a coppice to high forest.

  3. Fine-root carbon and nitrogen concentration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Italy Prealps: possible implications of coppice conversion to high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eTerzaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine-root systems represent a very sensitive plant compartment to environmental changes. Gaining further knowledge about their dynamics would improve soil carbon input understanding. This paper investigates C and N concentrations in fine roots in relation to different stand characteristics resulting from conversion of coppiced forests to high forests. In order to evaluate possible interferences due to different vegetative stages of vegetation, fine-root sampling was repeated 6 times in each stand during the same 2008 growing season. Fine-root sampling was conducted within three different soil depths (0-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm. Fine-root traits were measured by means of WinRHIZO software which enable us to separate them into three different diameter classes (0-0.5, 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm. The data collected indicate that N concentration was higher in converted stands than in the coppiced stand whereas C concentration was higher in the coppiced stand than in converted stands. Consequently the fine-root C:N ratio was significantly higher in coppiced than in converted stands and showed an inverse relationship with fine-root turnover rate, confirming a significant change of fine-root status after the conversion of a coppice to high forest.

  4. Native lignin for bonding fiber boards - evaluation of bonding mechanisms in boards made from laccase-treated fibers of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Sanadi, Anand;

    2004-01-01

    have a high wet strength compared to boards made from untreated fibers. This indicates better fiber-fiber interactions and improved fiber-fiber stress transfer. The surface of laccase-treated fibers shows a markedly increased hydrophobicity as well as a change in the chemical composition, which...... indicate that lignin extractives are precipitated on the fiber surfaces. The improved bonding may be related to several factors, linked to a more lignin rich fiber surface, such as surface molecular entanglements and covalent bonding between fibers through cross-linking of radicals. (C) 2004 Published...

  5. Biomass and nutrients allocation in pot cultured beech seedlings:influence of nitrogen fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Bagherzadeh; Rainer Brumme; Friedrich Beese

    2008-01-01

    Allocation of biomass and nutrient elements including Nitrogen to above and belowground compartments of beech seedlings (Fagus sylvatica L.) treated by labeled nitrogen fertilizer in the form of 15NH4 and 15NO3 were investigated at the end of two successive growing seasons.Pot cultured beech seedlings were grown at a green house on intact soil cores sampled from three adjacent stands including beech,Norway spruce and mixed beech-spruce cultures of Solling forest,Germany.Comparing biomass allocation and nutrients concentrations of the seedlings between the control and 15N-fertilized treatments revealed no significant effect of N fertilization on nutrients uptake by seedlings over the experiment.The form of N input influenced its movement into plant pools.It was demonstrated that beech seedlings take up nitrogen mainly in the form of nitrate,which is then reduced in the leaves,although the differences between the retention of NO3 ̄-N and NH4+-N in plants were not statistically significant.Percent recoveries of 15N in trees were typically greater after 15NO3 than after 15NH4 additions.It was indicated that immobilization of 15N tracer in fine roots was a slower process comparing other plant compartments such as stem and coarse roots,but a powerful sink for N during the course of study.

  6. Fiziološke adaptacije bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.), smrče (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) i jele (Abies alba Mill.) na sezonsko variranje abiotičkih činilaca u četiri zaštićena planinska staništa Republike Srbije

    OpenAIRE

    Horak, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Tokom tri vegetacione sezone mereni su fiziološkiparametri: fotosinteza, transpiracija,  efikasnostiskorištavanja  vode (WUE), kao i parametribioprodukcije na odabranim šumskimpopulacijama bukve  (Fagus sylvatica  L.), smrče(Picea abies (L.) Kartsen) i jele (Abies alba Mill.),čija su staništa na različitim nadmorskim visinamasa različitom  dostupnošću vode u zemljištu.Određivana je i zavisnost između položaja šumskezaje...

  7. Effects of planted European beech on the understory in Scots pine forests of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marozas V

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the planting of non-native species impacts native vegetation is of most importance for forest management, as introduced species may alter environmental conditions with respect to soil composition, light intensity, and species composition. Here, we compared the stand structure, understory vegetation and site properties of a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as the second tree layer. We recorded saplings and species and their abundance in the understory vegetation, the thicknesses of organic (O and humus (A soil layers, soil pH and light indexes in nine Scots pine stands with a second tree layer of beech and in nine control pine stands with a second tree layer of spruce. An ordination method was used to analyze all the data together and ANOVA to determine whether there were differences between stands. We found that species diversity in pine stands with planted beech as the second layer was lower than in pine stands with spruce as the second layer. In pine stands with beech as the second tree layer, shrub, herb and moss cover was significantly lower, and the soil humus layer and organic soil layer were thicker and thinner, respectively. Stand parameters such as mean volume and mean annual increment of the second tree layer were significantly higher in pine stands with planted beech as the second tree layer than in pine stand with spruce as the second tree layer. The mean volume and the mean annual increment of the first tree layer dominated by Scots pine did not differ significantly between stands with planted beech and those with natural spruce. Scots pine stands with a beech second layer had negative effects on understory species richness and abundance. This effect was most likely due to the lower light transmittance and poor physical properties of the forest-floor litter in the Scots pine stands with planted beech.

  8. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species.

  9. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species. PMID:26786538

  10. Ecology of beech forests in the northern hemisphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.

    1992-01-01

    Beech forests are dominated or codominated by at least one Fagus species. The beeches are a homogeneous group of 11 deciduous tree species growing in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1.1). They often dominate forest ecosystems throughout their ranges. The optimum for beech is on acidic and mesic loam

  11. Species relationships and divergence times in beeches: new insights from the inclusion of 53 young and old fossils in a birth-death clock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S S; Grimm, Guido W; Kapli, Paschalia; Denk, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    The fossilized birth-death (FBD) model can make use of information contained in multiple fossils representing the same clade, and we here apply this model to infer divergence times in beeches (genus Fagus), using 53 fossils and nuclear sequences for all nine species. We also apply FBD dating to the fern clade Osmundaceae, with about 12 living species and 36 fossils. Fagus nuclear sequences cannot be aligned with those of other Fagaceae, and we therefore use Bayes factors to choose among alternative root positions. The crown group of Fagus is dated to 53 (62-43) Ma; divergence of the sole American species to 44 (51-39) Ma and divergence between Central European F. sylvatica and Eastern Mediterranean F. orientalis to 8.7 (20-1.8) Ma, unexpectedly old. The FBD model can accommodate fossils as sampled ancestors or as extinct or unobserved lineages; however, this makes its raw output, which shows all fossils on short or long branches, problematic to interpret. We use hand-drawn depictions and a bipartition network to illustrate the uncertain placements of fossils. Inferred speciation and extinction rates imply approximately 5× higher evolutionary turnover in Fagus than in Osmundaceae, fitting a hypothesized low turnover in plants adapted to low-nutrient conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325832

  12. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  13. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  14. Effects of thinning on stand structure and tree stability in an afforested oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand in northeast Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zafer Yucesan; Sevilay O zc¸elik; Ercan Oktan

    2015-01-01

    We studied relationships between stand structure and stand stability according to thinning intensity in an afforested oriental beech stand. Various thinning intensities were applied in sample stands. We sampled eight plots in stands that were lightly thinned, eight plots in heavily thinned stands and eight plots in unthinned stands as a control. Height and diameter distributions of the stands were measured to assess stand structure. We quantified individual tree stability and collective stability. Heavy thinning during the first thin-ning operation damaged the storied structure of the stand in thicket stage and affected collective structuring ability. While most control plots had multi-storied stands, after light and heavy thinning two-storied structure became more common. Large gaps occurred in the canopy after heavy thinning. On average, nine tree collectives were formed per sampling plot in the untreated stand, seven collectives after thinning in 2008 and four collectives after thinning in 2009. Stable trees accounted for 17%of trees in control plots, 24%in lightly thinned plots, and 15%in heavily thinned plots. Collective stability values were 83%in control plots, 82%in lightly thinned plots and 36%in heavily thinned plots. We conclude that it is necessary to retain collective structuring capacity during thinning operations for sustaining stand stability.

  15. China's Beech Forests in the Pre-Quaternary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu-Sheng

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagus in China is never dominant in Late Cretaceous and Tertiary floras although it might reach its highest diversity in the Miocene. The genus Fagus was more widely distributed during the Palaeogene than in the Neogene. Furthermore, the ecological requirements of Fagus in the Palaeogene seem much broader than those in the Neogene onwards. This is because the Palaeogene floras containing Fagus lived in various conditions from an arid and hot climate to a humid and warm habitat. Additionally, Fagus then coexisted with many kinds of hygrophilous, thermophilous and xerophilous plants. However, the wide distribution, broad ecological adaptation and species composition changed greatly in the Neogene. The Neogene Fagus-containing floras are slightly more similar to the modern beech forests than the Palaeogene ones, although a big difference remains. Chinese fossil data document the post-Tertiary development of the modern beech forests. doi:10.1002/mmng.19980010111

  16. Beech carbon productivity as driver of ectomycorrhizal abundance and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druebert, Christine; Lang, Christa; Valtanen, Kerttu; Polle, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbon productivity of beech (Fagus sylvatica) controls ectomycorrhizal colonization, diversity and community structures. Carbon productivity was limited by long-term shading or by girdling. The trees were grown in compost soil to avoid nutrient deficiencies. Despite severe limitation in photosynthesis and biomass production by shading, the concentrations of carbohydrates in roots were unaffected by the light level. Shade-acclimated plants were only 10% and sun-acclimated plants were 74% colonized by ectomycorrhiza. EM diversity was higher on roots with high than at roots with low mycorrhizal colonization. Evenness was unaffected by any treatment. Low mycorrhizal colonization had no negative effects on plant mineral nutrition. In girdled plants mycorrhizal colonization and diversity were retained although (14)C-leaf feeding showed almost complete disruption of carbon transport from leaves to roots. Carbohydrate storage pools in roots decreased upon girdling. Our results show that plant carbon productivity was the reason for and not the result of high ectomycorrhizal diversity. We suggest that ectomycorrhiza can be supplied by two carbon routes: recent photosynthate and stored carbohydrates. Storage pools may be important for ectomycorrhizal survival when photoassimilates were unavailable, probably feeding preferentially less carbon demanding EM species as shifts in community composition were found. PMID:19344334

  17. Assessment of a relaxed eddy accumulation for measurements of fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds: Study over arable crops and a mature beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, M.W.; Clayborough, R.; Beswick, K.M.;

    2000-01-01

    (Fagus Sylvatica) during the FOREXNOX program. Measurements from a site where winter wheat and barley (Hordeum Vulgare ann Triticum Aestivum) were being harvested are also presented. The system was inter-compared with two different eddy correlation systems for measuring CO2 fluxes. Good results were...... obtained with correlation coefficients for the REA system ranging from 0.71 to 0.82, lending further confidence in the use of this technique, Daily averaged biogenic emissions from the wheat and barley canopies were significantly larger than expected, likely a result of harvesting. Fluxes measured over...... the beech canopy were also larger than might be expected from northern latitude deciduous forests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Plant biodiversity of beech forests in central-northern Italy: a methodological approach for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcantonio M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are reckoned essentials as biodiversity reservoirs and carbon sinks. Current threats to forest ecosystems (e.g., climate changes, habitat loss and fragmentation, management changes call for monitoring their biodiversity and preserving their ecological functions. In this study, we characterized plants diversity of five beech forests located in central and north Apennines mountain chain, using results by a probabilistic sampling. In order to achieve our goals, we have considered species richness and abundance, taxonomic distinctness and species composition, using both old and new analytical approaches. Results have shown how: (1 the forest type dominated by Fagus sylvatica is characterized by high complexity, with marked compositional, structural and biodiversity differences; (2 beech forests of Pigelleto di Piancastagnaio and Valle della Corte show the highest plants diversity values. The ecological characteristics of these areas, which sustain high diversity values, are unique and of great conservation interest; (3 the use of species richness as the only diversity measure have not allowed an efficient differentiation between studied areas. Indeed, the use of different indexes and analytical methods is required to detect multiple characteristics of biological diversity, as well as to carry out efficient biodiversity surveys aimed to develop optimal conservation strategies. In the future, we plan to apply the sampling methodology and the analytical approach used in this paper to characterize plants diversity of similar forest types.

  19. Finders keepers, losers weepers - drought as a modifier of competition between European beech and Norway spruce -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisser, Michael; Blanck, Christian; Geppert, Uwe; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E. E.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) frequently reflect over-yielding, when compared to respective monospecific stands. Over-yielding is attributed to enhanced resource uptake efficiency through niche complementarity alleviating species competition. Under climate change, however, with severe and frequent summer drought, water limitation may become crucial in modifying the competitive interaction between neighboring beech and spruce trees. In view of the demands by silvicultural practice, basic knowledge from experimental field work about competitive versus facilitative interaction in maturing mixed beech-spruce forests is scarce. To this end, we investigate species-specific drought response including underlying mechanisms of species interaction in a maturing group-wise mixed beech-spruce forest, amongst 60 and 53 adult trees of beech and spruce, respectively (spruce 65 ± 2, beech 85 ± 4 years old). Severe and repeated experimental drought is being induced over several years through a stand-scale approach of rain throughfall exclusion (Kranzberg Forest Roof Experiment, KROOF). The experimental design comprises 6 roofed (E, automated, closing only during rain) and 6 control (C) plots with a total area of almost 1800 square meters. In 2015 minimum predawn potentials of -2.16 MPa and -2.26 MPa were reached in E for beech and spruce respectively. At the leaf level, spruce displayed high drought susceptibility reflected by a distinct decrease in both stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 80% each, suggesting isohydric response. Beech rather displayed anisohydry indicated by less pronounced yet significant reduction of stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 55% and 45%, respectively. Under the C regime, a negative species interaction effect on stomatal conductance was found in beech, contrasting with a positive effect in spruce. However, drought reversed the effect of

  20. Comparison of the carbon stock in forest soil of sessile oak and beech forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bene, Zsolt; Bidló, András

    2016-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are the most important carbon sinks. The forest soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle, because the global climate change or the increase of atmospheric CO2 level. We do not have enough data about the carbon stock of soils and its change due to human activities, which have similar value to carbon content of biomass. In our investigation we measured the carbon stock of soil in 10 stands of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica. We took a 1.1 m soil column with soil borer and divided to 11 samples each column. The course organic and root residues were moved. After evaluation, we compared our results with other studies and the carbon stock of forests to each other. Naturally, the amount of SOC was the highest in the topsoil layers. However, we found significant difference between forest stands which stayed on the same homogenous bedrock, but very close to each other (e.g. distance was 1 or 2 km). We detected that different forest utilizations and tree species have an effect on the forest carbon as the litter as well (amount, composition). In summary, we found larger amount (99.1 C t/ha on average) of SOC in soil of stands, where sessile oak were the main stand-forming tree species. The amount of carbon was the least in turkey oak-sessile oak stands (85.4 C t/ha on average). We found the highest SOC (118.3 C t/ha) in the most mixed stand (silver lime-beech-red oak). In the future, it will be very important: How does climate change affect the spread of tree species or on carbon storage? Beech is more sensitive, but even sessile oak. These species are expected to replace with turkey oak, which is less sensitive to drought. Thus, it is possible in the future that we can expect to decrease of forest soil carbon stock capacity, which was confirmed by our experiment. Keywords: carbon sequestration, mitigation, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, litter Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU

  1. How adaptable is the hydraulic system of European beech in the face of climate change-related precipitation reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Knutzen, Florian; Delzon, Sylvain; Jansen, Steven; Müller-Haubold, Hilmar; Burlett, Régis; Clough, Yann; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming will increase the drought exposure of many forests world-wide. It is not well understood how trees adapt their hydraulic architecture to a long-term decrease in water availability. We examined 23 traits characterizing the hydraulic architecture and growth rate of branches and the dependent foliage of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees along a precipitation gradient (855-594 mm yr(-1) ) on uniform soil. A main goal was to identify traits that are associated with xylem efficiency, safety and growth. Our data demonstrate for the first time a linear increase in embolism resistance with climatic aridity (by 10%) across populations within a species. Simultaneously, vessel diameter declined by 7% and pit membrane thickness (Tm ) increased by 15%. Although specific conductivity did not change, leaf-specific conductivity declined by 40% with decreasing precipitation. Of eight plant traits commonly associated with embolism resistance, only vessel density in combination with pathway redundancy and Tm were related. We did not confirm the widely assumed trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency but obtained evidence in support of a positive relationship between hydraulic efficiency and growth. We conclude that the branch hydraulic system of beech has a distinct adaptive potential to respond to a precipitation reduction as a result of the environmental control of embolism resistance.

  2. The impact of the 2003 summer drought on the intra-annual growth pattern of beech (Fagus sylvatica l.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on a dry site in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der G.W.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is expected to result in more extreme weather conditions over large parts of Europe, such as the prolonged drought of 2003. As water supply is critical for tree growth on many sites in North-Western Europe, such droughts will affect growth, species competition, and forest dynamics. To

  3. Effect of species composition, stand density and site index on the basal area increment of oak trees (Quercus sp.) in mixed stands with beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in northern France

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Sebastian; Dhôte, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    Nous avons analysé la relation entre le diamètre du tronc et l’accroissement radial du chêne dans des peuplements mélangés de hêtre et chêne, où le pourcentage de hêtre varie entre 0,0 et 98,2 %. L’analyse s’appuie sur un réseau de 30 placettes permanentes situées dans le nord de la France avec au total 167 périodes d’accroissements entre 1904 et 2000. L’étude est basée sur un modèle non-linéaire segmenté pour l’accroissement en surface terrière en fonction du D130 de chaque arbre, comme i...

  4. Dielectric Moisture Meter Calibration for Heat Treated Fagus sylvatica%山毛榉热处理材的介电式含水率仪读数校正实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 王佩; 蔡家斌; 周定国

    2014-01-01

    采用介电式含水率仪对山毛榉常规干燥材及热处理材的含水率进行了测量,并与烘干法测量结果进行了对比分析,采用最小二乘法,分别拟合出了180℃、195℃和210℃山毛榉热处理材的校正曲线。180℃、195℃和210℃山毛榉热处理材的介电式含水率仪校正曲线分别为, y=1.2923 x+0.2783, y=1.3920 x+0.7473, y=1.6445 x+1.4892。结果表明,常规干燥材的电测法结果能很好地反映其实际含水率水平,而热处理材的电测法结果则普遍大于烘干法,3种热处理材均呈现出随含水率的增高,差值随之增大的趋势,且随着处理温度的升高,差值愈大。%Dielectric moisture meter readings were compared with gravimetric moisture content ( actual MC ) for kiln-dried and heat-treated beech wood .The meter readings corresponded closely with actual MC for the samples of kiln-dried lumber .In contrast , the meter readings of the heat-treated specimens were always higher than actual MC values, and the difference showed a strong positive correlation with heat treatment temperature .In order to predict actual MC from the meter readings , linear calibration curves for the 180℃, 195℃, and 210℃heat-treated beech wood were respectively fitted by the least squares method , the regression equations also were presented in this paper .

  5. Variability of Physiological Parameters of European Beech Provenances in International Provenance Trials in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJNIĆ, Srdjan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the variability of physiological parameters of five provenances of Europeanbeech (Fagus sylvatica, which were planted at two locations with different ecological conditions atFruška Gora and Debeli Lug, was estimated. Provenance trials were established in the framework ofCOST Action E52: "Evaluation of Beech Genetic Resources for Sustainable Forestry". 2-3 years oldseedlings originating from Croatia, Germany, Bosnia, Austria and Serbia were planted in blocks offifty plants with a spacing of 2 x 1 m. Physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis, rate oftranspiration and stomatal conductance were measured with a portable gas analysis system. Generally,provenances from Fruška Gora Mountain showed higher intensity of all physiological parameters thanprovenances located at site Debeli Lug. High correlations among rates of net photosynthesis andtranspiration, on one side, and stomatal conductance, on the other side, were found. ANOVA testindicates that variability of net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of investigatedprovenances, at the two locations, was influenced both by environmental conditions of sites andgenetic constitution of provenances.

  6. The influence of the soil on spring and autumn phenology in European beech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Matthias; Gessler, Arthur; Schaub, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Tree phenology is a key discipline in forest ecology linking seasonal fluctuations of photoperiod and temperature with the annual development of buds, leaves and flowers. Temperature and photoperiod are commonly considered as main determinants of tree phenology while little is known about interactions with soil chemical characteristics. Seedlings of 12 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances were transplanted in 2011 to model ecosystems and grown for 4 years on acidic or calcareous forest soil. Spring bud burst and autumnal leaf senescence were assessed in the last 2 years, 2013 and 2014, which were characterized by contrasting annual temperatures with a very warm spring and autumn in 2014. In 2013, spring bud burst and autumnal leaf senescence were advanced on acidic soil with a greater effect on leaf senescence. Hence, the vegetation period 2013 was shorter on this soil type compared with that on calcareous soil. In 2014, a similar soil effect was observed for spring bud burst while autumnal leaf senescence and the length of the vegetation period were not affected, probably due to interferences with the overall extension of the vegetation period in this exceptionally warm year. A different soil responsiveness was observed among the provenances with early bursting or senescing provenances being more sensitive than late bursting or senescing provenances. The findings of this study highlight the soil as an ecologically relevant factor in tree phenology and might help explain existing uncertainties in current phenology models. PMID:26420791

  7. Influence of Climatic Type of Year on Beech and Scots Pine Eustress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Mariyana; Chikalanov, Alexandre; van Bodegom, Peter; Kattge, Jens; Popova, Silvia; Zlateva, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The present study deals with the relationships of climate types and the periods with low radial stem growth of black pine and beech locations in Europe. The identification of climatic types (CT) and eustress caused CT, their relative participation in the period of 1901-2009 by locations, the manifestation of main adverse type, led periodically to reduction of tree ring width, as well as the comparison of obtained types by precipitations and the SPI classes were the subjects of investigation. The analyses demonstrated that despite the local differences, the stress impact of dry and wet years, especially if they are accompanied by the cold or hot regimes, is well expressed. The successive changes of climate types at least two years before the eustress year are also relevant. The application of climatic types to study the relationship with trees eustress is more applicable when there are no large deviations in temperatures or precipitations by years and locations. The demonstrated holistic analyses are applicable for the forest areas monitoring and management. Key words Pinus sylvestris L., Fagus sylvatica L., climatic type, SPI, eustress, SPPAM application, SPI

  8. The influence of the soil on spring and autumn phenology in European beech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Matthias; Gessler, Arthur; Schaub, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Tree phenology is a key discipline in forest ecology linking seasonal fluctuations of photoperiod and temperature with the annual development of buds, leaves and flowers. Temperature and photoperiod are commonly considered as main determinants of tree phenology while little is known about interactions with soil chemical characteristics. Seedlings of 12 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances were transplanted in 2011 to model ecosystems and grown for 4 years on acidic or calcareous forest soil. Spring bud burst and autumnal leaf senescence were assessed in the last 2 years, 2013 and 2014, which were characterized by contrasting annual temperatures with a very warm spring and autumn in 2014. In 2013, spring bud burst and autumnal leaf senescence were advanced on acidic soil with a greater effect on leaf senescence. Hence, the vegetation period 2013 was shorter on this soil type compared with that on calcareous soil. In 2014, a similar soil effect was observed for spring bud burst while autumnal leaf senescence and the length of the vegetation period were not affected, probably due to interferences with the overall extension of the vegetation period in this exceptionally warm year. A different soil responsiveness was observed among the provenances with early bursting or senescing provenances being more sensitive than late bursting or senescing provenances. The findings of this study highlight the soil as an ecologically relevant factor in tree phenology and might help explain existing uncertainties in current phenology models.

  9. Beech trees exposed to high CO{sub 2} and to simulated summer ozone levels: Effects on photosynthesis, chloroplast components and leaf enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, C. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Inst. of Botany, Innsbruck (Austria); Anegg, S. [GFS. National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Gerant, D.; Dizengremel, P. [Univ. Henri Poincare Nancy 1, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere, Vandauvre les Nancy cedex (France); Alaoui-Sosse, B. [Lab. de Biologie et Ecophysiologie, Besancon cedex (France)

    2000-07-01

    Young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were exposed in a phytotron to different levels of ozone and CO{sub 2} under the climatic simulation of one vegetation period. High ozone levels were simulated similar to high ozone concentration in the field (up to 110 ppb), while CO{sub 2} was added as 300 ppm to the present level of ca 380 ppm. Our study describes different aspects of photosynthesis from the leaf level to the reactions of selected thylakoid components at different harvest times during growth of the beech trees under the different fumigation regimes. Ozone effects appeared in the first weeks of the treatment as a stimulation of chlorophyll fluorescence (F{sub v}/F{sub m}), in oxygen production and in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity, while the summer and early autumn harvests showed strong reductions in these parameters. Only phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) activity remained higher under high ozone. The effects of high CO{sub 2} appeared in general as a small stimulation in enzyme activity like PEPcase in spring. However, with increasing time of fumigation, reductions of all parameters were observed. Especially chlorophylls showed strong reductions under high CO{sub 2}. The combined treatment with high ozone plus high CO{sub 2} resulted mostly in an amelioration of the negative ozone effects, although control levels were not reached. (au)

  10. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The hill beech forests cover most of the woody area in the Doftana Valley. The present study refers, for the first time, to two beech forests typical to this belt, which belong to the phytocoenological associations Epipactieto-Fagetum (Resmeritã,1972, in the Lunca Mare area, and Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1983, Täuber 1987 in the Sotrile area, from floristic, structural, biomass and necromassaccumulation point of view, within the framework of the vertical structure of biocoenosis.The limestone substratum, occasionally with small outcrops in the first beech forest, differs chiefly through the pH levels (6.34-5.67 from the siliceous substratum (pH 5.11-4.36 in the second beech forest. The layer of trees is dominated by Fagus sylvatica in both forests; this species is associated with Cerasus avium (4.5%,Acer pseudoplatanus (2% and Sorbus torminalis (2% in the first beech forest, and is monodominant in the second. Although the forest underwent selective cuts, more intense in the Lunca Mare area, the aboveground ligneous biomass reaches nowadays 222 t/ha in the Lunca Mare area compared to only 163 t/ha in the Sotrile area; theaverage height is 28.8±2.49 m and 23.7±1.12 m, respectively, and the diameter is 33.30±7.9 cm and 31.60±6.28 cm, respectively. The species of macrofungi, not very numerous during the study because of scarce precipitations (6 and 7 species, respectively,are predominant on the rhytidoma trees in the beech forest rooted on the limestone ground; in the Sotrile beech forest they are joined by mycorrhizal and parasite species. The layer of shrub is underdeveloped. The herbaceous layer is discontinuous, and includes, along herbs, small plants and saplings belonging to the ligneous species and to liana Hedera helix. The maximal value of the aboveground biomass of thelayer is 317 kg/ha DM in the Lunca Mare area and 235 kg /ha DM in the Sotrile area.Bryophyta is present in large quantities, especially in the ªotrile area

  11. Evaluation and comparison of size-density relationships for pure even-aged stands of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.), and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goff, Noël; Ottorini, Jean Marc; Ningre, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Size-density relationships define the maximum number of stems that even-aged stands of a given species can hold in relation to the mean size of trees. They are used to derive stand density measures and are useful tools used to control tree mortality. Size-density relationships were already available in France for beech and oak. The objective of this study was to extend these relations to younger development stages and test if specific relations are needed to be established for a set of specie...

  12. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during springtime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Schade

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica forest in Denmark. Emission fluxes of methanol occurred dominantly late at night, which was supported by highest mixing ratios in the crown region, and is in line with recent controlled laboratory experiments. Also confirming previous measurements, monoterpene emissions showed a diurnal cycle consistent with light-dependent emissions, supported by highest mixing ratios in the canopy space during early afternoon. Also emitted was acetone, but only at ambient temperatures exceeding 20°C. Deposition dominated at lower temperatures. Deposition fluxes occurred also for methanol but seemingly as a result of high ambient methanol mixing ratios. Our in-canopy gradient measurements contrasted earlier results from tropical and pine forest ecosystems in that they did not show this beech ecosystem to be a strong sink for oxygenated VOCs. Instead, their gradients were flat and only small deposition velocities (<0.1 cm s–1 were observed to the onsite soil. However, as soil uptake was consistent and appeared to be related to soil moisture, more measurements are needed to evaluate the soil sink strength. In turn, as canopy scale fluxes are net fluxes with emissions from photosynthesizing leaves affecting potential oxygenated VOC uptake, only independent, controlled laboratory experiments may be successful in separating stomatal from non-stomatal fluxes, and emission from deposition.

  13. Competitive strategies in adult beech and spruce: space-related foliar carbon investment versus carbon gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, I M; Häberle, K-H; Nunn, A J; Heerdt, C; Reitmayer, H; Grote, R; Matyssek, R

    2005-12-01

    In Central Europe, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies represent contrasting extremes in foliage type, crown structure and length of growing season. In order to examine the competitive strategies of these two co-occurring species, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) the space occupied by the foliage of sun branches is characterized by greater foliar mass investment compared to shade branches, (2) the carbon (C) gain per unit of occupied space is greater in sun than in shade branches, and (3) annual C and water costs of the foliage for sustaining the occupied space are low, wherever C gain per unit of occupied space is low. These were investigated in a mature forest in Southern Germany. The examination was based on the annual assessment of space-related resource investments and gains of the foliage. The foliated space around branches was regarded as the relevant volume with respect to aboveground resource availability. Occupied crown space per standing foliage mass was higher in shade compared to sun branches of beech, whereas no difference existed in crown volume per foliage mass between sun and shade branches of spruce (hypothesis 1 accepted for beech but rejected for spruce). However, beech occupied more space per foliage mass than spruce. The C gain per occupied crown volume was greater in sun than in shade branches (hypothesis 2 accepted) but did not differ between species. The amount of occupied space per respiratory and transpiratory costs did not differ between species or between sun and shade branches. In beech and spruce, the proportion of foliage investment in the annual C balance of sun and shade branches remained rather stable, whereas respiratory costs distinctly increased in shade foliage. Hence, shade branches were costly structures to occupy space, achieving only low and even negative C balances (rejection of hypothesis 3), which conflicts with the claimed C autonomy of branches. Our findings suggest that competitiveness is determined by the

  14. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  15. Infectivity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Naturally Regenerating, Unmanaged and Clear-Cut Beech Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.CLOSA; N.GOICOECHEA

    2011-01-01

    Clear-cutting, a management practice applied to many beech forests in the North of Spain, modifies microclimate and, consequently,the composition of the understory plant community in the disturbed areas. The objectives of this study were to assess if changes in the understory vegetation caused by altered light microclimate after clear-cutting affect the infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on herbaceous plant species in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests naturally regenerating from clear-cutting and to test if the use of bioassays for studying the infectivity of native AMF could provide aseful information to improve the management of clear-cut areas.Three nearby beech forests in northwest Navarra, Spain, a region in the northwest part of the Pyrenees, were selected: an unmanaged forest, a forest clear-cut in 1996, and another forest clear-cut in 2001. High stem density in the forest clear-cut in 1996 (44 000 trees ha-1) attenuated photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and impaired the growth of herbaceous species within the ecosystem. The percentage of AMF colonization of plants in bioassays performed on soil samples collected from the forest clear-cut in 1996 was always lower than 10%. In the forest clear-cut in 2001, where soil was covered by perennial grasses, PAR was high and thc infectivity of native AMF achieved minimum values in spring and autumn and a maximum value in summer. In contrast, the infectivity of native AMF in the umnanaged forest remained similar across the seasons. Our results demonstrated that changes in the composition of understory vegetation within beech forests strongly affected the infectivity of native AMF in clear-cut areas and suggested that the assessment of the infectivity of native AMF through bioassays could provide helpful information for planning either the removal of overstory when the tree density is so high that it impairs the correct development of herbaceous species or the plantation of new sesdlings when high

  16. Direct contribution of nitrogen deposition to nitrous oxide emissions in a temperate beech and spruce forest – a 15N tracer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Veldkamp

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition on nitrous oxide (N2O emissions in forest ecosystems is still unclear. Our study assessed the direct contribution of N deposition to N2O emissions in temperate forests exposed to chronic high N depositions using a 15N labelling technique. In a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies and in a beech stand (Fagus sylvatica at the Solling, Germany, we used a low concentrated 15N-labelled ammonium-nitrate solution to simulate N deposition. Nitrous oxide fluxes and 15N isotope abundances in N2O were measured using the closed chamber method combined with 15N isotope analyses. Emissions of N2O were higher in the beech stand (2.6 ± 0.6 kg N ha−1 yr−1 than in the spruce stand (0.3 ± 0.1 kg N ha−1 yr−1. We observed a direct effect of N input on 15N-N2O emissions, which lasted for less than three weeks and was mainly caused by denitrification. No further increase in 15N enrichment of N2O occurred during a one-year experiment, which was probably due to immobilisation of deposited N. The annual emission factor for N2O from deposited N was 0.1% for the spruce stand and 0.6% for the beech stand. Standard methods used in the literature applied to the same stands grossly overestimated emission factors with values of up to 25%. Only 6–13% of the total N2O emissions were derived from direct N depositions. Whether the remaining emissions resulted from accumulated anthropogenic N depositions or native soil N, could not be distinguished with the applied methods. The 15N tracer technique is a useful tool, which may improve estimates of the current contribution of N deposition to N2O emissions.

  17. Specific impacts of beech and Norway spruce on the structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, S; Oger, P; Tisserand, E; Cébron, A; Turpault, M-P; Buée, M; De Boer, W; Leveau, J H J; Frey-Klett, P

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of plant species on the microbial communities and physico-chemical characteristics of soil are well documented for many herbs, grasses and legumes but much less so for tree species. Here, we investigate by rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing the diversity of microorganisms from the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota:Fungi) in soil samples taken from the forest experimental site of Breuil-Chenue (France). We discovered significant differences in the abundance, composition and structure of the microbial communities associated with two phylogenetically distant tree species of the same age, deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and coniferous Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst), planted in the same soil. Our results suggest a significant effect of tree species on soil microbiota though in different ways for each of the three microbial groups. Fungal and archaeal community structures and compositions are mainly determined according to tree species, whereas bacterial communities differ to a great degree between rhizosphere and bulk soils, regardless of the tree species. These results were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which revealed significant enrichment of specific bacterial genera, such as Burkholderia and Collimonas, known for their ability to weather minerals within the tree root vicinity. PMID:27302652

  18. Effects of lead and cadmium on the growth and cation contents of beech seedlings on forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of lead and cadmium on the growth and Ca, K and Mg contents of beech seedlings (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated. The seedlings were cultivated for three months on mineral soil of pH = 3.6 that was treated with various concentrations of either lead or cadmium or combinations of both. Growth was significantly reduced by levels of 280 ppm plant-available Pb and 5 ppm Cd in soil. The reduction in growth seems to be synergistically affected by the treatment with the heavy metals. Cd decreased the contents of Ca and Mg in the plants while the concentration of K was not affected. Among other things there are two reasons discussed for this decrease: (I) the competition of Cd with Ca and Mg in uptake and translocation; (II) an inhibiting effect of Cd on transpiration. The addition of Pb to the Cd-treated plants weakened the influence of Cd on the Ca and Mg concentrations of the seedlings. (orig.)

  19. The potential of beech seedlings to adapt to low P availability in soil - plant versus microbial effects on P mobilising potential in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Sonia; Frey, Beat; Frossard, Emmanuel; Spohn, Marie; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our work was to investigate to what extent tree seedlings (Fagus sylvatica) are able to adapt the process of P mobilisation in the rhizosphere according to P speciation in the soil. Such mobilisation activity can include root exudation of P mobilising compounds or stimulation of specific P mobilising soil microbes. We hypothesized that Fagus sylvatica seedlings can adapt their own activity based on their P nutritional status and genetic memory of how to react under a given nutritional situation. To test the hypothesis, we set up a cross-growth experiment with beech of different provenances growing in soil from their own provenance site and in soil differing in P availability. Experiments were performed as a greenhouse experiment, with temperature control and natural light, during one vegetation period in rhizoboxes . We used two acidic forest soils, contrasting in P availability, collected at field sites of the German research priority program "Ecosystem Nutrition". Juvenile trees were collected along with the soils at the sites and planted respectively. The occurrence of P mobilising compounds and available P in the rhizosphere and in bulk soil were measured during the active growth season of the plants. In particular, we assessed phosphatase activity, (measured with zymography and plate enzymatic assay at pH 4,6.5, and 11) carboxylates and phosphate (measured by application of ion exchange membranes to specific soil micro zones, and by microdialysis), and pH (mapping with optodes). Plant P nutrition status was assessed by total P, N/P, phosphatase activity, and metabolic (TCA extractable) P in the leaves. The P-nutritional status of the beech provenances differed markedly independent from the P status of the soil where they were actually grown during experiment. In particular, the juvenile trees from the site rich in mineral P were sufficient in P, while those from the P-poor site with mostly organic P, were deficient. Enzymatic activity at the

  20. Evaluation of digital photography for quantifying Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) density on American beech trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieferich, D J; Hayes, D B; McCullough, D G

    2013-06-01

    Beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) is an invasive forest insect established in the eastern United States and Canada. It predisposes American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) trees to infection by Neonectria spp. Fungi causing beech bark disease. White wax secreted by the diminutive scales obscures individual insects, making it difficult to accurately quantify beech scale density. Our goals were to 1) evaluate the relationship between the area of wax and number of beech scales on bark samples, 2) determine whether digital photos of bark could accurately quantify beech scale density, and 3) compare efficiency and utility of a qualitative visual estimate and using the quantitative digital photo technique to assess beech scale populations. We visually estimated beech scale abundance and photographed designated areas on the trunk of 427 trees in 40 sites across Michigan. Photos were analyzed using a binary threshold technique to quantify the area of beech scale wax on each photo. We also photographed and then collected 104 bark samples from 45 additional beech trees in ten sites. We removed the wax, counted individual scales on each sample using a microscope, and assessed the linear relationship between wax area and scale counts. Area of wax explained approximately 80% of the variability in scale density. We could typically quantify beech scale density on 15 photographs per hour. Qualitative visual assessments of beech scale in the field corresponded with estimates derived from photos of bark samples for 79% of trees.

  1. Links between phenology and ecophysiology in a European beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of a year, tree physiological processes are not only directly affected by environmental conditions, but also by the tree’s own phenological stages. At the same time, phenological stages should, to a certain degree, reflect tree physiology. However, we have rather poor knowledge of the details of the interplay between phenology and ecophysiology. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the links between phenology and ecophysiology. We investigated the degree to which various physiological processes are synchronized both with each other and with phenology and what information related to phenology can be obtained from instrumental ecophysiological measurements. Phenological observations, along with measurements of transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, stem volume changes, sap flow and xylogenesis were conducted in a 45-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica stand in the Czech Republic. Results indicated that ecophysiology was tightly related with the phenological stage of the tree. Early spring phenological stages were closely linked with the beginning of cambial activity and the onset of sap flow, i.e., the first leaves were produced simultaneously with the beginning of stem radial growth. The highest xylem growth rates occurred in June, simultaneously with the highest sap flow rates. Cambial activity ceased with the onset of summer leaf coloring at the end of July, at the same time as the permanent decrease in sap flow rate. The end of cell wall maturation was linked to the onset of autumn leaf coloring. We conclude that instrumental measurements of tree and stand ecophysiology provided additional information better specifying the onset of particular phenostages. In our case, twelve permanently located sensors used to measure PAR transmittance captured leaf area development with acceptable accuracy, thus limiting the need for frequent visits to the forest site in the spring and

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pihlatie

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Spring time soil nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes were measured in an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forest with eddy covariance (EC and chamber techniques. The aim was to compare the two techniques and to test whether EC can be used in the trunk-space of the forest to measure N2O. Mean N2O fluxes over the five week measurement period were 5, 10 and 16 μg N m-2h-1 from EC, automatic chamber and manual chambers, respectively. When data from one hot spot chamber was excluded the mean N2O flux of 8 μg N m-2h-1 from the soil chambers nearly equaled to the mean flux of 7 μg N m-2h-1 measured with EC from the direction were soil chambers located. Spatial variability in the N2O emissions was high in soil chamber measurements, while the EC integrated over this spatial variability and suggested that N2O emissions were uniform within the footprint area. The highest emissions measured with the EC occurred during the first week of May when the trees were leafing and when soil moisture content was at its highest. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EC technique can be used to measure N2O fluxes in the trunk-space of a forest. If chamber techniques are used to estimate ecosystem level N2O emissions from forest soils, placing of the chambers should be considered carefully to cover the heterogeneity in the soil N2O emissions.

