... Getting bedbugs has nothing to do with good hygiene and housekeeping. How do you get bedbugs? People ... for the following signs near places where you sleep. Signs of bedbugs : This step is important. If ...
Delaunay, Pascal; Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe
Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occ...
E.A. Omudu , C.N. Kus
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera:Cimicidae is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbuginfestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Governmentarea in Benue state, Nigeria.Methods: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquitonets and bamboo beds were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-pickingtechnique. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis for differences in the infestation levels inharbourages and sampling locations.Results: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation asegg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestationrate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other studylocations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (2 = 7.92, df = 6,p >0.05. Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%,while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestationrates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher thanother items inspected (2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05.Interpretation & conclusion: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidencesof infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detectionand education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.
Wawrocka, Kamila; Bartonička, Tomáš
Co-speciation between host-parasite species is generally thought to result in mirror-image congruent phylogenies. For the last several centuries, many bat species have been turning synanthropic, especially those that are hosted by bedbugs in Europe. There is evidence of only limited gene flow from the population of people to the population of bats. This study was focused on comparison of survival, development, and the reproduction rate based on cross-feeding experiments. In our research, we used two bedbugs groups of Cimex lectularius-bat- and human-associated and respectively as specific/non-specific host bat and commercial human blood. Both lineages show different behavior according to their host preferences. During the bat blood experiment, we found significant differences between both human- and bat-associated bedbugs (Log rank test fourth χ(2) = 9.93, p > 0.05; fifth χ(2) = 11.33, p < 0.05), while no differences occurred with the human blood experiment between the survival levels. In molting, differences between both groups were significant particularly in the case of the bat blood experiment (fourth χ(2) = 5.91, p < 0.05). In the case of the bat blood experiment, we found a higher probability of molting in bat-associated groups than in human-associated groups. In the case of the human blood experiment, molting probability was stable in both specific and non-specific, showing similar pattern in both cases for all stages. Our results indicate an occurrence of two ecotypes within the one species C. lectularius. These findings support earlier data about morphological and mitochondrial DNA differences. The differentiation of both lineages fits the concept of specific host choice. PMID:23982311
Echavarría Flores Montserrat; García Torres María Elena; Calderón Ordoñez Marisela Belem; Olvera Luna Alba Grisel; Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos
The diabetes type II is a disease in which the organism cannot produce or use insulin properly. The insulin is a hormone that transforms the sugar, starch and food in energy so that it can make use of it. Although the genetic and physical factors, such as obesity and the lack of exercise affect the health of a person, the real cause of diabetes is unknown. The objective of this study was determining the benefits that people, who suffer from diabetes type II, obtain by eating the bedbugs “Xohu...
Kaushal, Akanksha; Gupta, Kajal; van Hoek, Monique L
Antimicrobial peptides are components of both vertebrate and invertebrate innate immune systems that are expressed in response to exposure to bacterial antigens. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides from evolutionarily ancient species have been extensively studied and are being developed as potential therapeutics against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. In this study, a putative Cimex lectularius (bedbug, CL) defensin is characterized for its effectiveness against human skin flora including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The bedbug defensin (CL-defensin), belonging to family of insect defensins, is predicted to have a characteristic N-terminal loop, an α-helix, and an antiparallel β-sheet, which was supported by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The defensin was shown to be antimicrobial against Gram-positive bacteria commonly found on human skin (Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium renale, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis); however, it was ineffective against common skin Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii) under low-salt conditions. CL-defensin was also effective against M. luteus and C. renale in high-salt (MIC) conditions. Our studies indicate that CL-defensin functions by depolarization and pore-formation in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:26802465
Jupp, P G; Prozesky, O W; McElligott, S E; Van Wyk, L A
A total of 1 368 bedbugs of the species Cimex lectularius L were collected mainly from huts in villages or on farms at 6 localities in the northern Transvaal. They were tested in pools of 10 for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). None of 20 pools from Pietersburg was HBsAg-positive, but 32 out of 120 pools from the 5 other localities were HBsAg-positive. Estimated infection rates per 1 000 bugs were 17,1 (Messina), 24,9 (Waterpoort), 28,4 (Letaba), 54,5 (Potgietersrus) and 67,0 (Louis Trichardt), with an overall rate of 30,6. Seventeen out of 57 pools of the engorged bugs (infection rate 34,8) and 14 out of 62 pools of the unengorged bugs (infection rate 25,3) were HBsAg-positive. These very high infection rates, even in unengorged bugs, suggest that C. lectularius could be a vector of hepatitis B virus in the Transvaal, and that the varying degrees of infestation could explain the markedly different HBsAg-positive frequencies previously shown in sera collected from different population groups in that province. PMID:675426
Echavarría Flores Montserrat
Full Text Available The diabetes type II is a disease in which the organism cannot produce or use insulin properly. The insulin is a hormone that transforms the sugar, starch and food in energy so that it can make use of it. Although the genetic and physical factors, such as obesity and the lack of exercise affect the health of a person, the real cause of diabetes is unknown. The objective of this study was determining the benefits that people, who suffer from diabetes type II, obtain by eating the bedbugs “Xohues” or “shamues” (Thasus gigas. In addition, this project intended to diagnose how this food intake affects medical treatments. An exploratory study was carried out based on a survey conducted among the residents of Actopan, Hidalgo who suffer from diabetes mellitus type II in order to investigate the intake of “xohues” or “shamues” and their adherence to medical treatment. The initial average glucose was 184 mg/dl in the interviewed people with a minimum of 33 mg/dl and a maximum of 394 mg/dl The people had pointed out to feel better with the intake of these insects, although most of the population did not continue with the medical treatment afterwards, 5 % detachment had their medical treatment, this represents an imminent risk for the population. Insects are an important source of alimentation and a natural alternative for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II.
