... Getting bedbugs has nothing to do with good hygiene and housekeeping. How do you get bedbugs? People ... for the following signs near places where you sleep. Signs of bedbugs : This step is important. If ...
... to control bedbugs, the EPA says. SOURCE: Pest Management Science , news release, Aug. 1, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the ...
Bedbugs are a growing problem in schools today. Bedbugs are often confused with other insects, and their signs are hard to recognize. School officials should work with an experienced pest control company to confirm whether the insects are bed bugs and, if they are not, to identify them so they can be treated effectively. Education and vigilance…
Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T
Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation. PMID:19292820
Eliningaya J Kweka
Full Text Available The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae, has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.
Barnes, Emily R; Murray, Billie S
I t could happen to anyone. A family is vacationing, and after checking into a hotel the kids and their mother go to bed. A short while later, the husband approaches the bed where his wife is sleeping; he notices something moving on the white sheet near her head. It's an insect. He catches it, places it on a tissue, and logs onto his computer to try to identify it. Soon he realizes it's a bedbug, wakes his wife and children, and calls the front desk. The hotel's pest manager comes up and confirms it: there's a bedbug infestation in the room, and the hotel moves the family to another part of the building. PMID:24685755
Full Text Available Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition. Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.
Teste de susceptibilidade do percevejo, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae ao DDT em Belo Horizonte, MG (Brasil Susceptibility tests of the bed-bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae to DDT in Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil
Ronaldo L. Nagem
Full Text Available O nível de susceptibilidade de percevejos adultos, Cimex lectularius, ao DDT, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brasil, foi determinado durante o período de 1985 a 1986. Os resultados indicaram, para os insetos testados, que uma dose de 4,0% do inseticida não foi suficiente para matar 55% dos insetos. Os dados permitem concluir que existem colonias de percevejos resistentes ao DDT em Belo Horizonte.Susceptibility levels for the adult bed-bug, Cimex lectularius, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais - Brazil, to DDT, were determined during the period 1985 to 1986. The test results showed that a 4% dosage of DDT is not enough to kill 55% of the insects. The data are sufficient to show that there exists bed-bug resistance to DDT in Belo Horizonte.
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Paulo Ricardo Criado
Full Text Available Descrevemos uma doente de 19 anos que nos procurou com quadro de intenso prurido há 2 semanas e demonstrando lesões eritêmato-pápulo-urticadas mais intensamente distribuídas nos membros superiores e inferiores. A anamnese detalhada excluiu causas internas e medicamentos como uma possível causa do prurigo. Após orientações quanto a dedetização do domicílio a doente retornou no consultório após 3 semanas sem lesões cutâneas e trazendo em um pote de vidro vários percevejos coletados após a dedetização.This report describes a 19-year old female patient, who sought medical attention for severe itching of two weeks' duration. Erythematous papules and wheals were found, principally on her upper and lower limbs. Careful anamnesis excluded other etiologies of the pruritus, including those related to internal diseases and medication. Following counseling regarding the need to contract a domestic pest control company, the patient returned to the clinic three weeks later with no skin lesions and bearing a glass jar containing several bedbugs collected following pest control treatment.
宋杰; 王宗德; 韩招久; 陈金珠; 姜志宽; 郑卫青; 商士斌
测定了一系列六元环萜类化合物对臭虫(Cimex lectularius L.)的驱避活性,利用Codessa Pro程序计算了这些化合物的结构描述符,再利用Codessa Pro程序中的最优线性回归方法计算了驱避活性与这些化合物结构描述符之间的定量构效关系.所得到的最优定量构效关系计算模型的R2为0.924,模型所包含的4个参数分别是:FNSA3 fractional PNSA、Min n-n repulsion for bond H-C、YZ Shadow/YZ rectangle、Max electrophilic reactivity index for atom C.通过对模型的分析讨论了臭虫化学感受器与驱避剂之间可能存在的相互作用.%The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between the repellency against bedbug,Cimex lectularius L.(Hemiptera:Cimicidae) and the molecular structural descriptors of a series of terpenoid compounds with six-member-ring was correlated by best multilinear regression (BMLR) method.The descriptors and the multilinear regression were all calculated by Codessa Pro.The optimum multilinear model with R2 value of 0.924 and 4 descriptors,i.e.the fractional atomic charge weighted partial megative surface area (FNSA3) fractional the atomic charge weighted partial negative charge molecular surface area (PNSA),Min n-n repulsion for bond H-C,YZ Shadow/YZ rectangle and Max electrophilic reactivity index for atom C was validated and presented.The probable interaction between the chemoreceptor of bedbug and the repellent was also discussed according to the optimum model and its descriptors.