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pihlatie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters. Mean N2O fluxes over the five week measurement period were 5.6±1.1, 10±1 and 16±11 μg N m−2 h−1 from EC, automatic chamber and manual chambers, respectively. High temporal variability characterized the EC fluxes in the trunk-space. To reduce this variability, resulting mostly from random uncertainty due to measuring fluxes close to the detection limit, we averaged the fluxes over one day periods. The variability in the chamber measurements was much smaller and dominated by high small scale spatial variability. The highest emissions measured by the EC method occurred during the first week of May when the trees were leafing and the soil moisture content was at its highest. If chamber techniques are used to estimate ecosystem level N2O emissions from forest soils, placement of the chambers should be considered carefully to cover the spatial variability in the soil N2O emissions. The EC technique, applied in this study, is a promising alternative tool to measure ecosystem level N2O fluxes in forest ecosystems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EC technique can be used to measure N2O fluxes in the trunk-space of a forest.

  4. Particulate matter in terrestrial solutions: insights from a European beech forest in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis; Michalzik, Beate; Bischoff, Sebastian; Näthe, Kerstin; Gruselle, Marie-Cecile; Legates, David; Richter, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) can affect the functional ecology and health of forest ecosystems. Nonetheless, the cycling of particulate matter is usually neglected in studies examining the biogeochemistry of forest ecosystems. The size and shape of PM has been documented to influence both its impaction on forest canopies and its biogeochemical reactivity. So what is the size and shape of PM in bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and Oa solution? An answer to this question is of prime importance to those wishing to better model the biogeochemistry of forests. This presentation examines the nature of PM in terrestrial solutions from a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in east-central Germany during the leafed and leafless periods. Scanning electron microscopy, image processing, and data analysis permitted quantification of the size and shape of PM in forest solutions. Building upon the work of Levia et al. [2013]* who quantified the diameter distributions of 43,278 individual particulates in bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and Oa soil solution, this work delves into surface area, roundness, and perimeter of PM in terrestrial solutions. Initial analyses have revealed that there are marked differences in the geometry of PM in bulk precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and Oa solutions with implications for biogeochemical modeling of PM flux in forests. --------------- * Levia, D.F., Michalzik, B., Bischoff, S., Näthe, K., Legates, D.R., Gruselle, M.C-. and Richter, S. 2013. Measurement and modeling of diameter distributions of particulate matter in terrestrial solutions. Geophysical Research Letters 40(7): 1317-1321. [DOI: 10.1002/grl.50305] Funding note: This work was funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  5. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: a case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lisa D; Büker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R

    2007-06-01

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO(3)SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O(3) risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O(3) risk. PMID:17412465

  6. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: A case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O3 risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O3 risk. - A new flux-based model provides a revised assessment of risks of ozone impacts to European forests

  7. Subcellular nutrient element localization and enrichment in ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizas of field-grown beech and ash trees indicate functional differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Seven

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizas are the chief organ for plant mineral nutrient acquisition. In temperate, mixed forests, ash roots (Fraxinus excelsior are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM and beech roots (Fagus sylvatica by ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM. Knowledge on the functions of different mycorrhizal species that coexist in the same environment is scarce. The concentrations of nutrient elements in plant and fungal cells can inform on nutrient accessibility and interspecific differences of mycorrhizal life forms. Here, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal species exhibit interspecific differences in mineral nutrient concentrations and that the differences correlate with the mineral nutrient concentrations of their associated root cells. Abundant mycorrhizal fungal species of mature beech and ash trees in a long-term undisturbed forest ecosystem were the EcM Lactarius subdulcis, Clavulina cristata and Cenococcum geophilum and the AM Glomus sp. Mineral nutrient subcellular localization and quantities of the mycorrhizas were analysed after non-aqueous sample preparation by electron dispersive X-ray transmission electron microscopy. Cenococcum geophilum contained the highest sulphur, Clavulina cristata the highest calcium levels, and Glomus, in which cations and P were generally high, exhibited the highest potassium levels. Lactarius subdulcis-associated root cells contained the highest phosphorus levels. The root cell concentrations of K, Mg and P were unrelated to those of the associated fungal structures, whereas S and Ca showed significant correlations between fungal and plant concentrations of those elements. Our results support profound interspecific differences for mineral nutrient acquisition among mycorrhizas formed by different fungal taxa. The lack of correlation between some plant and fungal nutrient element concentrations may reflect different retention of mineral nutrients in the fungal part of the symbiosis. High mineral concentrations

  8. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0–14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ13C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ13C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  9. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0-14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ(13)C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ(13)C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  10. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0-14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ(13)C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ(13)C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  11. Beech bark necrosis: partition- ing the environmental and spatial variation of the damage severity in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Jarčuška

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The beech bark necrosis (BBN infestation severity of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. was assessed in regions of Central (CE and South-Eastern Europe (SE. Altogether more than 10,000 trees were sampled at 114 sites. Using variation partitioning method, we examined the pure and shared effects of stand, site, climate and spatial sets of variables on mean BBN severity. Our rating included (i the whole stand, (ii tree social status classes, (iii canopy (C and (iv understory (U trees separately. We found that C trees were less affected by BBN than sub-canopy and U trees in both regions. There were found inter-regional differences in amount of explained variability (25.4–73.9% for whole stand BBN and in the sensitivity of C and U trees to the environmental gradients. The analysis revealed that the climate and spatial variables followed by stand variables had the largest marginal effects on mean BBN severity in all models, while the site set of variables had the weakest one. More than half of the explained variation was shared among four sets of variables in SE, contrary to CE. Except to U trees in SE, the effect of climate – pure or spatially structured – remained the highest also after partitioning of variance; more in SE than in CE. Taking into account positive association between mean annual temperature and mean BBN severity in C trees in SE, reinforced negative effect of climate change on the necrosis might be expected to be more serious mainly in low situated beech forests there. Promoting the tree species diversity in forested areas with higher incidence of beech bark necrosis, i.e. in low altitudes in SE, could reduce the susceptibility of forests to the necrosis at regional level in the future. For better understanding of the relative importance of environmental and spatial variables on BBN severity, further research performed on finer spatial scale (extent and grain is necessary, along with accounting for pathogens involved in the

  12. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  13. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands in differently polluted forest research plots

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar

    2005-01-01

    Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands were analysed. Eectomycorrhiza types were identified in soil cores from differently polluted beech forest research plots in the 1998 - 2001 period by mycobioindication method. Forest research plots were situated in the vicinity of thermal power plants (polluted plots: Zavodnje - Prednji vrh and Zasavje - Dobovec) and in unpolluted areas (in the vicinity of Kočevska Reka: Preža and Moravške gredice). Eighty-eight different ectomyco...

  14. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

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    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hill beech forests cover most of the woody area in the Doftana Valley. The present study refers, for the first time, to two beech forests typical to this belt, which belong to the phytocoenological associations Epipactieto-Fagetum (Resmeriţă, 1972, in the Lunca Mare area, and Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1983, Täuber 1987 in the Sotrile area, from floristic, structural, biomass and necromass accumulation point of view, within the framework of the vertical structure of biocoenosis. The limestone substratum, occasionally with small outcrops in the first beech forest, differs chiefly through the pH levels (6.34-5.67 from the siliceous substratum (pH 5.11-4.36 in the second beech forest. The layer of trees is dominated by Fagus sylvatica in both forests; this species is associated with Cerasus avium (4.5%, Acer pseudoplatanus (2% and Sorbus torminalis (2% in the first beech forest, and is monodominant in the second. Although the forest underwent selective cuts, more intense in the Lunca Mare area, the aboveground ligneous biomass reaches nowadays 222 t/ha in the Lunca Mare area compared to only 163 t/ha in the Sotrile area; the average height is 28.8ą2.49 m and 23.7ą1.12 m, respectively, and the diameter is 33.30ą7.9 cm and 31.60ą6.28 cm, respectively. The species of macrofungi, not very numerous during the study because of scarce precipitations (6 and 7 species, respectively, are predominant on the rhytidoma trees in the beech forest rooted on the limestone ground; in the Sotrile beech forest they are joined by mycorrhizal and parasite species. The layer of shrub is underdeveloped. The herbaceous layer is discontinuous, and includes, along herbs, small plants and saplings belonging to the ligneous species and to liana Hedera helix. The maximal value of the aboveground biomass of the layer is 317 kg/ha DM in the Lunca Mare area and 235 kg /ha DM in the Sotrile area. Bryophyta is present in large quantities, especially in the Sotrile

  15. Cascading effects of a highly specialized beech-aphid–fungus interaction on forest regeneration

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    Susan C. Cook-Patton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialist herbivores are thought to often enhance or maintain plant diversity within ecosystems, because they prevent their host species from becoming competitively dominant. In contrast, specialist herbivores are not generally expected to have negative impacts on non-hosts. However, we describe a cascade of indirect interactions whereby a specialist sooty mold (Scorias spongiosa colonizes the honeydew from a specialist beech aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator, ultimately decreasing the survival of seedlings beneath American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia. A common garden experiment indicated that this mortality resulted from moldy honeydew impairing leaf function rather than from chemical or microbial changes to the soil. In addition, aphids consistently and repeatedly colonized the same large beech trees, suggesting that seedling-depauperate islands may form beneath these trees. Thus this highly specialized three-way beech-aphid–fungus interaction has the potential to negatively impact local forest regeneration via a cascade of indirect effects.

  16. Photosynthetic traits of Siebold's beech and oak saplings grown under free air ozone exposure in northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We set up a free-air ozone (O3) exposure system for determining the photosynthetic responses of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata) and oak (Quercus mongolica var. crispula) to O3 under field conditions. Ten-year-old saplings of beech and oak were exposed to an elevated O3 concentration (60 nmol mol−1) during daytime from 6 August to 11 November 2011. Ozone significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate in leaves of both species in October, by 46% for beech and 15% for oak. In beech there were significant decreases in maximum rate of carboxylation, maximum rate of electron transport in photosynthesis, nitrogen content and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, but not in oak. Stomatal limitation of photosynthesis was unaffected by O3. We therefore concluded photosynthesis in beech is more sensitive to O3 than that in oak, and the O3-induced reduction of photosynthetic activity in beech was due not to stomatal closure, but to biochemical limitation. -- Highlights: ► A free air ozone exposure system was set up in northern Japan. ► Beech is more sensitive to ozone than oak. ► Decrease of photosynthesis in beech was mainly due to biochemical limitation. -- Photosynthesis of beech is more sensitive to free air ozone exposure than that of oak

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EASTERN BEECH FORESTS STAND PARAMETERS AND LANDSAT ETM SPECTRAL RESPONSES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ateşoğlu, Ayhan; TUNAY, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between forest stand parameters and Landsat Enhancement Thematic Mapper (ETM), atmospheric correction applied, spectral responses thorough analyses of study area in Mugada, Bartin and its vicinity where natural beech (Fagus orientalis L.) stands. ETM bands and many vegetation indices were examined thorough integration of spectral responses and field vegetation inventory data. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to interpret relationships between fore...

  18. Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric beeches in subtropical China: Species-specific geographic mosaic of lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Rong; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhi-rong; López-Pujol, Jordi; Fan, Deng-Mei; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    In subtropical China, large-scale phylogeographic comparisons among multiple sympatric plants with similar ecological preferences are scarce, making generalizations about common response to historical events necessarily tentative. A phylogeographic comparison of two sympatric Chinese beeches (Fagus lucida and F. longipetiolata, 21 and 28 populations, respectively) was conducted to test whether they have responded to historical events in a concerted fashion and to determine whether their phylo...

  19. Combining stable isotope and carbohydrate analyses in phloem sap and fine roots to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) and carbohydrate content of phloem sap and fine roots were measured in a Mediterranean beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest throughout the growing season to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships. Seasonal variations of δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected during the daylight period, reflected the changes in soil and plant water status. The correlation between δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected from plants belonging to different social classes, was significantly positive only during the driest month of July. In this month, δ(13)C of phloem sap sugars was inversely related to the increment of trunk radial growth and positively related to δ(13)C of fine roots. We conclude that the relationship between δ(13)C and the amount of phloem sap sugars is affected by a combination of causes, such as sink strength, tree social class, changes in phloem anatomy and transport capacity, and phloem loading of sugars to restore sieve tube turgor following the reduced plant water potential under drought conditions. However, δ(13)C and sugar composition of fine roots suggested that phloem transport of leaf sucrose to this belowground component was not impaired by mild drought and that sucrose was in a large part allocated towards fine roots in July, depending on tree social class. Hence, fine roots could represent a functional carbon sink during the dry seasonal periods, when transport and use of assimilates in other sink tissues are reduced. These results indicate a strict link between above- and belowground processes and highlight a rapid response of this Mediterranean forest to changes in environmental drivers to regulate source-sink relationships and carbon sink capacity. PMID:26093372

  20. Morphological and physiological damage to the mycorrhiza/root system in beech trees as a consequence of soil pollution, and chances of regeneration. Final report. Morphologische und physiologische Schaedigung des Mykorrhiza-Wurzel-Systems bei der Buche als Folge von Bodenbelastungen und Moeglichkeiten der Regeneration. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumann, H.G. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst. und Botanischer Garten)

    1989-01-01

    In a first partial project, the development of micorrhizas in old beech trees damaged in varying degrees was investigated. As the course of these investigations revealed, it is practically impossible to make statements on the development, frequency, vitality, and structural intactness of micorrhizas in correlation to the degree of damage of the tree. A second partial project aimed to verify whether the root section of trees sustained phytotoxic damage from the impact of pollutants under controlled conditions. The investigations concentrated on some heavy metals as stress factors, as soil analyses revealed the existence of heavy metal enrichments in the sites of observation and as the intention was to verify in how far the heavy metal resistance of seedlings is increased by developed mycorrhizas. The investigations in the field yielded no obvious result. Consequently, it is still deemed uncertain whether air pollutants harm the mycorrhizas of forest trees, be it directly via the soil or indirectly via influences on epigeal parts of the plant. Under controlled conditions in the laboratory, the author achieved the 'in vitro' synthesis of a mycorrhiza between Fagus sylvatica and Cenococcum geophilum. It provided proof of the fact that only small amounts of copper in the culture medium are needed to disturb the symbiontic equilibrium between root and fungus in a way endowing the fungus with parasitic properties. But these result obtained in an artifical substrate cannot simply be transferred to conditions in the field. (orig./MG).

  1. The Effects of Exposure, Elevation and Tree Age on Seed Characteristics of Fagus orientalis Lipsky

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    Murat Ertekin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Natural or artificial regeneration, rehabilitation, and conversion from coppice to high forest are important practices in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky forests in Turkey. Studies of the seeds of this species have increased in number because mast years are infrequent and seed germination is inhibited by dormancy. In this study we quantified the effects of tree age (40-59, 60-79 and 80-99 years, stand exposure (north, west, east and south and elevation (600 and 800 m a.s.l. on seed characteristics (germination, moisture content, and weight of Oriental beech. Material and Methods: The seeds used in this study were collected from natural beech forest at Kumluca, Bartin, in the western Black Sea region of Turkey. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and the greenhouse of Bartin University. Results: Seed germination and moisture content varied significantly by elevation, and seed germination was strongly influenced by elevation. Moisture content was 14% at 600 m and 16% at 800 m. The effects of elevation and tree age on 100 seed weights were not significant but exposure had a significant effect. The highest 100 seed weight was recorded for trees on southern exposures and the highest germination percentage of 82% was recorded for trees on northern exposures. Conclusions: In conclusion, since oriental beech seedlings are produced by generative propagation method, seeds should be harvested in optimum distribution area of beech, from average ages and phenotypically plus tree.

  2. The phylogeography of Fagus hayatae (Fagaceae): genetic isolation among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Ling-Xiao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Ching-An; Chen, Tze-Ying; Luo, Shu-Jin; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Shen, Ze-Hao

    2016-05-01

    The beech species Fagus hayatae is an important relict tree species in subtropical China, whose biogeographical patterns may reflect floral responses to climate change in this region during the Quaternary. Previous studies have revealed phylogeography for three of the four Fagus species in China, but study on F. hayatae, the most sparsely distributed of these species, is still lacking. Here, molecular methods based on eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of nuclear DNA (nDNA) and three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences were applied for analyses of genetic diversity and structure in 375 samples from 14 F. hayatae populations across its whole range. Both nDNA and cpDNA indicated a high level of genetic diversity in this species. Significant fixation indexes and departures from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with a genetic differentiation parameter of R st of 0.233, were detected in nDNA SSR loci among populations, especially those on Taiwan Island, indicating strong geographic partitioning. The populations were classified into two clusters, without a prominent signal of isolation-by-distance. For the 15 haplotypes detected in the cpDNA sequence fragments, there was a high genetic differentiation parameter (G st = 0.712) among populations. A high G st of 0.829 was also detected outside but not within the Sichuan Basin. Consistent with other Fagus species in China, no recent population expansion was detected from tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution analysis. Overall, genetic isolation with limited gene flow was prominent for this species and significant phylogeographic structures existed across its range except for those inside the Sichuan Basin. Our study suggested long-term geographic isolation in F. hayatae with limited population admixture and the existence of multiple refugia in the mountainous regions of the Sichuan Basin and southeast China during the Quaternary. These results may provide useful information critical for the conservation of F

  3. Quantifying genetic variations and phenotypic plasticity of leaf phenology and growth for two temperate Fagaceae species (sessile oak and european beech)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzon, Sylvain; Vitasse, Yann; Alberto, Florian; Bresson, Caroline; Kremer, Antoine

    2010-05-01

    Under current climate change, research on inherent adaptive capacities of organisms is crucial to assess future evolutionary changes of natural populations. Genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity constitute adaptative capacities that could allow populations to respond to new environmental conditions. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine whether there are genetic variations among populations from altitudinal gradients using a lowland common garden experiment and (ii) to assess the magnitude of phenotypic plasticity using a reciprocal transplant experiment (5 elevations from 100 to 1600 m asl.) for leaf phenology (flushing and senescence) and growth of two fagaceae species (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea). We found significant differences in phenology among provenances for most species, and evidenced that these among-population differences in phenology were related to annual temperature of the provenance sites for both species. It's noteworthy that, along the same climatic gradient, the species exhibited opposite genetic clines: beech populations from high elevation flushed earlier than those of low elevation, whereas we observed an opposite trend for oak. Finally, we highlighted that both phenology timing and growth rate were highly consistent year to year. The results demonstrated that in spite of the proximity of the populations in their natural area, altitude led to genetic differentiations in their phenology and growth. Moreover, a high phenological plasticity was found for both species. We evidenced that reaction norms of flushing timing to temperature followed linear clinal trends for both species with an average shift of 5.7 days per degree increase. Timing of leaf senescence exhibited hyperbolic trends for beech and no or slight trends for oak. Furthermore, within species, there was no difference in magnitude of phenological plasticity among populations neither for flushing, nor for senescence. Consequently, for both species, the

  4. Effect of the silvicultural treatment on canopy properties, litter and seed production in beech coppices under conversion to high forest.

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    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is widely distributed in Italy where it covers 1035103 ha, mainly concentrated in the mountainous areas at altitudes above 900 m. The major part is represented by high forest often issued from the conversion of coppice woods, which in the past was the silvicultural system most widely applied mainly to provide fire wood. The social changes occurred in the second half of the last century –fire wood market crisis and the increasing importance of environmental issues- enhanced the conversion into high forest of large areas previously managed as coppice by means of different silvicultural treatments and practices. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of this choice were not adequately investigated. Results of annual measurements (1992-2009 made in a beech coppice stand aged 65 are here reported. The study area is located on the Alpe di Catenaia, a pre-Apennine outcrop close to Arezzo (Central Italy. Variables strictly related to stand productivity and dynamics such as annual litter and seed production, leaf area index (LAI and transmittance (PAR were measured in the research area of Buca Zamponi to estimate the effects of two theses, natural evolution (TEST and conversion into high forest (DIR. Three thinnings were undertaken in the latter thesis in 1972, 1987 and 2002. Additional theses of natural evolution (CONTR and advance seed cutting (TS were added in 2002 in a nearby study area (Eremo della Casella. Results showed the high productivity of coppice stands, under conversion to high forest, with mean values of annual total litter, leaf litter and leaf area index of 5 Mg ha-1, 3 Mg ha-1 and 6 m2m-2, respectively. These findings confirm both the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles and the reliability of undertaking coppice conversion into high forest. Furthermore, the positive trend observed in the ecological parameters and the high consistency of leaf fraction, highlight the still juvenile

  5. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  6. Contributions to the phytocoenologic study in pure european beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains (North-Western Romania

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    Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.

  7. CULTIVATION OF P. FLORIDA SUPLEMENTED OF RICE BRAIN ON BEECH WOOD WASTE

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    Hüseyin SİVRİKAYA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. reached to the second largest in amount after Agaricus bisporus (Lange sing. in the world. There recently has also been growing interest to cultivate them on wastes of forest and agricultural plants in Turkey. In the scope of study Pleurotus florida was produced on beech wood sawmill waste and rice brain. Beech wood sawmill waste (Fagus orientalis Lipsky were used as main substrate and supplemented with rice brain as co-substrate by 10 % W/W, 0 % W/W, 40 % W/W mixing ratios based on dry weights. To produce P. florida substrates were ground, air dried, moistured up to 70-80 % by tap water, supplemented, pasteurized with live steam and spawned. Highest yields (440 gr/kg of P. florida were obtained by supplementing wood waste and rice brain (% 80 + % 20. Furthermore, the best mycelia development were obtained by % 90 + % 10.

  8. Long-term growth trajectories in a changing climate: disentangling age from size effects in old Fagus trees from contrasting bioclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the drivers promoting exceptional longevity in trees and how their growth performances vary approaching maximum lifespan still represent intriguing challenges not only for tree biology, but also for modelling the long-term forest ecosystem functioning under a changing environment. Tree growth rate is expected to increase with increasing stem size, but higher risk of hydraulic failure and mortality can affect larger trees under increasingly dry conditions. In turn, very old trees are characterized by slow growth and smaller size, factors able to confer advantages against biotic and abiotic disturbances. Rising evidences that very old trees are negligibly affected by the progressive deterioration of physiological functions associated with age support the idea that size, not age, is the main constrain to tree lifespan, so that negative senescence has been proposed as a frequent phenomenon in trees. Additional empirical knowledge is needed to thoroughly assess how complex, uneven-aged old-growth forests cope under climate change in order to define their role in terrestrial carbon cycle. We used a tree-ring network of 8 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests containing several of the oldest crossdated broadleaf trees of the Northern Hemisphere (400-600 years old) to analyse how their growth rates vary along age/size development. We sampled advanced old-growth stands, where canopy tree mortality is naturally occurring, divided among contrasting bioclimatic conditions: eastern Alps and central Apennines (rainy vs. dry summer). To disentangle the long-term effects of size and age on long-term tree growth history, we reconstructed Basal Area Increment (BAI) along size (DBH) development, grouping growth trajectories in different age classes. On average, BAI increased continuously as stem size increased, regardless of bioclimatic region and age class. Old trees grew the slowest and kept increasing BAI trends. In turn, especially on the drier

  9. Effects of ozone-induced stomatal closure on ozone uptake and its changes due to leaf age in sun and shade leaves of Siebold's beech

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; KOIKE, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    An estimation of stomatal ozone uptake for the assessment of ozone risks in forest trees can be modified by ozone-induced stomatal closure. We thus examined a seasonal course of stomatal conductance in sun and shade leaves of Siebold's beech native to northern Japan (Fagus crenata) grown under free-air ozone exposure. A performance of multiplicative stomatal conductance model was also tested, when considering ozone-induced stomatal closure into the model. Ozone caused stomatal closure in both...

  10. Tree ring isotopes of beech and spruce in response to short-term climate variability across Central European sites: Common and contrasting physiological mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, Rosemarie; Klesse, Stefan; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, David; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    The combined study of tree-ring width and stable C and O isotopes provides insight in the coherences between carbon allocation during stem growth and the preceding conditions of gas exchange and formation of photosynthates as all influenced by environmental variation. In this large-scale study comprising 10 sites across a range of climate gradients (temperature, precipitation) throughout Central Europe, we investigated tree-rings in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. The sampling design included larger and smaller trees. The short-term, i.e. year-to-year, variability in the isotope time series over 100 yrs was analyzed in relation to tree-ring growth and climate variation. The generally strong correlation between the year-to-year differences in δ13C (corrected for the atmospheric shift due to 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil combustion) and δ18O across most sites emphasized the role of stomatal conductance in controlling leaf gas exchange. However, the correlation between both isotopes decreased during some periods. At several sites this reduction in correlation was particularly pronounced during recent decades. This suggests a decoupling between stomatal and photosynthetic responses to environmental conditions on the one hand, and carbon allocation to stem tissue on the other hand. Variability in the isotopic ratio largely responded to summer climate, but was weakly correlated to annual stem growth. In contrast, climate sensitivity of radial growth in both species was rather site-dependent, and was strongest at the driest (in terms of soil water capacity) site. We will also present results of isotope responses with respect to extreme climate events. Understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the short-term variation in tree-ring signals will help to assess and more precisely constrain the possible range of growth performance of these ecologically and economically important tree species under future climate

  11. Efficiency of group work in harvesting mountainous broadleaf thinning stands

    OpenAIRE

    Legat, Nejc; Zečić, Željko; Krpan, Ante P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Group work was researched for felling, processing, skidding and quality inspection activities in mountainous broadleaf thinning stands with approximately the same terrain and stand conditions. The stands were 55 and 70years old. In the forest communities of the mountainous beech forest with dead nettle (Lamio orvale - Fagetum sylvaticae/Ht. 1938) and the forests of the sessile oak and horn beam with beech (Epimedio - Carpinetum betuli var. Fagus sylvatica/Ht. 1938/Borth.1963), the main tree s...

  12. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of pure european beech forests in Oraştie river basin (central-western Romania

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    Petru BURESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Festuco drymejaeFagetum Morariu et al. 1968 (Syn.: Fagetum sylvaticae transylvaticum facies with Festuca drymeja I. Pop et al. 1974, found in the pure European beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, lying in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done byselecting the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to the Orăştie river basin. The phytocoenoses of these beech forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  13. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O at two European beech forests: linking soil gas production profiles with soil and stem fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin; Machacova, Katerina; Halaburt, Ellen; Haddad, Sally; Urban, Otmar; Lang, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    consumption sites of soil gases in the adjacent soil. Soils at both sites took up CH4 and N2O and emitted CO2. Soil gas profiles at the Black Forest showed only CH4 and N2O consumption. CH4 uptake was much larger by the well aerated Black Forest soil than by the loamy-clay soil in the White Carpathians. Here, it was possible to stratify the apparently homogenous site into two plots, one having redoximorphic features in the soil profiles, the other plot without. It seemed that CH4 and N2O were mainly produced in the deeper soil at the plot with temporarily reducing conditions. Beech stems mostly took up N2O from the atmosphere at both sites, whereas CH4 was emitted. The stem CH4 flux was higher for the White Carpathians than for the Black Forest site. Thus, the tree and soil flux of CH4 seems to be affected by soil structure, soil water content and the redox potential in the rooting space. We conclude from our results that trees might provide preferential pathways for greenhouse gases produced in the subsoil thereby enhancing the release of greenhouse gases. Acknowledgement This research was financially supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences and the German Academic Exchange Service within the project "Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Fagus sylvatica trees" (DAAD-15-03), National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1415) and project DFG (MA 5826/2-1). We would like to thank Marek Jakubik for technical support and Sinikka Paulus for help by field measurements.

  14. Short-term natural δ13C and δ18O variations in pools and fluxes in a beech forest: the transfer of isotopic signal from recent photosynthates to soil respired CO2

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    G. Matteucci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The fate of photosynthetic products within the plant-soil continuum determines how long the reduced carbon resides within the ecosystem and when it returns back to the atmosphere in the form of respiratory CO2. We have tested the possibility of measuring natural variation in δ13C and δ18O to disentangle the potential times needed to transfer carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis down to trunk, roots and, in general, to belowground up to its further release in the form of soil respiration into the atmosphere in a beech (Fagus sylvatica forest. We have measured the variation in stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions in plant material and in soil respired CO2 every three hours for three consecutive days. Possible steps and different signs of post-photosynthetic fractionation during carbon translocation were also identified. A 12 h-periodicity was observed for variation in δ13C in soluble sugars in the top crown leaves and it can be explained by starch day/night dynamics in synthesis and breakdown and by stomatal limitations under elevated vapour pressure deficits. Photosynthetic products were transported down the trunk and mixed with older carbon pools, therefore causing the dampening of the δ13C signal variation. The strongest periodicity of 24 h was found in δ13C in soil respiration indicating changes in root contribution to the total CO2 efflux. Other non-biological causes like diffusion fractionation and advection induced by gas withdrawn from the measurement chamber complicate data interpretation on this step of C transfer path. Nevertheless, it was possible to identify the speed of carbohydrates' translocation from the point of assimilation to the trunk breast height because leaf-imprinted enrichment of δ18O in soluble sugars was less modified along the downward transport and was well related to environmental parameters potentially linked to stomatal conductance. The speed of carbohydrates translocation from the site of

  15. Natural Regeneration of Beech Forests in the Strict Protected Area of the Plitvice Lakes National Park

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    Tomislav Dubravac

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The study presents the results of an investigation of regeneration processes, growth, development and survival of young growth by field measurement and three-dimensional visualization of horizontal and vertical structure. The results are based on the ten-year investigation (1998-2009 on a permanent experimental plot in a mountain beech forest with dead nettle tree (Lamio orvale - Fagetum sylvaticae Ht. 1938 in conditions of passive protection. Materials and Methods: Basic structural indicators were measured (diameter at breast height and height, structural crown elements (size and shape, ground cover crowns and the occurrence and survival of young growth as the basic conditions of natural regeneration. Particular emphasis in the investigation was paid to the development of crown structures and the process of natural regeneration during the 10 year period. Results and Conclusions: Investigation indicates the occurrence of young growth regeneration cores arising as a result of the die-back of one dominant beech tree with horizontal crown projections of 145 m2 which initiated the possibility of natural regeneration. The greatest change occurred in the beech seedling count, whose numbers increased fourfold from 3556 plants per hectare in 1998 to 12694 plants per hectare in 2009. The share of beech seedlings increased from 8.7% to 22.6% of all species of young growth and shrubs. Thus beech became dominant among the tree species regeneration. However, the majority of the young plants of beech are of poor quality and thus their further development in conditions of passive protection is questionable. The investigations also showed the possibility of a new approach to the study of the dynamics of crown structures and the process of natural regeneration by methods of three-dimensional visualization of horizontal and vertical structures. The methods presented offer a more graphic illustration of the development of stands and high

  16. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  17. Chemical remediation of beech condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmouli, Mohammed; Haluk, Jean Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, beech wood condensates are separated from the aqueous phase. Experimental results reveal an electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged wood extracts after oxidation and Ca(OH)(2). The increase in aqueous phase pH resulted in enhanced removal of wood extracts from water. The polarographic assays were carried out at 25 degrees C using a Gilson oxygraph equipped with a Clark electrode in order to determine the oxygen uptake during the oxidation reaction. The effect of pH is explained based on oxygen uptake. The organic compounds found in the aqueous effluent are responsible for the brown color. The objective of this study is to find the optimum pH to eliminate the wood extracts from the liquid effluents. PMID:15567404

  18. Role of six European tree species and land-use legacy for nitrogen and water budgets in forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Christiansen, Jesper; Vesterdal, Lars; Callesen, Ingeborg;

    2010-01-01

    -year-old common garden design with stands of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) replicated at two sites...

  19. An interactive effect of simultaneous death of dwarf bamboo, canopy gap, and predatory rodents on beech regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M; Miguchi, H; Nakashizuka, T

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the interactive effect of the simultaneous death of dwarf bamboo (Sasa kurilensis), forest canopy gap formation, and seed predators on beech (Fagus crenata) regeneration, we analyzed beech demography from seed fall until the end of the first growing season of seedlings in an old-growth forest near Lake Towada, northern Japan. The simultaneous death of S. kurilensis took place in 1995. We established four types of sampling site differing in forest canopy conditions (closed or gap) and Sasa status (dead or alive). Beech seed survival and emergence ratio were both highest in gaps with dead Sasa (gap-dead), because rate of predation was lowest. Seedling survival during the first growing season was also highest in the gap-dead treatment, because of less predation and less damping off. As a result, even though density of seed fall was lowest in the gap-dead treatment, the living seedling density there was highest at the end of the first growing season. Predation, which caused the greatest mortality during the seed and seedling stages, was significantly lower at both sites in gaps and sites with dead Sasa. This was probably due to changes in the behavior of rodents in response to the structure of the forest canopy and undergrowth. Both the death of Sasa and canopy gap formation allowed seedlings to avoid damping off because of the high light availability. The indirect effect of the simultaneous death of Sasa and canopy gap formation in reducing predation contributed more to beech regeneration than their direct effect in increasing light for the seedlings. PMID:24577661

  20. Measuring and modelling precipitation components in an Oriental beech stand of the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Ramin; Sadoddin, Amir; Ghorbani, Somayeh

    2011-07-01

    SummaryInterception loss from the canopy is a major pathway for the loss of water from forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in an Oriental beech stand, neighboring Gorgan, representing typical forest characteristics of the Hyrcanian region. The Hyrcanian region is situated to the south of the Caspian Sea and covers approximately 1.8 million ha of the northern foothills of the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. This region is characterised by temperate deciduous forests with Oriental beech stands, formed mainly of Fagus orientalis. Because these beech stands occupy 80% of the Hyrcanian region, rainfall interception via the tree canopy is an important pathway for water loss in this region. The main objectives of this study were to determine and model the precipitation components including stemflow, throughfall, net precipitation, and interception loss using gross precipitation and to understand how the diameter classes influence precipitation partitioning by comparing precipitation components across the tree diameter classes. A total of 31 beech trees with the following classes of diameter were randomly chosen: 11 trees of 30-60 cm (young), 10 trees of 60-100 cm (middle-aged), and 10 trees of 100-130 cm (old) of Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). Field measurements of gross precipitation, stemflow, and throughfall were made for 33 rainfall events over a period of 12 months from November 2005. Then, based on these measurements, net precipitation and interception loss were calculated. The value of gross precipitation was approximately 827 mm. Interception loss estimated to be about 53%, 57%, and 60% of gross precipitation corresponding to the tree diameter classes of 30-60, 60-100, and 100-130 cm, respectively. ANOVA results show that the values of the mean of precipitation components were significantly different across the diameter classes. There was an indirect relationship between tree diameter and the volumes of stemflow, throughfall, and net precipitation

  1. Hypoxylon species on beech and other broadleaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Hypoxylon cause wood decay and most of them are saprophytes on dead wood or parasites of weakness. The following species in this genus were identified in this study performed at several localities in Serbia and Montenegro: H. deustum, H. fragiforme, H. nummularium, H. multiforme, H. rubiginosum and H. fuscum. Among them the most significant species is H. deustum, the fungus causing root and butt rot of standing beech trees. It was recorded from all coppice and high forests of beech. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the recorded fungi their range, plant hosts and significance.

  2. A Technique to Screen American Beech for Resistance to the Beech Scale Insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Jennifer L.; Carey, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) results in high levels of initial mortality, leaving behind survivor trees that are greatly weakened and deformed. The disease is initiated by feeding activities of the invasive beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which creates entry points for infection by one of the Neonectria species of fungus. Without scale infestation, there is little opportunity for fungal infection. Using scale eggs to artificially infest healthy trees in heavily BBD impacted stands demo...

  3. Increased phytotoxic O3 dose accelerates autumn senescence in an O3-sensitive beech forest even under the present-level O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Yasuda, Yukio; Kominami, Yuji; Yamanoi, Katsumi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyama, Takafumi; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Koike, Takayoshi; Izuta, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations are expected to increase over the 21(st) century, especially in East Asia. However, the impact of O3 has not been directly assessed at the forest level in this region. We performed O3 flux-based risk assessments of carbon sequestration capacity in an old cool temperate deciduous forest, consisting of O3-sensitive Japanese beech (Fagus crenata), and in a warm temperate deciduous and evergreen forest dominated by O3-tolerant Konara oak (Quercus serrata) based on long-term CO2 flux observations. On the basis of a practical approach for a continuous estimation of canopy-level stomatal conductance (Gs), higher phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 0 uptake (POD0) with higher Gs was observed in the beech forest than that in the oak forest. Light-saturated gross primary production, as a measure of carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, declined earlier in the late growth season with increasing POD0, suggesting an earlier autumn senescence, especially in the O3-sensitive beech forest, but not in the O3-tolerant oak forest. PMID:27601188

  4. Forest structure and woody plant species composition after a wildfire in beech forests in the north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Ali Omidi; Daniel C Dey

    2013-01-01

    Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forest covers about 565,000 ha of land in Guilan province,north of Iran and forms a major carbon pool.It is an important economic,soil protection and recreation resource.We studied long-term effects of fire on the structure and composition 37 years after fire occurrence in these forests.To do this research,we selected 85 ha burned and 85 ha unbumed beech forests).The results indicated that the fire had not changed the overall uneven-aged structure,but it changed forest composition from pure stands to mixed stands that now include species such as Carpinus betulus,Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata.The density of trees and regeneration was significantly increased,while the density of shrubs significantly decreased.The main reasons for increased tree regeneration were attributed to (1) reduction of litter depth,and (2) increase in available light from opening of the canopy and reduction in shrub competition.It is apparent that the forest is on a path to return to its natural state before the fire after 37 years.