Full Text Available Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition. Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.
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Paulo Ricardo Criado
Full Text Available Descrevemos uma doente de 19 anos que nos procurou com quadro de intenso prurido há 2 semanas e demonstrando lesões eritêmato-pápulo-urticadas mais intensamente distribuídas nos membros superiores e inferiores. A anamnese detalhada excluiu causas internas e medicamentos como uma possível causa do prurigo. Após orientações quanto a dedetização do domicílio a doente retornou no consultório após 3 semanas sem lesões cutâneas e trazendo em um pote de vidro vários percevejos coletados após a dedetização.This report describes a 19-year old female patient, who sought medical attention for severe itching of two weeks' duration. Erythematous papules and wheals were found, principally on her upper and lower limbs. Careful anamnesis excluded other etiologies of the pruritus, including those related to internal diseases and medication. Following counseling regarding the need to contract a domestic pest control company, the patient returned to the clinic three weeks later with no skin lesions and bearing a glass jar containing several bedbugs collected following pest control treatment.
宋杰; 王宗德; 韩招久; 陈金珠; 姜志宽; 郑卫青; 商士斌
测定了一系列六元环萜类化合物对臭虫(Cimex lectularius L.)的驱避活性,利用Codessa Pro程序计算了这些化合物的结构描述符,再利用Codessa Pro程序中的最优线性回归方法计算了驱避活性与这些化合物结构描述符之间的定量构效关系.所得到的最优定量构效关系计算模型的R2为0.924,模型所包含的4个参数分别是:FNSA3 fractional PNSA、Min n-n repulsion for bond H-C、YZ Shadow/YZ rectangle、Max electrophilic reactivity index for atom C.通过对模型的分析讨论了臭虫化学感受器与驱避剂之间可能存在的相互作用.%The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between the repellency against bedbug,Cimex lectularius L.(Hemiptera:Cimicidae) and the molecular structural descriptors of a series of terpenoid compounds with six-member-ring was correlated by best multilinear regression (BMLR) method.The descriptors and the multilinear regression were all calculated by Codessa Pro.The optimum multilinear model with R2 value of 0.924 and 4 descriptors,i.e.the fractional atomic charge weighted partial megative surface area (FNSA3) fractional the atomic charge weighted partial negative charge molecular surface area (PNSA),Min n-n repulsion for bond H-C,YZ Shadow/YZ rectangle and Max electrophilic reactivity index for atom C was validated and presented.The probable interaction between the chemoreceptor of bedbug and the repellent was also discussed according to the optimum model and its descriptors.
This essay, which is the fifth in the series "Recollections, Reflections, and Revelations: Personal Experiences in Ethnobiology", is a personal reminiscence by the researcher on his first field experience in Turkey in the late 1970s, which was a failure from an ethnobiological point of view but a success for a social scientist pursuing Turkic studies. The author later returned to ethnobiology during subsequent fieldwork on the Faroes. PMID:24885471
Onah Isegbe Emmanuel
Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.
Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar
Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others w...
戚剑雄; 朱建晖; 范洪亮; 姚文勇; 何杰能; 黄彦春
目的 研究密闭热力仓杀灭列车卧铺臭虫及虫卵的过程与效果.方法 现场试验.结果 设置热力仓65℃,升温4h,热力作用列车卧铺深部,达到致死水平(＞50℃)可达3h,并100％杀灭列车卧铺中的臭虫及虫卵.结论 热力技术杀灭列车卧铺臭虫及虫卵安全、高效、操作简单,是列车臭虫防治工作中的极佳选择,值得推广应用.