This essay, which is the fifth in the series "Recollections, Reflections, and Revelations: Personal Experiences in Ethnobiology", is a personal reminiscence by the researcher on his first field experience in Turkey in the late 1970s, which was a failure from an ethnobiological point of view but a success for a social scientist pursuing Turkic studies. The author later returned to ethnobiology during subsequent fieldwork on the Faroes. PMID:24885471
Onah Isegbe Emmanuel
Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.
戚剑雄; 朱建晖; 范洪亮; 姚文勇; 何杰能; 黄彦春
目的 研究密闭热力仓杀灭列车卧铺臭虫及虫卵的过程与效果.方法 现场试验.结果 设置热力仓65℃,升温4h,热力作用列车卧铺深部,达到致死水平(＞50℃)可达3h,并100％杀灭列车卧铺中的臭虫及虫卵.结论 热力技术杀灭列车卧铺臭虫及虫卵安全、高效、操作简单,是列车臭虫防治工作中的极佳选择,值得推广应用.
朱建晖; 戚剑雄; 范洪亮; 姚文勇; 何杰能
目的 观察双周期性使用残杀威、倍硫磷杀灭旅客列车臭虫的远期效果.方法 现场试验.结果 单周期性化学技术杀灭旅客列车臭虫平均杀灭率达92.2％,与杀灭前相比差异有显著性(P＜0.05);双周期性施药杀灭率达100％,并保持无复发,无投诉达4个月.结论 双周期性使用化学技术方法,在处理大批量(＞4辆)列车臭虫侵害工作中,能满足规范用药和作业程序的要求,且远期效果良好.
Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.
This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)
... have bed bugs, not fleas, ticks or other insects. You can compare your insect to the pictures on our Identifying bed bugs ... bedbugs Bed Bugs Home Learn about Bed Bugs — Characteristics of Bed Bugs — Finding Bed Bugs Protecting Your ...
Sandlund, Johanna; Banaei, Niaz
This case illustrates skin lesions in a traveler staying in a hotel bed infested with tics. Although infestation of hotels with bedbugs belonging to the Cimex genus is a growing problem worldwide, tick infestation has never been reported before. PMID:26839772
Christensen, Christian M.; Scheibner, R. A.
This manual gives descriptions and diagrams for identification of the following types of pests: four species of cockroach; ants; bees and wasps; parasitic pests of man such as bedbugs, fleas, and ticks; occasional invaders such as flies and millipedes; silverfish and firebrats; beetles; termites; moths; fungi; and vertebrates including rodents,…
Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.
Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G
Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature. PMID:25276919
In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).
Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy
Propoxur is a carbamate insecticide that has recently attracted considerable attention as a possible treatment option for addressing the bedbug epidemic. The generally accepted mechanism of toxicity for propoxur involves the inhibition of ChE, as is the case for many agents in the category. Considerable research supports the concept that most physiologically active substances induce their effects through multi-faceted action. In this review, we provide evidence that ET--ROS--OS participate mechanistically in both the action and in human toxicity of pesticides, including propoxur. Propoxur is a catechol derivative that contains carbamate and isopropyl groups on the oxygens in its moiety. Metabolic studies with propoxur reveal hydrolysis of the carbamate and dealkylation of the isopropyl group to yield the parent catechol. In addition, nuclear hydroxylation produces a hydroquinone derivative. Both the catechol and this hydroquinone derivative are potentially able to undergo redox cycling with the corresponding quinone to produce ROS. It is primarily for these reasons that we believe propoxur may be similar to other classes of physiologically active compounds in producing effects through ET-ROS-OS. Generally, reactive ROS are generated by metabolic processes that yield ET entities, and this occurs with propoxur as well. Although ROS are commonly associated with toxicity, there is little recognition in the literature that they can also play a role in therapeutic action.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the observations made in a plum fruit growing plantation in the years 2013 and 2014, belonging Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi within USAMV, Iasi County, at the Stanley variety. The material gathering it was made using soil traps type Barber, from May until August, at intervals between 10 and 20 days. The collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 30.05, 15.06, 28.06, 12.07, 26.07, 10.08 and 24.08. In total 2013 were collected 151 species belonging to 19 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Heteroptera species (bedbugs with 28 species, Dermestes laniarius L. with 27 species, Coccinella septempunctata L. with 27 species, Polydrosus sericeus Schall. with 15 species and Harpalus calceatus Duft. with 11 species. The collection of biological material in 2014 was made on the following dates: 19.05, 10.06, 29.06, 16.07, 06.08. In total in 2014 it was collected 402 species belonging to 29 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Pseudophonus rufipes De Geer with 86 species, Harpalus distinguendus Duft. 68 species, Pseudephonus griseus Payk. 38 species, Orthoptera (locusts species with 33 species and Hymenoptera (ants species with 20 species.