  5. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  6. Radiocarbon-based estimation of soil carbon turnover in a cool-temperate beech forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil is the largest pool of terrestrial organic carbon (C) in the biosphere, storing twice as much C as the atmosphere. For deep understanding of the soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, we collected surface soil (to 20 cm depth) and litter samples from the Appi forest meteorology research site dominated by Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) in 2005, and then determined their radiocarbon isotope ratios (Δ14C). The Δ14C values of SOC allowed us to estimate their turnover times, further quantifying the rates of heterotrophic respiration by dividing the carbon stocks by the estimated turnover times. Our findings obtained in this study are that: (1) The total annual heterotrophic respiration is 0.38 kgC m-2 y-1 in the site, about two-third of which comes from O horizon storing only 6.3% of total carbon stock; (2) More than 80% of C fixed by vegetation can be re-emitted to the atmosphere from soil within a decade; and (3) The A1 and A2 horizons, having the apparent turnover times of several decades to several centuries, has high potential for C loss from the soil due to warming for a long-term perspective. (author)

  7. TORREFACTION OF BEECH AND SPRUCE SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GRÎU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to apply a thermal treatment of beech and spruce sawdust dried to 10% moisture in order to determine the mass loss and to obtain pellet sets. This paper considers the colour change of the treated material during the treatment, as function of time and temperature increase. It also highlights the changes in the chemical composition of sawdust connected with the mass loss. The paper also studies the physical integrity of the obtained pellets, using the method of free fall, with the results showing that spruce sawdust pellets appear to be more stable. The optimal temperature of thermal treatment proves to be 2600C and the duration of treatments are 5 and 10 minutes, when the sawdust has dimensions between 0.4-1mm. Regarding the pellets formed at the temperature above 2600C, it should be noted that their stability is low, in particular that one of beech, which is difficult to compress and compact

  8. Edaphic potentials of beech forests on Brezovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the soils in the montane beech forest (Fagetum moesiacae montanum Jov. 53 in the management units "Južni Kuèaj II" and "Bogovina I", on the mountain massif Brezovica. Soil genesis in the beech forests of Brezovica, along with vegetation and relief, was affected by the character of parent rock. The study soils occur over two types of bedrock: limestone and argilloschist The soil types and sub-types are defined based on the profile morphology, parent rock and pedogenetic processes Two types of soil were analysed on limestone: black earth (calcomelanosol and brown soil (calcocambisol. Two sub-types of black earth were defined: organomineral and brownised. There are two varieties of organomineral black earth: colluvial and lithic. Also two sub-types of brown soils were defined and: typical and illimerised. The soils on limestone are characterised by great spatial variability. Different combinations of soil formations occur on a small area. Soil combinations consist of two or three development phases, the most represented of which are the following: organomineral black earth - brownised black earth; organomineral black earth - brownised black earth - typical brown soil; typical brown soil - illimerised soil Typical brown soil is formed on argilloschists and it occurs in two forms: medium deep, medium skeletal acid brown soil and deep, poorly skeletal acid brown soil The most productive sites of the montane beech forest on Brezovica are deep acid brown soils and the soil combination: typical brown soil - illimerised soil on limestone.

  9. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenmann, Michael; Bimüller, Carolin; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche, Rainer; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N) limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability) on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this ecosystem and here

  10. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenmann, Michael; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche, Rainer; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N) limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability) on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this ecosystem and here

  11. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenmann, Michael; Bimüller, Carolin; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche, Rainer; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N) limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability) on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this ecosystem and here

  12. Some observations of slime moulds on wood and litter of beech forests

    OpenAIRE

    Dominika Ślusarczyk

    2013-01-01

    The results of research into slime moulds in beech forest reserves in Central Poland are discussed. Thirty species of slime moulds directly associated with beech wood and beech litter were recorded. Species associated with different decay phases of beech wood and litter were identified.

  13. A technique to screen American beech for resistance to the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer L; Carey, David W

    2014-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) results in high levels of initial mortality, leaving behind survivor trees that are greatly weakened and deformed. The disease is initiated by feeding activities of the invasive beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which creates entry points for infection by one of the Neonectria species of fungus. Without scale infestation, there is little opportunity for fungal infection. Using scale eggs to artificially infest healthy trees in heavily BBD impacted stands demonstrated that these trees were resistant to the scale insect portion of the disease complex(1). Here we present a protocol that we have developed, based on the artificial infestation technique by Houston(2), which can be used to screen for scale-resistant trees in the field and in smaller potted seedlings and grafts. The identification of scale-resistant trees is an important component of management of BBD through tree improvement programs and silvicultural manipulation.

  14. Modifiche compositive e strutturali in soprassuoli in evoluzione naturale della riserva M.a.B. di Montedimezzo (Isernia)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Chiara Manetti; Orazio Ivan Gugliotta

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition and structural dynamics in forest stands under natural evolution in the Montedimezzo M.a.B. reserve. This study is included in an experimental protocol established in 1954 aimed at examining the natural dynamics in mixed broadleaves high forests dominated by Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Stand development patterns in the last fifteen years are reported. Repeated quantitative and qualitative inventories were carried out in two permanent...

  15. Sapling herbivory, invertebrate herbivores and predators across a natural tree diversity gradient in Germany’s largest connected deciduous forest

    OpenAIRE

    Sobek, Stephanie; Scherber, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2009-01-01

    Tree species-rich forests are hypothesised to be less susceptible to insect herbivores, but so far herbivory–diversity relationships have rarely been tested for tree saplings, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We expected that diverse tree communities reduce the probability of detection of host plants and increase abundance of predators, thereby reducing herbivory. We examined levels of herbivory suffered by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple sapl...

  16. Revitalizace lesních ekosystémů postižených antropogenní činností ve vybrané části Krušných hor

    OpenAIRE

    Holý, Vítězslav

    2013-01-01

    Revitalisation of forest ecosystems affected by antropogenic activites in the part of the ore Mountains. The content of this thesis is to evaluate the influence of liming and fertilization on the growth of cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) deteriorated by pollution in the Ore Mountains (Forest Management Litvinov - Forestry district Stropník). In the years 2006-2012 on selected eight areas were measured heights and thickness of the neck root of ...

  17. Metatranscriptomics reveals the diversity of genes expressed by eukaryotes in forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Damon, Coralie; Lehembre, Frederic; OGER, Christine; Luis, Patricia; Ranger, Jacques; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Marmeisse, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms play essential roles in the biology and fertility of soils. For example the micro and mesofauna contribute to the fragmentation and homogenization of plant organic matter, while its hydrolysis is primarily performed by the fungi. To get a global picture of the activities carried out by soil eukaryotes we sequenced 2×10,000 cDNAs synthesized from polyadenylated mRNA directly extracted from soils sampled in beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) forests. Taxonomic...

  18. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, B; Lüescher, P.; P. F. Germann

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the relation between root length distributions from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Miller), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern Pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2) and recorded water content var...

  19. State and silvicultural problems of beech forests in Northeast Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The state and silvicultural demands in beech forests of northeast Serbia were studied in the economic regions of Severni Kučaj, Timok and Južni Kučaj, and in the region of the National Park Đerdap. The detailed analysis of state forests was performed: representation of beech forests according to silvicultural form, origin, age structure, stand state and productivity Average volume in high beech forests of 218 m3 x ha–1 is for about 5% lower than the average in Serbia (207.2 m3 x ha–1, and it amounts to 87% of the optimal volume of beech forests in Serbia. Volume increment of 4.5 m3ha–1 is approximate to the average increment of high beech forests in Serbia, and it amounts to 75% of the optimal value. The average volume of coppice beech forests of 150 m3ha–1 is 60% of the optimal volume of beech forests in Serbia The age structure is unfavourable, because the percentage of well conserved mature stands is only about 8%. Unplanned regeneration has started on about 15% of the area. Middle-aged and maturing stands account for more than 3/4 of the total area (80%. Stand state of beech forests in this region can be assessed as close to unsatisfactory, if the criteria are conservation, origin, vitality, and also the health state Based on the above state, the concrete silvicultural demands for each silvicultural situation were determined and the silvicultural measures were proposed aiming at their rational utilisation and improvement of forest state: measures aiming at the establishment of new, quality stands and measures aiming at the improvement of the state of existing forests.

  20. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Pol Coppin; Bart Muys; Jan A.N. van Aardt; Phillip Dutré; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Dimitrios Biliouris

    2007-01-01

    The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF) of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution...

  1. Penetration of urea-formaldehyde adhesives in wood tissue, part I: Radial penetration of UF adhesives into beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović-Grmuša Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive penetration plays an important role in wood adhesion, since wood is a porous material. The degree of penetration mostly depends on the wood factors, resin type and formulation and processing parameters. Tangentially cut 5 mm thick beech wood (Fagus moesiaca plies, 100 mm long (parallel to grain and 30 mm wide, were prepared for this study. The urea-formaldehyde (UF adhesive was applied to the surface of one ply. Two plies were assembled into sample so that the grains of two plies were parallel. Samples were pressed in a hydraulic press at 120°C and 0,7 MPa for 15 min. Microtome test-specimens were cut of each sample. 20 μm thick microtomes were cut by sliding microtome apparatus, exposing a bondline with a cross-sectional surface. The lack of more exhausting research on the penetration of urea-formaldehyde adhesives in wood is evident. Since ureaformaldehyde (UF glue resins were the most important type of adhesives in the wood industry in the last 60 years (Dunky, 2000, the objective of this research was microscopic detection of UF adhesive penetration in wood tissue. Four types of UF resins with different levels of polycondensation were used in this research. Safranin was added in resins, since epi-fluorescence microscope was used in this research for measuring the adhesive penetration.

  2. Morphological and genetics analysis of Stachys sylvatica (Lamiaceae coenopopulations in the mountains of South Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Yamskikh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stachys sylvatica is Tertiary nemoral relict from the Sout Siberian mountains. Modification and genetic variability of 11 Stachys sylvatica populations from South Siberian mountains were studied. Investigations revealed that S. sylvatica grew in coniferous (spruce, pine, Siberian stone pine, fir, and mixed forests, aspen, linden forests and floodplain habitats. Climatic area of the species is limited to an annual precipitation of 500–1250 mm, effective heat sum 1600–2050 ºC and altitude from 150 to 700 m a.s.l. In the study of the state of the S. sylvatica coenopopulations we determined the population size, projective cover, evaluated the morphological variability of vegetative and genera­tive characteristics. To establish the significance of differences between the average values of the same characters we used ANOVA. It was revealed that most of the morphometric characters had medium and high level of variability. The genetic variability of species we detected by RAF-PCR method (Randomly Amplified DNA Fingerprinting. The analysis of genetic variation of the S. sylvatica coenopopulations showed that the studied species was characterized by a very high level of intra-population polymorphism. The maximum level of genetic variability was observed in the population growing on the border of the species area. Gene pools of all studied coenopopulations have a satisfactory condition and can be reproduced by itself. All studied coenopopulations of Stachys sylvatica are poorly differenti­ated and do not show the tendency to the formation of new taxa. Moreover, a similar genetic structure we have seen in the coenopopulations growing not only in different parts of the area, but also in communities radically different in environmental and phytocenotic conditions. With increasing of anthropogenic impact on coenopopulations we have observed an increase of the size of the generative organs of Stachys sylvatica. The separation of individuals on a

  3. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity. PMID:27555345

  4. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  5. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  6. Soil Parameters Drive the Structure, Diversity and Metabolic Potentials of the Bacterial Communities Across Temperate Beech Forest Soil Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanbille, M; Buée, M; Bach, C; Cébron, A; Frey-Klett, P; Turpault, M P; Uroz, S

    2016-02-01

    Soil and climatic conditions as well as land cover and land management have been shown to strongly impact the structure and diversity of the soil bacterial communities. Here, we addressed under a same land cover the potential effect of the edaphic parameters on the soil bacterial communities, excluding potential confounding factors as climate. To do this, we characterized two natural soil sequences occurring in the Montiers experimental site. Spatially distant soil samples were collected below Fagus sylvatica tree stands to assess the effect of soil sequences on the edaphic parameters, as well as the structure and diversity of the bacterial communities. Soil analyses revealed that the two soil sequences were characterized by higher pH and calcium and magnesium contents in the lower plots. Metabolic assays based on Biolog Ecoplates highlighted higher intensity and richness in usable carbon substrates in the lower plots than in the middle and upper plots, although no significant differences occurred in the abundance of bacterial and fungal communities along the soil sequences as assessed using quantitative PCR. Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundantly represented phyla. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Chlamydiae were significantly enriched in the most acidic and nutrient-poor soils compared to the Bacteroidetes, which were significantly enriched in the soils presenting the higher pH and nutrient contents. Interestingly, aluminium, nitrogen, calcium, nutrient availability and pH appeared to be the best predictors of the bacterial community structures along the soil sequences. PMID:26370112

  7. Soil Parameters Drive the Structure, Diversity and Metabolic Potentials of the Bacterial Communities Across Temperate Beech Forest Soil Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanbille, M; Buée, M; Bach, C; Cébron, A; Frey-Klett, P; Turpault, M P; Uroz, S

    2016-02-01

    Soil and climatic conditions as well as land cover and land management have been shown to strongly impact the structure and diversity of the soil bacterial communities. Here, we addressed under a same land cover the potential effect of the edaphic parameters on the soil bacterial communities, excluding potential confounding factors as climate. To do this, we characterized two natural soil sequences occurring in the Montiers experimental site. Spatially distant soil samples were collected below Fagus sylvatica tree stands to assess the effect of soil sequences on the edaphic parameters, as well as the structure and diversity of the bacterial communities. Soil analyses revealed that the two soil sequences were characterized by higher pH and calcium and magnesium contents in the lower plots. Metabolic assays based on Biolog Ecoplates highlighted higher intensity and richness in usable carbon substrates in the lower plots than in the middle and upper plots, although no significant differences occurred in the abundance of bacterial and fungal communities along the soil sequences as assessed using quantitative PCR. Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons revealed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundantly represented phyla. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Chlamydiae were significantly enriched in the most acidic and nutrient-poor soils compared to the Bacteroidetes, which were significantly enriched in the soils presenting the higher pH and nutrient contents. Interestingly, aluminium, nitrogen, calcium, nutrient availability and pH appeared to be the best predictors of the bacterial community structures along the soil sequences.

  8. Observations on the slime moulds growing on the moulder beech wood

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-01-01

    We have found that the most suitable substrate for slime molds developement is the wood of dicotyledoneus trees especially that of beech. This is due to its impermanency and weak resistance to biological agents. In Silesia 42 slime molds species were found to grow on beech wood. The development of Fuligo rufa and Lucogala exiguum seems to be closely connected with beech wood.

  9. Competition for nitrogen between European beech and sycamore maple shifts in favour of beech with decreasing light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judy; Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for N between seedlings of European beech and sycamore maple and analysed the consequences of this competition for the composition of N metabolites in fine roots. Our results show different strategies in N acquisition between beech and sycamore maple. Both species responded to reduced light availability by adapting their morphological and physiological traits with a decrease in biomass and net assimilation rate and an increase in specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. For beech seedlings, competition with sycamore maple led to a reduction in organic N uptake capacity. Reduced light availability led to a decrease in ammonium, but an increase in glutamine-N uptake capacity in sycamore maple. However, this response was stronger compared with that of beech and was accompanied by reduced growth. Thus, our results suggest better adaptation of N acquisition to reduced light availability in beech compared with sycamore maple seedlings.

  10. Flux-profile relationships over a fetch limited beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of an internal boundary layer and a roughness sublayer on flux-profile relationships for momentum and sensible heat have been investigated for a closed beech forest canopy with limited fetch conditions. The influence was quantified by derivation of local scaling functions for sensible...... the canopy top for some wind sectors led to an increase in phi(m), a feature that has not previously been observed. For a fetch of 500 m over the beech forest during neutral atmospheric conditions, there is no height range at the site where profiles can be expected to be logarithmic with respect to the local...

  11. Experimental Study on Dry Torrefaction of Beech Wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gucho, E.M.; Shahzad, K.; Bramer, E.A.; Akhtar, N.A.; Brem, G.

    2015-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermochemical pre-treatment process for upgrading the properties of biomass to resemble those of fossil fuels such as coal. Biomass properties of particular interest are chemical composition, physical property and combustion characteristics. In this work, torrefaction of beech woo

  12. Experimental Study on Dry Torrefaction of Beech Wood and Miscanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyerusalem M. Gucho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical pre-treatment process for upgrading the properties of biomass to resemble those of fossil fuels such as coal. Biomass properties of particular interest are chemical composition, physical property and combustion characteristics. In this work, torrefaction of beech wood and miscanthus (sinensis was carried out to study the influence of torrefaction temperature (240–300 °C and residence time (15–150 min on the aforementioned properties of the biomass. Results of the study revealed that torrefaction temperature has a significant influence on mass and energy yields, whereas the influence of the residence time becomes more apparent for the higher torrefaction temperatures (>280 °C. Torrefied miscanthus resulted in higher energy densification compared to beech wood for a residence time of 30 min. A significant improvement in grindability of the torrefied beech wood was obtained even for lightly torrefied beech wood (at 280 °C and 15 min of residence time. Observation from the combustion study showed that the ignition temperature is slightly affected by the torrefaction temperature. As a whole, the torrefaction temperature determines the characteristics of the torrefied fuel compared to other process parameters like residence time. Furthermore, with optimal process conditions, torrefaction produces a solid fuel with combustion reactivity and porosity comparable to raw biomass, whereas grindability and heating value are comparable to low quality coal.

  13. Species diversity and area-relationships in Danish beech forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawesson, J.E.; Blust, de G.; Grashof, C.; Firbanks, L.; Honnay, O.; Hermy, M.; Hobitz, P.; Jensen, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The vascular flora of 62 Danish beech forests of eastern Jutland ranging in size from 1-445 ha, was investigated for species-area relations. Species richness reflecting total diversity, forest diversity, and of different habitat groups, were corrected for non-linearity by means of a log-log power fu

  14. Structure and stem growth of multi-stemmed trees of Fagus engleriana in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kung-fang Cao,; Peters, R.

    1998-01-01

    Fagus engleriana Seem. occurs in the mountains of southern China. It has a multi-stemmed form at several sites, but it is single-stemmed at other sites. It is not known whether this tree naturally develops the multi-stemmed form at all sites of its range. This paper describes the occurrences of mult

  15. SYNTAXOMOMICAL SURVEY O F EUROPEAN BEECH FORESTS: SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. DIERSCHKE

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A short overwiev is given about the historical development of syntaxonomy of European beech forests. Different solutions of classification have been proposed, following more or less two main approaches: Division of alliances and suballiances by ecologically or geographically orientated species groups. A new classification of European beech forests is proposed with 8 (or more geographically orientated alliances, which can be further divided into suballiances by ecological species groups. For each alliance character and differential species, nomenclatural type and the area is mentioned, based on a (non puplished synthetic table, including 10.006 relevés from all parts of Europe. From this table also some overlapping species groups (a-n are given.

  16. Disintegration of beech wood char during thermal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    were limited by Knudsen diffusion through the pits in the wood cell walls for degrees of conversion by gasification up to at least 0.5. A computer model of slab gasification based on the diffusion measurements successfully predicted the mass loss rate during diffusion-limited gasification of beech wood......In the present work the processes occurring in the structures of slowly pyrolysed beech wood char during thermal gasification have been investigated. Emphasis was put on physical changes and gas transport properties during conversion. The highly anisotropic structure of wood was preserved in its...... char. Direct observation of the microscopic char structures during gasification in CO2 at 735 QC showed that the basic structure was nearly intact up to degrees of conversion of 0.6—0.7. Uni-axial measurements of diffusion coefficients and permeabilities with a Wicke-Kallenbach cell revealed...

  17. Differential Responses of Herbivores and Herbivory to Management in Temperate European Beech

    OpenAIRE

    Gossner, Martin M.; Pašalić, Esther; Lange, Markus; Lange, Patricia; Boch, Steffen; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Müller, Jörg; Socher, Stephanie; Fischer, Markus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Forest management not only affects biodiversity but also might alter ecosystem processes mediated by the organisms, i.e. herbivory the removal of plant biomass by plant-eating insects and other arthropod groups. Aiming at revealing general relationships between forest management and herbivory we investigated aboveground arthropod herbivory in 105 plots dominated by European beech in three different regions in Germany in the sun-exposed canopy of mature beech trees and on beech saplings in the...

  18. Differential responses of herbivores and herbivory to management in temperate European beech

    OpenAIRE

    Gossner, Martin M.; Esther Pašalić; Markus Lange; Patricia Lange; Steffen Boch; Dominik Hessenmöller; Jörg Müller; Socher, Stephanie A.; Markus Fischer; Ernst-Detlef Schulze; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Forest management not only affects biodiversity but also might alter ecosystem processes mediated by the organisms, i.e. herbivory the removal of plant biomass by plant-eating insects and other arthropod groups. Aiming at revealing general relationships between forest management and herbivory we investigated aboveground arthropod herbivory in 105 plots dominated by European beech in three different regions in Germany in the sun-exposed canopy of mature beech trees and on beech saplings in the...

  19. THE QUALITY OF THE SURFACE AT THE BEECH WOODTURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CHERCIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been experiments made with outside cylindrical beech woodturning with low cutting speed, and feed successively changed. We study, qualitative rather than quantitative, the roughnesss of the surface achieved. It interprets the appearance of each surface based on the theory of cutting considerations. Resulted surface images are given, photographed with a camera and microscope. It appears that here are no propellers generated by the cutting tool nose on the cylindrical part, excepting the situation of using high feeds.

  20. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (Barbastella barbastellus, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  1. Arthropod diversity in pristine vs. managed beech forests in Transcarpathia (Western Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chumak

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that biodiversity in pristine beech forests is not generally higher than in managed beech forests. However, the much higher amount of dead wood in pristine forests provides a source habitat for saproxylic species spreading into managed forest plots in the same region, but not to distant forests, far from virgin forests, such as in Western Europe.

  2. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  3. Assortment structure in beech coppice stands in Boljevac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Assortment structure in beech coppice stands was studied in the area of Boljevac. Assortment structure was evaluated according to the articles of the valid standard (JUS. The assortments represented in the assortment structure, based on the stemwood quality are: Logs for matches, sawlogs I II and III classes, mine timber, technical roundwood, pulpwood, wood for excelsior and fuelwood, I and II classes. The results of the analyses show that the value assortment structure (sum of the values of assortments produced from one tree grows significantly with the increase of tree diameter and this dependence is presented by a degree function. The value percentage of logs for matches, sawlogs of the I and II classes, technical roundwood, mine timber, fuelwood and pulpwood, grows with the increase of the tree diameter. The occurrence of better quality logs (sawlogs in these stands, in contrast to the beech coppice stand in the area of Crni Vrh results from the more favourable diameter structure. There are no statistically significant differences between the value assortment structure on the established sample plot series within the same locality, consequently the data ere united. Because of the differences in stand age, the data are not unified for the localities, although there are no statistically significant differences between value assortment structure for diameter degrees represented in them. False heart (red heart is one of very significant defects of beech wood, and its incidence, inter alia, depends on tree age. The low effect of this defect of wood resulted in a significant percentage of logs for matches. Along with the value assortment structure this paper also presents the percentage of assortments depending on tree diameter.

  4. Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as measured with eddy covariance was compared for two European beech stands for the years 1996-1999: a young beech forest (32 year-old) growing in east France, and a mature beech stand (80 year-old) located in Denmark. Those sites are included in the Carboeuroflux/Ca......, explaining carbon uptake being significantly lower at the Danish than at the French site. If it exists, an age effect could not be detected in this comparison. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Spatiogenetic characteristics of beech stands with different degrees of autochthony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf; Kownatzki, Dierk

    2005-01-01

    Background Autochthony in forest tree stands is characterized by a number of criteria, among which the range over which stands act as a population has been suggested to play a central role. Therefore, measures are needed for the delineation of populations or the detection of subpopulation structure. It is argued here that methods of population delineation must be based on the combined consideration of spatial distances and genetic differences between adult individuals. Conventional approaches and a set of newly developed methods are applied to seven isozyme loci in four beech stands which are distinguished by different types of forest management based on natural regeneration. Results Permutation analyses show that correlations between spatial distances and genetic differences vary only little in the studied beech stands. In view of the popularity of this and related descriptors of spatiogenetic covariation, this result came as a surprise. The newly developed methods lead to a different conclusion. Significant spatiogenetic structure is indicated in all stands when considering the mean and variance of spatiogenetic separation, where separation is measured by the smallest spatiogenetic difference of an individual from all others. Spatiogenetic difference is measured here by a combination of the spatial distances and genetic differences between individuals. This descriptor indicates the existence of spatiogenetic clusters in the beech stands. In order to arrive at an explicit representation of cluster structure as a representation of subpopulation structure, two types of cluster structure (primary and α-isolated) are distinguished, both of which reflect desirable characteristics of subpopulation structure. Particularly in the α-isolated structure, the proportion of individuals organized in clusters, the effective size, and the effective number of clusters clearly distinguish and consistently rank the four stands with respect to their types of forest management and

  6. An index of structural complexity for Apennine beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini FM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A broad interest exists in developing structure-based indicators to use as proxies for other attributes that are difficult to assess, such as biological diversity. Summary variables that account for stand-scale forest structural complexity could facilitate the comparison among stands and provide a means of ranking stands in terms of their potential contribution to biodiversity. We developed an index of structural heterogeneity (SHI for beech forests in southern Italy: (i we established a preliminary list of 23 structural variables obtained from data routinely collected in forest inventories; (ii we quantified these variables in a set of 64 beech-dominated stands encompassing a wide range of variability in the Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni National Park; (iii we identified a core set of attributes that take into account the main sources of structural he­terogeneity identified in reference old-growth forests; and (iv we combined these core attributes into a simple additive index (SHI. We identified eight core attributes that were rescaled to the range 0 to 10 using regression equations based on raw attribute data. The SHI was calculated as the sum of these attribute scores and then expressed as a percentage. The index performance was evaluated against ten reference old-growth beech stands in the Apennines. The index ranged between 38 and 79.1 (median=59.4 and was distri­buted normally for the calibration dataset. The SHI successfully discriminated between old-growth (range=71.9-99.9, median=85.1 and early-mature to mature forests. Furthermore, the SHI linearly increased with stand age and was higher in multi-layer high forests than in single- and double-layer forests. However, a large variation was detected within both management types and age classes. SHI could be helpful for foresters as a tool for quantifying and compa­ring structural heterogeneity before and after a silvicultural intervention ai­med at restoring the structural

  7. Isolation of ice-nucleating active bacteria from the freeze-tolerant frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M R; Lee, R E; Strong-Gunderson, J M; Minges, S R

    1995-08-01

    Ice-nucleating active (INA) bacteria were isolated from the gut of field-collected freeze-tolerant wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) collected in winter. Thirteen strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, four strains of Pseudomonas putida, and two strains of Enterobacter agglomerans had ice-nucleating activity. Each of the INA pseudomonad strains was psychrophilic. P. putida strains were differentiated from P. fluorescens strains by gelatinase, lecithinase, and lipase production. The maximum nucleation temperatures (Tmax) of aqueous suspensions (10(9) bacteria/ml) of the four INA P. putida strains ranged from -1.6 to -3.0 degrees C, which places this INA species among the most potent known biological nucleators. Ingestion of INA P. putida isolated from R. sylvatica by another freeze-tolerant frog. Pseudacris crucifer, decreased the capacity of this frog to supercool and remain unfrozen at -2 degrees C. This is the first report of INA bacteria isolated from a vertebrate, and suggests that, as part of the gut flora in some posthibernation freeze-tolerant wood frogs, these bacteria may play a role in enhancing winter survival by promoting ice nucleation at high subzero temperatures (ca. -2 degrees C). PMID:7656570

  8. Rainfall interception by an evergreen beech forest, Nelson, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, L. K.

    1983-10-01

    Throughfall under a beech ( Nothofagus) forest canopy at Donald Creek, Nelson, averaged 69% of the rain falling on the canopy, i.e. 1060 mm of 1530 mm in a year of normal rainfall. Using an estimate for stemflow at 2% of gross rainfall, interception loss averaged 29% of the annual rainfall, or 440 mm yr. -1. Seasonal differences in interception loss were significant, ranging from 22% in winter to 35% in summer, and resulted from seasonal variation in evaporation rates from a wet canopy. Seasonal variation in rainfall rate was slight. Four models, storm linear regression, monthly linear regression, sine curve and Gash's analytical model, were tested by comparison of predicted and observed interception. All gave very satisfactory estimates (< 10% error) and tended to slightly underestimate the measured interception loss.

  9. Distribution and habitat properties of Carex pulicaris and Pedicularis sylvatica at their range margin in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Sotek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the distribution dynamics, soil and phytocoenotical conditions of the occurrence of Carex pulicaris and Pedicularis sylvatica at the margin of their range in NW Poland. Dynamic cartograms of these species were made on the basis of our field studies and available contemporary and historical records. The studies showed that the plants grow on organic hemic-muck soils, mucky soils and typical muckous soils. The occurrence of these two species on different types of soils proves that they are able to adapt easily to varying habitat conditions of post-bog areas. Populations of C. pulicaris and P. sylvatica were most frequently not numerous and occurred in small community patches. Analyzed phytocoenoses with C. pulicaris have been classified as the community of the alliance Caricion davallianae or the alliance Molinion. Phytocoenoses with P. sylvatica are represented by the association Nardo-Juncetum squarrosi and the community of the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea. The distribution dynamics of these species shows that they are disappearing from some parts of this region, which proves the recessive trends. This process is more intensive for P. sylvatica, which should be included in the red list of Polish plants like C. pulicaris. The disappearance of the populations of both species has been caused by worsening habitat conditions (insufficient moisture, eutrophication, expansion of competitive plant species and land abandonment.

  10. Nematode communities of natural and managed beech forests - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Johansson, Sanne;

    2002-01-01

    was found in a Canonical Community Ordination (CANOCO) that related nematode data and various soil parameters in each sample. Beech forests of Mid-Zealand (Suserup) had significantly lower sand content, higher pH, higher PPI and higher nematode diversity according to the Shannon-index than the forests......The soil nematode communities of natural beech forests and managed beech forests were surveyed in order to examine which community parameters, if any, would be suited to differentiate between the two management regimes. Nematodes were collected from mineral soil at three sites, each including...... managed and adjacent natural beech forests. Following enumeration and identification of nematodes to family level, relative abundance of trophic groups, adult/juvenile ratio, Shannon-index, Plant Parasitic Index (PPI) and Maturity Index (MI) were determined. A clear separation of samples according to site...

  11. Preliminary Investigation of LED Lighting as Growth Light for Seedlings from Different Tree Species in Growth Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Astolfi, Stefania; Chiara MARIANELLO; Stefano GREGO; Bellarosa, Rosanna

    2012-01-01

    The influence of light quality on growth and metabolic activity during pre-cultivation (in miniplug containers) of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) and wild cherry (Prunus avium) plants was investigated. Seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for a month under light-emitting diode (LED) light or fluorescent light. The LED lamps (Valoya) used in this study emitted a continuous spectrum thanks to a mixture of blue, green, red and far-red LEDs. Our results showed that pla...

  12. Evaluating Ammonia Deposition Rates for Deciduous Forest using Measurements and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Geels, Camilla; Hertel, Ole;

    these impacts, quantifying the magnitude of the NH3 flux in the biosphere atmosphere system is essential. Model simulations using the Danish Ammonia Modelling System (DAMOS) have recently indicated that particular forest ecosystems are exposed to critical load exceedances of N (Geels et al., not yet submitted......). However, there are relatively few datasets of atmospheric NH3 fluxes available for forests which can contribute verifying model results. The atmospheric dry deposition of NH3 for the beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, Lille Bøgeskov, in Sorø, Denmark, is investigated using the high resolution...

  13. Seasonality and resource availability control bacterial and archaeal communities in soils of a temperate beech forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rasche, Frank; Knapp, Daniela; Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    It was hypothesized that seasonality and resource availability altered through tree girdling were major determinants of the phylogenetic composition of the archaeal and bacterial community in a temperate beech forest soil. During a 2-year field experiment, involving girdling of beech trees to intercept the transfer of easily available carbon (C) from the canopy to roots, members of the dominant phylogenetic microbial phyla residing in top soils under girdled versus untreated control trees wer...

  14. Comparison of Physical Properties of Untreated and Heat Treated Beech and Hornbeam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Sinković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of physical properties of heat treated beech wood and hornbeam wood found that their average value is lower and significantly different from average values of physical properties of untreated beech wood and hornbeam wood. The average value of density in absolutely dry condition of heat treated beech wood is smaller by 8.5% from the untreated, and the hornbeam wood is smaller by 7.5%. Reduction of average values of maximum shrinkage of heat treated beech wood and hornbeam wood is even bigger in relation to the untreated wood. Maximum radial shrinkage of heat treated beech wood is smaller by 7%, maximum tangential shrinkage by 23.5% and maximum volumetric shrinkage by 19.3% compared to the same physical properties of untreated beech wood. Heat treated hornbeam wood has an average value of maximum radial shrinkage smaller by 123%, maximum tangential shrinkage by 86% and maximum volume shrinkage by 99.5% compared to the same physical properties of untreated hornbeam wood. With such reduction in the maximum shrinkage in radial and tangential direction using heat treatment, hornbeam becomes particulary suitable for making products where dimensional stability is important.

  15. Growth of Fagus in transition zones of forest and soil on the western slope of Mt. Chokai, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2012-04-01

    A wide transition zone for forest structure is expected to distribute on the gentle slope of western side of Mt. Chokai ,Yamagata prefecture, northern Japan (N39° 05'57", E140°02'55"). The annual mean temperature and total precipitation at summit (2,059 m asl.) are 0.5° C and 3,285mm, respectively. The parent materials of the soils are weathered Andesite associated with non-tephric loess deposits transported from continental China. Representative sites were selected in forests of Quercus mongolica and Fagus crenata to examine characteristics of transition zones of vegetation and soil in the western slope of Mt. Chokai with concern on the growth of Fagus in transition zones. Surveys on vegetation profile and projection diagram of canopy for each site (10-10m plots) were carried out in 7 sites selected along altitudinal sequence on the western slope of Mt. Chokai; Ch1-7: 550-1,100m asl.. Growth rate of Fagus was estimated by the measurement of tree rings from increment core samples. Timber volume of Fagus at each point was calculated based on diameter of breast height; DBH as an indicator of tree biomass. Soil profiles were observed at the above 7 sites and soil samples were collected from each horizon. As for soil analyses, soil pH (H2O, KCl, NaF) values were measured by the glass electrode method in the suspension mixture of soil with a 2.5 times volume of H2O or 1N KCl and 50 times volume of 4% NaF. Pyrophosphate, acid oxalate and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (Alp, Alo, Ald), Fe (Feo, Fed) and Si (Sio, Sid) were measured by ICP-AES. The content of exchangeable Al (AlEX) was obtained by titration of extract with 1N KCl. Sclerotia formed by species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, were collected for grains of diameter larger than 0.5mm from wet samples. Sclerotia content was obtained by weight (mg g-1 soil). Due to intensive base leaching under extremely high precipitation and the mineralogical properties, Ah and Ae horizons of all profiles had low soil

  16. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  17. Differential responses of herbivores and herbivory to management in temperate European beech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Pašalić, Esther; Lange, Markus; Lange, Patricia; Boch, Steffen; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Müller, Jörg; Socher, Stephanie A; Fischer, Markus; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Forest management not only affects biodiversity but also might alter ecosystem processes mediated by the organisms, i.e. herbivory the removal of plant biomass by plant-eating insects and other arthropod groups. Aiming at revealing general relationships between forest management and herbivory we investigated aboveground arthropod herbivory in 105 plots dominated by European beech in three different regions in Germany in the sun-exposed canopy of mature beech trees and on beech saplings in the understorey. We separately assessed damage by different guilds of herbivores, i.e. chewing, sucking and scraping herbivores, gall-forming insects and mites, and leaf-mining insects. We asked whether herbivory differs among different forest management regimes (unmanaged, uneven-aged managed, even-aged managed) and among age-classes within even-aged forests. We further tested for consistency of relationships between regions, strata and herbivore guilds. On average, almost 80% of beech leaves showed herbivory damage, and about 6% of leaf area was consumed. Chewing damage was most common, whereas leaf sucking and scraping damage were very rare. Damage was generally greater in the canopy than in the understorey, in particular for chewing and scraping damage, and the occurrence of mines. There was little difference in herbivory among differently managed forests and the effects of management on damage differed among regions, strata and damage types. Covariates such as wood volume, tree density and plant diversity weakly influenced herbivory, and effects differed between herbivory types. We conclude that despite of the relatively low number of species attacking beech; arthropod herbivory on beech is generally high. We further conclude that responses of herbivory to forest management are multifaceted and environmental factors such as forest structure variables affecting in particular microclimatic conditions are more likely to explain the variability in herbivory among beech forest

  18. Effect of canopy gap size and ecological factors on species diversity and beech seedlings in managed beech stands in Hyrcanian forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kambiz Abrari Vajari; Hamid Jalilvand; Mohammad Reza Pourmajidian; Kambiz Espahbodi; Alireza Moshki

    2012-01-01

    We studied the species diversity of the herb layer and ecological factors in harvest-created gaps in beech stands under a single-tree selection system in Northern Iran.To determine diversity,the number of beech seedlings,and other ecological factors,16 gaps were selected and subplots of 5 m2 were positioned at the centre and at the cardinal points of each gap.Species richness and Simpson diversity index increased with increasing gap area as did numbers of seedlings.with increasing humus layer thickness,species richness declined but the Hill evenness index increased.Species richness increased with increasing light availability.There was no relationship between crown radii of beech trees and diversity indices.Correlations between environmental factors and numbers of individuals of some species in the herb layer were not significant except in a few cases.The results help explain the effects of man-made gaps on the dynamics of mnanaged beech stands and this benefits evaluation of silvicultural operating plans.

  19. Behavior of Beech Sawdust during Densification into a Solid Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Križan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In solid biofuel manufacture technological and material variables influence the densification process and thus also the final briquette quality. The impact of these technological variables, especially compression pressure and compression temperature, and also of the material parameters (particle size and moisture content can generally be observed during biomass densification in the quality indicators, where the abovementioned variables have a significant influence, especially on the mechanical indicators of quality (briquette density, mechanical durability, etc.. This paper presents the results of experimental research dealing with determining the relationship between the technological and the material variables during densification of beech sawdust. The main goal of the paper is to determine the mutual interaction between compression pressure, compression temperature and material particle size. Research findings were obtained using single-axis densification. The influence of the particle size interacting with compression pressure and compression temperature on the final briquette density was determined. The research findings obtained should prove valuable in briquette production and also in the engineering of densification machines.

  20. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987 in the Oraştie River basin (Central-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ioan VINTAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987, identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the mixed broadleaf-needleleaf forests of beech (Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, fir (Abies alba and spruce (Picea abies with Pulmonaria rubra belonging to the Orăştie river basin.The phytocoenoses of these forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  1. Characterizing Stand Structure and Growth of Natural Beech Forests for the Development of Sustainable Forest Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalandarayeshi, Shaaban

    Understanding of ecological processes and the ability to make reasonable forecasts is pivotal for the development of sustainable forest management practices as the effect of specific treatments may not be visible in the lifetime of the forester. Current forest management practices for oriental beech...... management practices in these forests. Like in Iran, sustainable forest management practices are on the agenda in Denmark. Current understanding of near natural forest management relies to a large extend on a series of studies in Suserup Forest – a natural, nemoral European beech forest in Denmark. However...... forests in northern Iran lack such scientific foundation. The objective of the present study is to assist in this process by characterizing growth and stand structure of oriental beech for a range of growing conditions in northern Iran and to provide useful insight for application in sustainable...

  2. Seasonal Variation in the Hepatoproteome of the Dehydration- and Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Costanzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Winter’s advent invokes physiological adjustments that permit temperate ectotherms to cope with stresses such as food shortage, water deprivation, hypoxia, and hypothermia. We used liquid chromatography (LC in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS quantitative isobaric (iTRAQ™ peptide mapping to assess variation in the abundance of hepatic proteins in summer- and winter-acclimatized wood frogs (Rana sylvatica, a northerly-distributed species that tolerates extreme dehydration and tissue freezing during hibernation. Thirty-three unique proteins exhibited strong seasonal lability. Livers of winter frogs had relatively high levels of proteins involved in cytoprotection, including heat-shock proteins and an antioxidant, and a reduced abundance of proteins involved in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. They also exhibited altered levels of certain metabolic enzymes that participate in the biochemical reorganization associated with aphagia and reliance on energy reserves, as well as the freezing mobilization and post-thaw recovery of glucose, an important cryoprotective solute in freezing adaptation.