Sandlund, Johanna; Banaei, Niaz
This case illustrates skin lesions in a traveler staying in a hotel bed infested with tics. Although infestation of hotels with bedbugs belonging to the Cimex genus is a growing problem worldwide, tick infestation has never been reported before. PMID:26839772
Christensen, Christian M.; Scheibner, R. A.
This manual gives descriptions and diagrams for identification of the following types of pests: four species of cockroach; ants; bees and wasps; parasitic pests of man such as bedbugs, fleas, and ticks; occasional invaders such as flies and millipedes; silverfish and firebrats; beetles; termites; moths; fungi; and vertebrates including rodents,…
Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.
This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)
... have bed bugs, not fleas, ticks or other insects. You can compare your insect to the pictures on our Identifying bed bugs ... bedbugs Bed Bugs Home Learn about Bed Bugs — Characteristics of Bed Bugs — Finding Bed Bugs Protecting Your ...
Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ClEST Database... Description General information of database Database name ClEST Alternative name Cimex lectul...6812 (ext.222-36812) Fax: +81-29-861-6812 E-mail: Database classification Nucleotide Sequence Database...s Organism Taxonomy Name: Cimex lectularius Taxonomy ID: 79782 Database description Exp...ressed sequence tags (EST) database of unique organs and whole bodies of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius Featu
The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B
Prozesky, O.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology); Jupp, P.G.; Joubert, J.J.; Taylor, M.B.; Grabow, W.O.K.
The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.
Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.
Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel; Bircher, Andreas J
Feral pigeons pose a considerable health risk to the human population. They are vectors of infectious diseases and source of antigens causing allergic diseases. Breeding and roosting sites of pigeons harbor parasites that may infest humans. In the present article, a concomitant parasitization of a young female with 3 different ectoparasites, the bedbug Cimex lectularius, the pigeon tick Argas reflexus and the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae, is reported. The parasites invaded the apartment from a balcony used as roost by feral pigeons and infested the patient continuously over a period of more than 2 months. To our knowledge this case presents the first record of a coincidental infestation of a single patient with several ectoparasite species deriving from feral pigeons. Additionally we report general symptoms in the patient probably caused by the high number of stings. Dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of an infestation with ectoparasites deriving from feral pigeons. In a review we give an overview on the most important ectoparasites transmitted from feral pigeons to humans and their importance for the dermatologist. PMID:20016127
Full Text Available In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis, helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis, parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks, venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees, mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches, culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies.
Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K
This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women's agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated 'enabling environments' where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.
Gerald F Bills
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nodulisporic acids (NAs are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a
Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。
The ornamental trees complete a very important environmental function for the quality of the inhabitants' life in the urban areas, when offering momentous benefits as the subduing of the climate, regulation of CO2 in the atmosphere and the scenic beauty. Thanks to the interest of the District Administration, in Bogota, in the last four years, the urban plantation of trees acquired a preponderant paper that became apparent during the biggest plantation of trees program and maintenance of green areas that it has been carried out in the history of the capital; day by day they get more importance, and they are recognized by the citizenship like fundamental values of its environment. Previously to this program, the attention received were minimum or were remembered soon after the surprising devastating consequences of phyto sanitary problems: the grooved cochineal of the acacia, the louse plant of the cypress and the bedbug of the Urapan in whose cases the ignorance of basic aspects of the biology, natural control and the harmful populations' behavior, it has forced to generally apply measured of chemical type to try to reduce the high levels population. The importance that have, the green areas in the city, it favors a continuous pursuit that allows to deepen in the knowledge of the main risk factors, current problems and potentials of the species, types and consequences of the damages and the intra and inter relationships of the arthropofauna of the urban vegetation, their relationship with the plants, as well as the incidence of biotic and abiotic in the tree phonologic behavior and in the fluctuation of the populations of this individuals in order to coming closer to the understanding of the dynamics of the populations of arthropods harmful, in such a way that is possible to design kind handling strategies with the environment, having in consideration in integrated form the conditions under the attack of arthropods harmful
Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more
高强; 曹晖; 丁志伟; 徐康; 梁必匀; 冷培恩
cockroach control failure rate was 40.00% and 50.00%, respectively, the positive rate also decreased significantly after the first round feedback (1.87%vs. 0.74%,χ2=3.942, P=0.047). The positive mosquito breeding sites was found in individual underground garage wells. No obvious fly and bedbug infestations were found in the two rounds of survey. Conclusion Five⁃star hotels vector infestation were found mainly in the kitchen, food storage and processing rooms, laundry rooms and other non⁃public areas, mice and cockroaches were the predominant vector for infestation, which may be attributed to the hotels’ complex environment and management deficiencies. Appropriate pest proof measures, specific supervision, modifications and improvement in the star hotel standards were advisable.