Full Text Available The observations were made during the two years, 2013 and 2014 in a plantation belonging plum fruit growing from Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi of USAMV Iasi, Iasi County Rivers Early variety.Collecting the material was done with traps type Barber from May until August at intervals between 10 and 20 days. Collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 20.05, 30.05, 15.06, 5.07, 25.07, 10.08 and 23.08.In total 2013 were collected 265 samples belonging to 22 species (taxa. Species (taxa with the largest number of samples collected were Dermestes laniarius L. 42 samples Heteroptera. (bedbugs with 38 samples, and Polydrosus sericeus Schall. 26 samples. In 2014 collection of the biological material was made on the following dates: 07.05, 21.05, 19.06, 08.07, 27.07, 15.08, 04.09. In total in 2014 were collected 744 samples belonging to 41 species (taxa with the highest number of samples were colected: Hymenoptera (bees with 92 saples, Orthoptera (locusts with 87 samples, Lepidoptera (larvae with 37samplres, and Homoptera (cycads with 31samples.
Gerald F Bills
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nodulisporic acids (NAs are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.
Oswaldo Paulo Forattini
Full Text Available Apresenta-se atualização de conhecimentos sobre insetos da família Cimicidae, ou percevejos, de interesse em saúde pública. Após fornecer elementos de morfologia, externa e interna, dedica-se atenção à biologia e ecologia desses insetos, em especial modo, focalizando o relacionamento com o homem e seu ambiente. As espécies Cimex lectularius e C. hemipterus são tratadas em particular, com revisão dos dados disponíveis sobre o possível papel vetor desses percevejos na transmissão de agentes infecciosos. São apresentados dados sobre a classificação e distribuição geográfica. Fornecem-se dados sobre meios de controle. Inclui chaves para identificação de formas adultas e imaturas, além de vestígios que possam servir de indícios para as atividades de vigilância epidemiológica.A review of the Cimicidae of importance in public health is presented. After a general morphological study, special attention is given to knowledge of the biology and ecology of bed-bugs, mainly as regards their relation to the human environment and the possibility of their role in disease transmission. The species Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus are given particular attention and data on their relevance to questions of public health are revised. Taxonomy, biosystematic and geographical distribution are presented, the epidemiologically important groups listed and control measures discussed. The paper ends with identification keys for both adult and immature stages as well as for arthropod indoor fecal traces.
Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。
Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more
高强; 曹晖; 丁志伟; 徐康; 梁必匀; 冷培恩
cockroach control failure rate was 40.00% and 50.00%, respectively, the positive rate also decreased significantly after the first round feedback (1.87%vs. 0.74%,χ2=3.942, P=0.047). The positive mosquito breeding sites was found in individual underground garage wells. No obvious fly and bedbug infestations were found in the two rounds of survey. Conclusion Five⁃star hotels vector infestation were found mainly in the kitchen, food storage and processing rooms, laundry rooms and other non⁃public areas, mice and cockroaches were the predominant vector for infestation, which may be attributed to the hotels’ complex environment and management deficiencies. Appropriate pest proof measures, specific supervision, modifications and improvement in the star hotel standards were advisable.