  3. Modeling of Stomatal Conductance for Estimating Ozone Uptake of Fagus crenata Under Experimentally Enhanced Free-air Ozone Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; KOIKE, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We examined a performance of the multiplicative stomatal conductance model to estimate the stomatal ozone uptake for Fagus crenata. Parameterization of the model was carried out by in-situ measurements in a free-air ozone exposure experiment. The model performed fairly well under ambient conditions, with low ozone concentration. However, the model overestimated stomatal conductance under enhanced ozone condition due to ozone-induced stomatal closure. A revised model that included a parameter ...

  4. Biological durability of wood modified by citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogoslav Šefc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurement of durability of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica modified by Citric Acid (CA against brown rot fungus Poria placenta according to EN 113. Modification was performedby impregnation with 7.0% CA and 6.5% sodium-hypophosphite (SHP water solution and 10-hour curing at 140 °C. The influence of thermal treatment on durability was also researched. Weight percentage gain (WPG caused by modification, moisture content (MC and mass loss of wood (dm after fungal nutrition were measured. WPG of modified beech wood was 6.1% and that of thermally treated wood was -0.3%. The results showed increased durability of modified wood to be 8.3 times greater than nonmodified, while thermal treatment did not give significant durability improvement. These results indicate modification by CA as a promising alternative, but further research on optimisation of modification parameters is needed to achieve improvement of wood properties.

  5. Effect of particle geometry and micro-structure on fast pyrolysis of beech wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, R.J.M.; Nygard, H.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of particle geometry and microstructure in fast pyrolysis of beech wood has been investigated. Milled wood particles (<0.08–2.4 mm) and natural wood cylinders (2–14 mm) with different lengths (10–50 mm) and artificial wood cylinders (Dp = 0.5–14 mm) made of steel walls, filled with sma

  6. Beech vs. Pine - how different tree species manage their water demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbüchel, Ingo; Dreibrodt, Janek; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    In north-eastern Germany large parts of the landscape are covered by pine trees. Although beech used to be one of the typical species for the region, today it makes up only a small fraction of the forested area. In order to reinstate a more natural forest composition an effort is made to decrease the coniferous forest in the next 30 years from 70% to 40% while increasing the deciduous forest from 20% to 40%. This will have consequences for the forest water balance that we would like to understand better. In an attempt to capture the complete tree water balance for both species we monitored all relevant hydrologic fluxes in four stands of pure beech and pine (both young and old stands) as well as in eight mixed stands (as part of the TERENO observatory). Extensive measurements of throughfall and stemflow were conducted with 35 rain trough systems, 50 stemflow collectors and tipping buckets. Soil moisture was monitored in 70 depth profiles with a total of 450 sensors ranging from 10 cm down to 200 cm. In combination with soil water potential measurements at 5 depths root water uptake from different depths and hydraulic redistribution between depths could be determined. Sapflux sensors recorded tree water use for 16 trees and groundwater level was monitored at 16 locations. We found that soil moisture conditions under beech were more variable than under pine, especially in the upper 100 cm. This was due to the higher influx of water from stemflow on the one hand and to the more intensive/effective use of soil water by the beech on the other hand. Our sap flux measurements show that beech was able to sustain steady rates of sapflux even under extremely dry soil conditions. While annual average sapflow was twice as high for pines compared to beeches, pine trees were less effective in taking up water from the soil and reduced sap flow considerably during dry phases. We still found the upper 100 cm of soil under pine to be generally wetter than under beech and considered

  7. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  8. Tree development and productivity of beech coppice stands in the Crni Vrh region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Damjan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of development and increment of individual trees, as well as the productivity of beech coppice stands in the region of Crni Vrh were studied. The trees in the category of 20% of the largest-diameter trees in the stand were analyzed by the standard dendrometric analysis, the productivity was assessed based on the values of the major taxation elements measured at the sample plots. The results of these analyses, combined with the results reported by other authors, who studied beech coppice forests at the same locality but from different aspects, enable the real and comprehensive assessment of the state of these stands. On this basis, the aim of long-term management (conversion into a high silvicultural form and the actual silvicultural measure (high selection thinning were defined.

  9. The Analysis of Favourable Mass Multiplication Conditions of Defoliator Lymantria Dispar in Beech Forests from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMESCU Romica

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Lymantria dispar is a defoliator with a high injury potential that produces strong and frequentgradations in Querqus forests in mixture with beech. The research concerning Lymantria dispar infestation was carriedout by in brushes from Herculane Baths County, with gradations of the defoliator in numerical growth and eruptionphases. The statistical data were processed by using the Discriminative Analysis. It has put into evidence the influenceof stationed and brushes properties on the appearance and development of gradations. Strong infestations dominatebrushes with a reduced consistency (0.4 – 0.7 and included in larger age classes. In eruption phase, one evidences theextension tendency on the altitude of infestations (advancing towards the versant, strongly inclined and in brushes witha larger participation of beech, situated in different age classes and middle-superior production classes, with a morevigorous vegetation stage.

  10. Plant biodiversity of beech forests in central-northern Italy: a methodological approach for conservation purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcantonio M; Chiarucci A; Maccherini S; Guglietta D; Bacaro G

    2012-01-01

    Forests are reckoned essentials as biodiversity reservoirs and carbon sinks. Current threats to forest ecosystems (e.g., climate changes, habitat loss and fragmentation, management changes) call for monitoring their biodiversity and preserving their ecological functions. In this study, we characterized plants diversity of five beech forests located in central and north Apennines mountain chain, using results by a probabilistic sampling. In order to achieve our goals, we have considered specie...

  11. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech).

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Knapp; Karen Stöckler; David Havell; Frédéric Delsuc; Federico Sebastiani; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Nothofagus (southern beech), with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of “Kontinentaldrift”, Nothofagus has been regarded as the “key genus in plant biogeography”. This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the c...

  12. Chemical Elements in Mulch and Litterfall of Beech Ecosystems and Their Total Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Mariyana I. Lyubenovа; Violeta G. Dimitrova

    2011-01-01

    The beech communities on the territory of Bulgaria had been objects of regional, local as well as large scale national investigations aiming their classification, determination of their ecological characteristics, conservation status, habitats etc. They are included as objects of the intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Bulgaria also. The investigations of chemical content of the litter – fall in these forests were conducted until now. The novelty of the present research is investiga...

  13. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pilli R; Dalla Valle E; Anfodillo T; Fontanella F; Penzo D

    2008-01-01

    According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP), Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-c...

  14. Finite Changes of Bound Water Moisture Content in a Given Volume of Beech Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hrčka

    2016-01-01

    The undesired wood instabilities are connected with the changes of bound water moisture content. The rates of finite changes of bound water moisture content in a given volume of wood were determined in the frame of the specimen dimensions. The derivation is based on the 1st Fick’s law and diffusion equation solution in three dimensions. The inverse solution of diffusion equation provided the diffusion coefficients in the principal anatomical directions. Beech wood was tested. The nonlinear re...

  15. Predicting stand volume using Quickbird and Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images for stands of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky): a case study inAyancık-Göldağ

    OpenAIRE

    Günlü, Alkan; Ercanlı, İlker; BAŞKENT, Emin Zeki; Şenyurt, Muammer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In forestry, inventory data is needed for ecological, economical and social values of forest and in preparing forest management planning. The planning process starts with forest inventory. In forestry, inventory data is obtained from both remotely sensed (aerial photo interpretation or satellite image) data and field survey with temporary sample plots. In the preparation of forest management plans, stand volume, basal area, number of trees stand as an important inventory data for t...

  16. La inesperada presencia de restos de madera de haya (Fagus sp. en el Balneario Romano de Archena (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCÍA MARTÍNEZ, M.S. y MATILLA SÉIQUER, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se discuten diferentes aspectos relacionados con la inesperada aparición de fragmentos carbonizados de madera de haya (Fagus sp. en un vertedero del Balneario Romano de Archena (s. I d.C.. El estudio de las afinidades ecológicas del taxón y su ausencia en secuencias arqueobotánicas regionales permite descartar su desarrollo natural en el sureste peninsular. La distribución de paleorrestos de Fagus en Europa y los datos sobre la presencia en el balneario de personas de otros puntos del imperio sugieren un transporte desde zonas lejanas, como el norte peninsular, el sur de la Galia o Italia. La contextualización arqueológica de los restos, la información proporcionada por las fuentes clásicas y los datos arqueológicos disponibles, indican que probablemente pertenecieron a una caja o a algún objeto del mobiliario doméstico, quemado y desechado en este depósito.

  17. Sensitivity of European beech trees to unfavorable environmental factors on the edge and outside of their distribution range in northeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustaitis A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European beech is a successful tree species outside its distribution range in northeastern Europe, where Prussian foresters introduced it mainly into Scots pine stands. This forest management practice resulted in new issues related to the sensitivity of European beech to current environmental changes in areas outside its natural range. We hypothesized that recent global environmental changes promoted the northeast migration of European beech outside its distribution range in Europe. To test this hypothesis, dendrochronological analysis of beech tree ring series was performed for eight sites located in Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. Frost in winter months and heat in June, along with drought in the vegetation period, limited beech tree growth outside its natural distribution range in northeast Europe. Higher air concentration of surface ozone and sulphur deposition level reinforced the negative effect of the detected key meteorological variables on beech growth, while higher air concentrations and deposition of nitrate had a positive effect. These factors explained about 50% of the total variation in increment indexes of beech trees at sites on the northeasren edge of their range. The observed trends of beech growth over the last 25 years has determined favorable conditions for planting this tree species outside its natural range in northeastern European forests.

  18. Structural research in the natural beech forest, situated at the eastern limit (Humosu Old Growth Beech Forest, Iași county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flutur Gheorghe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper points out the stability of the natural forest due to its structural complexity, reachedthrough milennia of evolution. The „Humosu Old Growth Beech Forest” situated between 450-500m altitudein the Moldavian Plateau is a clear example of a natural structure with a continuous transformation given bythe passage through a series of stages (phases with individual characteristics. Five of these individualphases are identified and described: the initial phase, the optimal phase, the terminal phase, the degradationphase and the regeneration phase. For each of these phases biometric characteristics are indicated, and thegeneral structural profile, as well. The distribution of dead wood volume inside these phases, as part of anatural matter circuit, found in different stages of degradation, shows the complexity of natural ecosystemsand their importance to life, in general.

  19. Social valuation of scenic beauty in Catalonian beech forests; Valoracion social de las propiedades esteticas de los hayedos en Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Garcia, C.; Burriel, M.; Alcazar, J.

    2011-07-01

    Methods tested in other countries are applied for scenic beauty valuation in several beech locations in Catalonia including significant differences in site, origin, age and stand structure. The study intends to measure stand scenic beauty as seen from inside the forest, as forest visitors see it (near-view). Assessments are obtained through panels of observers in slide sessions, which are transformed into scaled ratings and related through regression analysis to plot-based forest inventory data. The development of statistical models that describe social visual preferences allows the assessment of the contribution of different forestry-related physical variables to the aesthetic improvement of beech forests. It can also be useful as a guide to beech forest planning where recreational use is prevailing or very important. (Author) 37 refs.

  20. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana en La Mojonera, Hidalgo, México Seed rain and seedling emergence of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Godínez-Ibarra; Gregorio Ángeles-Pérez; Lauro López-Mata; Edmundo García-Moya; Juan Ignacio Valdez-Hernández; Héctor De los Santos-Posadas; Antonio Trinidad-Santos

    2007-01-01

    Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana es una especie restringida a pequeñas poblaciones y sujeta a fuerte presión antropogénica. Con el objetivo de obtener información relevante que permita proponer alternativas de conservación, se analizó la producción de semillas y la demografía de plántulas de primer año en la Mojonera, Hidalgo. Se estableció una parcela de observación de 4 800 m² dividida en cuadrantes de 10 X 10 m. Se utilizaron trampas de 0.5 m² para estimar la producción de semillas, así c...

  1. Assortment structure in beech coppice stands in the Crni vrh region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assortment structure in beech coppice stands was studied for the region of Crni vrh. Assortment structure was determined according to the standard (JUS in two ecological units. The study results show that the assortment value structure significantly increases with the increase of tree diameter and that there are no statistically significant differences in assortment structure between the selected ecological units. The dependence of the assortment value structure on tree diameter can be represented by an exponential function. The value percentage of assortments made of stem wood in theoretical crosscutting depending on tree diameter has an increasing tendency, except for the wood for excelsior.

  2. The proposition of optimal silvicultural-reclamation operations in untended beech stands of mixed origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The state, quality, spontaneous development and silvicultural demands of untended beech stands of mixed origin were studied, the age of trees in the dominant layer is about 75 years. The analysis of stand development through a 17-year period (1986-2003 included the monitoring of the elements of stand structure: Number of trees, basal area, volume, diameter and volume increment, mean stand diameter, structure, mortality and tree removal from the stand, morphological, biological and technical characteristics of trees and biological differentiation of trees. The adequate silvicultural-reclamation measures are proposed based on the identified stand state.

  3. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    OpenAIRE

    Nygård, Heidi S.; Espen Olsen

    2015-01-01

    A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm). The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK)2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃...

  4. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m2·g-1) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m-2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m2·m-2). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m2) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm2·g-1. Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant relationship between SLA and soil properties was observed. Both SLA and leaf area had

  5. Pyrolysis reactions of Japanese cedar and Japanese beech woods in a closed ampoule reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Asmadi, Mohd; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    The chemical structures of hemicellulose and lignin are different for two distinct types of wood, i.e., softwood and hardwood. Such differences are expected to affect pyrolysis behavior. In this article, the differences are discussed for Japanese cedar wood (a softwood) and Japanese beech wood (a hardwood) pyrolyzed in a closed ampoule reactor (N2/600°C/40–600 s). Oven-dried samples were used to eliminate the influence of initial water. Demineralized samples (prepared by acid washing) were al...

  6. 硬木中流体移动的双尺度多孔机理的依据(Ⅰ)用多色X光束测定榉木浸润中湿含量的演变%Evidence of Dual Scale Porous Mechanisms During Fluid Migration in Hardwood Species (Ⅰ) Using the Attenuation of a Aolychromatic X-ray Beam to Determine the Evolution of Moisture Content During Imbibition of Beech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick PERR(E); Fran(c)ois THIERCELIN

    2004-01-01

    An experimental device able to determine the moisture content of wood using X-ray attenuation is usedto study the imbibition of beech samples (Fagus silvatica). The apparatus includes an X-ray generator, a protectivetube, collimating plates and a 50 mm detector. Detected particles can be categorised by energy (accuracy of theorder of 20%) or by position (accuracy 100μm). The independent choice of both the energy spectrum (throughthe voltage) and the counting rate (through the current intensity) makes the installation very flexible. However,a rigorous treatment is necessary to deal with the attenuation of a polychromatic spectrum. The appropriatecalculations are presented and validated with homogeneous samples made of wood and water. In addition, someresults are presented with samples heterogeneous in density and moisture content. Finally, the experimental deviceis used to study the evolution of moisture content during saturation experiments, for which the moisture migrationis mainly due to capillary forces. The geometrical configuration was so arranged that the transfer can be studied intwo directions simultaneously.

  7. Modifiche compositive e strutturali in soprassuoli in evoluzione naturale della riserva M.a.B. di Montedimezzo (Isernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species composition and structural dynamics in forest stands under natural evolution in the Montedimezzo M.a.B. reserve. This study is included in an experimental protocol established in 1954 aimed at examining the natural dynamics in mixed broadleaves high forests dominated by Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. Stand development patterns in the last fifteen years are reported. Repeated quantitative and qualitative inventories were carried out in two permanent plots (3 ha each and in two structural transects (0.2 ha each located in Collemeluccio-Montedimezzo M.a.B. reserve (Is. The study highlighted, as already observed in 1954, the differences between the two multilayered stands. In the higher elevation beech is the predominant species recording 53% of importance value index (I, followed by Turkey oak (I=25%. In the lower elevation the dominant species is Turkey oak (I=46%, followed by hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. (I=28% and beech (I=12%. The decreased presence of Turkey oak and the increase of beech density are confirmed in each plot over the last fifteen years. Among the other tree species, importance values rise only for silver fir (Abies alba Mill. (introduced and holly tree (Ilex aquifolium L., while hornbeam and hedge maple have been reducing their own presence.

  8. Comparative economic and environmental assessment of four beech wood based biorefinery concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Maik; Nitzsche, Roy

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze four conceptual beech wood based biorefineries generated during process design in terms of environmental and economic criteria. Biorefinery 1 annually converts 400,000 dry metric tons of beech wood into the primary products 41,600t/yr polymer-grade ethylene and 58,520tDM/yr organosolv lignin and the fuels 90,800tDM/yr hydrolysis lignin and 38,400t/yr biomethane. Biorefinery 2 is extended by the product of 58,400t/yr liquid "food-grade" carbon dioxide. Biorefinery 3 produces 69,600t/yr anhydrous ethanol instead of ethylene. Compared to biorefinery 3, biorefinery 4 additionally provides carbon dioxide as product. Biorefinery 3 and 4 seem most promising, since under basic assumptions both criteria, (i) economic effectiveness and (ii) reduction of potential environmental impacts, can be fulfilled. All four alternatives may reduce potential environmental impacts compared to reference systems using the ReCiPe methodology. Economic feasibilities of the analyzed biorefineries are highly sensitive. PMID:27285577

  9. Investigation of process of interception in beech-fir stand on mountain Goch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of the precipitation is intercepted by vegetation before reaching the ground. The portion of intercepted water, which is retained in storage of the vegetal cover and evaporates, is called the interception loss. Interception represents important component of water balance, because of reduction of total rainfall. It decreases potential for forming of surface runoff. Depends on complex of vegetative and climate factors. In humid forested regions about 25% of the annual precipitation may become interception loss. Results of investigation in beech-fir stand on mountain Goch are presented in this paper Investigation was carried out on experimental catchment area Vaona IV (A=0.098 km2, in association Abieti-fagetum, on mountain Goch, in Central Serbia. Standard rain gauges were used to determine total precipitation and throughfalls, during vegetation period (1992-1997. Total interception (Ic depends on total precipitation (Pb, kind of trees, shape and density of the crown, position in the stand and age. Average values of interception (Icsr during vegetation period (1992-1997, amount to Icsr=43.7-53.3% of total precipitation (fir, and Icsr=17.7-22.8% (beech.

  10. 77 FR 31642 - Hawker Beech Craft Defense Company, LLC, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Also Known...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hawker Beech Craft Defense Company, LLC, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft International SVC, Also Known As Rapid Surplus...

  11. Radial variations in cation exchange capacity and base saturation rate in the wood of pedunculate oak and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbauts, J.; Penninckx, V.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de genetique et d' ecologie vegetales, Brussels (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Visual observation of pedunculate oak trees and European beech trees in a mixed forest stand in the Belgian Ardennes revealed decreasing cation concentration profiles in wood. In order to determine whether these profiles are attributable to endogenous factors or to decreased availability of cations in the soil, radial profiles of water-soluble, exchangeable and total cations were investigated. Cation exchange capacity of wood was also determined. Results showed wood cation exchange capacity to decrease from pith to bark in European beech and from pith to outer heartwood in pedunculate oak. Decreasing profiles of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in peduncular oak and exchangeable calcium in European beech were found to be strongly constrained by cation exchange capacity, and thus not related to environmental change. Base cation saturation rate showed no consistent radial change in either species. It was concluded that the results did not provide convincing evidence to attribute the decrease in divalent cation concentration in pedunculate oak and European beech in this location to be due to atmospheric pollution. 42 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2002-01-01

    treatment gave a more reactive surface than alkaline wet oxidation for wheat straw, whereas the opposite was observed for beech. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed an almost complete loss of the ester carbonyl stretching signal and the corresponding C-C-O stretching in wet...

  13. The influece of forest gaps on some properties of humus in a managed beech forest, northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajari, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The present research focuses on the effect of eight-year-old artificially created gaps on some properties of humus in managed beech-dominated stand in Hyrcanian forest of northern Iran. In this study, six-teen gaps were sampled in site and were classified into four classes (small, medium, large, and very large) with four replications for each. Humus sampling was carried out at the centre and at the cardinal points within each gap as well as in the adjacent closed stand, separately, as composite samples. The variables of organic carbon, P, K, pH, and total N were measured for each sample. It was found that the gap size had significant effect only on total N (%) and organic carbon (%) in beech stand. The amount of potassium clearly differed among three positions in beech forest. The adjacent stand had higher significantly potassium than center and edge of gaps. Different amount of potassium was detected in gap center and gap edge. Comparison of humus properties between gaps and its adjacent stand pointed to the higher amount of potassium in adjacent stand than that in gaps but there was no difference between them regarding other humus properties. According to the results, it can be concluded that there is relatively similar condition among gaps and closed adjacent stands in terms of humus properties eight years after logging in the beech stand.

  14. Climate change impairs processes of soil and plant N cycling in European beech forests on marginal soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Pole, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Bilela, Silvija; Dannenmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Beech forests of Central Europe are covering large areas with marginal calcareous soils, but provide important ecological services and represent a significant economical value. The vulnerability of these ecosystems to projected climate conditions (higher temperatures, increase of extreme drought and precipitation events) is currently unclear. Here we present comprehensive data on the influence of climate change conditions on ecosystem performance, considering soil nitrogen biogeochemistry, soil microbiology, mycorrhiza ecology and plant physiology. We simultaneously quantified major plant and soil gross N turnover processes by homogenous triple 15N isotope labeling of intact beech natural regeneration-soil-microbe systems. This isotope approach was combined with a space for time climate change experiment, i.e. we transferred intact beech seedling-soil-microbe mesocosms from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Transfers within N slope served as controls. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed. Reduced soil water content resulted in a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB). Consequently, we found a massive five-fold reduction of gross nitrification in the climate change treatment and a subsequent strong decline in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech. Because nitrate was the major nutrient for beech in this forest type with little importance of ammonium and amino acids, this resulted in a strongly reduced performance of beech natural regeneration with reduced N content, N metabolite concentrations and plant biomass. These findings provided an explanation for a large-scale decline of distribution of beech forests on calcareous soils in Europe by almost 80% until 2080 predicted by statistical modeling. Hence, we

  15. Changes in the Community of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Increased Fine Root Number Under Adult Beech Trees Chronically Fumigated with Double Ambient Ozone Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Grebenc, Tine; Kraigher, Hojka

    2007-01-01

    Forest soils are an important but under-studied part of forest ecosystems. The effects of O3 on below-ground processes in a mature forest have only received limited attention so far. In our study, we have analysed the community of ectomycorrhizal fungi and beech fine root dynamics over two growing seasons (2003–2004) in a 70-year old mixed spruce-beech forest stand, in which two groups of five adult beech trees were either fumigated by 2 × ambient ozone concentration or used as control. The m...

  16. Regulation of N2O and NOx emission patterns in six acid temperate beech forest soils by soil gas diffusivity, N turnover, and atmospheric NOx concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Eickenscheidt, Nadine; Brumme, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Low gas diffusivity of the litter layer is held responsible for high seasonal nitrous oxide (N2O) and low nitric oxide (NO) emissions from acid beech forest soils with moder type humus. The objectives were (i) to evaluate whether these beech forest soils generally exhibit high seasonal N2O emissions and (ii) to assess the influence of gas diffusivity and nitrogen (N) mineralisation on N oxide fluxes.We measured N2O and NOx (NO + NO2) fluxes in six German beech stands and determined net N turn...

  17. Profile distribution and temporal changes of sulphate and nitrate contents and related soil properties under beech and spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejnecký, Václav; Bradová, Monika; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Sebek, Ondřej; Nikodem, Antonín; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Rejzek, Jan; Drábek, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of principal inorganic anions in forest soils, originating mainly from acid deposition, strongly influences the forest ecosystem response on acidification. The aim of this study was to describe seasonal and temporal changes of sulphate and nitrate contents and related soil properties under beech and spruce forests in a region heavily impacted by acidification. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as such a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. Soil samples were collected at monthly intervals from April to October during the years 2008-2010 under both beech and spruce stands. Soil samples were collected from surface fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons, humic (A) organo-mineral horizons and subsurface mineral (B) horizons (cambic or spodic). A deionised water extract was applied to unsieved fresh samples and the content of anions in these extracts was determined by ion chromatography (IC). In the studied soil profiles, the lowest amount of SO(4)(2-) was found in the organo-mineral A horizons under both types of vegetation. Under spruce the highest amount of SO(4)(2-) was determined in mineral spodic (B) horizons, where a strong sorption influence of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides is expected. Under beech the highest amount was observed in the surface organic F horizons (forest floor). The amount of NO(3)(-) is highest in the F horizons and decreases with increasing soil profile depth under both types of vegetation. A significantly higher amount of NO(3)(-) was determined in soils under the beech stand compared to spruce. For both soil environments - under beech and also spruce stands - we have determined a general increase of water-extractable SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) during the whole monitoring period. The behaviour of SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) in the soils is strongly related to the dynamics of soil organic matter and particularly to the DOC.

  18. Predator mediated selection and the impact of developmental stage on viability in wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calsbeek Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex life histories require adaptation of a single organism for multiple ecological niches. Transitions between life stages, however, may expose individuals to an increased risk of mortality, as the process of metamorphosis typically includes developmental stages that function relatively poorly in both the pre- and post-metamorphic habitat. We studied predator-mediated selection on tadpoles of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, to identify this hypothesized period of differential predation risk and estimate its ontogenetic onset. We reared tadpoles in replicated mesocosms in the presence of the larval odonate Anax junius, a known tadpole predator. Results The probability of tadpole survival increased with increasing age and size, but declined steeply at the point in development where hind limbs began to erupt from the body wall. Selection gradient analyses indicate that natural selection favored tadpoles with short, deep tail fins. Tadpoles resorb their tails as they progress toward metamorphosis, which may have led to the observed decrease in survivorship. Path models revealed that selection acted directly on tail morphology, rather than through its indirect influence on swimming performance. Conclusions This is consistent with the hypothesis that tail morphology influences predation rates by reducing the probability a predator strikes the head or body.

  19. Tree biomass and deadwood density into aged holm oak (Sardinia and beech coppices (Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertini G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Current National Forest Inventory highlight the further increase over the last two decades of coppice area under the position of mature standing crop or in the post-cultivation phase, both being developed throughout the original cultivation area. This pattern, mainly due to the unprofitable fuel wood harvesting, also involved holm oak and beech forests, some of the most diffused forest covers in Sardinia, along the Apennines and pre-Alps. The alternative management option to ageing (the pro-active way of coppice conversion into high forest has been also practiced in the public domain, but on much smaller areas as compared with those undergoing post-cultivation phase. Aged coppices located into medium-good site classes showed a positive growth pattern resulting in a high, age-related, wood matter storage. At the meantime, regular mortality occurring since former rotation into the fully-stocked shoot populations, stocked up high deadwood amounts, this becoming an outstanding attribute of these types. Carbon storage is becoming one of the major tasks attributable to these systems within the post-cultivation phase. Purposes are here to: (i estimate living woody and standing + lying deadwood mass densities; (ii determine deadwood/living mass ratio; (iii verify lying deadwood decay class; (iv analyse diversity between two sites aged likewise but different as for geographical location and tree species. A holm oak coppice aged 55 in Sardinia and a beech coppice aged 57 in Tuscany were selected at the purpose. Both stands have been developing the post-cultivation phase since two-three times the traditional rotation and represent the maximum ages in this position. Living and standing dead woody dry mass density were determined in each site by specific allometric functions. Lying deadwood amount was assessed by a sampling design covering systematically the full test area. Three decay classes were determined according to Hunter (modified. The tree species

  20. Comparative study on the mechanical performance of beech and ash laminated panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea HEGYI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study on the mechanical performance of beech and ash wood laminated panels. Within the experimental study the bending strength, bending modulus of elasticity and the bonding characteristics to gluing (bonding quality were analyzed. The experimental results emphasized the influence of the type of wood, the panel thickness, the effect on the bending strength, respectively on the gluing quality of the direction of the wood lamellas in relation with the mechanical load (direction of cutting specimens. It can be said that the use of hardwood meets the needs and demands of the construction area, but it’s necessary a careful analysis of the requests that occur mainly at the site, thus an optimal direction of the wooden glued lamellas can be chosen. Laminated wood panels are a product with real physical and mechanical qualities, which can be successfully used to obtain construction elements that are bringing benefits to environmental quality of living areas.

  1. Characteristics of the soil in mountain beech communities on mountain Manjača

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremija Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented results of soil study, which will be used for defining the beech forest types of management unit 'Dubička Gora' on Mt. Manjača, are the basis for solving a series of current tasks of forestry profession. Relief and chemical nature of limestone are the main factors of the soil cover differentiation (Knežević, Košanin, 2004.. The results of physical and chemical soil properties are shown and its taxonomy is determined. Forest cover is represented by heterogeneous units-forest combinations. Four basic soil types are defined on the basis of detailed field and laboratory research: rendzina on dolomite, chernozem on limestone, brown soil on limestone, illimerised soil on limestone and dolomite.

  2. Black carbon surface oxidation and organic composition of beech-wood soot aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Corbin

    2015-10-01

    oxygenated carbonaceous ions (CO1-2+, potassium (K+, and water (H2O+ and related fragments. The C4+ : C3+ ratio, but not the C1+ : C3+ ratio, was consistent with the BC-structure trends of Corbin et al. (2015c. The CO1-2+ signals likely originated from BC surface groups: upon aging, both CO+ and CO2+ increased relative to C1-3+ while CO2+ simultaneously increased relative to CO+. Factor analysis (positive matrix factorization of SP-AMS and AMS data, using a modified error model to address peak-integration uncertainties, indicated that the surface composition of the BC was approximately constant across all stages of combustion for both fresh and aged samples. These results represent the first time-resolved measurements of in situ BC surface aging and suggest that the surface of beech-wood BC may be modelled as a single chemical species.

  3. The influence of seedling density in containers on morphological characteristics of European beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzesiński Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence on growth parameters, in particular the morphological features of the root system, of 1-year-old European beech seedlings cultivated in containers with two different densities. The experiment was conducted in the container nursery in Skierdy (Forest District of Jabłonna in spring 2011. After 10 months of cultivation in Hiko polyethylene containers, above- and below-ground parts of the seedlings were measured. The measurements of the root system were conducted with a scanner and the WinRHIZO software. No influence due to the seedling density on either shoot height or thickness was observed, but instead the research showed that different seedling densities affected the development of root systems. The mean root thickness and dry mass of the European beech seedlings were significantly higher at the lower density. The influence of seedling density on the development of root mass deserves special attention as it is the most important factor affecting future growth of the seedlings during cultivation. This tendency also suggests that the amount of nutrients allocated to shoot development may be higher in order to improve the efficiency of photosynthesis. At both densities, differences in biomass accumulation affected the root-toshoot ratio. In seedlings cultivated at the lower density, the increased dry root matter of the seedlings resulted in a significant increase in the root-to-shoot ratio. This may cause a potential growth advantage of these seedlings after they are planted and may thus result in a more productive cultivation.

  4. Seasonality and resource availability control bacterial and archaeal communities in soils of a temperate beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Frank; Knapp, Daniela; Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-03-01

    It was hypothesized that seasonality and resource availability altered through tree girdling were major determinants of the phylogenetic composition of the archaeal and bacterial community in a temperate beech forest soil. During a 2-year field experiment, involving girdling of beech trees to intercept the transfer of easily available carbon (C) from the canopy to roots, members of the dominant phylogenetic microbial phyla residing in top soils under girdled versus untreated control trees were monitored at bimonthly intervals through 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and quantitative PCR analysis. Effects on nitrifying and denitrifying groups were assessed by measuring the abundances of nirS and nosZ genes as well as bacterial and archaeal amoA genes. Seasonal dynamics displayed by key phylogenetic and nitrogen (N) cycling functional groups were found to be tightly coupled with seasonal alterations in labile C and N pools as well as with variation in soil temperature and soil moisture. In particular, archaea and acidobacteria were highly responsive to soil nutritional and soil climatic changes associated with seasonality, indicating their high metabolic versatility and capability to adapt to environmental changes. For these phyla, significant interrelations with soil chemical and microbial process data were found suggesting their potential, but poorly described contribution to nitrification or denitrification in temperate forest soils. In conclusion, our extensive approach allowed us to get novel insights into effects of seasonality and resource availability on the microbial community, in particular on hitherto poorly studied bacterial phyla and functional groups.

  5. Effect of environmental variables and stand structure on ecosystem respiration components in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Rey, Ana; D'Andrea, Ettore; Matteucci, Giorgio; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    The temporal variability of ecosystem respiration (RECO) has been reported to have important effects on the temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange, the net amount of carbon exchanged between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. However, our understanding of ecosystem respiration is rather limited compared with photosynthesis or gross primary productivity, particularly in Mediterranean montane ecosystems. In order to investigate how environmental variables and forest structure (tree classes) affect different respiration components and RECO in a Mediterranean beech forest, we measured soil, stem and leaf CO2 efflux rates with dynamic chambers and RECO by the eddy-covariance technique over 1 year (2007-2008). Ecosystem respiration showed marked seasonal variation, with the highest rates in spring and autumn and the lowest in summer. We found that the soil respiration (SR) was mainly controlled by soil water content below a threshold value of 0.2 m(3) m(-3), above which the soil temperature explained temporal variation in SR. Stem CO2 effluxes were influenced by air temperature and difference between tree classes with higher rates measured in dominant trees than in co-dominant ones. Leaf respiration (LR) varied significantly between the two canopy layers considered. Non-structural carbohydrates were a very good predictor of LR variability. We used these measurements to scale up respiration components to ecosystem respiration for the whole canopy and obtained cumulative amounts of carbon losses over the year. Based on the up-scaled chamber measurements, the relative contributions of soil, stem and leaves to the total annual CO2 efflux were: 56, 8 and 36%, respectively. These results confirm that SR is the main contributor of ecosystem respiration and provided an insight on the driving factors of respiration in Mediterranean montane beech forests. PMID:24044943

  6. Wood Species Identification, A Challenge of Scientific Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important step in the scientific approach of conservation of the wooden cultural heritage. The paper refers to the microscopic identification of the wooden species for two artisanal objects, investigated for conservation purposes. A previous macroscopic analysis of these objects, after thorough cleaning of the surfaces offered some basic information on the possible wood species involved, but due to the degradation of the support this was not conclusive for some elements of these objects, so that relevant samples were taken out, prepared and investigated. The identified wooden species were: poplar (Populus spp, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus, fir and beech (Fagus sylvatica. This identification was based on the microscopic keys of wood identification, reference microscopic slides of the respective wood species and microscopic measurements followed by data processing employing the ImageJ software.

  7. Impact of pesticides on hyphomycetes leaf processing and macroinvertebrate shredding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Monberg, Rikke; Rasmussen, Jes; Baatrup-Pedersen, Annette;

    organisms have the power to reduce organic matter breakdown and food quality for macroinvertebrates, thereby decreasing ecosystem decomposition rates. We exposed preconditioned leafs of beech (Fagus sylvatica) to the fungicide propiconazole (100, 1000 or 2000 μg/L) and/or the insecticide alpha......-cypermethrine (100, 1000 or 2000 ng/L) for three hours. Subsequently, we studied post exposure leaf degradation for four weeks in the laboratory in the presence/absence of two macroinvertebrate shredders (Gammarus pulex and Halesus radiatus) applying a classic crossed factorial design. Preliminary results indicate...... decreasing microbial litter processing with increasing concentrations of either propiconazole or alpha-cypermethrine. Additionally, the binary mixture further reduced microbial litter processing compared to single compound exposures. A similar reduction in leaf litter processing was only evident during...

  8. Soil carbon accumulation and nitrogen retention traits of four tree species grown in common gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Gundersen, Per;

    2013-01-01

    Tree species effects on soil carbon (C) accumulation are uncertain, especially with respect to the mineral soil C, and the consistency of such effects across soil types is not known. The interaction between C accumulation and nitrogen (N) retention among common tree species has also been little...... explored. Effects of four tree species on soil C and N stocks and soil water nitrate concentration below the root zone were evaluated in a common garden design replicated at eight sites in Denmark. The tree species were beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), larch (Larix leptolepis Kaempf......), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.). After four decades, there were significant differences in forest floor C stocks among all four species, and C stocks increased consistently in the order oak

  9. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  10. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  11. Exemplifying whole-plant ozone uptake in adult forest trees of contrasting species and site conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-tree O3 uptake was exemplified for Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua in stands at high and low altitude and contrasting water availability through sap flow measurement in tree trunks, intrinsically accounting for drought and boundary layer effects on O3 flux. O3 uptake of evergreen spruce per unit foliage area was enhanced by 100% at high relative to low elevation, whereas deciduous beech and larch showed similar uptake regardless of altitude. The responsiveness of the canopy conductance to water vapor and, as a consequence, O3 uptake to soil moisture and air humidity did not differ between species. Unifying findings at the whole-tree level will promote cause-effect based O3 risk assessment and modeling. - Sap flow-based assessment of whole-tree O3 uptake reflects similar responsiveness of canopy conductance and O3 uptake across contrasting tree species and site conditions

  12. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D.; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 15N between interacting mycelia of a wood-decomposing fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tomentellopsis submollis) was studied in a mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. The amount of 15N transferred from the wood decomposer to the ectomycorrhizal fungus...... was compared to the amount of 15N released from the wood-decomposing mycelia into the soil solution as 15N-NH4. The study was performed in peat-filled plastic containers placed in forest soil in the field. The wood-decomposing mycelium was growing from an inoculated wood piece and the ectomycorrhizal mycelium...... from an introduced root from a mature tree. The containers were harvested after 41 weeks when physical contact between the two foraging mycelia was established. At harvest, 15N content was analyzed in the peat (total N and 15NH4+) and in the mycorrhizal roots. A limited amount of 15N was transferred...

  13. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia;

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce and Sc...... hypotheses, and beech and spruce supported the economy of scale, predator satiation and resource allocation hypotheses....

  14. Phytochemical investigation of plants used in African traditional medicine: "Dioscorea sylvatica" (Dioscoreaceae), "Urginea altissima" (Liliaceae), "Jamesbrittenia fodina" and "Jamesbrittenia elegantissima" (Scrophulariaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cogne, Anne-Laure; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Les plantes médicinales représentent la seule source de médicaments pour près de 90 % de la population de certains pays d’Afrique. Le savoir-faire des guérisseurs traditionnels, d’une valeur inestimable, représente un point de départ pour l’investigation pharmacologique et phytochimique de ces médicaments naturels. Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous nous sommes dans un premier temps intéressés à valider l’utilisation en médecine traditionnelle de deux plantes, Diuscorea sylvatica (Dioscoreacea...

  15. Phytochemical investigation of plants used in African traditional medicine: "Dioscorea sylvatica" (Dioscoreaceae), "Urginea altissima" (Liliaceae), "Jamesbrittenia fodina" and "Jamesbrittenia elegantissima" (Scrophulariaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cogne A.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Les plantes médicinales représentent la seule source de médicaments pour près de 90 % de la population de certains pays d?Afrique. Le savoir-faire des guérisseurs traditionnels, d?une valeur inestimable, représente un point de départ pour l?investigation pharmacologique et phytochimique de ces médicaments naturels. Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous nous sommes dans un premier temps intéressés à valider l?utilisation en médecine traditionnelle de deux plantes, Diuscorea sylvatica (Dioscoreacea...

  16. Stress-induced activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase in the freeze-tolerant frog Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Mark H; Hussain, Nusrat; Horman, Sandrine; Dilworth, Stephen M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-12-01

    Survival in the frozen state depends on biochemical adaptations that deal with multiple stresses on cells including long-term ischaemia and tissue dehydration. We investigated whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) could play a regulatory role in the metabolic re-sculpting that occurs during freezing. AMPK activity and the phosphorylation state of translation factors were measured in liver and skeletal muscle of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) subjected to anoxia, dehydration, freezing, and thawing after freezing. AMPK activity was increased 2-fold in livers of frozen frogs compared with the controls whereas in skeletal muscle, AMPK activity increased 2.5-, 4.5- and 3-fold in dehydrated, frozen and frozen/thawed animals, respectively. Immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies revealed an increase in the phosphorylation state of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 at the inactivating Thr56 site in livers from frozen frogs and in skeletal muscles of anoxic frogs. No change in phosphorylation state of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha at the inactivating Ser51 site was seen in the tissues under any of the stress conditions. Surprisingly, ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation was increased 2-fold in livers from frozen frogs and 10-fold in skeletal muscle from frozen/thawed animals. However, no change in translation capacity was detected in cell-free translation assays with skeletal muscle extracts under any of the experimental conditions. The changes in phosphorylation state of translation factors are discussed in relation to the control of protein synthesis and stress-induced AMPK activation. PMID:16973146

  17. INDUSTRIAL SCALE BEECH WOODLAM GST AND FINGERJOINTS BY MAXIMIZING NATURAL COMPONENTS IN HONEYMOON FAST-SET ADHESIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean MÉAUSOONE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerjoints and woodlam GST (Glued Laminated Timber were prepared with beech wood on industrial scale with a cold-set honeymoon type adhesive comprising 65% of natural material, namely condensed flavonoid tannin, already developed to satisfy the relevant adhesives standard requirements. The adhesive system stood up to the scaling up to industrial dimension with good performance of strength. The strength characteristic were compared with those obtained with a 50% natural material honeymoon adhesive already in commercial operation for several decades with yielding even better results. Full scale fingerjoints and woodlam prepared with beech timber gave good results. The fast-set characteristics of the adhesive system were maintained in the scaling up too.

  18. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Odor, Peter; Christensen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition......Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... process of trees beta diversity between the communities occupying different trees increased in natural, but not in previously managed sites. Effects of management and decay process on nestedness were complex. We argue that the detected differences most likely reflect historical effects which have...

  19. Response of ectomycorrhizal community structure to gap opening in natural and managed temperate beech-dominated forests

    OpenAIRE

    Grebenc, Tine; Christensen, Morten; Vilhar, Urša; Čater, Matjaž; Martín, María P.; Simončič, Primož; Kraigher, Hojka

    2009-01-01

    Data on the impact of forest management practices on ectomycorrhizal community structure remains fragmentary and mainly originates from studies in northern coniferous forests. This study focuses on a comparison of ectomycorrhizal communities between canopy gaps and closed canopy areas within natural and managed beech-dominated forests at four locations in Europe. We used high resolution rDNA techniques to identify ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi and attempted to extract potential stand-, gap-, s...

  20. The Decline of Vitality Caused by Increasing Drought in a Beech Provenance Trial Predicted by Juvenile Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Anikó; Mátyás, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Due to rapidly changing environmental conditions, locally adapted tree populations are likely to experience climate conditions to which they are not well adapted. Common garden experiments provide a powerful tool for studying adaptive responses in changing climates. Out of the 1998 series of international beech provenance trials, one experiment was established in Bucsuta, SW Hungary. Because of its peripheral location, this is probably the most apposite site in the exp...

  1. Changes in the proteome of juvenile European beech following three years exposure to free-air elevated ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone, one of the most phytotoxic air pollutants, may specially impose in long-lived forest trees substantial reduction in productivity and biomass. European beech saplings grown in lysimeter around areas were used to monitor proteomic changes upon elevated ozone concentrations following four vegetation periods of exposure. A proteome study based on highly sensitive two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE was performed to identify protein changes in European beech, the most important deciduous tree in Central Europe. Main emphasis was on identifying differentially expressed proteins after long-time period of ozone exposure under natural conditions rather than short-term responses or reactions under controlled conditions. Our results clearly demonstrate a response of European beech saplings to long-term ozone fumigation at the protein level. We indicate changes in the protein abundance of 142 protein spots; among them 59 were increased and 83 decreased following three years of elevated ozone exposure. As the first step, 40 proteins were identified by a homology driven mass spectrometric approach. Some of the identified proteins have been previously described in the context of short-term ozone responses in plants, indicating, at least for certain cellular functions, the congruence of plant reactions following short- and long-term ozone exposure. Under elevated ozone exposure, abundance of proteins related to the Calvin cycle and photosynthetic electron transport chain were decreased whereas the abundance of proteins regarding the carbon metabolism/catabolism were increased.

  2. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana en La Mojonera, Hidalgo, México Seed rain and seedling emergence of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Godínez-Ibarra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana es una especie restringida a pequeñas poblaciones y sujeta a fuerte presión antropogénica. Con el objetivo de obtener información relevante que permita proponer alternativas de conservación, se analizó la producción de semillas y la demografía de plántulas de primer año en la Mojonera, Hidalgo. Se estableció una parcela de observación de 4 800 m² dividida en cuadrantes de 10 X 10 m. Se utilizaron trampas de 0.5 m² para estimar la producción de semillas, así como subparcelas de 1 m² para registrar la emergencia y supervivencia de plántulas. La producción fue de 521 667 semillas ha-1, de las que sólo el 24.44% estaban llenas; el 46.01% vanas, y el 29.55% dañadas. La densidad de plántulas emergidas varió de 1 a 33 plántulas por m². El porcentaje de supervivencia de plántulas de primer año fue de 2.8% después de 10 meses de observación, siendo las de mayor supervivencia las que emergieron durante las primeras fechas. El 34.44% de las plántulas murieron por herbivoría, el 24.07% por damping-off y 23.65% por causa desconocida. La especie presenta el patrón general de supervivencia de especies arbóreas con alta mortalidad durante el primer año de vida.Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana is a species restricted to small populations under high anthropogenic pressure. With the aim to attain information to propose conservation strategies of this species, the seed rain and demography of current-year seedlings were analyzed at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico. A 4 800 m² plot divided into 10 X 10 m quadrants was established. The seed rain, seedling emergence, and survival were analyzed using seed traps of 0.5 m² and adjacent 1 m² sub-plots. The total seed rain was 521 667 seeds ha-1. A high proportion of seeds were unsound (46.01%, followed by damaged seeds (29.5% and only 24.44% were sound. Emerged seedlings fluctuated from 1 to 33 seedlings m². Alter 10 months, 2.8% of emerged seedlings were

  3. Weathering properties of wood species treated with different coating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ozgenc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the discoloration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris specimens treated with different chemicals and surface coated with different UV absorbers before being subjected to artificial weathering. The results showed that the influence of coatings containing UV absorbers (UV screeners micronized TiO2 and UVA of hydroxyphenyl-s-triazine types were similar to each other. The UV screener TiO2 led to the least discoloration of the coated wood surface, closely followed by the UVA of hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines (HPT. The color stability was determined to be better for pine wood treated with micronized copper preservative coated with UV absorber, in comparison to when it was only coated with UV absorbers and then subjected to weathering. Microscopic observation revealed that the clear-coats penetration behavior was different in wood preservative-treated and in untreated wood of Scots pine, which has various extractives. However, the color stability and coating penetration was nearly the same in beech wood treated with preservatives and in untreated beech wood. We provide an explanation for why these effects occurred and discuss the implications of our findings for the development of weather-resistant wood materials.

  4. Impact of Elevated PCO2 on Mass Flow of Reduced Nitrogen in Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Liu

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration (PCO2) on the mass flow of reduced nitrogen (N) in the phloem and xylem of trees, juvenile beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.)Karst.) were grown in phytotrons and exposed to ambient and elevated PCO2 (plus 687.5 mg/m3 CO2) for three growing seasons. Elevated PCO2 significantly decreased the mass flow of N from the shoot to roots of beech by significantly reducing the concentration of soluble amino compounds in the phloem, even if the area of conductive phloem of cross-sectional bark tissue was significantly increased, because of less callus deposition in the sieve elements. In spruce, the downward mass flow of reduced N also tended to be decreased, similar to that in beech. Resembling findings in the phloem, N mass flow from roots to shoot in both tree species was significantly diminished owing to significantly reduced concentrations of amino compounds in the xylem and a lower transpiration rate. Therefore, the mass flow of reduced N between shoots and roots of trees was mainly governed by the concentrations of soluble amino compounds in the phloem and xylem in relation to the loading of reduced N in both long-distance transport pathways.

  5. Preliminary Investigation of LED Lighting as Growth Light for Seedlings from Different Tree Species in Growth Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ASTOLFI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of light quality on growth and metabolic activity during pre-cultivation (in miniplug containers of beech (Fagus sylvatica L., holm oak (Quercus ilex L. and wild cherry (Prunus avium plants was investigated. Seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for a month under light-emitting diode (LED light or fluorescent light. The LED lamps (Valoya used in this study emitted a continuous spectrum thanks to a mixture of blue, green, red and far-red LEDs. Our results showed that plant response to light quality seems to be related to the plant species. In particular, in beech seedlings fresh and dry weight, shoot height and leaf area were greatest when plants were cultured under LED light, and lowest under fluorescent lamps. Furthermore, we found that LED-induced reduction of chlorophyll contents in beech and holm oak leaves resulted in an increase of the carboxylase capacity of Rubisco in the same plant species suggesting an improvement of light-use-efficiency in these plants. These results indicate that LED light may be suitable for the culture of plants in tightly controlled environments. The comparison of malondialdehyde levels between LED and fluorescent grown plants strongly supports this idea.

  6. Chemical Elements in Mulch and Litterfall of Beech Ecosystems and Their Total Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana I. Lyubenovа

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The beech communities on the territory of Bulgaria had been objects of regional, local as well as large scale national investigations aiming their classification, determination of their ecological characteristics, conservation status, habitats etc. They are included as objects of the intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Bulgaria also. The investigations of chemical content of the litter – fall in these forests were conducted until now. The novelty of the present research is investigation of these elements in the mulch and the ratio between the established quantities calculation. The main goal is the biological turnover special features characterization of the investigated elements which give us a chance to define the investigated ecosystems state and functioning. The indexes as litter – mulch and acropetal coefficients were used for this aim. The content of macroelements as N, Ca and K and microelements as Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe in soils, mulch and in different litter fall fractions have been calculated. The investigation was carried out on three sample plots. During the investigation was established that the soils are characterized with acid reaction, high content of Fe, N and Mn and low content of Ca and K. The concentration of Zn and Pb are high also. The calculated average store of investigated elements in litter – fall is 81.312 kg.ha1 and in the mulch 314 kg.ha1. According to the acropetal coefficient N is accumulated mainly in the acorns, K – in the annual phytomass fractions and Ca – in the perennial fractions. The leaves and the acorns fraction accumulate Mn, and cupolas Fe. The litter – mulch coefficient vary from 1,6 (Mn to 4,2 (Pb. The tendencies of Zn and Ca turnovers acceleration are discovered, while the turnover of more investigated elements is inhibited. The litter – mulch coefficient for Zn and Ca is 0,8 and 1,4 accordingly, i.е. corresponding to the intensive type of turnovers which is not typical for the

  7. Structure and dynamics of a beech forest in a fully protected area in the northern Apennines (Sasso Fratino, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sasso Fratino Nature Reserve (National Park of Casentino Forests, northern Apennines is a quite rare example of natural Apennine forest. The Reserve was established in 1959, aiming to protect a forest, although not a virgin one, low-intensively disturbed in the past by comparison with other neighbouring stands. Causes of such a low disturbance are the very limited accessibility of the area due to the very steep slopes characterising the site morphology, as well as historical features. The forest is a pure beech stand from 1250 m a.s.l. upwards, below this altitude is a mixed beech and silver fir forest. The study focuses on the understanding of the processes driving the evolution of the forest in the absence of human activities. To achieve this goal, 9 permanent, long-term research plots were established at different altitudes, in order to investigate on forest dynamics and regeneration processes. Simplified (single-layer stand structures are more frequent where canopy gaps are absent. Two-layered structures are the result of the occurrence of canopy gaps, which allow the settlement, and subsequently the establishment, of a lower regeneration layer. Where the gap dimensions allow canopy closure, this kind of structure persists. When the gaps are quite large, the regeneration layer reaches the top layer and the structure stand tends, once more, toward a single-layer. Multilayered structures are extremely rare at plot level and become evident only at a wider scale. Our surveys indicate also a high variability of tree diameter distribution patterns in the forest stands. Such variability could be strictly related to the heterogeneity of site characteristics as well as to the effects of disturbance factors (both natural and anthropic. Concerning altitude, we observed an increase both of site index (dominant height and species diversity in the regeneration layer, moving from higher (1500 m to lower (900 m altitudes. As a whole, our observations show

  8. Throughfall nutrients in a degraded indigenous Fagus orientalis forest and a Picea abies plantation in the of North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Abbasian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of TF (throughfall in an indigenous, but degraded, stand of Fagus orientalis and Picea abies plantation.Area of study: Forests of Kelar-Dasht region located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.Material and Methods: TF measured by twenty collectors that were distributed randomly underneath each stand. For 21 storms sampled in 2012 (August-December and 2013 (April-June, we analyzed pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and P of  gross rainfall (GR and TF.Main results: Cumulative interception (I for F. orientalis and P. abies were 114.2 mm and 194.8 mm of the total GR, respectively. The amount of K+ (13.4 mg L-1 and Ca2+ (0.9 mg L-1 were higher (for both elements, p = 0.001 in the TF of P. abies compared to those of F. orientalis (6.8 and 0.5, mg L-1, respectively and GR (3.2 and 0.37 mg L-1, respectively. Conversely, mean P concentration was doubled (p = 0.022 in the TF of F. orientalis (11.1 mg L-1 compared to GR (5.8 mg L-1.Research highlights: P. abies plantations may provide a solution for reforestation of degraded F. orientalis forests of northern Iran, yet how P. abies plantations differentially affect the quality and quantity of rainfall reaching subcanopy soils (TF compared to F. orientalis is unknown. Understanding the connection between hydrological processes and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems is crucial for choosing the appropriate species to rehabilitate the degraded indigenous forests with nonindigenous species.  Keywords: concentration; hydrological process; interception; reforestation.

  9. Tracking the incorporation of 15N from labeled beech litter into mineral-organic associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, M.; Hatton, P.; Derrien, D.; Lajtha, K.; Zeller, B.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen containing organic compounds are thought to have a role in the complex web of processes that control the turnover time of soil organic matter. The sequential density fractionation technique is increasingly used for the purpose of investigating the association of organic materials with the mineral matrix. Organic materials in the denser fractions (>2.0 kg L-1) typically show 13C NMR signals indicative of carbohydrate and aliphatic structures, an absence of lignin and tannin structures and a narrow C:N ratio, suggesting a microbial origin of organic matter in these fractions. Here we take advantage of a labeling experiment conducted at two different sites in Germany and in France to investigate the incorporation of organic nitrogen into physical fractions of increasing density, representing a proximity gradient to mineral surfaces. 15N labeled beech litter was applied to two acidic forest topsoils 8 and 12 years ago. Although there are differences in the distribution patterns between the two soils, and the majority of the organic nitrogen was recovered in fractions representing organic matter of plant origin and not bound to the mineral matrix, our data clearly show that after a decade, significant amounts of the nitrogen had been incorporated in mineral-organic fractions of supposedly slow turnover. It remains to be shown to which extent the N in the densest fractions was incorporated by soil microbiota and associated with mineral surfaces in organic form or adsorbed to mineral surfaces in inorganic form (NH4+).

  10. Simulation of dye adsorption by beech sawdust as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, F A; Sidiras, D K

    2007-03-22

    The effect of pH on the batch kinetics of methylene blue adsorption on beech sawdust was simulated, in order to evaluate sawdust potential use as low cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The zero point of charge pH(pzc) of the sawdust, in order to explain the effect of pH in terms of pH(pzc), was measured by the mass titration and the automatic titration methods. The adsorption capacity, estimated according to Freundlich's model, indicate that increase of the pH enhances the adsorption behaviour of the examined material. The lower adsorption of methylene blue at acidic pH is due to the presence of excess H(+) ions that compete with the dye cation for adsorption sites. As the pH of the system increases, the number of positively charged sites decreases while the number of the negatively charged sites increases. The negatively charged sites favour the adsorption of dye cation due to electrostatic attraction. The increase in initial pH from 8.0 to 11.5 increases the amount of dye adsorbed. PMID:16934396

  11. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  12. The influence of fire retardants on the properties of beech and poplar veneers and plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demands for fire resistance properties of wood construction and elements matching new standards have been an important part of building codes during the last decade. On the other side, lack of more detailed research on interaction between wood species and selected fire retardant chemicals even with basically one is evident. This is particularly truth with domestic wood species. In this research, beech and poplar veneers were immersed in 25% solutions of monoammonium phosphate (MP and sodium acetate (SA and impregnated for different periods of time. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG methods were used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed. The next properties of impregnated and no impregnated veneers and plywood were determined: absorption of imp regnant solution (A, weight percent gain (WPG of imp regnant, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, pH values, and in the case of plywood, strength and fire resistance. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardant, monoammonium phosphate, had the same result as TG/DTG analyses, which pointed out the validity of TG methods in predicting fire resistance of future products.

  13. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

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    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bartın province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  14. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition. PMID:27511465

  15. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition. PMID:27511465

  16. Impact of interspecific competition and drought on the allocation of new assimilates in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, R; Siegwolf, R; Zavadlav, S; Arend, M; Schaub, M; Galiano, L; Haeni, M; Kayler, Z E; Gessler, A

    2016-09-01

    In trees, the interplay between reduced carbon assimilation and the inability to transport carbohydrates to the sites of demand under drought might be one of the mechanisms leading to carbon starvation. However, we largely lack knowledge on how drought effects on new assimilate allocation differ between species with different drought sensitivities and how these effects are modified by interspecific competition. We assessed the fate of (13) C labelled assimilates in above- and belowground plant organs and in root/rhizosphere respired CO2 in saplings of drought-tolerant Norway maple (Acer platanoides) and drought-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica) exposed to moderate drought, either in mono- or mixed culture. While drought reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis rates in both species, both maintained assimilate transport belowground. Beech even allocated more new assimilate to the roots under moderate drought compared to non-limited water supply conditions, and this pattern was even more pronounced under interspecific competition. Even though maple was a superior competitor compared to beech under non-limited soil water conditions, as indicated by the changes in above- and belowground biomass of both species in the interspecific competition treatments, we can state that beech was still able to efficiently allocate new assimilate belowground under combined drought and interspecific competition. This might be seen as a strategy to maintain root osmotic potential and to prioritise root functioning. Our results thus show that beech tolerates moderate drought stress plus competition without losing its ability to supply belowground tissues. It remains to be explored in future work if this strategy is also valid during long-term drought exposure. PMID:27061772

  17. Făgetele primare din România, o contribuţie la Patrimoniul Mondial UNESCO [Romania’s primary beech forests, a contribution to UNESCO World Heritage

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    Iovu Adrian Biriș

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Heritage List (WHL of UNESCO currently comprises 1007 properties in 161 States Parties. Most of these sites are cultural (779 and only 197 are natural sites whereas 31 are mixed sites with outstanding universal cultural and natural values. Romania has only 8 sites registered on WHL of UNESCO, 7 cultural sites and one natural site – The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve - being underrepresented in relation with the real value of its natural patrimony. Beech is a deciduous species exclusively European and the beech forests constitute the potential natural vegetation for the temperate zone of Europe. Beech forests represent an outstanding and globally unparalleled example of the ongoing ecological processes of post-glacial expansion. This is a key factor for supporting the nomination of beech forests under WHL of UNESCO. Romania, the country with the larges area of beech forests and well preserved primary beech forests, has an important responsibility for the conservation of an adequate and representative network of beech forests. Considering these aspects, the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change - Department for Waters, Forests and Fisheries, National Forest Administration – Romsilva, Forest Research and Management Institute, WWF Danube-Carpathian Programme Office and Greenpeace CEE Romania Foundation have signed a protocol for collaboration having as target the selection of certain beech forests to be included on the WHL of UNESCO. Keywords

  18. Occurrence and spatial pattern of water repellency in a beech forest subsoil

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    Bachmann Jörg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most recent studies on soil water repellency (WR were limited to the humous topsoil or to shallow subsoil layers slightly below the main root zone to approximately 0.5 m depth. Hence, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the wettability pattern of a forest soil including the deeper subsoil. The selected site was a 100 years old beech forest on a well-drained sandy Cambisol in northern Germany which showed moderate to partly extended acidification. Results obtained from three sampling transects (3 m length, 2 m depth; sampling grid 8 × 8 samples per transect; minimum distance of sampling locations to nearest tree about 0.5 m show that contact angles (CA were always in the subcritical WR range (0° < CA < 90°. Significant impact of the tree distance on WR was not observed for any of the transects. A prominent feature of two transects was the minimum WR level (CA < 10° for samples with soil organic carbon (SOC contents around 0.25–0.4%. For the topsoils it was observed that CA increased with SOC content from that minimum to a maximum CA of 60–75° for transects 1 and 2 with mean pH values < 3.5. For transect 3 with slightly higher average pH close to 4.0, average CA of samples were always < 10° and showed no trend to increase with increasing SOC content or other soil parameters like N content or C/N ratio. Subsoil samples, however, behave differently with respect to SOC: for these samples, generally low in SOC, the CA increase with decreasing SOC occurred at all transects for approximately 50% of the samples but did not show any clear tendencies with respect to further parameters like texture, pH or N content. We conclude that the SOC content is the most prominent parameter determining wettability, either positively correlated with WR for topsoils or negatively correlated for subsoil samples very low in SOC. We finally conclude for moderately acid beech forest stands that emerging WR starts in the A horizon after

  19. Response of Soil Respiration to Repeated Extreme Events in a Temperate Beech Forest in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, S.; Kobler, J.; Holtermann, C.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Saronjic, N.; Zimmermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change research predicts an increase in weather extremes like severe droughts and heavy rainfalls in central Europe. Since soil moisture is one of the most important drivers of soil respiration, a change in precipitation regime is likely to influence ecosystem C cycling. During drying of soils, soil microbial activity decreases and dead microbial cells, osmolytes, and semi-decomposed organic matter accumulate. When dry soils are rewetted, this easily-decomposable C leads to a pulse in soil respiration, a phenomenon known as "Birch-effect". In terms of annual soil CO2emissions, it is not clear whether these post-wetting respiration pulses outweigh or even overcompensate preceding drought-induced reductions in soil respiration. To investigate the impact of repeated drought and heavy rainfall events, a two-year precipitation manipulation experiment was conducted in an Austrian beech forest. Experimental plots were covered with transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, and an irrigation system was used to simulate heavy rainfall events. Control plots received natural precipitation. Soil respiration was monitored 3-hourly with an automatic static chamber system connected to an infrared CO2 analyzer. Soil temperature (Tsoil) and volumetric water content (VWC) were recorded with a datalogger. Various statistical models were tested to describe the relationship between soil respiration, Tsoiland VWC. Our results showed that repeated extreme events strongly reduced variation in soil respiration. Droughts significantly reduced soil respiration, and reductions depended on the length of the drought period. Post-wetting respiration pulses did not outweigh drought-induced reductions. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was best described with a Lloyd & Taylor model. Furthermore, in stressed plots VWC became limiting for soil respiration. Overall, our data corroborate the importance of the precipitation regime for soil respiration.

  20. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech.

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    Michael Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  1. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

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    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  2. Seasonal variation in functional properties of microbial communities in beech forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranda, Marianne; Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Kitzler, Barbara; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Substrate quality and the availability of nutrients are major factors controlling microbial decomposition processes in soils. Seasonal alteration in resource availability, which is driven by plants via belowground C allocation, nutrient uptake and litter fall, also exerts effects on soil microbial community composition. Here we investigate if seasonal and experimentally induced changes in microbial community composition lead to alterations in functional properties of microbial communities and thus microbial processes. Beech forest soils characterized by three distinct microbial communities (winter and summer community, and summer community from a tree girdling plot, in which belowground carbon allocation was interrupted) were incubated with different (13)C-labeled substrates with or without inorganic N supply and analyzed for substrate use and various microbial processes. Our results clearly demonstrate that the three investigated microbial communities differed in their functional response to addition of various substrates. The winter communities revealed a higher capacity for degradation of complex C substrates (cellulose, plant cell walls) than the summer communities, indicated by enhanced cellulase activities and reduced mineralization of soil organic matter. In contrast, utilization of labile C sources (glucose) was lower in winter than in summer, demonstrating that summer and winter community were adapted to the availability of different substrates. The saprotrophic community established in girdled plots exhibited a significantly higher utilization of complex C substrates than the more plant root associated community in control plots if additional nitrogen was provided. In this study we were able to demonstrate experimentally that variation in resource availability as well as seasonality in temperate forest soils cause a seasonal variation in functional properties of soil microorganisms, which is due to shifts in community structure and physiological

  3. Major characteristics of mixed fir and beech virgin forests in the National park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro

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    Čurović Milić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage forest ecosystems at a sufficiently high biodiversity level it is necessary to study the ecological, structural and production characteristics of virgin forests. The research was directed towards identifying the characteristics of mixed fir and beech forests (Abieti-Fagetum s. lat. in the area of the strict reserve of the National Park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro. Basic characteristics of these forests were researched in the process of definition of forest types. In this manner, it is for the first time that a realistic base for typological management of forests and forest ecosystems with similar ecological and structural characteristics was provided for the specific sites.

  4. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar): Case study from Western Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Csóka György; Pödör Zoltán; Nagy Gyula; Hirka Anikó

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech) at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary) after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Micro...

  5. Black carbon surface oxidation and organic composition of beech-wood soot aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, J. C.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.; Keller, A.; Burtscher, H.; Mensah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    composition of the BC was approximately constant across all stages of combustion for both fresh and aged samples. These results represent the first time-resolved measurements of in situ BC surface aging and suggest that the surface of beech-wood BC may be modelled as a single chemical species.

  6. Comparison of drought stress indices in beech forests: a modelling study

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    Vilhar U

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two drought stress indices were applied to managed as well as old-growth beech forests and gaps for the 2001 to 2013 period to aid in the development of an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis. The relative extractable soil water (REW, which was calculated from the soil water content in the root zone, and the transpiration index (TI, calculated as the ratio between the actual and potential transpiration were used. Both indices were calculated on a daily basis using the water balance model BROOK90, which was fitted and tested using measured data on throughfall and soil water content. A sensitivity analysis apportioned to the input parameters of the drought stress indices was conducted to assess uncertainty. Both drought stress indices showed the greatest drought stress in the years 2009, 2003 and 2011, as also indicated by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI at the nearest meteorological station. However, drought stress intensity and duration differed between the indices and study sites. Greater water supply stress was shown in the forests than the gaps. Furthermore, the agreement among the indices was smaller for gaps compared with forests, which implies that careful index selection is needed when comparing water supply stresses in different stages of forest stand development. Due to the low amount of input data required and the parameters that can be measured with relative ease in the field, REW might be an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis when analyzing the drought stresses of similar forest types and at unique stages of development. REW satisfactorily indicated drought stress in forests but to a lesser extent in gaps. TI demonstrated more consistent differences in drought stress between forests and gaps and therefore proved to be the appropriate index for a detailed analysis of drought stress variation between different stages of forest stand development. However, due to a greater number of

  7. Black-carbon-surface oxidation and organic composition of beech-wood soot aerosols

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    J. C. Corbin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles are the most strongly light-absorbing particles commonly found in the atmosphere. They are major contributors to the radiative budget of the Earth and to the toxicity of atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric aging of soot may change its health- and climate-relevant properties by oxidizing the primary black carbon (BC or organic particulate matter (OM which, together with ash, comprise soot. This atmospheric aging, which entails the condensation of secondary particulate matter as well as the oxidation of the primary OM and BC emissions, is currently poorly understood. In this study, atmospheric aging of wood-stove soot aerosols was simulated in a continuous-flow reactor. The composition of fresh and aged soot particles was measured in real time by a dual-vaporizer aerosol-particle mass spectrometer (SP-AMS. The SP-AMS provided information on the OM, BC, and surface composition of the soot. The OM appeared to be generated largely by cellulose and/or hemicellulose pyrolysis, and was only present in large amounts when new wood was added to the stove. BC signals otherwise dominated the mass spectrum. These signals consisted of ions related to refractory BC (rBC, C+1−5, oxygenated surface groups (CO+1−2, potassium (K+ and water (H+2O and related fragments. The C+4 : C+3 ratio, but not the C+1 : C+3 ratio, was consistent with the BC-structure trends of Corbin et al. (2015c. The CO+1−2 signals likely originated from BC surface groups: upon aging, both CO+ and CO+2 increased relative to C+1−3 while CO+2 simultaneously increased relative to CO+. Factor analysis (PMF of SP-AMS and AMS data, using a new error model to account for peak-integration uncertainties, indicated that the surface composition of the BC was approximately constant across all stages of combustion for both fresh and aged samples. These results represent the first time-resolved measurements of in-situ BC-surface aging and suggest that the surface of beech-wood BC may

  8. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

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    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 20.2 kg N ha−1 y−1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 12.6 kg N ha−1 y−1 through wet deposition. Nitric oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxides emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxides emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O emissions at SW ranged from 0.64 to 0.79 kg N ha−1 y−1 and NO emissions were 0.24 to 0.49 kg N ha−1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 to 0.65 kg N2O-N kg ha−1 y−1 as well as considerably lower NO-emissions were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO emissions at KL were 0.02 kg N ha−1, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha−1. Higher N-oxides emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW may indicate that atmospheric deposition has an impact on emissions of gaseous N from our forest soils. At KL there was a strong correlation between N-deposition and N-emission over time

  9. Ammonia emissions from beech forest after leaf fall – measurements and modelling

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    K. Hansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of biochemical feed-back mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3 exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25 days period during autumn 2010 (21 October–15 November for the Danish beech forest, Lille Bøgeskov, to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI and leaf area index (LAI. NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA method. The REA based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS. 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. The mean NH3 flux was 0.087 ± 0.19 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1. A clear tendency of the flux going from negative (deposition to positive (emission fluxes of up to 0.96 ± 0.40 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October–8 November, an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall. During and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the missing contribution to atmospheric NH3 concentration from vegetative surfaces related to leaf fall are of a relatively large magnitude. We therefore conclude that emissions from deciduous forests are important to include in model calculations of atmospheric NH

  10. Lignin properties in topsoils of a beech/oak forest after 8 years of manipulated litter fall: relevance of altered input and oxidation of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Klotzbücher; S. Strohmeier; K. Kaiser; R.D. Bowden; K. Lajtha; H. Ohm; K. Kalbitz

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims We studied the response of lignin oxidation in soils of a beech/oak forest to changes in litter fall. Additionally we considered possible factors in lignin oxidation, including altered (i) input of fresh organic matter and (ii) fungi-to-bacteria ratios. Methods The field-based ex

  11. Model-based assessment of ecological adaptations of three forest tree species growing in Italy and impact on carbon and water balance at national scale under current and future climate scenarios

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    Vitale M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical model has been used to estimate total net primary productivity, canopy transpiration and the water use efficiency under actual and future climate projections (B1 and A2 IPCC Scenarios of two deciduous (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus cerris and one evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex growing in Italy. In response to changes in the air temperature, the two deciduous species showed a strong reduction of NPP values, whereas the evergreen one showed very limited reductions. Under future warmer conditions, Q. ilex proved to be the best adapted species, probably for its drought-tolerant water-saving strategy, while Q. cerris suffered a reduction of transpiration, due to stomatal closure which was sensitive to the change of evaporative demand. Water Use Efficiency (WUE values did not increase in the B1 and A2 scenarios, indicating a non-conservative water-saving strategy, which likely affected the distribution pattern of Q. cerris under these conditions. Similar functional behaviour have been noted for F. sylvatica, although this species adopted a water spending strategy, typical of species growing in mesic environments, that could represent a risk for survival of beech population under extreme air temperature change. In this respect, the reduced suitable area for this species under the A2 scenario could reduce the possibilities of an upward shift toward higher altitudes.

  12. Allocation of recent photoassimilates in mature European beech and Norway spruce - seasonal variability and responses to experimentally increased tropospheric O3 concentration and long-term drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    This contribution summarizes a series of C allocation studies in maturing European beech and Norway spruce trees at Kranzberg Forest, located in southern Germany. Study objects are 60 to 70 year old trees, readily accessible via scaffoldings and canopy crane. Allocation of recently fixed photoassimilates is assessed either by conventional branch-bag labelling with 99 atom% 13CO2 or whole-tree labeling using 13C-depleted CO2 (isoFACE system). While labeling in branch bags, employed for few hours only, focused on phloem functionality in particular under long-term drought, C labeling of whole tree canopies was employed for up to 20 days, studying allocation of recent photoassimilates from the canopy along branches and stems to roots and soils below ground. In all experiments, dynamics of C allocation were mostly pursued assessing carbon isotopic composition of CO2 efflux from woody tissues which typically reflected isotopic composition of phloem sugars. Effects of severe and long-term summer drought are assessed in an ongoing experiment with roughly 100 trees assigned to a total of 12 plots (kroof.wzw.tum.de). Precipitation throughfall was completely excluded since early spring, resulting in pre-dawn leaf water potentials of both beech and spruce up to -2.2 MPa. The hypothesis was tested that long-term drought affects allocation of recently fixed C to branches and phloem functionality. In the annual course under unstressed conditions, phloem transport speed from the canopy to the stem (breast height) was double in beech compared to spruce, with highest transport velocities in early summer (about 0.51 and 0.26 m/h) and lowest in spring (0.26 and 0.12 m/h for beech and spruce, respectively). After leaf flush in spring, growth respiration of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photoassimilates supplied beech stem growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer, whereas seasonality was less pronounced in spruce. The hypothesis that growth

  13. Interception, throughfall and stemflow in two forests of the "Sierra de la Demanda" in the Province of Burgos

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    Tarazona, T.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance of the ivater has been investigated in two forest ecosystems of the "Sierra de la Demanda " a climacic beechwood (Fagus sylvatica L. and a reafforested plantation of scot pine (Pinus sylvestris L. on land potentially suitable for beech trees. The precipitation reaching the soil represented the 61.7% by throughfall in the beechwood and the 52.1% in the pinewood, the 6. 5 %> and 0.4 % by stemflow and 31. 7 % and 42.5 % by interception in beechwood and pineiuood respectively. These values fluctuated monthly folloiving the rainfall characteristics.

    [es] El balance de agua en dos ecosistemas forestales de la "Sierra de la Demanda", un hayedo climácico (Fagus sylvatica L. y un pinar de reforestación (Pinus sylvestris L. en área de potencialidad hayedo, ha sido determinado. La precipitación que alcanza el suelo representa el 61,7% por pluviolavado en el hayedo y el 52,1% en el pinar, el 6,5% y 0,4% por escurrimiento fustal, y el 31 7% y 42,5% por intercepción en hayedo y pinar respectivamente. Estos valores fluctúan mensualmente dependiendo de las características de la lluvia incidente.
    [fr] Le bilan de l'eau dans deux écosystèmes forestiers de la "Sierra de la Demanda", une hetraie climacique (Fagus sylvatica L. et une plantation de pin blanc (Pinus sylvestris L. dans une zone de potentialité hetraie a été determiné. La précipitation qu'arrive au sol représente le 61,7 % par l'égouttement dans l'hetraie, et le 52,1 % dans une pinède; le 6,5%o et 0,4% par écolulement et le 31,7% et 42,5% par interceptation dans lahetraie et la pinède respectivement. Ces valeurs fluctuent mensuelment en dépendant des caractéristiques de la pluie incidente.

  14. A comparison of different methods to estimate species proportions by area in mixed stands

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    Gerald F. Dirnberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper presents the most appropriate ways to estimate the species proportions by area in mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. by comparing stand level and individual tree level approaches. It also investigates whether different ways of describing species proportions by area can result in different judgments on the over- or under-yielding of species in mixtures.Area of the study: Three triplets of pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce and European beech in three locations in the northeast of Austria are investigated. The three locations differ considerably in slope, bedrock and soil type as well as in site index.Material and Methods: In all 9 plots the coordinates of all trees, their dbh, height, height to the crown base and five year increment were measured. The potentially available areas of individual trees are calculated by Voronoi- diagrams and potential densities are estimated from the comparable pure stands, yield tables, and published equations for maximum basal area and Reineke’s maximum density line.Main results: The species proportions estimated by the individual tree approach with leaf area as growth characteristic gave the best fit with the stand approach with the most appropriate, regional maximum basal area equations. By using various definitions of species proportions, in the worst case the mixing effects on individual species can be seriously over- or underestimated while the mixing effects on the total increment is only negligibly affected.Research highlightsMeasures of species proportions by area are needed for comparing growth per hectare of a species in a mixed stand with that of the same species in a pure standSpecies proportions at the stand level are based on estimates of the species’ potential densities, either in terms of maximum basal area or of maximum stand density indexSpecies proportions at the tree level are derived from the area

  15. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

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    B. Kitzler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and NO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 22.6 kg N y-1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 13.5 kg N y-1 through wet and dry deposition. Nitrogen oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxide emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxide emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O losses at SW ranged from 0.65 to 0.77 kg N ha-1 y-1 and NO losses were 0.18 to 0.67 kg N ha-1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 kg N2O-N kg ha-1 y-1 as well as considerably lower NO-losses were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO losses at KL were 0.02 kg, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha-1. Higher N-oxide emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW indicate that atmospheric

  16. Mineralisation, leaching and stabilisation of 13C-labelled leaf and twig litter in a beech forest soil

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    F. Hagedorn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Very few field studies have quantified the different pathways of C loss from decomposing litter even though this is essential to better understand long-term dynamics of C stocks in soils. Using 13C-labelled leaf (isotope ratio (δ13C = −40.8‰ and twig litter (δ13C = −38.4‰, we tracked down the litter-derived C in the soil respiration, in the dissolved organic C (DOC and in the soil organic matter of a beech forest in the Swiss Jura. After one year of decomposition, mass loss in the litter layer was almost twice as great for leaves as it was for twigs (75% vs. 40%. This difference was not the result of a slow mineralisation of the woody litter, but primarily of the only slight incorporation of twig-derived C into mineral soils. The C mineralisation rates of the twig litter were only slightly lower than those of the leaf litter (10–35%, in particular after the loss of the readily available litter fraction. However, the leaching of DOC from twigs amounted only to half of that from leaves. Tracing the litter-derived DOC showed that DOC from both litter types was mostly retained (88–96% and stabilised in the top centimetres of the mineral soil. In the soil organic C at 0–2 cm depth, we recovered 8% of the initial leaf C, but only 4% of the twig C. Moreover, the 13C mass balance suggested that a substantial fraction of the leaf material (~30% was transported via soil fauna to soil depths below 2 cm, while the twig litter mainly decomposed in situ on the soil surface, probably due to its rigid structure and low nutritional value. In summary, our study shows that decaying twigs are rapidly mineralised, but seem to be clearly less important for the C storage in this beech forest soils than leaf litter.

  17. Distribution model of understory vegetation in beech forests from Central Apennines (Italy in relation to edaphic parameters

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    De Nicola C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first results of a study of monitoring species and habitats in the framework of the Life 04NAT/IT/000190 "Tutela dei siti Natura 2000 gestiti dal Corpo Forestale dello Stato" are presented. This study was carried out by the Department of Plant Biology of the University of Rome (La Sapienza and the National Forest Service. We focused the investigation on the relationships between herbaceous species and pedological parameters (humus and soil in Central-Apennine beech forests. Data have been collected through 40 phytosociological relevés, 15 soil profiles and 40 humus profiles in 40 forest plots, between March 2005 and September 2006. In this paper we presented data elaborated on a subset of 15 plots where soil profiles were available. The species of undergrowth showed different ecological requirements to some edaphic and humus parameters (pH, sand, loam, clay, organic matter, nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio, Ca++, K+;thickness and carbon content of the organic layers: significant correlations have been found using Pearson correlation test. The multiple regression analysis allowed to identify the factors more influencing the species distribution: thickness of the organic layers, carbon content (% C and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N. Basing on the thickness of humus horizons (OL, OF, OH, and on carbon content, two species groups with different ecology have been recognized: (a nemoral species typical of shady beech stands on oligomull/dysmull/thin amphimull (0 < 1cm.; 5.7 < %C < 9.9; (b heliophilous species of more xeric stands on thick amphimull (1.25 < 11.5 cm.; 9.9 < %C < 13.7. The relationships among species and soil parameters and humus forms allow to recognize small differences within a homogeneous habitat and therefore they can provide management indications also at micro-scale level.

  18. Epiphytic lichens as sentinels for heavy metal pollution at forest ecosystems (central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiphytic lichens were useful as an early warning system for changes in forest ecosystems. - The results of a study using epiphytic lichens (Parmelia caperata) as sentinels for heavy metal deposition at six selected forest ecosystems of central Italy are reported. The woods investigated are characterized by holm oak (Quercus ilex), turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) and represent the typical forest ecosystems of central Italy at low, medium and high elevations, respectively. The results showed that levels of heavy metals in lichens were relatively low and consequently no risk of heavy metal air pollution is expected for the six forest ecosystems investigated. However, for two of them there are indications of a potential risk: the beech forest of Vallombrosa showed signs of contamination by Pb as a consequence of vehicle traffic due to the rather high touristic pressure in the area, and the holm oak forest of Cala Violina showed transboundary pollution by Mn, Cr and Ni originating from the steel industry in Piombino. Epiphytic lichens proved to be very effective as an early warning system to detect signs of a changing environment at forest ecosystems

  19. Impact of the 2013-2015 weather variability on seasonal growth dynamics and daily stem-size changes of three coexisting broadleaved tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaten, Ernst; Pape, Jonas; van der Maaten Theunissen, Marieke; Scharnweber, Tobias; Smiljanic, Marko; Wilmking, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Dendrometers are measurement devices that continuously monitor stem-size changes of trees without invasive sampling of the cambium. Dendrometers record both irreversible tree growth as well as reversible signals of stem water storage and depletion, making them important tools for studying tree water status, tree physiology and short-term growth responses of trees to weather fluctuations. In this study, a three-year dendrometer dataset (2013-2015) is used to study seasonal growth dynamics and daily stem-size changes of three coexisting broadleaved tree species (common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.)), growing in an unmanaged forest in northeastern Germany. Seasonal growth patterns (i.e. growth onset, cessation and duration) are analyzed in relation to environmental conditions, and forest meteorological factors driving daily stem-size changes are identified. Following dry conditions in 2014, especially the growth of beech was reduced. Oak was less affected, and displayed a distinct early growth onset for all study years.

  20. Aspects of the Flora and Vegetation of the “Izvorul Bigar” Nature Reserve (South-Western Romania

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    Alma L. NICOLIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve is located in south-western Romania. The aim of the present paper is to describe some aspects of the flora and vegetation around Bigăr spring. The analysis of the vegetal association was carried out using the method of the Central-European phytocoenological school. The vegetation around the Bigăr spring and waterfall is dominated by compact beech forests with a frequently reduced grassy layer and soil rich in humus. On the banks of the watercourse and on the rocks around the spring there are species specific to flooding plains of the beech sub-stratum and also thermophilous and xerophilous species, many of them Balkan, Pontic or Mediterranean elements. The phytocoenoses we analysed belong to the Phyllitidi - Fagetum Vida (1959 1963 association. The association is characteristic to shady and moist slopes with soils rich in humus and formed on a lime substratum sometimes with surface rocks. The species with high abundance-dominance values are: Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Tilia cordata, Hedera helix, Asplenium scolopendrium, Arum orientale, Asarum europaeum, Cardamine bulbifera, Lunaria annua, Polypodium vulgare. Such species as Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggygria, Fraxinus ornus, Ruscus hypoglossum, Syringa vulgaris point out the thermophilous character of the forests in southern Banat.

  1. Aspects of the Flora and Vegetation of the “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve (South-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinca M. IMBREA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Izvorul Bigăr” Nature Reserve is located in south-western Romania. The aim of the present paper is to describe some aspects of the flora and vegetation around Bigăr spring. The analysis of the vegetal association was carried out using the method of the Central-European phytocoenological school. The vegetation around the Bigăr spring and waterfall is dominated by compact beech forests with a frequently reduced grassy layer and soil rich in humus. On the banks of the watercourse and on the rocks around the spring there are species specific to flooding plains of the beech sub-stratum and also thermophilous and xerophilous species, many of them Balkan, Pontic or Mediterranean elements. The phytocoenoses we analysed belong to the Phyllitidi - Fagetum Vida (1959 1963 association. The association is characteristic to shady and moist slopes with soils rich in humus and formed on a lime substratum sometimes with surface rocks. The species with high abundance-dominance values are: Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Tilia cordata, Hedera helix, Asplenium scolopendrium, Arum orientale, Asarum europaeum, Cardamine bulbifera, Lunaria annua, Polypodium vulgare. Such species as Carpinus orientalis, Cotinus coggygria, Fraxinus ornus, Ruscus hypoglossum, Syringa vulgaris point out the thermophilous character of the forests in southern Banat.

  2. Status and trend of tree growth and mortality rate at the CONECOFOR plots, 1997-2004

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    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The circumference of trees in the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots (PMPs were measured by three surveys carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005. Plots were arranged into forest types according to tree species, management system and stand structure: beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and spruce (Picea abies K. high forests, aged coppice forests and transitory crops (deciduous, evergreen oaks and beech. Diameter distribution, basal area, basal area increment, tree mortality rate and in-growth were calculated per layer (dominant, intermediate, dominated within each PMP, to point out relative contributions and changes. A range in relative annual growth was detected both within and between types over the monitored period, but an obvious reduction of annual increment was found in two/thirds of plots over 2000-04 as compared to 1997-99. Current mortality, mostly allocated into the dominated and intermediate layers, can be explained as “regular” due to overstocking and high inter-tree competition in almost all of the observed case-studies. Opposite patterns were found to occur as for stand growth vs. mortality rate between coppice forests and the other types owing to the different dynamics of tree competition in progress. Drought 2003 is the likely large-scale factor determining the reduced annual growth course over the second period.

  3. Depth distribution and composition of seed banks under different tree layers in a managed temperate forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroid, Sandrine; Phartyal, Shyam S.; Koedam, Nico

    2006-05-01

    In the present work we examined the composition and distribution across three soil layers of the buried soil seed bank under three different overstory types ( Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris) and in logging areas in a 4383-ha forest in central Belgium. The objectives were: (1) to investigate whether species composition and species richness of soil seed banks are affected by different forest stands; (2) to examine how abundant are habitat-specific forest species in seed banks under different planted tree layers. The study was carried out in stands which are replicated, managed in the same way (even-aged high forest), and growing on the same soil type with the same land-use history. In the investigated area, the seed bank did show significant differences under oak, beech, pine and in logging areas, respectively in terms of size, composition and depth occurrence. All species and layers taken together, the seed bank size ranked as follows: oakwood > beechwood > logging area > pinewood. The same pattern was found for forest species. Seed numbers of Betula pendula, Calluna vulgaris, Dryopteris dilatata and Rubus fruticosus were significantly higher under the beech canopy. Carex remota, Impatiens parviflora and Lotus sp. showed a significantly denser seed bank in logging areas, while Digitalis purpurea seeds were significantly more abundant in soils under the oak canopy. The fact that the seed bank of an originally homogeneous forest varies under different planted stands highlights that a long period of canopy conversion can affect the composition and depth of buried seeds.

  4. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  5. Changes of soil conditions and floristic composition in Black Pine forest (Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae) and in the forest of beech and Hairy Alpenrose (Rhododendro hirsuti-Fagetum) after the wildfire

    OpenAIRE

    Urbančič, Mihej; Dakskobler, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We studied soil conditions and floristic comsposition in the forest of beech and Hairy Alpenrose (Rhododendro hirsuti-Fagetum) and in the south-Alpine Austrian black pine forest (Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae) within the area of the forest fire in Govci (which is located in the northwestern edge of the Trnovski gozd plateau, western Slovenia) and compared them with conditions in preserved beech and black pine forests five years after the wildfire. The black pine forest overgrows Lithosols and M...

  6. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

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    Andreas Fichtner

    Full Text Available The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading and belowground competition (crowding among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  7. Microbial processes and community composition in the rhizosphere of European beech – The influence of plant C exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Koranda, Marianne; Schnecker, Jörg; Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Kitzler, Barbara; Stange, Claus Florian; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Plant roots strongly influence C and N availability in the rhizosphere via rhizodeposition and uptake of nutrients. This study aimed at investigating the effect of resource availability on microbial processes and community structure in the rhizosphere. We analyzed C and N availability, as well as microbial processes and microbial community composition in rhizosphere soil of European beech and compared it to the bulk soil. Additionally, we performed a girdling experiment in order to disrupt ro...

  8. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar: Case study from Western Hungary

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    Csóka György

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Microsphaera alphitoides after defoliation and it probably slowed down its recovery. Neither the presence of Agrilus biguttatus in the oak plot nor the appearance of Agrilus viridis in the beech plot was observed during the study period. Population density of the buprestid Coraebus floerentinus showed a considerable increase in the oak plot, but remained under the damage level. Neither other harmful appearance of other pests nor significant tree mortality were observed within 4 years from the defoliation. These results provide information for the evaluation of longer term influences of the gypsy moth defoliation and may support the decisions concerning pest control.

  9. Effects of the distribution, amount, and size of beech fine roots on the C-turnover in the topsoil and subsoil of a sandy podzolic Cambisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormstein, Svendja; Kaiser, Michael; Ludwig, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The function of soil to act as a sink for CO2 is affected by the decomposition intensity of plant roots entering the mineral soil at different depths. Little is known about the key factors governing the mineralization kinetics of beech fine roots in different soil depths. We aimed to analyze the effects of the distribution, amount, and size of beech fine roots on their decomposition in the top- and subsoil. Topsoil (2 - 10 cm) and subsoil (145 - 152 cm) samples were taken from 3 profiles of a sandy Cambisol under beech located near Hannover (Germany). Incubation experiments were carried out for 300 days at 10°C and water contents at 50% of the water-holding capacity and CO2 emission rates were determined using an automated microcosm system. Treatments included control soils (either homogenized and sieved received the 1-2 cm roots compared to those containing the account for the elucidation of differences in the decomposition kinetics of roots between topsoil and subsoil.

  10. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  11. Beech tree analyses in the Bohemian/Austrian/Bavarian frontier region; Fallstudie Buche im Dreilaendereck Boehmen/Oberoesterreich/Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Baumgarten, M.; Matyssek, R. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Forstbotanik] [and others

    2000-08-01

    The condition of beech trees was investigated in six forest stands in the Bayerischer Wald and Boehmerwald mountains between 1995 and 1997 in order to establish the interdependence between tree conditions, the prevailing natural and anthropogenic site factors, and air pollution especially with groundlevel ozone. Details of the investigations are presented. Although a potential long-term effect of ozone cannot be excluded, the damage observed in beech trees in this region since the eighties is assumed to be caused not by a single factor but by complex interaction patterns between several anthropogenic and natural factors. [German] Es erfolgte im Untersuchungsgebiet Bayerischer Wald/Boehmerwald im Zeitraum 1995 bis 1997 eine detaillierte Zustandscharakterisierung von Altbuchen an sechs Standorten. Im Rahmen der Gesamtuntersuchung sollte geklaert werden, ob Zusammenhaenge zwischen dem Baumzustand und den herrschenden natuerlichen und anthropogenen Standortfaktoren und Luftbelastungen mit Schwerpunkt des bodennahen Ozons bestehen. An Hand kontinuierlicher Ozonmessungen konnte bestaetigt werden, dass die Konzentration des bodennahen Ozons im wesentlichen eine Funktion der Meereshoehe ist; somit ist an Hochlagenstandorten von hoeheren Immissionen auszugehen. Bei den moeglicherweise besser an photooxidativen Stress akklimatisierten Hochlagenbuchen waren die Schaeden bei erhoehter Ozonbelastung geringer ausgepraegt als bei Tieflagenbuchen. Fuer die Hypothese, wonach man eine staerkere Schaedigung der Hochlagenbestaende zu erwarten hat, wurde keine Bestaetigung gefunden. Inositol wird seit einiger Zeit als sensitiver Indikator diskutiert, der auf veraenderte Umweltbedingungen reagiert. Die Inositolkonzentration in Sonnenblaettern von Altbuchen im Bayerischen Wald war in 1995 um ca. 50% geringer als in 1996. Bei den Jungbuchen im Phytotronenexperiment kam es bei anhaltendem Ozonstress und zunehmender Schaedigung zu einer starken Reduktion der Inositolkonzentration in

  12. Similar foliage area but contrasting foliage biomass between young beech and spruce stands / Porovnateľná plocha avšak kontrastná biomasa asimilačných orgánov medzi mladými porastmi buka a smreka

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    Konôpka Bohdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Výskum sa zameral na mladé porasty buka lesného (Fagus sylvatica a smreka obyčajného (Picea abies rovnakého veku (12 rokov, veľmi podobných dimenzií stromov, rastúcich na totožnom stanovišti. Na základe odberu vzorníkov celých stromov (všetky časti okrem jemných koreňov sme skonštruovali alometrické vzťahy pre stromové komponenty. Ako nezávislá premenná sa použila hrúbka na báze kmeňa (d0. Modely vyjadrili nielen biomasu konárov, kmeňa, hrubých koreňov a asimilačných orgánov, ale aj plochu asimilačných orgánov a špecifickú listovú plochu (specific leaf area; SLA. Zistili sme, že základné morfologické vlastnosti asimilačných orgánov varírovali pri obidvoch drevinách pozdĺž vertikálneho profilu koruny. V prípade smreka sa zistili odlišné hodnoty plochy ihlíc a SLA medzi jednotlivými ročníkmi ihlíc. Na úrovni stromu mali buky oveľa viac biomasy drevných častí ako smreky, opačná situácia bola pri asimilačných orgánoch. Preto hodnoty podielu medzi biomasou asimilačných orgánov a celkovou biomasou stromu, ako aj pomeru medzi plochou asimilačných orgánov a celkovou biomasou stromu boli výrazne vyššie pri smreku než buku. Na úrovni porastu mala smrečina vyššie hodnoty indexu listovej plochy, t. j. LAI (18,64 m2.m−2 v porovnaní s bučinou (12,77 m2.m−2. Kým biomasa asimilačných orgánov bola 4,6-krát väčšia v smrekovom než v bukovom poraste, biomasa drevných časti bola porovnateľná v obidvoch porastoch. Tieto kontrasty naznačujú výrazne odlišnú rastovú stratégiu, resp. alokáciu biomasy medzi bučinami a smrečinami v mladých štádiách

  13. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  14. Increasing net CO2 uptake by a Danish beech forest during the period from 1996 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas; Courtney, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and a beech forest near Sorø, Denmark, was measured continuously over 14 years (1996–2009). The simultaneous measurement of many parameters that influence CO2 uptake makes it possible to relate the CO2 exchange to recent changes in e.g. temperature...... in GEE. The overall trend in NEE was significant with an average increase in uptake of 23 g C m−2 yr−2. The carbon uptake period (i.e. the period with daily net CO2 gain) increased by 1.9 days per year, whereas there was a non significant tendency of increase of the leafed period. This means...... that the leaves stayed active longer. The analysis of CO2 uptake by the forest by use of light response curves, revealed that the maximum rate of photosynthetic assimilation increased by 15% during the 14-year period. We conclude that the increase in the overall CO2 uptake of the forest is due to a combination...

  15. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate.

  16. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re-translocation efficiency with the time needed for canopy renewal was deduced, showing that leaves which live longer re

  17. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  18. Impacts of climate and land-use changes on mountain forests in Central Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Chiara; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to analyze the vegetation dynamics of Pinus mugo Turra subsp. mugo and Fagus sylvatica (L.) at the treeline ecotone between the closed beech forest and the mountain pine krummholz vegetation. This transitional ecosystem zone dominates the high altitudes of the Majella massif, (Central Appennines) and represents the exception on the Apennines chain being treeline dominated by krummholz with mountain pine. This species in the Majella National Park is re-colonizing open areas both upward, to the alpine meadows, and downward, to areas potentially suitable by beech expansion. On the Apennine chain, Central Italy, global change could cause a negative impact on the spatial distribution of rare or endemic species, thus influencing the appearance, structure and productivity of the tree-line ecotone. Mountain pine, growing over the treeline, represents a very sensitive species to the effects of climate change acting in Mediterranean basin. In four sampling site a circular area of 40 m in diameter was established between beech forest and mountain pine krhummolz. For both species, dendrometric parameters were collected and woody cores were extracted. During sampling, basic information, to define the growth dynamics and competition between the two species, were also recorded. A landscape analysis from aerial photographs provided information to better understand the development dynamics of the two plant communities. The dendrochronological analysis, supported by dendrometric parameters, defined the population age, as well as the time of settlement. Climate-growth relationships was analized and showed responses, in terms of plant growth, to the current climate trend. The influence of temperature and precipitation on tree growth during the vegetation season was demonstrated by significant correlation coefficients, particularly for spring and summer temperatures and summer precipitation, in both species. An interesting result is the negative correlation of

  19. 米心水青冈种群萌条更新与高度生长%Sprouting and height in a Fagus engeriana population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵睿; 周学峰; 徐娜娜; 赵明水; 刘亮; 陈小勇

    2009-01-01

    Resprouting plays an important role in the regeneration of many tree species, especially in disturbed habitats. It was suggested that there is a trade-off between sprouting and height growth. This hypothesis was previously tested by comparing the heights of sprouters and its non-sprouting congeners. However, differences in life history and other biological characteristics may invalidate such a comparison. In this paper, we try to test such a hypothesis in Fagus engleriana and to understand the effect of resprouting on demography. We investigated characteristics of Fagus engleriana individuals from a community in Tianmushan. We compared the heights of single and multi-stem individuals with similar diameter at breast height (DBH) as well the heights of mature individuals of the similar size with few and abundant stems. We also quantified the sprouting characteristics and their relationship with height and DBH of the largest individual. Positive relationship was found between number of stems and DBH of the largest stem. No significant difference was found in height between single and multi-stem individuals, also between mature individuals with few and abundant stems, indicating that there is no trade-off between sprouting and height growth in F. engleriana. Positive relationship was found between height and number of stems. Negative relationship was found between variation coefficient of the largest three stem and number of stems, indicating that difference among the largest three stems decreased with increasing number of stems, due to photosynthesis of each stem. Size of the studied population was much larger at the ramet level than that at the genet level. Almost all seedling, saplings and small individuals were formed by sprouting, indicating that sprouting plays a critical role in the regeneration of the F. engleriana population in Tianmushan.%萌条是许多木本植物更新的重要方式,尤其是在干扰生境中.有种观点认为萌条需要消耗大量

  20. Calculation of Economic Rotation Period for Even-Aged Stand in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Beljan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Even-aged forests prevail in Croatia’s forestry. Rotation period is based mostly on natural parameters. In practice, rotation period is given by Croatian Rulebook of forest management. Cutting age is determined based on inventory data and many other stand characteristics. Rotation period is a planned time and it always has to be unique for particular tree species, and cutting age is the age of a stand at the moment of the final cut. The aim of the paper is to compare rotation period based on economic parameters and rotation period determined by using forest inventory data. Material and Methods: Owing to absence of long term stand calculation data, research object was taken from Forest Management Handbook (1995. Mean annual increment (MAI and current annual increment (CAI provided fundamental data for calculations. The research was conducted at one hectare Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stand. Assortment structure and value of timber was estimated by the present cutting value method calculated by using Croatian forests Ltd. Price list for the year 2008. Labor costs in forest exploitation were also taken into account. Results and Conclusion: In order to achieve cost-effective management of common beech stands, it is necessary to adjust current optimal rotation period. Optimal rotation period should be based on management goals as the main factors. So far the most common criterion adopted in Croatian forestry has been the rotation of maximum sustained yield or maximum Mean annual increment. The presented results indicate that common forest management practice should be changed in order to achieve cost-effective management of beech stands in the future.

  1. Changes in thermal infrared spectra of plants caused by temperature and water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Maria F.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress causes changes in leaves and the structure of plants. Although physiological adaptations to stress by plants have been explored, the effect of stress on the spectral properties in the thermal part of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-16 μm) has not yet been investigated. In this research two plant species (European beech, Fagus sylvatica and rhododendron, Rhododendron cf. catawbiense) that both grow naturally under temperature limited conditions were selected, representing deciduous and evergreen plants respectively. Besides TIR spectra, Leaf Water Content (LWC) and cuticle thickness were measured as possible variables that can explain the changes in TIR spectra. The results demonstrated that both species, when exposed to either water or temperature stress, showed significant changes in their TIR spectra. The changes in TIR in response to stress were similar within a species, regardless of the stress imposed on them. However, changes in TIR spectra differed between species. For rhododendron emissivity in TIR increased under stress while for beech it decreased. Both species showed depletion of Leaf Water Content (LWC) under stress, ruling LWC out as a main cause for the change in the TIR spectra. Cuticle thickness remained constant for beech, but increased for rhododendron. This suggests that changes in emissivity may be linked to changes in the cuticle thickness and possibly the structure of cuticle. It is known that spectral changes in this region have a close connection with microstructure and biochemistry of leaves. We propose detailed measurements of these changes in the cuticle to analyze the effect of microstructure on TIR spectra.

  2. Climate change triggers effects of fungal pathogens and insect herbivores on litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenschoen, Olaf; Scheu, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Increasing infestation by insect herbivores and pathogenic fungi in response to climate change will inevitably impact the amount and quality of leaf litter inputs into the soil. However, little is known on the interactive effect of infestation severity and climate change on litter decomposition, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We assessed changes in initial chemical quality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple litter (Acer platanoides L.) in response to infestation by the gall midge Mikiola fagi Hart. and the pathogenic fungus Sawadaea tulasnei Fuckel, respectively, and investigated interactive effects of infestation severity, changes in temperature and soil moisture on carbon mineralization in a short-term laboratory study. We found that infestation by the gall midge M. fagi and the pathogenic fungus S. tulasnei significantly changed the chemical quality of beech and maple litter. Changes in element concentrations were generally positive and more pronounced, and if negative less pronounced for maple than beech litter most likely due to high quality fungal tissue remaining on litter after abscission. More importantly, alterations in litter chemical quality did not translate to distinct patterns of carbon mineralization at ambient conditions, but even low amounts of infested litter accelerated carbon mineralization at moderately increased soil moisture and in particular at higher temperature. Our results indicate that insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can markedly alter initial litter chemical quality, but that afterlife effects on carbon mineralization depend on soil moisture and temperature, suggesting that increased infestation severity under projected climate change potentially increases soil carbon release in deciduous forests in Central Europe.

  3. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  4. The amount and quality of dead trees in a mixed beech forest with different management histories in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIOMARS SEFIDI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sefidi K, Etemad V. 2014. The amount and quality of dead trees in a mixed beech forest with different management histories in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 162-168. Dead tree (fallen logs and snags, is regarded as an important ecological component of forests on which many forest dwelling species depend, yet its relation to management history in Caspian forest has gone unreported. The aim of research aim was to compare the amounts of dead tree in the forests with historically different intensities of management, including: forests with the long term implication of management (Patom, the short term implication of management (Namekhaneh which were compared with semi virgin forest (Gorazbon. The number of 215 individual dead trees were recorded and measured at 79 sampling locations. ANOVA revealed volume of dead tree in the form and decay classes significantly differ within sites and dead volume in the semi virgin forest significantly higher than managed sites. Comparing the amount of dead tree in three sites showed that, dead tree volume related with management history and significantly differ in three study sites. Reaching their highest in virgin site and their lowest in the site with the long term implication of management, it was concluded that forest management cause reduction of the amount of dead tree. Forest management history affect the forest's ability to generate dead tree specially in a large size, thus managing this forest according to ecological sustainable principles require a commitment to maintaining stand structure that allow, continued generation of dead tree in a full range of size.

  5. Estimation of canopy attributes in beech forests using true colour digital images from a small fixed-wing UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianucci, Francesco; Disperati, Leonardo; Guzzi, Donatella; Bianchini, Daniele; Nardino, Vanni; Lastri, Cinzia; Rindinella, Andrea; Corona, Piermaria

    2016-05-01

    Accurate estimates of forest canopy are essential for the characterization of forest ecosystems. Remotely-sensed techniques provide a unique way to obtain estimates over spatially extensive areas, but their application is limited by the spectral and temporal resolution available from these systems, which is often not suited to meet regional or local objectives. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as remote sensing platforms has recently gained increasing attention, but their applications in forestry are still at an experimental stage. In this study we described a methodology to obtain rapid and reliable estimates of forest canopy from a small UAV equipped with a commercial RGB camera. The red, green and blue digital numbers were converted to the green leaf algorithm (GLA) and to the CIE L*a*b* colour space to obtain estimates of canopy cover, foliage clumping and leaf area index (L) from aerial images. Canopy attributes were compared with in situ estimates obtained from two digital canopy photographic techniques (cover and fisheye photography). The method was tested in beech forests. UAV images accurately quantified canopy cover even in very dense stand conditions, despite a tendency to not detecting small within-crown gaps in aerial images, leading to a measurement of a quantity much closer to crown cover estimated from in situ cover photography. Estimates of L from UAV images significantly agreed with that obtained from fisheye images, but the accuracy of UAV estimates is influenced by the appropriate assumption of leaf angle distribution. We concluded that true colour UAV images can be effectively used to obtain rapid, cheap and meaningful estimates of forest canopy attributes at medium-large scales. UAV can combine the advantage of high resolution imagery with quick turnaround series, being therefore suitable for routine forest stand monitoring and real-time applications.

  6. A panbiogeographical explanation of the disjunct distribution of Fagus (Fagaceae) in the northern temperate zone%北温带水青冈属的间断分布及其泛生物地理学解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 姜小龙; 雷耘; 张明理

    2012-01-01

    Aims Fagus L. has a disjunct distribution in the northern temperate zone, and there is a rich collection of Tertiary fossils from East Asia, Europe and North America. A panbiogeographical analysis of Fagus was undertaken to analyze the distribution pattern and evolution of the genus. Methods Distribution data of 581 records of 10 species were obtained from herbaria and monographs. Track analysis of panbiogeography and software MartiTrack were used for data analysis. Important findings Results indicated that there was no generalized track linking the distributions among China, Japan, Europe and North America or even between China and Japan, two adjacent areas in East Asia. Two regional generalized tracks were only found within China and Japan. These facts imply that the Fagus distribution cannot be explained by dispersal. Dispersal probably only occurred in limited and/or local regions and not as dispersal across the northern temperate zone in the Tertiary. The disjunction most likely resulted from (1) geological historical events such as Tethys westward movement, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift, and Asian monsoon action, (2) climate change since the Tertiary, especially climate fluctuation during Quaternary glaciation, and (3) Fagus biological characteristics with regard to humid and temperate climate and annual rainfall.%水青冈属(Fagus L.)在北温带呈间断分布,已发现的丰富的第三纪化石为讨论其起源和演化提供了证据.该文采用泛生物地理学的轨迹分析方法对水青冈属的分布进行了研究,试图分析水青冈属的分布格局,进而讨论其进化问题.结果表明,水青冈属在中国、日本、北美、欧洲的分布是完全间断的,没有一个共有轨迹连接它们,即使在毗邻的、且有植物亲缘关系的中国和日本,也没有一个共有轨迹连接.完全间断的轨迹对分析水青冈属的起源、演化和扩散学说,没有提供任何信息.仅有两条共有轨迹分别分布在中

  7. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  8. Temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at seasonal and interannual time scales in a temperate beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Campioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of carbon (C taken up by the tree canopy for respiration and production of tree organs with different construction and maintenance costs, life span and decomposition rate, crucially affects the residence time of C in forests and their C cycling rate. The carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP and gross primary production (GPP, represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. In this study, we extend the current knowledge on the NPP-GPP ratio in forests by assessing the temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at interannual (for 8 years and seasonal (for 1 year scales for a young temperate beech stand, reporting dynamics for both leaves and woody organs, in particular stems. NPP was determined with biometric methods/litter traps, whereas the GPP was estimated via the eddy covariance micrometeorological technique.

    The interannual variability of the proportion of C allocated to leaf NPP, wood NPP and leaf plus wood NPP (on average 11% yr−1, 29% yr−1 and 39% yr−1, respectively was significant among years with up to 12% yr−1 variation in NPP-GPP ratio. Studies focusing on the comparison of NPP-GPP ratio among forests and models using fixed allocation schemes should take into account the possibility of such relevant interannual variability. Multiple linear regressions indicated that the NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and wood significantly correlated with environmental conditions. Previous year drought and air temperature explained about half of the NPP-GPP variability of leaves and wood, respectively, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio was not decreased by severe drought, with large NPP-GPP ratio on 2003 due mainly to low GPP. During the period between early May and mid June, the majority of GPP was allocated to leaf and stem NPP, whereas these sinks were of little importance later on. Improved estimation of seasonal GPP and of the

  9. Plants control the seasonal dynamics of microbial N cycling in a beech forest soil by belowground C allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Gorfer, Markus; Stange, Claus F; Kitzler, Barbara; Rasche, Frank; Strauss, Joseph; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Soil microbes in temperate forest ecosystems are able to cycle several hundreds of kilograms of N per hectare per year and are therefore of paramount importance for N retention. Belowground C allocation by trees is an important driver of seasonal microbial dynamics and may thus directly affect N transformation processes over the course of the year. Our study aimed at unraveling plant controls on soil N cycling in a temperate beech forest at a high temporal resolution over a time period of two years, by investigating the effects of tree girdling on microbial N turnover. In both years of the experiment, we discovered (1) a summer N mineralization phase (between July and August) and (2) a winter N immobilization phase (November-February). The summer mineralization phase was characterized by a high N mineralization activity, low microbial N uptake, and a subsequent high N availability in the soil. During the autumn/winter N immobilization phase, gross N mineralization rates were low, and microbial N uptake exceeded microbial N mineralization, which led to high levels of N in the microbial biomass and low N availability in the soil. The observed immobilization phase during the winter may play a crucial role for ecosystem functioning, since it could protect dissolved N that is produced by autumn litter degradation from being lost from the ecosystem during the phase when plants are mostly inactive. The difference between microbial biomass N levels in winter and spring equals 38 kg N/ha and may thus account for almost one-third of the annual plant N demand. Tree girdling strongly affected annual N cycling: the winter N immobilization phase disappeared in girdled plots (microbial N uptake and microbial biomass N were significantly reduced, while the amount of available N in the soil solution was enhanced). This was correlated to a reduced fungal abundance in autumn in girdled plots. By releasing recently fixed photosynthates to the soil, plants may thus actively control the

  10. Temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at seasonal and interannual time scales in a temperate beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioli, M.; Gielen, B.; Göckede, M.; Papale, D.; Bouriaud, O.; Granier, A.

    2011-09-01

    The allocation of carbon (C) taken up by the tree canopy for respiration and production of tree organs with different construction and maintenance costs, life span and decomposition rate, crucially affects the residence time of C in forests and their C cycling rate. The carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. In this study, we extend the current knowledge on the NPP-GPP ratio in forests by assessing the temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at interannual (for 8 years) and seasonal (for 1 year) scales for a young temperate beech stand, reporting dynamics for both leaves and woody organs, in particular stems. NPP was determined with biometric methods/litter traps, whereas the GPP was estimated via the eddy covariance micrometeorological technique. The interannual variability of the proportion of C allocated to leaf NPP, wood NPP and leaf plus wood NPP (on average 11% yr-1, 29% yr-1 and 39% yr-1, respectively) was significant among years with up to 12% yr-1 variation in NPP-GPP ratio. Studies focusing on the comparison of NPP-GPP ratio among forests and models using fixed allocation schemes should take into account the possibility of such relevant interannual variability. Multiple linear regressions indicated that the NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and wood significantly correlated with environmental conditions. Previous year drought and air temperature explained about half of the NPP-GPP variability of leaves and wood, respectively, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio was not decreased by severe drought, with large NPP-GPP ratio on 2003 due mainly to low GPP. During the period between early May and mid June, the majority of GPP was allocated to leaf and stem NPP, whereas these sinks were of little importance later on. Improved estimation of seasonal GPP and of the contribution of previous-year reserves to stem growth, as well as reduction

  11. Responses of Fagus engleriana Seedlings to Light and Nutrient Availability%米心水青冈幼苗对光照和养分的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭柯; Marinus J.A. WERGER

    2004-01-01

    在模拟郁闭林下(L1,大约1%~2%的全日照)、林窗(L2,大约18%的全日照)、开阔地(L3,全日照)3个光照水平和每个光照水平下进行施肥(F1)和不施肥(F0)对照的6个实验处理条件下,研究了 2年龄米心水青冈(Fagus engleriana Seem)幼苗在随后的两个生长季里的生长对光照和土壤养分的响应.结果显示:光照和养分对幼苗高度、基径和生物量有显著的影响.经过两个生长季,L1处理下幼苗高度增量极显著地小于L2和L3处理下幼苗高度增量.L1处理下基径和生物量的增量在处理当年秋就极显著地小于L2和L3处理下的增量,并在第二年差异继续扩大.L2和L3处理下的幼苗间的生长没有显著差异.施肥明显地促进了L2和L3处理下的幼苗的生长,但对L1处理下的幼苗没有明显的作用.这些结果说明,虽然2年龄米心水青冈幼苗能够在林下的弱光条件下生存,但生长受到了极大的抑制.幼苗在林窗的中等光照条件下能够与在开阔地全日照条件下生长的一样好或更好,这与许多耐阴的落叶树的响应一样.在比林内光照强度较高的条件下施肥或较高的土壤养分才对米心水青冈幼苗的生长和生存起作用.%The responses of field-grown Fagus engleriana Seem. seedlings to light and soil nutrient availability were investigated. Two-year-old seedlings were grown for two growing seasons under six treatment conditions, including three light levels (L1: 1%-2% of full sunlight; L2: 18% of full sunlight; L3:100% of full sunlight), with and without fertilizer addition (F1 and F0) for each light level. The results showed that light and nutrients had significant effect on seedling growth as measured in terms of shoot height,stem basal diameter and biomass; the mean increments of shoot height over two growing seasons were significantly less in L1 than in L2 and L3 (P <0.001), and in L3 than in L2 (P <0.01), but the increments during the first growing

  12. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb., Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland, respectively. This was done in order to obtain information about functional acclimation, tree internal N conservation and its relevance for both ecosystem internal N cycling and foliar N exchange with the atmosphere. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal variability in beech trees than in the coniferous canopies. The concentrations of N and chlorophyll in the beech leaves were synchronized with the seasonal course of solar radiation implying close physiological acclimation, which was not observed in the coniferous needles. During phases of intensive N metabolism in the beech leaves, the NH4+ concentration rose considerably. This was compensated for by a strong pH decrease resulting in relatively low Γ values (ratio between tissue NH4+ and H+). The Γ values in the coniferous were even smaller than in beech, indicating low probability of NH3 emissions from the foliage to the atmosphere as an N conserving mechanism. The reduction in foliage N content during senescence was interpreted as N re-translocation from the senescing leaves into the rest of the trees. The N re-translocation efficiency (ηr) ranged from 37 to 70% and decreased with the time necessary for full renewal of the canopy foliage. Comparison with literature data from in total 23 tree species showed a general tendency for ηr to on average be reduced by 8% per year the canopy stays longer, i.e. with each additional year it takes for canopy renewal. The boreal pine site returned the lowest amount of N via foliage litter to the soil, while the temperate Douglas fir stand which had the largest peak canopy N content and the lowestηr returned the highest amount of N to the soil. These results

  13. Nitrogen addition enhances drought sensitivity of young deciduous tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dziedek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how trees respond to global change drivers is central to predict changes in forest structure and functions. Although there is evidence on the mode of nitrogen (N and drought (D effects on tree growth, our understanding of the interplay of these factors is still limited. Simultaneously, as mixtures are expected to be less sensitive to global change as compared to monocultures, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of N addition and D on the productivity of three tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Pseudotsuga menziesii in relation to functional diverse species mixtures using data from a four-year field experiment in Northwest Germany. Here we show that species mixing can mitigate the negative effects of combined N fertilization and D events, but the community response is mainly driven by the combination of certain traits rather than the tree species richness of a community. For beech, we found that negative effects of D on growth rates were amplified by N fertilization (i.e. combined treatment effects were non-additive, while for oak and fir, the simultaneous effects of N and D were additive. Beech and oak were identified as most sensitive to combined N+D effects with a strong size-dependency observed for beech, suggesting that the negative impact of N+D becomes stronger with time as beech grows larger. As a consequence, the net biodiversity effect declined at the community level, which can be mainly assigned to a distinct loss of complementarity in beech-oak mixtures. This pattern, however, was not evident in the other species-mixtures, indicating that neighborhood composition (i.e. trait combination, but not tree species richness mediated the relationship between tree diversity and treatment effects on tree growth. Our findings point to the importance of the qualitative role (‘trait portfolio’ that biodiversity play in determining resistance of diverse tree communities to environmental changes. As such, they

  14. Nitrogen Addition Enhances Drought Sensitivity of Young Deciduous Tree Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedek, Christoph; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how trees respond to global change drivers is central to predict changes in forest structure and functions. Although there is evidence on the mode of nitrogen (N) and drought (D) effects on tree growth, our understanding of the interplay of these factors is still limited. Simultaneously, as mixtures are expected to be less sensitive to global change as compared to monocultures, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of N addition and D on the productivity of three tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Pseudotsuga menziesii) in relation to functional diverse species mixtures using data from a 4-year field experiment in Northwest Germany. Here we show that species mixing can mitigate the negative effects of combined N fertilization and D events, but the community response is mainly driven by the combination of certain traits rather than the tree species richness of a community. For beech, we found that negative effects of D on growth rates were amplified by N fertilization (i.e., combined treatment effects were non-additive), while for oak and fir, the simultaneous effects of N and D were additive. Beech and oak were identified as most sensitive to combined N+D effects with a strong size-dependency observed for beech, suggesting that the negative impact of N+D becomes stronger with time as beech grows larger. As a consequence, the net biodiversity effect declined at the community level, which can be mainly assigned to a distinct loss of complementarity in beech-oak mixtures. This pattern, however, was not evident in the other species-mixtures, indicating that neighborhood composition (i.e., trait combination), but not tree species richness mediated the relationship between tree diversity and treatment effects on tree growth. Our findings point to the importance of the qualitative role ('trait portfolio') that biodiversity play in determining resistance of diverse tree communities to environmental changes. As such, they provide further

  15. A Catskill Flora and Economic Botany, III: Apetalae. Including the Poplars, Willows, Hickories, Birches, Beeches, Oaks, Elms, Nettles, Sorrels, Docks, and Smartweeds. Bulletin No. 443, New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Karl L.

    This compendium deals with the ecology and economic importance of the poplars, willows, hickories, birches, beeches, oaks, elms, nettles, sorrels, docks, and smartweeds growing in New York's Catskills. Provided are keys for identifying each plant to species by flowers, foliage, or winter buds. A line drawing accompanies a summary of basic data…

  16. Diet composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa volcanic zone (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work outlines the results of a study on the food consumed by roe deer carried out in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone, where 49 roe deer were reintroduced from 1995 to 1998. This is a protected area of about 12,000 ha, in which oak and beech forests predominate. Faecal analysis was chosen as the most appropriate method for sampling diet composition despite the scarcity of faecal samples encountered from 1998 to 2001 (n=30. A total of 7,500 epidermal fragments were identified from these samples. Results showed that ivy (Hedera helix and bramble (Rubus sp. formed the bulk of the diet (23% and 21%, respectively. Woody species also formed an important part, reaching 33% of total fragments. Herbs and grasses were only notable in the spring-summer period. Some major vegetation components such as beech (Fagus sylvatica were rarely consumed by deer.

    [fr]
    Voici le résultat d'une étude sur l'alimentation du chevreuil dans le Parc Naturel de la Zone Volcanique de la Garrotxa, où 49 individus furent introduits entre 1995 et 1998. Il s'agit d'un espace protégé de 12 000 ha environ, dominé par les forêts de chênes et de hêtres. Malgré le nombre très bas d'excréments rencontrés entre 1998 et 2001 (n=30, leur analyse nous a paru la meilleure méthode pour tester la composition de l'alimentation. À partir de ces échantillons, nous avons identifié 7 500 fragments d'épiderme. Les résultats nous montrent que le lierre (Hedera helix et la ronce (Rubus sp. sont l'alimentation principale (23 et 21% respectivement. Toutefois, les espèces ligneuses sont également à considérer, puisqu'elles forment 33% des fragments totaux. Les herbes et les graminées s'avèrent importantes au cours du printemps-été. Il est à noter que les principaux composants de la végétation tel le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica étaient très rarement consommés.
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  17. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory

  18. Recent Trends of Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOMOGYI, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses two related issues. One is whether, and how, growth patterns of standmean height have changed in Hungary in the last few decades, and the other is whether recentlyobserved increases in mean annual temperature might have caused changes in growth trends. Changesin tree growth were investigated for beech (Fagus sylvatica, sessile oak (Quercus petraea andTurkey oak (Quercus cerris by comparing stand mean heights over age using data from the forestinventories of 1981 and 2001, and for sessile oak using stand mean height data from permanentsample plots since 1961. Tree growth was found to have accelerated for each species mentioned, withTurkey oak showing the largest acceleration. To study the second issue, stand mean height was relatedto elevation, wich in turn was related to mean annual temperature and precipitation. For theseanalyses, too, data of many thousands of stands in the forest inventory was used. Stand mean heightwas found to increase with decreasing elevation, i.e. with increasing mean annual temperature, foreach of the three species. As the annual precipitation and air humidity decreases with decreasingelevation, it was concluded that increases of mean annual temperature could positively have affectedtree growth in the last few decades. However, this effect is expected to be soon limited by wateravailability.

  19. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally recognized that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the relation between root length distributions from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst, silver fir (Abies alba Miller, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern Pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2 and recorded water content variations with time domain reflectometry (TDR. A rivulet approach was applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally measured. The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile water in the horizontal plane are closely related to root densities. An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water content waves based on root densities and identified a range of root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and infiltration capacity. These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots in stagnic soils represent the pore system that carries preferential infiltration. Thus, the presence of roots should improve infiltration.

  20. Plant development scores from fixed-date photographs: the influence of weather variables and recorder experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, T. H.; Huber, K.; Croxton, P. J.

    2006-05-01

    In 1944, John Willis produced a summary of his meticulous record keeping of weather and plants over the 30 years 1913 1942. This publication contains fixed-date, fixed-subject photography taken on the 1st of each month from January to May, using as subjects snowdrop Galanthus nivalis, daffodil Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum and beech Fagus sylvatica. We asked 38 colleagues to assess rapidly the plant development in each of these photographs according to a supplied five-point score. The mean scores from this exercise were assessed in relation to mean monthly weather variables preceding the date of the photograph and the consistency of scoring was examined according to the experience of the recorders. Plant development was more strongly correlated with mean temperature than with minimum or maximum temperatures or sunshine. No significant correlations with rainfall were detected. Whilst mean scores were very similar, botanists were more consistent in their scoring of developmental stages than non-botanists. However, there was no overall pattern for senior staff to be more consistent in scoring than junior staff. These results suggest that scoring of plant development stages on fixed dates could be a viable method of assessing the progress of the season. We discuss whether such recording could be more efficient than traditional phenology, especially in those sites that are not visited regularly and hence are less amenable to frequent or continuous observation to assess when a plant reaches a particular growth stage.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal identification in environmental samples of tree roots by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica ePena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Roots of forest trees are associated with various ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species that are involved in nutrient exchange between host plant and the soil compartment. The identification of ECM fungi in small environmental samples is difficult. The present study tested the feasibility of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA to discriminate in situ collected ECM fungal species. Root tips colonized by distinct ECM fungal species, i.e., Amanita rubescens, Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Xerocomus pruinatus were collected in mono-specific beech (Fagus sylvatica and mixed deciduous forests in different geographic areas to investigate the environmental variability of the ECM FTIR signatures.A clear HCA discrimination was obtained for ECM fungal species independent of individual provenance. Environmental variability neither limited the discrimination between fungal species nor provided sufficient resolution to discern species sub-clusters for different sites. However, the de-convoluted FTIR spectra contained site-related spectral information for fungi with wide nutrient ranges, but not for Lactarius subdulcis, a fungus residing only in the litter layer. Specific markers for distinct ECM were identified in spectral regions associated with carbohydrates (i.e. mannans, lipids, and secondary protein structures. The present results support that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis is a reliable and fast method to identify ECM fungal species in minute environmental samples. Moreover, our data suggest that the FTIR spectral signatures contain information on physiological and functional traits of ECM fungi.

  2. Sapflow+: a four-needle heat-pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    • To our knowledge, to date, no nonempirical method exists to measure reverse, low or high sap flux density. Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree, but also neglecting seasonal variability in sapwood water content. • Here, we present a nonempirical heat-pulse-based method and coupled sensor which measure temperature changes around a linear heater in both axial and tangential directions after application of a heat pulse. By fitting the correct heat conduction-convection equation to the measured temperature profiles, the heat velocity and water content of the sapwood can be determined. • An identifiability analysis and validation tests on artificial and real stem segments of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) confirm the applicability of the method, leading to accurate determinations of heat velocity, water content and hence sap flux density. • The proposed method enables sap flux density measurements to be made across the entire natural occurring sap flux density range of woody plants. Moreover, the water content during low flows can be determined accurately, enabling a correct conversion from heat velocity to sap flux density without destructive core measurements.

  3. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lange

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that roots have an effect on infiltration. In this study we analysed the influence of tree roots from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst, silver fir (Abies alba Miller and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the northern pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation experiments (1 m2 and recorded water content variations with time domain reflectrometry (TDR. A rivulet approach was applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally measured. The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile water in the horizontal plane are closely related to fine root densities. An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water content waves based on fine root densities and identified a range of root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and infiltration capacity. These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots improve soil structure and thus infiltration.

  4. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  5. Trace element contamination in Slovakian part of Carpathian mountains studied by moss monitoring and foliar analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of terrestrial mosses as biomonitors in large-scale-multielement studies of heavy metal deposition from the atmosphere is a well established technique in Europe. In such studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to distinguish different source categories. A combination of INAA and AAS has been found very useful in this respect, in particular when epithermal activation is used for instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 44 elements in Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens moss samples from the Slovakian part of Carpathian Mts. and a background area in Central Norway were identified. The highest concentrations of the majority of trace elements were found in mosses growing in the second European Black Triangle (Poland - Czech-Slovak border) and hot spots Central Spis in Slovakia. These results are in conformity with the load of trace elements in the foliage of white fir (abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 5 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni, and Ti in all studied localities. Anthropogenic and geogenic influences are being discussed on the basis of the results. Warimax rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas

  6. Forest trees filter chronic wind-signals to acclimate to high winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesoeur, Vivien; Constant, Thiéry; Moulia, Bruno; Fournier, Meriem

    2016-05-01

    Controlled experiments have shown that trees acclimate thigmomorphogenetically to wind-loads by sensing their deformation (strain). However, the strain regime in nature is exposed to a full spectrum of winds. We hypothesized that trees avoid overreacting by responding only to winds which bring information on local climate and/or wind exposure. Additionally, competition for light dependent on tree social status also likely affects thigmomorphogenesis. We monitored and manipulated quantitatively the strain regimes of 15 pairs of beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees of contrasting social status in an acclimated stand, and quantified the effects of these regimes on the radial growth over a vegetative season. Trees exposed to artificial bending, the intensity of which corresponds to the strongest wind-induced strains, enhanced their secondary growth by at least 80%. Surprisingly, this reaction was even greater - relatively - for suppressed trees than for dominant ones. Acclimated trees did not sense the different types of wind events in the same way. Daily wind speed peaks due to thermal winds were filtered out. Thigmomorphogenesis was therefore driven by intense storms. Thigmomorphogenesis is also likely to be involved in determining social status.

  7. Forestry in times of climatic change. From adaptation to climate protection; Forstwirtschaft in Zeiten des Klimawandels. Von Anpassung bis Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The notification 30/2010 of the Thuringian State Institute for Forest, Hunting and Fishing (Gotha, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the forest management in times of the climatic changes. This notification consists of the following contributions: (1) Perception of the climatic change by private forest owners - A social-scientific investigation (Stefanie Rimkus); (2) Fundamentals for the designation of the inventory destination types adapted to climatic change for Thuringia (Nico Frischbier); (3) Recommendations of tree species adapted to climatic change for the forestry practice in Thuringia (Wolfgang Arenhoevel); (4) Development of carbon storage in the state-owned forest Thuringia (Thomas Wutzler); (5) The carbon inventories in copper beech forests (Fagus Sylvatica L.) under the influence of different silvicultural treatment (Martina Mund); (6) Wood products for the climate protection - The state of the art in Thuringia (Ingolf Profft); (7) HABIT-CHANGE - 'Adaptive management of climate-induced changes of habitat diversity in protected areas' (Nico Frischbier); (8) Cultivation experiences of non-indigenous tree species (Wolfgang Ahrenhoevel); (9) Registration of damages of the storm 'Xynthia' in the forestry office Bad Salzungen by means of ANDROMEDA {sup registered} data (Herbert Sagischewski); (10) www.waldundklima.net - The open internet portal on forest, wood and climate (Ingolf Profft).

  8. High-resolution isotope measurements resolve rapid ecohydrological dynamics at the soil-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Till H M; Haberer, Kristine; Gessler, Arthur; Weiler, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Plants rely primarily on rainfall infiltrating their root zones - a supply that is inherently variable, and fluctuations are predicted to increase on most of the Earth's surface. Yet, interrelationships between water availability and plant use on short timescales are difficult to quantify and remain poorly understood. To overcome previous methodological limitations, we coupled high-resolution in situ observations of stable isotopes in soil and transpiration water. We applied the approach along with Bayesian mixing modeling to track the fate of (2) H-labeled rain pulses following drought through soil and plants of deciduous tree ecosystems. We resolve how rainwater infiltrates the root zones in a nonequilibrium process and show that tree species differ in their ability to quickly acquire the newly available source. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) adjusted root uptake to vertical water availability patterns under drought, but readjustment toward the rewetted topsoil was delayed. By contrast, European beech (Fagus sylvatica) readily utilized water from all soil depths independent of water depletion, enabling faster uptake of rainwater. Our results demonstrate that species-specific plasticity and responses to water supply fluctuations on short timescales can now be identified and must be considered to predict vegetation functional dynamics and water cycling under current and future climatic conditions.

  9. Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Longyan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Dai, Shaojun

    2013-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and α-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination. PMID:23986916

  10. Tree-Ring Chronology of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur and its Potential for Development of Dendrochronological Research in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Čufar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the local tree-ring chronology of pedunculate oak (Qercus robur from Kobiljak near Zagreb, Croatia (16º09’ E, 45º49’ N, 140 m a.s.l.. The chronology is based on 17 trees and is 127 years long and covers the period of 1883-2009. The well replicated part of the residual version of the ARSTAN chronology with SSS>0.80 (interval of 88 years, period 1922-2009 was used for dendroclimatological analysis, which showed that June precipitation has positive and temperature has negative effect on tree-ring variation. Comparison with 40 available oak chronologies from the surrounding countries confi rmed its good teleconnection with 2 local oak chronologies from Austria, 2 from Hungary, and 3 from Slovenia. It also exhibits good heteroconnection, i.e. similarity with chronologies of beech (Fagus sylvatica, from various sites in Slovenia. The similarities can be ascribed to response to common climatic factors. The results indicate that the chronology could be a good reference point for constructing a longer regional chronology in Croatia and surrounding countries, which could be used for different purposes including dating of objects of cultural heritage.

  11. Combining sap flow and eddy covariance approaches to derive stomatal and non-stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes in a forest stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunn, A.J. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising- Weihenstephan (Germany); Cieslik, S. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy); Metzger, U. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising- Weihenstephan (Germany); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Dept. of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A - 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Matyssek, R., E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising- Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes to a mixed beech/spruce stand (Fagus sylvatica/Picea abies) in Central Europe were determined using two different approaches. The sap flow technique yielded the tree-level transpiration, whereas the eddy covariance method provided the stand-level evapotranspiration. Both data were then converted into stomatal ozone fluxes, exemplifying this novel concept for July 2007. Sap flow-based stomatal O{sub 3} flux was 33% of the total O{sub 3} flux, whereas derivation from evapotranspiration rates in combination with the Penman-Monteith algorithm amounted to 47%. In addition to this proportional difference, the sap flow-based assessment yielded lower levels of stomatal O{sub 3} flux and reflected stomatal regulation rather than O{sub 3} exposure, paralleling the daily courses of canopy conductance for water vapor and eddy covariance-based total stand-level O{sub 3} flux. The demonstrated combination of sap flow and eddy covariance approaches supports the development of O{sub 3} risk assessment in forests from O{sub 3} exposure towards flux-based concepts. - Combined tree sap flow and eddy covariance-based methodologies yield stomatal O{sub 3} flux as 33% in total stand flux.

  12. Seasonal variations in terpene emission factors of dominant species in four ecosystems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep; Guenther, Alex; Rapparini, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    We studied the daily patterns in the rates of foliar terpene emissions by four typical species from the Mediterranean region in two days of early spring and two days of summer in 4 localities of increasing biomass cover in Northern Spain. The species studied were Thymelaea tinctoria (in Monegros), Quercus coccifera (in Garraf), Quercus ilex (in Prades) and Fagus sylvatica (in Montseny). Of the total 43 VOCs detected, 23 were monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes and 15 were not terpenes. Sesquiterpenes were the main terpenes emitted from T. tinctoria. Total VOC emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring. The maximum rates of emission were recorded around midday. Emissions nearly stopped in the dark. No significant differences were found for nocturnal total terpene emission rates between places and seasons. The seasonal variations in the rate of terpene emissions and in their chemical composition can be explained mainly by dramatic changes in emission factors (emission capacity) associated in some cases, such as for beech trees, with very different foliar ontogenical characteristics between spring and summer. The results show that temperature and light-standardised emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring, which, corroborating other works, calls to attention when applying the same emission factor in modelling throughout the different seasons of the year.

  13. Viscoelastic properties of wood across the grain measured under water-saturated conditions up to 135\\degree C: evidence of thermal degradation

    CERN Document Server

    Placet, Vincent; Perré, Patrick; 10.1007/s10853-008-2546-9

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic properties of wood under water-saturated conditions are investigated from 10\\degree C to 135\\degree C using the WAVET* apparatus. Experiments were performed via harmonic tests at two frequencies (0.1 Hz and 1 Hz) for several hours. Four species of wood were tested in the radial and tangential material directions: oak (Quercus sessiliflora), beech (Fagus sylvatica), spruce (Picea abies) and fir (Abies pectinata). When the treatment is applied for several hours, a reduction of the wood rigidity is significant from temperature values as low as 80-90\\degree C, and increases rapidly with the temperature level. The storage modulus of oak wood is divided by a factor two after three hours of exposure at 135\\degree C. This marked reduction in rigidity is attributed to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. The softening temperature of wood is also noticeably affected by hygrothermal treatment. After three short successive treatments up to 135\\degree C, the softening temperature of oak shifte...

  14. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  15. The effect of single-tree selction system on soil properties in an oriental beech stand of Hyrcanian forest, north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kambiz Abrari Vajari; Hamid Jalilvand; Mohammad Reza Pourmajidian; Kambiz Espahbodi; Alireza Moshki

    2011-01-01

    A case study was conducted in beech forests of northern Iran to determine the effect of the created gaps on some soil properties in beech stand.Changes of soil properties in small (60-150 m2),medium (151-241 m2),large (242-332 m2) and very large (333-550 m2) gaps,as well as under closed stands were studied eight years after·the gap creation.Soil samples were taken from three depths,0-10,10-20 and 20-30 cm.The gaps were different from their around undisturbed stands in terms of the following soil parameters:Mg+2 concentration of 0-10 cm at medium gap size,bulk density of 10-20 cm at very large gap size as well as K+ and Ca+2 concentrations at 20-30 cm at small and large gap sizes,respectively.Furthermore,the size of the gaps had no effect on soil characteristics through the whole profile.Water saturation percent (Sp %) at 0-10cm as well as P and Mg+2 at 20-30 cm was different amongst undisturbed stands around different gap sizes.The center and the edges of the gap were different only in terms of organic carbon at the depth of 10-20 cm.Significant differences were observed between gaps and closed canopy regarding P and Ca+2 at depth 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm,respectively.It can be concluded that applied silvicultural system for harvesting trees which created these gaps might be suitable for conservation and forest management in the region.

  16. A multi-layer, closed-loop system for continuous measurement of soil CO2 concentrations and its isotopic signature applied in a beech and a pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochheim, Hubert; Wirth, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    We present a setup of measurement devices that allows the application of the soil CO2 gradient approach for CO2 efflux calculation in combination with the analysis of isotopic signature (δ13C). Vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations in air-filled pores of soil were measured using miniature NDIR sensors within a 16-channel closed-loop system where equilibrium with soil air can be achieved using hydrophobic, gas-permeable porous polypropylene tubes circulating gas using peristaltic pumps. A 16-position multiplexer allows the connection to an isotopic CO2 analyser. This setup was applied at two ICP Forest intensive monitoring sites, a beech and a pine forest on sandy soils located in Brandenburg, Germany. CO2 concentrations in air-filled pores of soils were measured on top of soil surface, below the humus layer, and in 10cm, 20cm, 30cm and 100 cm depths every 30 min. At both sites, soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously in the respective soil depths in identical time intervals. Isotopic signatures of soil CO2 was detected by measurement campaigns. After three years of measurements, our results provided evidence for distinct seasonal dynamics and vertical gradients of soil CO2 concentration and δ13C values. Varying impacts of soil temperature and moisture on CO2 concentration were revealed, highlighting its impact on soil physical and soil biological controls. Higher levels of CO2 concentration and a more distinct seasonal dynamics were detected at the beech site compared to the pine site. The collected data provide a suitable database for calculation of CO2 efflux and modelling of soil respiration.

  17. Răspunsul comparativ al fagului şi stejarului la secetă în Rezervaţia Naturală Codrii (R. Moldova [Comparative response of beech and oak to drought in Codrii Natural Reserve (R. Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ionel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is main climatic risk factor in Republic of Moldova with major effects on economic and ecologic level. Regional climatic models indicate for Moldova an increase of temperature and decrease of precipitation during the summer in the future decades. We evaluated the response of beech and oak to cumulative water deficit using SPEI index at different time scales. Results of climate-growth correlations indicate a higher sensitivity of beech to drought comparing with oak. Maximum correlation for beech is observed at 18-20 month SPEI scale (0.60 and for oak at time scale of 12-18 month, but lower (0.45. Earlywood growth index of oak are low correlated with SPEI. Oak, a more tolerant drought species, is more adapted compared with beech under the forescasted climatic changes in this region.

  18. Substrate influences ecophysiological performance of tree seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, Gisela; Hietz, Peter; Delaney, Christina M; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Unfavourable soil conditions frequently limit tree regeneration in mountain forests on calcareous bedrock. Rocky, shallow organic soils on dolomite pose a particular problem for tree regeneration due to commonly restricted water and nutrient supplies. Moreover, an often dense layer of understorey vegetation competes for the limited resources available. Hence, an array of interacting factors impairs tree seedlings' performance on dolomite, but there is little information on the ecophysiological mechanisms. We studied the effects of substrate, competing vegetation and foliar nutrient concentrations on the photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potentials (ψ) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and larch (Larix decidua Mill.) under controlled (well-watered/drought-stressed) conditions and under prevailing field conditions. While A and gs of well-watered spruce in the pot experiment were reduced by the mineral substrate, the organic dolomite substrate with dense competing vegetation reduced gs and ψ of sycamore, spruce and larch under drought-stressed conditions in the field. For sycamore and spruce, A and gs were strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) concentrations in the pot experiment. In contrast, soil water primarily affected beech and larch. Finally, dense competing vegetation negatively affected A and gs of spruce and A of larch on dolomite. Our results highlight the critical role of N, K and water availability for tree seedlings in shallow soils on calcareous bedrock. On these sites, natural tree regeneration is at particular risk from episodic drought, a likely consequence of climate change.

  19. Forests under climate change: potential risks and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Lasch-Born

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will affect forests in Germany through the end of this century. The impacts of climate change on forest productivity, water budget and the associated biotic and abiotic risks are relevant for the forestry sector and its decision makers. We analysed the possible impacts of climate change on Germany’s forests using a variety of climate scenarios generated with the regional statistical climate model STARS and the process-based forest growth model 4C. The focus of our analyses was on mono-specific stands of the main tree species Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst., Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., oak (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl., and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. The impacts on net primary production of forest stands are mainly positive for needle tree species and more negative at low elevation, water-limited sites for broadleaved tree species like beech, which is in contrast to the overall tendency of deterioration of the annual percolation rates independent of tree species. The application of a fire danger index and a nun moth risk species index according to Zwölfer indicates that Germany’s forests will experience, under the warmer and dryer climate described by RCP8.5, higher potential risks from fire and some specific pest species. An integrated evaluation reflecting the potentials and risks of forests under RCP8.5 for the German natural regions illustrates that the dryer (water-limited low elevated regions reaching from southwestern to northeastern Germany will benefit less from the assumed climate change than regions in the Northwest and forest sites at higher altitudes, which are mainly temperature limited.

  20. Substrate influences ecophysiological performance of tree seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, Gisela; Hietz, Peter; Delaney, Christina M; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Unfavourable soil conditions frequently limit tree regeneration in mountain forests on calcareous bedrock. Rocky, shallow organic soils on dolomite pose a particular problem for tree regeneration due to commonly restricted water and nutrient supplies. Moreover, an often dense layer of understorey vegetation competes for the limited resources available. Hence, an array of interacting factors impairs tree seedlings' performance on dolomite, but there is little information on the ecophysiological mechanisms. We studied the effects of substrate, competing vegetation and foliar nutrient concentrations on the photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potentials (ψ) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and larch (Larix decidua Mill.) under controlled (well-watered/drought-stressed) conditions and under prevailing field conditions. While A and gs of well-watered spruce in the pot experiment were reduced by the mineral substrate, the organic dolomite substrate with dense competing vegetation reduced gs and ψ of sycamore, spruce and larch under drought-stressed conditions in the field. For sycamore and spruce, A and gs were strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) concentrations in the pot experiment. In contrast, soil water primarily affected beech and larch. Finally, dense competing vegetation negatively affected A and gs of spruce and A of larch on dolomite. Our results highlight the critical role of N, K and water availability for tree seedlings in shallow soils on calcareous bedrock. On these sites, natural tree regeneration is at particular risk from episodic drought, a likely consequence of climate change. PMID:26446268

  1. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  2. Pure stands of temperate forest tree species modify soil respiration and N turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brüggemann

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five different tree species common in the temperate zone, i.e. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L., Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst, Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis [Sichold and Zucc.] Gordon and mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra, on soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates were investigated. Soils were sampled in spring and summer 2002 at a forest trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, where pure stands of the five tree species of the same age were growing on the same soil. Soil respiration, gross rates of N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in the organic layers than in the Ah horizons for all tree species and both sampling dates. In summer (July, the highest rates of soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification were found in the organic layer under spruce, followed by beech > larch > oak > pine. In spring (April, these rates were also higher under spruce compared to the other tree species, but were significantly lower than in summer. For the Ah horizons no clear seasonal trend was observed for any of the processes examined. A linear relationship between soil respiration and gross N mineralization (r2=0.77, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates (r2=0.72, and between soil respiration and gross nitrification (r2=0.81 was found. The results obtained underline the importance of considering the effect of forest type on soil C and N transformations.

  3. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Nowakiewicz; Przemysław Zięba; Grażyna Ziółkowska; Sebastian Gnat; Marta Muszyńska; Krzysztof Tomczuk; Barbara Majer Dziedzic; Łukasz Ulbrych; Aleksandra Trościańczyk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonell...

  4. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  5. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  6. Metatranscriptomics reveals the diversity of genes expressed by eukaryotes in forest soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Damon

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic organisms play essential roles in the biology and fertility of soils. For example the micro and mesofauna contribute to the fragmentation and homogenization of plant organic matter, while its hydrolysis is primarily performed by the fungi. To get a global picture of the activities carried out by soil eukaryotes we sequenced 2×10,000 cDNAs synthesized from polyadenylated mRNA directly extracted from soils sampled in beech (Fagus sylvatica and spruce (Picea abies forests. Taxonomic affiliation of both cDNAs and 18S rRNA sequences showed a dominance of sequences from fungi (up to 60% and metazoans while protists represented less than 12% of the 18S rRNA sequences. Sixty percent of cDNA sequences from beech forest soil and 52% from spruce forest soil had no homologs in the GenBank/EMBL/DDJB protein database. A Gene Ontology term was attributed to 39% and 31.5% of the spruce and beech soil sequences respectively. Altogether 2076 sequences were putative homologs to different enzyme classes participating to 129 KEGG pathways among which several were implicated in the utilisation of soil nutrients such as nitrogen (ammonium, amino acids, oligopeptides, sugars, phosphates and sulfate. Specific annotation of plant cell wall degrading enzymes identified enzymes active on major polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, lignin and glycoside hydrolases represented 0.5% (beech soil-0.8% (spruce soil of the cDNAs. Other sequences coding enzymes active on organic matter (extracellular proteases, lipases, a phytase, P450 monooxygenases were identified, thus underlining the biotechnological potential of eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. The phylogenetic affiliation of 12 full-length carbohydrate active enzymes showed that most of them were distantly related to sequences from known fungi. For example, a putative GH45 endocellulase was closely associated to molluscan sequences, while a GH7 cellobiohydrolase was closest to crustacean sequences, thus

  7. 百山祖亮叶水青冈种群结构和分布格局%Population structure and distribution of Fagus lucida in the Baishanzu forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小荣; 李乐; 夏家天; 杨旭; 王伟; 丁炳扬

    2012-01-01

    To study the structure and population dynamics of Fagus lucida, as well as its distribution pattern, the study was carried out in a 5 hm2 permanent plot established in the north slope of Baishanzu Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province. Size structure and index of assembling intensity (K) were analyzed. Results at four teen growth stages, based on diameter at bright height (DBH), showed that stages 1 and 2 comprised only 4% of all individuals, stages 4 to 9 made up 80%, and stages 10 to 13 accounts for 13%. Also, K for small trees (1.0 cm≤SDBH<7.5 cm) was 0.588, for seedlings (DBH<1 cm) it was 0.029, for middle-sized trees (7.5 cm≤ DBH<22.5 cm) it was 0.143, and for large trees (DBH≥22.5 cm) it was 0.169. Thus, Fagus lucida population structure was a spindle-type with the population declining due to lack of seedlings; whereas K revealed that spatial distribution was random for small trees but clumped for seedlings, middle-sized trees, and large trees, as a result decided mainly by interactions of biological and ecological properties like the inter-competi tion and density limitation, as well as environmental factors like drought and storm.%为阐明百山祖亮叶水青冈Fagus lucida的种群结构与格局的形成原因,掌握种群数量动态及发展趋势,在百山祖北坡建立1个5 hm2 (250 m×200 m)固定样地,将样地划分成2000个5m×5m的小样方进行调查,获得野外资料.对亮叶水青冈种群进行统计,绘制径级结构图,发现立木级1级和2级所占比例仅为4%,第4~9级处于峰值,表明种群内成熟个体数量所占比例最大(80%),种群处于成熟阶段,第10~14级则属于衰退级别,它们所占的比例并不大(13%);应用聚集强度指数(K)进行种群分布格局分析,亮叶水青冈除在小树期K=0.588较大外,其余K值在幼苗、中树,大树期分别为0.029,0.588,0.169,均较小.结果表明:亮叶水青冈种群结构呈纺锤型,幼苗严重不足,种群有衰退的趋势;幼苗

  8. Climatic Triggers of Extremes in Daily Beech, Oak and Pine Stem Diameter Growth and Shrinkage in Northeastern Germany: An Event Coincidence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Jonatan; Sanders, Tanja; Heinrich, Ingo; Helle, Gerd; Donner, Reik

    2016-04-01

    Observed recent and expected future increases in frequency and intensity of climatic extremes in central Europe may pose critical challenges for domestic tree species. Continuous dendrometer recordings provide a valuable source of information on tree stem diameter growth and shrinkage, offering the possibility to study a tree's response to environmental influences at a high temporal resolution. In this study, we analyze stem diameter variations of three domestic tree species (beech, oak and pine) from 2012-2014. We use the novel statistical approach of event coincidence analysis (ECA) to investigate the simultaneous occurrence of extreme daily weather conditions and extreme daily stem variations, using a 60-days sliding window analysis covering the full growth period of each year. Besides defining extreme events based on individual meteorological variables, we test 105 different combinations of variables regarding their impact on tree growth and shrinkage, postulating conditional event coincidence analysis as a new extension of the original methodology. Our results reveal a strong susceptibility of all three species to extremes in several meteorological variables. Yet, the intra-species differences are comparatively low. The obtained results provide a thorough extension of previous correlation-based studies by emphasizing on the timings of climatic extremes only.We suggest that the employed methodological approach should be further promoted in forest research regarding the investigation of tree responses to changing environmental conditions.

  9. Belowground carbon allocation by trees drives seasonal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities by altering microbial community composition in a beech forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Schnecker, Jörg; Schweiger, Peter; Rasche, Frank; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sessitsch, Angela; Richter, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    *Plant seasonal cycles alter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability for soil microbes, which may affect microbial community composition and thus feed back on microbial decomposition of soil organic material and plant N availability. The temporal dynamics of these plant-soil interactions are, however, unclear. *Here, we experimentally manipulated the C and N availability in a beech forest through N fertilization or tree girdling and conducted a detailed analysis of the seasonal pattern of microbial community composition and decomposition processes over 2 yr. *We found a strong relationship between microbial community composition and enzyme activities over the seasonal course. Phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities were highest during late summer, whereas cellulase and protease peaked in late autumn. Girdling, and thus loss of mycorrhiza, resulted in an increase in soil organic matter-degrading enzymes and a decrease in cellulase and protease activity. *Temporal changes in enzyme activities suggest a switch of the main substrate for decomposition between summer (soil organic matter) and autumn (plant litter). Our results indicate that ectomycorrhizal fungi are possibly involved in autumn cellulase and protease activity. Our study shows that, through belowground C allocation, trees significantly alter soil microbial communities, which may affect seasonal patterns of decomposition processes.

  10. Meteorological Drivers of Extremes in Daily Stem Radius Variations of Beech, Oak, and Pine in Northeastern Germany: An Event Coincidence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Jonatan F; Sanders, Tanja G M; Heinrich, Ingo; van der Maaten, Ernst; Simard, Sonia; Helle, Gerhard; Donner, Reik V

    2016-01-01

    Observed recent and expected future increases in frequency and intensity of climatic extremes in central Europe may pose critical challenges for domestic tree species. Continuous dendrometer recordings provide a valuable source of information on tree stem radius variations, offering the possibility to study a tree's response to environmental influences at a high temporal resolution. In this study, we analyze stem radius variations (SRV) of three domestic tree species (beech, oak, and pine) from 2012 to 2014. We use the novel statistical approach of event coincidence analysis (ECA) to investigate the simultaneous occurrence of extreme daily weather conditions and extreme SRVs, where extremes are defined with respect to the common values at a given phase of the annual growth period. Besides defining extreme events based on individual meteorological variables, we additionally introduce conditional and joint ECA as new multivariate extensions of the original methodology and apply them for testing 105 different combinations of variables regarding their impact on SRV extremes. Our results reveal a strong susceptibility of all three species to the extremes of several meteorological variables. Yet, the inter-species differences regarding their response to the meteorological extremes are comparatively low. The obtained results provide a thorough extension of previous correlation-based studies by emphasizing on the timings of climatic extremes only. We suggest that the employed methodological approach should be further promoted in forest research regarding the investigation of tree responses to changing environmental conditions. PMID:27375625

  11. Meteorological Drivers of Extremes in Daily Stem Radius Variations of Beech, Oak and Pine in Northeastern Germany: An Event Coincidence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Frederik Siegmund

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Observed recent and expected future increases in frequency and intensity of climatic extremes in central Europe may pose critical challenges for domestic tree species. Continuous dendrometer recordings provide a valuable source of information on tree stem diameter or radius variations, offering the possibility to study a tree's response to environmental influences at a high temporal resolution. In this study, we analyze stem radius variations (SRV of three domestic tree species (beech, oak and pine from 2012 to 2014. We use the novel statistical approach of event coincidence analysis (ECA to investigate the simultaneous occurrence of extreme daily weather conditions and extreme SRVs, where extremes are defined with respect to the common values at a given phase of the annual growth period. Besides defining extreme events based on individual meteorological variables, we additionally introduce conditional and joint ECA as new multivariate extensions of the original methodology and apply them for testing 105 different combinations of variables regarding their impact on SRV extremes. Our results reveal a strong susceptibility of all three species to the extremes of several meteorological variables. Yet, the inter-species differences regarding their response to the meteorological extremes are comparatively low. The obtained results provide a thorough extension of previous correlation-based studies by emphasizing on the timings of climatic extremes only. We suggest that the employed methodological approach should be further promoted in forest research regarding the investigation of tree responses to changing environmental conditions.

  12. Millipede and centipede (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda assemblages in secondary succession: variance and abundance in Western German beech and coniferous forests as compared to fallow ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schreiner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Successional processes are an important element of commercial-forest ecosystems. They can be followed by studying the species composition of various animal groups, e.g. millipedes. Over the vegetation periods 2009 and 2010, we pitfall-trapped millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda on 21 Western German (North Rhine-Westphalian deciduous and coniferous forest as well as fallow-ground sites of increasing age (1–165 yr and determined them to the species and sex. Diplopoda (2009: 1659/2010: 3417 individuals outnumbered the trapped Chilopoda (2009: 37/2010: 111 individuals by far while the general catching results approximately doubled from 2009 to 2010. Indirect gradient analysis (CA revealed that the influence of the habitat type on the formation of diplopod assemblages exceeded the influence of the successional stage. Although no clear trend in individual-count development over time occurred in most species detected, Julus scandinavius (Latzel, 1884 significantly increased in numbers with ageing of the deciduous (beech forests. In conclusion, J. scandinavius may be a suitable bioindicator of deciduous-forest succession. More data are necessary to transfer our results into a mathematical function describing the course of increasing J. scandinavius abundance.

  13. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... *Camellia spp. Camellia—all species, hybrids and cultivars *Castanea sativa Sweet chestnut Fagus sylvatica... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum § 301.92-2 Restricted, regulated, and associated articles... present a risk of spreading Phytophthora ramorum, if an inspector notifies the person in possession of...

  14. Spatial interactions between ungulate herbivory and forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    The SE-Veluwe is a forested area in The Netherlands consisting mainly of Pinus and heathlands and includes mono- and mixed species stands of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Betula pubescens and B. pendens. In this area, forest managers differ in manage

  15. Taxonomical notes on macrofungi in roadside verges planted with trees in Drenthe (The Netherlands) — I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Peter-Jan; Arnolds, Eef

    1994-01-01

    In this study descriptions, drawings and observations are presented of rare, critical or less well-known macromycetes that were encountered during mycocoenological investigations carried out in roadside verges planted with Quercus robur L. (53 plots) or Fagus sylvatica L. (23 plots). In this first p

  16. The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: I. Soil water changes below beech woodland and grass on chalk sites in Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of broadleaved woodland on recharge to the UK Chalk aquifer have led to a study of evaporation and transpiration from beech woodland (Black Wood and pasture (Bridgets Farm, growing in shallow soils above chalk in Hampshire. Eddy correlation measurements of energy balance components above both the forest and the grassland enabled calculation of latent heat flux (evaporation and transpiration as a residual. Comparative measurements of soil water content and soil water potential in 9 m profiles under both forest and grassland found changes in soil water content down to 6 m at both sites; however, the soil water potential measurements showed upward movement of water only above a depth of about 2 m. Below this depth, water continued to drain and the soil water potential measurements showed downward movement of water at both sites, notwithstanding significant negative soil water potentials in the chalk and soil above. Seasonal differences occur in the soil water content profiles under broadleaved woodland and grass. Before the woodland foliage emerges, greater drying beneath the grassland is offset in late spring and early summer by increased drying under the forest. Yet, when the change in soil water profiles is at a maximum, in late summer, the profiles below woodland and grass are very similar. A comparison of soil water balances for Black Wood and Bridgets Farm using changes in soil water contents, local rainfall and evaporation measured by the energy balance approach allowed drainage to be calculated at each site. Although seasonal differences occurred, the difference in cumulative drainage below broadleaved woodland and grass was small.

  17. Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Vacek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs (PRP 1—fenced enclosure and PRP 2—unfenced. Typological, soil, phytosociological and stand characteristics of the two PRPs are similar. The results showed that ungulate browsing is a limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The population of tree species of natural regeneration on the fenced plot (PRP 1 is sufficient in relation to the site and stand conditions. However, natural regeneration on PRP 2 is considerably limited by browsing. Damage is greatest to fir, sycamore maple and rowan; less severe to beech; and the least to spruce.

  18. Does the time of the sampling matter in 13C pulse labeling and chasing experiments? A case study on beech seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Karlowsky, Stefan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Calfapietra, Carlo; Gessler, Arthur; Brugnoli, Enrico; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    13C pulse labeling and chasing is a valuable and very popular tool for determination of the fate and turnover rates of C in plant-soil systems. Continuous isoflux measurements became an accessible reality allowing to cover completely the diurnal variation in label assimilation and respiration fluxes. Label turnover in multiple pools, especially of those located belowground, is more often assessed instead by isolated day-time samplings. By increasing the sampling frequency of belowground compartments we aimed to catch the short-term diurnal variations in label allocation and to link these processes with label dynamics in the aboveground biomass. For these purposes we labeled 3-m height soil-grown European beech seedlings with 13C enriched CO2 and traced the flow of 13C within belowground plant-soil continuum. Continuous soil isoflux measurements were accompanied by a 3-h-frequency sampling of root and soil material during the first 48 h, followed by a daily sampling in the successive 5 days. The amount of label found in microbial biomass depended partially on the amount of roots in the sample. Microbial biomass C (MBC) and microbial respiration showed very strong correlation, suggesting the possibility to use one as a proxy of the other. MBC enrichment showed a clear diurnal pattern with night-time and early morning peaks. These peaks were similar in shape and shifted by one sampling when compared to root sugars enrichment. Soil respiration showed instead a single bell-shape peak in 13C, likely due to a sequence of peaks of root and microbial origin. 13C flow into soil microbial functional groups was assessed less frequently through phospholipid fatty acid analyses (PLFA). The microorganisms were separated into two distinct groups by the time of the appearance of the label in the single PLFAs. The first group was characterized by a fast appearance of the label and higher enrichment and was composed of Gram negative bacteria and saprotrophic fungi likely living in

  19. Morphological and physiological damages of the mycorrhiza-root-system of the beech, due to soil contamination and possibilities of regeneration. Morphologische und physiologische Schaedigungen des Mykorrhiza-Wurzel-Systems bei der Buche als Folge von Bodenbelastungen und Moeglichkeiten der Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumann, H.G.; Hofmann, H.P.; Kubach, D.; Linert, U.

    1989-08-01

    Field and laboratory examinations were carried out in order to find out whether mycorrhizae of beeches are damaged by acid deposits or experimental changes of the substrate. The examined samples of mycorrhizae collected from areas of severely damaged beeches and from areas of undamaged beeches showed no significant correlation to the visible damage of trees in respect to frequency, vitality or structural organization. Laboratory experiments for artificial mycorrhizal formation of beech seedlings with Cenococcum geophilum in sloping plastic plate cultures and in a vermiculite/peat/sand substrate were successful. Metal treatments reduced shoot and root weights, whereby copper and nickel effected the mycorrhizal seedlings more than the non-mycorrhizal ones. Cytological examinations revealed that in the damaged plants cortical root cells are often destroyed by intracellular infections of C. geophilum. Our findings show that the positive effect of ectomycorrhizae on metal tolerance of trees cannot be generalized with respect to either metal, or fungal symbiont. (orig.) With 34 refs., 8 tabs., 62 figs.

  20. Effects of tree species, stand age and land-use change on soil carbon and nitrogen stock rates in northwestern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sariyildiz T; Savaci G; Kravkaz IS

    2016-01-01

    Effects of tree species, stand age and land-use change on soil carbon and nitrogen stock rates were investigated in the northwest of Turkey using 4 common tree species as black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Uludag fir (Abies nordmanniana ssp. bornmuelleriana). Three tree species (black pine, Scots pine and Oriental beech) were used to investigate the differences in soil C and N among tree species. Old and young Uluda...

  1. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may bemanaged under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps createdby consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotationage, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regular uneveaged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elementsin their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes inthe tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule and

  2. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may be managed under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps created by consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotation age, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regularuneven- aged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elements in their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes in the tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule

  3. Mapping genetic and phylogenetic diversity of a temperate forest using remote sensing based upscaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriba, C. G.; Yamasaki, E.; Leiterer, R.; Tedder, A.; Shimizu, K.; Morsdorf, F.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Functioning and resilience of forest ecosystems under environmental pressures increases when biodiversity at genetic, species, canopy and ecosystem level is higher. Therefore mapping and monitoring diversity becomes a necessity to assess changes in ecosystems and understanding their consequences. Diversity can be assessed by using different metrics, such as diversity of functional traits or genetic diversity amongst others. In-situ approaches have provided useful, but usually spatially constrained information, often dependent on expert knowledge. We propose using remote sensing in combination with in-situ sampling at different spatial scales. We map phylogenetic and genetic diversity using airborne imaging spectroscopy in combination with terrestrial and airborne laser scanning, as well as exhaustive in-situ sampling schemes. To this end, we propose to link leaf optical properties using a taxonomic approach (spectranomics) to genetic and phylogenetic diversity. The test site is a managed mixed temperate forest on the south-facing slope of Laegern Mountain, Switzerland (47°28'42.0" N, 8°21'51.8" E, 682 m.a.s.l.). The intensive sampling area is roughly 300m x 300m and dominant species are European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Ash (Fraxinus excelsior). We perform phylogenetic and intraspecific genetic variation analyses for the five most dominant tree species at the test site. For these species, information on functional biochemical and architectural plant traits diversity is retrieved from imaging spectroscopy and laser scanning data and validated with laboratory and in-situ measurements. To assess regional-scale genetic diversity, the phylogenetic and genetic signals are quantified using the remote sensing data, resulting in spatially distributed intra-specific genetic variation. We discuss the usefulness of combined remote sensing and in-situ sampling, to bridge diversity scales from genetic to canopy level.

  4. Dominant controls of transpiration along a hillslope transect inferred from ecohydrological measurements and thermodynamic limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Maik; Hassler, Sibylle K.; Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Hildebrandt, Anke; Guderle, Marcus; Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-05-01

    We combine ecohydrological observations of sap flow and soil moisture with thermodynamically constrained estimates of atmospheric evaporative demand to infer the dominant controls of forest transpiration in complex terrain. We hypothesize that daily variations in transpiration are dominated by variations in atmospheric demand, while site-specific controls, including limiting soil moisture, act on longer timescales. We test these hypotheses with data of a measurement setup consisting of five sites along a valley cross section in Luxembourg. Both hillslopes are covered by forest dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Two independent measurements are used to estimate stand transpiration: (i) sap flow and (ii) diurnal variations in soil moisture, which were used to estimate the daily root water uptake. Atmospheric evaporative demand is estimated through thermodynamically constrained evaporation, which only requires absorbed solar radiation and temperature as input data without any empirical parameters. Both transpiration estimates are strongly correlated to atmospheric demand at the daily timescale. We find that neither vapor pressure deficit nor wind speed add to the explained variance, supporting the idea that they are dependent variables on land-atmosphere exchange and the surface energy budget. Estimated stand transpiration was in a similar range at the north-facing and the south-facing hillslopes despite the different aspect and the largely different stand composition. We identified an inverse relationship between sap flux density and the site-average sapwood area per tree as estimated by the site forest inventories. This suggests that tree hydraulic adaptation can compensate for heterogeneous conditions. However, during dry summer periods differences in topographic factors and stand structure can cause spatially variable transpiration rates. We conclude that absorption of solar radiation at the surface forms a dominant control for turbulent heat and

  5. Estimating forest species abundance through linear unmixing of CHRIS/PROBA imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagakis, Stavros; Vanikiotis, Theofilos; Sykioti, Olga

    2016-09-01

    The advancing technology of hyperspectral remote sensing offers the opportunity of accurate land cover characterization of complex natural environments. In this study, a linear spectral unmixing algorithm that incorporates a novel hierarchical Bayesian approach (BI-ICE) was applied on two spatially and temporally adjacent CHRIS/PROBA images over a forest in North Pindos National Park (Epirus, Greece). The scope is to investigate the potential of this algorithm to discriminate two different forest species (i.e. beech - Fagus sylvatica, pine - Pinus nigra) and produce accurate species-specific abundance maps. The unmixing results were evaluated in uniformly distributed plots across the test site using measured fractions of each species derived by very high resolution aerial orthophotos. Landsat-8 images were also used to produce a conventional discrete-type classification map of the test site. This map was used to define the exact borders of the test site and compare the thematic information of the two mapping approaches (discrete vs abundance mapping). The required ground truth information, regarding training and validation of the applied mapping methodologies, was collected during a field campaign across the study site. Abundance estimates reached very good overall accuracy (R2 = 0.98, RMSE = 0.06). The most significant source of error in our results was due to the shadowing effects that were very intense in some areas of the test site due to the low solar elevation during CHRIS acquisitions. It is also demonstrated that the two mapping approaches are in accordance across pure and dense forest areas, but the conventional classification map fails to describe the natural spatial gradients of each species and the actual species mixture across the test site. Overall, the BI-ICE algorithm presented increased potential to unmix challenging objects with high spectral similarity, such as different vegetation species, under real and not optimum acquisition conditions. Its

  6. Technical Note: A combined soil/canopy chamber system for tracing δ13C in soil respiration after a 13CO2 canopy pulse labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Knohl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a combined soil/canopy chamber system that allows the investigation of carbon flow through the atmosphere-plant-soil system via a 13CO2 canopy labelling approach – especially when using short vegetation such as tree saplings. The developed chamber system clearly separates soil and canopy compartment in order to (a prevent physical diffusion of 13C tracer into the soil chamber during a 13CO2 canopy pulse labelling (b study stable isotope processes in soil and canopy individually and independently. In combination with novel laser spectrometry, measuring CO2 (Aerodyne Research Inc. and H2O (Los Gatos Research Inc. isotopologue mixing ratios at a rate of 1 Hz, we were able to trace the label transport from leaves to roots in small beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica L. without interference due to contamination of the soil matrix and/or canopy re-labelling via tracer returning from soil respiration. A very tight coupling between above- (photosynthesis and belowground (soil respiration processes was found, where newly assimilated carbon fixed from the 13CO2 atmosphere re-appeared in soil respiration 2 h after it has been photosynthetically fixed. We were able to demonstrate that leaf metabolism acts on substrate for soil respiration on a diurnal timescale, with input of fresh photosynthates during daytime and starch re-mobilisation during nighttime. Long-term fluctuations in the δ13C of soil respiration, as observed under reduced water availability, could not be described by any biological or instrumental mechanism, as they did occur in an atypical ca. 15 hourly rhythm – potential mechanisms driving these fluctuations are hypothesized.

  7. Effects of ozone on ecosystems -- ecosystem indicators of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innes, J.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Ozone has been recognized as an important cause of damage to crops since the 1950s. Damage to trees was first identified in the 1960s and is now known to be widespread in both North America and Europe. Most impact studies have emphasized the importance of determining growth losses attributable to ozone and as a result have concentrated on species of commercial importance. This is illustrated by the critical loads approach to ozone risk assessment in Europe, which is currently based on the AOT40 -- 10 ppmh threshold. At higher levels, it has been argued that a 10% growth reduction occurs in European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Such an approach suffers from a number of serious limitations, not least the widespread impacts on ecosystems that may occur at lower ozone exposures and the very poor quantitative basis for setting this threshold. In Europe, there has been increasing emphasis on the conservation and management of species without any direct economic importance. This has arisen from a growing environmental awareness of the general public. The trend has been accelerated by the perceived environmental benefits of the large amounts of land that has been taken out of agricultural production (as a result of the ``set-aside`` policy of the European Union) and the public concern about the ecological and environmental impacts of industrial forestry. In agricultural landscapes, hedgerow species and weed species are being looked at as important parts of the agricultural ecosystem. In particular, weed species are an important part of the food chain for the wildlife present in such ecosystems. In forests, much greater emphasis is being given to the authenticity of the forest ecosystems. Particular emphasis is being given to ecosystem management techniques such as continuous cover forestry and the furthering of natural regeneration.

  8. Influence of fine-scale habitat structure on nest-site occupancy, laying date and clutch size in Blue Tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; Vedder, Oscar; Schut, Elske; de Jong, Berber; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Korsten, Peter; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Most birds have specific habitat requirements for breeding. The vegetation structure surrounding nest-sites is an important component of habitat quality, and can have large effects on avian breeding performance. We studied 13 years of Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus population data to determine whether characteristics of vegetation structure predict site occupancy, laying date and number of eggs laid. Measurements of vegetation structure included the density of English Oak Quercus robur, European Beech Fagus sylvatica, and other deciduous, coniferous and non-coniferous evergreen trees, within a 20-m radius of nest-boxes used for breeding. Trees were further sub-divided into specific classes of trunk circumferences to determine the densities for different maturity levels. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we reduced the total number of 17 measured vegetation variables to 7 main categories, which we used for further analyses. We found that the occupancy rate of sites and the number of eggs laid correlated positively with the proportion of deciduous trees and negatively with the density of coniferous trees. Laying of the first egg was advanced with a greater proportion of deciduous trees. Among deciduous trees, the English Oak appeared to be most important, as a higher density of more mature English Oak trees was associated with more frequent nest-box occupancy, a larger number of eggs laid, and an earlier laying start. Furthermore, laying started earlier and more eggs were laid in nest-boxes with higher occupancy rates. Together, these findings highlight the role of deciduous trees, particularly more mature English Oak, as important predictors of high-quality preferred habitat. These results aid in defining habitat quality and will facilitate future studies on the importance of environmental quality for breeding performance.

  9. Small scale variability of transport and composition of dissolved organic matter in the subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinemann, Timo; Kalbitz, Karsten; Mikutta, Robert; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most mobile fraction of carbon in the soil and connects the carbon-rich topsoil with the subsoil where translocated OM may get stabilized. The water flux in soil is highly heterogeneous, both temporarily and spatially. We, therefore, hypothesize that at high flow velocities, DOM can bypass possible mineral binding sites and microorganisms, thus leading to less degraded DOM under high flow velocities. To address this question, we investigated water and DOM fluxes in situ using segmented suction plates (4 x 4 segments on 24 x 24 cm) installed into three soil observatories at three depths (10 cm, 50 cm, and 150 cm) in a Podzolic Cambisol under Beech (Fagus sylvatica) near Hannover, Germany. To follow the transport of carbon from the litter layer through the soil, an in situ 13C-labelling experiment has been conducted in January 2015. Concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DOM composition was analyzed using high temperature combustion and photometric methods. The amount of transported DOC decreased by ca. 80% from 10 to 50 cm depth and by 40% from 50 to 150 cm depth. Different flow patterns existed at the centimeter scale, which were stable over time for individual suction plate segments. The specific UV280 nm absorbance of DOM decreased with increasing soil depth. This indicates a selective loss of aromatic compounds. The influence of different flow regimes on the DOM quality became apparent in the subsoil samples (>50 cm depth) showing a correlation of increasing UV280 nm absorbance with increasing water flux. Together with juvenile DO14C up to 150 cm depth this can be an indication for the importance of preferential flow on carbon transport to subsoil.

  10. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  11. Air Pollution and Forest Health: Establishing Cause and Effect in the Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I participated in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Effects of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forests of the Carpathian Mountains,” in Stara Lesna, Slovakia from May 22–26, 2001. Researchers from Canada, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the U.S. met to present their results from a three-year cooperative study of tree health and air quality monitoring in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. Much of the work reported related to assessing the crown condition of trees in permanent plots in natural or managed (planted forests in the mountains. The endpoint was tree condition, with results extrapolated to the forests in the Carpathian range. From this I learned that, of the 50,000 trees evaluated, European beech (Fagus sylvatica was the most healthy, while Norway spruce (Picea abies (the principal forest tree and white fir (Abies alba sustained crown defoliation of up to 12.8%. The cause of this crown defoliation and tree decline was usually attributed to “air pollution” as a generic term and an automatic assumption. It is well known that deposition of heavy metals and acidic sulfur and nitrogen compounds can cause tree decline and predispose affected trees to bark beetles and climatic damage. Chemical analyses can also be done to detect metals and sulfur compounds in trees and soils. Sometimes these analyses were done, but most often the assumption was that crown defoliation was caused by air pollution. The assumption was that given sufficient exposure to high enough concentrations of toxic elements, sooner or later there will be a visible adverse response.

  12. Hydro-meteorological controls on the CO2 exchange variation in a mixed forest in the southern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottocornola, M.; Cavagna, M.; Zampedri, R.; Gianelle, D.

    2012-12-01

    We report about nine years (2003-2011) of eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes from the Lavarone mixed forest in the southern Italian Alps at 1350 m asl. This is a 110 years old humid forest, with an annual average air temperature of 7 °C and annual precipitation of about 1150 mm. The forest canopy peaks at around 32 m high and is dominated by fir (Abies alba), spruce (Picea abies) and some beech (Fagus sylvatica), with a LAI of about 9. A correlation coefficient analysis between the CO2 fluxes and hydro-meteorological variables measured at the same site indicates that the main drivers explaining the inter-annual variation in the CO2 fluxes are vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and precipitation, with higher CO2 uptake in more humid conditions. This result is partially surprising since Lavarone is a humid forest and in an ecosystem with high humidity, other drivers were expected to be more important than hydrological parameters. This suggests that the Lavarone forest has a very conservative strategy, closing the stomata as soon as humidity decreases just below an optimum threshold. The same analysis at a monthly time step indicates that during the growing season the Lavarone forest shows the same mechanisms as at the annual time step, stressing the role of VPD as an environmental driver, explaining both NEE and GEP. On the other hand, during the late winter and early spring, an higher CO2 sink is associated with higher air temperature and higher VPD. Among those studied, 2009 is an anomalous year, having experienced very high air temperatures and high and frequent precipitation, that triggered the highest GEP and highest net CO2 sink (lowest NEE). The climate change scenarios for the Alps agree about an increase of temperatures, but disagree on the future precipitation. If together with higher temperatures, the Alps will experience higher precipitation as well, the Lavarone and similar forest will likely increase their CO2 uptake.

  13. Impacts of age-dependent tree sensitivity and dating approaches on dendrogeomorphic time series of landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilhán, Karel; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Different approaches and thresholds have been utilized in the past to date landslides with growth ring series of disturbed trees. Past work was mostly based on conifer species because of their well-defined ring boundaries and the easy identification of compression wood after stem tilting. More recently, work has been expanded to include broad-leaved trees, which are thought to produce less and less evident reactions after landsliding. This contribution reviews recent progress made in dendrogeomorphic landslide analysis and introduces a new approach in which landslides are dated via ring eccentricity formed after tilting. We compare results of this new and the more conventional approaches. In addition, the paper also addresses tree sensitivity to landslide disturbance as a function of tree age and trunk diameter using 119 common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and 39 Crimean pine (Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana) trees growing on two landslide bodies. The landslide events reconstructed with the classical approach (reaction wood) also appear as events in the eccentricity analysis, but the inclusion of eccentricity clearly allowed for more (162%) landslides to be detected in the tree-ring series. With respect to tree sensitivity, conifers and broad-leaved trees show the strongest reactions to landslides at ages comprised between 40 and 60 years, with a second phase of increased sensitivity in P. nigra at ages of ca. 120-130 years. These phases of highest sensitivities correspond with trunk diameters at breast height of 6-8 and 18-22 cm, respectively (P. nigra). This study thus calls for the inclusion of eccentricity analyses in future landslide reconstructions as well as for the selection of trees belonging to different age and diameter classes to allow for a well-balanced and more complete reconstruction of past events.

  14. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed hardwoo

  15. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts in the forestry sector, especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where forests are vulnerable and sensitive to the increasing probability and severity of climatic extremes, especially to droughts. For providing information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options for the Carpathian basin, a GIS-supported Decision Support System is under development. This study focuses on the future tendencies of climate indicators that determine the distribution, growth, health status and production of forests as well as the potential pests and diseases. For the analyses the climate database of the Decision Support System has been applied, which contains daily time series for precipitation and temperature means and extremes as well as derived climate indices for 1961-2100. For the future time period, simulation results of 12 regional climate models are included (www.ensembles-eu.org) based on the A1B emission scenario. The main results can be summarized as follows: · The projected change of the climate indices (e.g. total number of hot days, frost days, dry days, consecutive dry periods) and forestry indices (e.g. Ellenberg climate quotient, Forestry aridity index; Tolerance index for beech) indicates the warming and drying of the growing season towards the end of the 21st century. These can have severe consequences on the ecosystem services of forests. · The climatic suitable area of the native tree species is projected to move northwards and upwards in the mountains, respectively. For beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) this shift would mean the drastic shrink of the distribution area in the analyzed region. · The characteristic climate conditions that are expected in the Carpathian basin in the second half of the century, are now located southeastern from the case study region. In this way, the potential future provenance regions can be determined. Results provide input for the climate

  16. Influence of catchment vegetation on mercury accumulation in lake sediments from a long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Johan; Rösch, Manfred; Heinz, Emanuel; Biester, Harald

    2015-12-15

    Organic matter (OM) cycling has a large impact on the cycling of mercury (Hg) in the environment. Hence, it is important to have a thorough understanding on how changes in, e.g., catchment vegetation - through its effect on OM cycling - affect the behavior of Hg. To test whether shifts in vegetation had an effect on Hg-transport to lakes we investigated a sediment record from Herrenwieser See (Southern Germany). This lake has a well-defined Holocene vegetation history: at ~8700years BP Corylus avellana (hazel) was replaced by Quercus robur (oak), which was replaced by Abies alba (fir) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) ~5700years BP). We were particularly interested in testing if coniferous vegetation leads to a larger export of Hg to aquatic systems than deciduous vegetation. When hazel was replaced by oak, reduced soil erosion and increased transport of DOM-bound mercury from the catchment resulted in increases in both Hg-concentrations and accumulation rates (61ngg(-1) and 5.5ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1) to 118ngg(-1) and 8.5ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1)). However, even if Hg-concentrations increased also in association with the introduction of fir and beech (173ngg(-1)), as a result of higher Hg:C, there was no increase in Hg-accumulation rates (7.6ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1)), because of a decreased input of OM. At around 2500years BP Hg-accumulation rates and Hg-concentration indicated an additional input of Hg to the sediment (316ngg(-1) and 10.3ngcm(-2)yr.(-)(1)), which might be due to increased human activities in the area, e.g., forest burning or mining. Our results contrast those of several paired-catchment studies that suggest a higher release of Hg from coniferous than deciduous forest, and there is a need for studies with a long-term perspective to increase our understanding of the effects of slow and gradual processes on mercury cycling. PMID:26363145

  17. Does the precipitation redistribution of the canopy sense in the moisture pattern of the forest litter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita; Kalicz, Péter; Csáfordi, Péter; Kucsara, Mihály; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation is trapped and temporarily stored by the surfaces of forest crown (canopy interception) and forest litter (litter interception). The stemflow and throughfall reach the litter, thus theoretically the litter moisture content depends on these parts of precipitation. Nowadays the moisture pattern of the forest floor, both spatial and temporal scale, have growing respect for the forestry. The transition to the continuous cover forestry induce much higher variability compared to the even aged, more-less homogeneous, monocultural stands. The gap cutting is one of the key methods in the Hungarian forestry. There is an active discussion among the forest professionals how to determine the optimal gap size to maintain the optimal conditions for the seedlings. Among the open questions is how to modify surrounding trees the moisture pattern of the forest floor in the gap? In the early steps of a multidisciplinary project we processed some available data, to estimate the spatial dependency between the water content of forest litter and the spatial pattern of the canopy represented by the tree trunk. The maximum water content depends on dry weight of litter, thus we also analysed that parameter. Data were measured in three different forest ecosystems: a middle age beech (Fagus sylvatica), a sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and a spruce (Picea abies) stand. The study site (Hidegvíz Valley Research Cathcment) is located in Sopron Hills at the eastern border of the Alps. Litter samples were collected under each stand (occasionally 10-10 pieces from 40?40 cm area) and locations of the samples and neighbouring trees were mapped. We determined dry weight and the water content of litter in laboratory. The relationship between water content and the distance of tree trunks in case of spruce and oak stands were not significant and in case of the beech stand was weakly significant. Climate change effects can influence significantly forest floor moisture content, therefore this

  18. Influence of tree species on gross and net N transformations in forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Zeller, Bernhard (Hrsg.); Recous, Sylvie; Kunze, Morgan; Moukoumi, Judicaël; Colin-Belgrand, Micheline; Bienaime, Séverine; Ranger, Jacques; Dambrine, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    Nous avons mesuré les flux de minéralisation nette d’azote au cours d’une incubation de quatre semaines et les flux bruts d’azote au cours d’une incubation de deux jours dans 6 sols prélevés dans une comparaison d’espèces forestières. Nous avons comparé les horizons A1 d’un taillis sous futaie (TSF) de Fagus sylvatica et de cinq plantations adjacentes de 25 ans de Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, Quercus petraea, Pinus laricio et Pseudotsuga menziesii. Les taux bruts ont été mesurés 48 h après l...

  19. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China%湖北神农架山地米心水青冈-多脉青冈混交林的群落动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛结林; 熊高明; 邓龙强; 赵常明; 申国珍; 谢宗强

    2012-01-01

    Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus-Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in the mountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010) from a permanent 120 m × 80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzed the dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm). We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.%常绿落叶阔叶混交林是我国北亚热带的地带性植被类型,在神农架山地其优势类型为水青冈-青冈混交林.本研究基于对120 m×80 rn的永久样地的2001、2006、2010年3次调查数据,从物种组成、数量特征、群落结构等方面分析了神农架山地米心水青冈-多脉青冈(Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis multiervis)混交林群落的动态特征.结果表明:群落的物种组成变化不大,在2001年、2006年和2010年分别为81、84和83种;优势成分以多脉青冈、米心水青冈、粉白杜鹃(Rhododendron hypoglaucum)和灰柯(Lithocarpus henryi)为主,但常绿树种重要值有增加的趋势;树木生长速率有加快的趋势;常绿树种的动态性强于落叶树

  20. Facteurs du milieu, gestion sylvicole et organisation de la biodiversité : les systèmes forestiers de la montagne de Lure (Alpes de Haute-Provence, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheikh Al Bassatneh, Marwan

    2006-01-01

    For historical reasons embedded in a high ecological requirement context, northern Mediterrranean mountain forests are currently undergoing considerable changes. In the Lure mountain forest, the sylvigenetic maturation of Pinus nigra austriaca plantation forests is characterized by a recolonization by Fagus sylvatica. The sustainable management of these transforming forests must include this long term potential. Our study is within this framework of both a new dynamics in biodiversity and a c...

  1. Rapportage onderzoek aantasting van de bast bij laanbomen

    OpenAIRE

    Lammeren, van, ACAP Andre; Ruiter, N.C.A.; Kieft, H

    2009-01-01

    In dit verslag zijn aantastingen op de stam onderzocht van Carpinus betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’, Fagus sylvatica “ Atropurpurea”, Fraxinus excelsior ‘Atlas’, Quercus palustris, Quercus robur, Sorbus latifolia “Henk Vink” en Ulmus ‘Clusius’ Daarbij is aandacht besteed aan het voorkomen en de aard en ontwikkeling van bastknobbels, baststrepen, bastscheuren, verkleuringen en het effect van epifyten zoals schimmels en korstmossen

  2. Unified phenology model with Bayesian calibration for several European species in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. S. H.; Demarée, G.; Hamdi, R.; Deckmyn, A.; Deckmyn, G.; Janssens, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Plant phenology is a good bio-indicator for climate change, and this has brought a significant increase of interest. Many kinds of phenology models have been developed to analyze and predict the phenological response to climate change, and those models have been summarized into one kind of unified model, which could be applied to different species and environments. In our study, we selected seven European woody plant species (Betula verrucosa, Quercus robur pedunculata, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Symphoricarpus racemosus, Aesculus hippocastanum, Robinia pseudoacacia) occurring in five sites distributed across Belgium. For those sites and tree species, phenological observations such as bud burst were available for the period 1956 - 2002. We also obtained regional downscaled climatic data for each of these sites, and combined both data sets to test the unified model. We used a Bayesian approach to generate distributions of model parameters from the observation data. In this poster presentation, we compare parameter distributions between different species and between different sites for individual species. The results of the unified model show a good agreement with the observations, except for Fagus sylvatica. The failure to reproduce the bud burst data for Fagus sylvatica suggest that the other factors not included in the unified model affect the phenology of this species. The parameter series show differences among species as we expected. However, they also differed strongly for the same species among sites.Further work should elucidate the mechanism that explains why model parameters differ among species and sites.

  3. Climate change induces shifts in abundance and activity pattern of bacteria and archaea catalyzing major transformation steps in nitrogen turnover in a soil from a mid-European beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Tejedor, Javier; Bimüller, Carolin; Bimueller, Carolin; Dannenmann, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Knabner, Ingrid Kögel; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing climate change will lead to more extreme weather events, including severe drought periods and intense drying rewetting cycles. This will directly influence microbial nitrogen (N) turnover rates in soil by changing the water content and the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, a space for time climate change experiment was conducted by transferring intact beech seedling-soil mesocosms from a northwest (NW) exposed site, representing today's climatic conditions, to a southwest (SW) exposed site, providing a model climate for future conditions with naturally occurring increased soil temperature (+0.8°C in average). In addition, severe drought and intense rainfall was simulated by a rainout shelter at SW and manual rewetting after 39 days drought, respectively. Soil samples were taken in June, at the end of the drought period (August), 24 and 72 hours after rewetting (August) and after a regeneration period of four weeks (September). To follow dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities involved in N turnover, abundance and activity of nitrifiers, denitrifiers, N2-fixing microbes and N-mineralizers was analyzed based on marker genes and the related transcripts by qPCR from DNA and RNA directly extracted from soil. Abundance of the transcripts was reduced under climate change with most pronounced effects for denitrification. Our results revealed that already a transfer from NW to SW without further treatment resulted in decreased cnor and nosZ transcripts, encoding for nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively, while nirK transcripts, encoding for nitrite reductase, remained unaffected. Severe drought additionally led to reduced nirK and cnor transcripts at SW. After rewetting, nirK transcripts increased rapidly at both sites, while cnor and nosZ transcripts increased only at NW. Our data indicate that the climate change influences activity pattern of microbial communities involved in denitrification processes to a different extend

  4. Climate change induces shifts in abundance and activity pattern of bacteria and archaea catalyzing major transformation steps in nitrogen turnover in a soil from a mid-European beech forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gschwendtner

    Full Text Available Ongoing climate change will lead to more extreme weather events, including severe drought periods and intense drying rewetting cycles. This will directly influence microbial nitrogen (N turnover rates in soil by changing the water content and the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, a space for time climate change experiment was conducted by transferring intact beech seedling-soil mesocosms from a northwest (NW exposed site, representing today's climatic conditions, to a southwest (SW exposed site, providing a model climate for future conditions with naturally occurring increased soil temperature (+0.8°C in average. In addition, severe drought and intense rainfall was simulated by a rainout shelter at SW and manual rewetting after 39 days drought, respectively. Soil samples were taken in June, at the end of the drought period (August, 24 and 72 hours after rewetting (August and after a regeneration period of four weeks (September. To follow dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities involved in N turnover, abundance and activity of nitrifiers, denitrifiers, N2-fixing microbes and N-mineralizers was analyzed based on marker genes and the related transcripts by qPCR from DNA and RNA directly extracted from soil. Abundance of the transcripts was reduced under climate change with most pronounced effects for denitrification. Our results revealed that already a transfer from NW to SW without further treatment resulted in decreased cnor and nosZ transcripts, encoding for nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively, while nirK transcripts, encoding for nitrite reductase, remained unaffected. Severe drought additionally led to reduced nirK and cnor transcripts at SW. After rewetting, nirK transcripts increased rapidly at both sites, while cnor and nosZ transcripts increased only at NW. Our data indicate that the climate change influences activity pattern of microbial communities involved in denitrification processes to a

  5. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nowakiewicz

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes. From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328, we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%, Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%, Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21, and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%. The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19, and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%. S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each, and hlb (32.5% genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%. In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%, the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  6. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Zięba, Przemysław; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Gnat, Sebastian; Muszyńska, Marta; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Majer Dziedzic, Barbara; Ulbrych, Łukasz; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%), Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  7. INTENSITY OF PEDOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN A NUDAL BEECH ECOSYSTEM%一个水青冈生态系统的土壤化学强度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JanKUKLA

    2001-01-01

    应用扁平溶度计考察了一个水青冈林(Fagetapaupera)的重力土壤溶液,该森林位于克里尼奇克.沃奇山脉(斯洛伐克中部)的生态实验站(EES)。逐月采集土壤表层以及10cm和15cm土壤矿质层的土壤渗透液化学特征的样品。同时,采集各层的土壤样品,并分析其中的Ca,Mg,K和Na等4个化学元素,并测定pH值和传导力。一年中矿质土层中阳离子积累量如下:Ca分别为2.6kg.hm-2和14.2kg.hm-2,Mg分别为2.1kg.hm-2和1.1kg.hm-2,K分别为42.1kg.hm-2和2.3kg.hm-2,Na分别为5.5kg.hm-2和2.0kg.hm-2。%Gravitation soil solutions were inve stigated by using flatlysimeters in a nudal beech forest (group of types of geo biocens Fageta paupera typica inferiora,type of geobiocen Carex pilosa nudum),located in the Ecological Experimental Station (E E S) Kremnicke vrchy mountains (Central Slovakia).Chemical properties of the perco lated soil solutions were sampled monthly below surface humus (A0-horizon) and the 10 cm and 25 cm thick mineral layers of andosolic cambisol.The soils were sampled monthy in A0 horizon, 10 cm and 25 cm depth,and their contents of four chemical elements Ca,Mg, K and Na,and pH and conductivity were analysed.The following amounts of the basi c cat ions have been accumulated in mineral soil layers during the year (the balance i s negatively influenced by freezing of A0 lysimeter in the winter):calcium 2. 6 kg Ca2+.hm-2 and 14.2 kg Ca2+.hm-2,magnesium 2.1 kg Mg2+.hm-2 and 1.1 kg Mg2+.hm-2,potassium 42.1 kg K+.hm-2 and 2.3 kg K+.hm-2,sodium 5.5 kg Na+.hm-2 and 2.0 kg Na+.hm-2.

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  9. Beech Lodge Care Facility, Bruree, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules. As a pattern-recognition receptor capable of binding a diverse range of ligands, it is typically expressed at low levels under normal physiological conditions in the majority of tissues. In contrast, the lung exhibits high basal level expression of RAGE localised primarily in alveolar type I (ATI) cells, suggesting a potentially important role for the receptor in maintaining lung homeostasis. Indeed, disruption of RAGE levels has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of pulmonary disorders including cancer and fibrosis. Furthermore, its soluble isoforms, sRAGE, which act as decoy receptors, have been shown to be a useful marker of ATI cell injury. Whilst RAGE undoubtedly plays an important role in the biology of the lung, it remains unclear as to the exact nature of this contribution under both physiological and pathological conditions.

  10. Beech Park Nursing Home, Dunmurry East, Kildare.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harnett, P J

    2009-06-01

    The term \\'performance management\\' has an aversive \\'managerial\\' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an \\'image problem\\'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management \\'image problem\\' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  11. Fire Reterdant Chemicals Affecting Combustion Resistance of Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın ÖRS; Sönmez, Abdullah

    1998-01-01

    Wood is an important material used in construction elements. However since it can be affected by biotic and abiotic deteriorating agents, it should be treated with chemical impregnating materials prior to use. In this study, the effects of water-soluble impregnating chemicals on the combustion resistance of wood was investigated. For this purpose, panels were prepared with oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis L.) and pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.), which are widely used in industry. These ...

  12. Herbicide Hardwood Crop Trees Release in Central West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Kochenderfer, Jeffrey Davis

    1999-01-01

    Repeated partial cutting in the Appalachian hardwood region has often favored the development of tolerant species like American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and stands with a high proportion of cull trees. Crop tree release is a widely recommended practice to improve species composition and growth rates in these unevenaged structured stands. Chemical control offers some distinct advantages from the standpoint of safety and residual stand damage, over mechani...

  13. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF COATING ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD MATERIALS EXPOSED TO NATURAL WEATHERING

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem ÖZGENÇ; YILDIZ, Ümit C.; YILDIZ, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the protection effect of acrylic coating systems on mechanical properties of some wood species exposed to natural weathering. Beech (Fagus orientalis L.), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood samples were coated with a new generation of acrylic resin including two different UV absorbers (organic and inorganic) and subjected to natural weathering tests for 15 months in Uzungöl and Hıdırnebi pl...

  14. Forest understory plant and soil microbial response to an experimentally induced drought and heat-pulse event: the importance of maintaining the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rein, Isabell; Gessler, Arthur; Premke, Katrin; Keitel, Claudia; Ulrich, Andreas; Kayler, Zachary E

    2016-08-01

    Drought duration and intensity are expected to increase with global climate change. How changes in water availability and temperature affect the combined plant-soil-microorganism response remains uncertain. We excavated soil monoliths from a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest, thus keeping the understory plant-microbe communities intact, imposed an extreme climate event, consisting of drought and/or a single heat-pulse event, and followed microbial community dynamics over a time period of 28 days. During the treatment, we labeled the canopy with (13) CO2 with the goal of (i) determining the strength of plant-microbe carbon linkages under control, drought, heat and heat-drought treatments and (ii) characterizing microbial groups that are tightly linked to the plant-soil carbon continuum based on (13) C-labeled PLFAs. Additionally, we used 16S rRNA sequencing of bacteria from the Ah horizon to determine the short-term changes in the active microbial community. The treatments did not sever within-plant transport over the experiment, and carbon sinks belowground were still active. Based on the relative distribution of labeled carbon to roots and microbial PLFAs, we determined that soil microbes appear to have a stronger carbon sink strength during environmental stress. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA revealed multiple trajectories in microbial community shifts within the different treatments. Heat in combination with drought had a clear negative effect on microbial diversity and resulted in a distinct shift in the microbial community structure that also corresponded to the lowest level of label found in the PLFAs. Hence, the strongest changes in microbial abundances occurred in the heat-drought treatment where plants were most severely affected. Our study suggests that many of the shifts in the microbial communities that we might expect from extreme environmental stress will result from the plant-soil-microbial dynamics rather than from direct effects of

  15. DO3SE modelling of soil moisture to determine ozone flux to European forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schaub

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The DO3SE (Deposition of O3 for Stomatal Exchange model is an established tool for estimating ozone (O3 deposition, stomatal flux and impacts to a variety of vegetation types across Europe. It has been embedded within the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme photochemical model to provide a policy tool capable of relating the risk of vegetation damage to O3 precursor emission scenarios for use in policy formulation. A key limitation of regional flux-based risk assessments so far has been the approximation that soil water deficits are not limiting O3 flux due to the unavailability of evaluated methods for modelling soil water deficits and their influence on stomatal conductance (gsto, and ultimately O3 flux. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a method to estimate soil moisture status and its influence on gsto for a variety of forest tree species. The soil moisture module uses the Penman-Monteith energy balance method to drive water cycling through the soil-plant-atmosphere system and empirical data describing gsto relationships with pre-dawn leaf water status to estimate the biological control of transpiration. We trial four different methods to estimate this biological control of the transpiration stream, which vary from simple methods that relate soil water content or potential directly to gsto to more complex methods that incorporate hydraulic resistance and plant capacitance that control water flow through the plant system. These methods are evaluated against field data describing a variety of soil water variables, gsto and transpiration data for Norway spruce (Picea abies, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, birch (Betula pendula, aspen (Populus tremuloides, beech (Fagus sylvatica and holm oak (Quercus ilex collected from ten sites across Europe and North America. Modelled estimates of these variables show consistency with observed data when applying the simple empirical methods, with the timing and magnitude of

  16. Rhizosphere effect on phosphorus availability in forest soils at different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feudis, Mauro; Cardelli, Valeria; Massaccesi, Luisa; Bol, Roland; Willbold, Sabine; Cocco, Stefania; Corti, Giuseppe; Agnelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plants but it is one of the least available mineral nutrients, and can substantially limit plant growth. Although plants are able to respond to the P shortage, the global warming might modify the soil-plant-microorganisms system and reduce P availability. We evaluated the rhizosphere effect of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in forest soils of the Apennines mountains (central Italy) at two altitudes (800 and 1000 m) and along 1° of latitudinal gradient, using latitude and altitude as proxies for temperature change. Specifically, we tested if 1) soil organic C, total N, and organic and