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Sample records for beck hopelessness scale

  1. Construct validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) among university students: A multitrait-multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie

    2016-10-01

    There is considerable debate about the underlying factor structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in the literature. An established view is that it reflects a unitary or bidimensional construct in nonclinical samples. There are, however, reasons to reconsider this conceptualization. Based on previous factor analytic findings from both clinical and nonclinical studies, the aim of the present study was to compare 16 competing models of the BHS in a large university student sample (N = 1, 733). Sixteen distinct factor models were specified and tested using conventional confirmatory factor analytic techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor modeling. A 3-factor solution with 2 method effects (i.e., a multitrait-multimethod model) provided the best fit to the data. The reliability of this conceptualization was supported by McDonald's coefficient omega and the differential relationships exhibited between the 3 hopelessness factors ("feelings about the future," "loss of motivation," and "future expectations") and measures of goal disengagement, brooding rumination, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt history. The results provide statistical support for a 3-trait and 2-method factor model, and hence the 3 dimensions of hopelessness theorized by Beck. The theoretical and methodological implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Validation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in patients with suicide risk.

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    Rueda-Jaimes, German Eduardo; Castro-Rueda, Vanessa Alexandra; Rangel-Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio; Moreno-Quijano, Catalina; Martinez-Salazar, Gustavo Adolfo; Camacho, Paul Anthony

    Only a few scales have been validated in Spanish for the assessment of suicide risk, and none of them have achieved predictive validity. To determine the validity and reliability of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in patients with suicide risk attending the specialist clinic. The Beck Hopelessness Scale, reasons for living inventory, and the suicide behaviour questionnaire were applied in patients with suicide risk attending the psychiatric clinic and the emergency department. A new assessment was made 30 days later to determine the predictive validity of suicide or suicide attempt. The evaluation included a total of 244 patients, with a mean age of 30.7±13.2 years, and the majority were women. The internal consistency was .9 (Kuder-Richardson formula 20). Four dimensions were found which accounted for 50% of the variance. It was positively correlated with the suicidal behaviour questionnaire (Spearman .48, P<.001), number of suicide attempts (Spearman .25, P<.001), severity of suicide risk (Spearman .23, P<.001). The correlation with the reasons for living inventory was negative (Spearman -.52, P<.001). With a cut-off ≥12, the negative predictive value was 98.4% (95% CI: 94.2-99.8), and the positive predictive value was 14.8% (95% CI: 6.6-27.1). The Beck Hopelessness Scale in Colombian patients with suicidality shows results similar to the original version, with adequate reliability and moderate concurrent and predictive validity. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The Yoruba version of the Beck Hopelessness Scale: psychometric characteristics and correlates of hopelessness in a sample of Nigerian psychiatric outpatients.

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    Aloba, Olutayo; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Mapayi, Boladale; Oloniniyi, Ibiduniyi; Mosaku, Kolawole; Alimi, Taiwo; Esan, Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from the developed western countries have repeatedly demonstrated that hopelessness positively correlates with an increased risk of suicide in the context of chronic mental disorders such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. Despite this persistently strong association, the construct of hopelessness in terms of its factorial structure and correlates has not been explored among Nigerian psychiatric outpatients. The aim of this present study is to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Yoruba language culturally adapted version of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in a cross-sectional sample of psychiatric outpatients in South-western Nigeria. The participants were 327 Nigerian adult outpatients receiving treatment for schizophrenia, bipolar and depressive disorders, consecutively recruited from the outpatient psychiatric clinics of a university teaching hospital in South-western Nigeria. The outpatients were recruited over a one year period. They completed the Yoruba translated version of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS-Y), a sociodemographic and illness-related questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Their level of functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), psychopathology was evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the level of disability measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-II). Suicidality and confirmation of the diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar and depressive disorders were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The construct of hopelessness in terms of factorial structure, reliability, validity and correlates was explored. Exploratory Factor Analysis using Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation was used to examine the factorial structure of the BHS-Y. Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach's alpha, and the construct validity of the scale was assessed

  4. Specificity and sensitivity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale for suicidal ideation among adolescents entering early intervention service.

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    Granö, Niklas; Oksanen, Jorma; Kallionpää, Santeri; Roine, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between hopelessness and suicidal behaviour in clinical populations. The aim of the study was to investigate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) for suicidal ideation in adolescents who show early risk signs on the psychiatric disorder continuum. Three-hundred and two help-seeking adolescents (mean age = 15.5 years) who were entering an early intervention team at Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, completed questionnaires of BHS and suicidal ideation, derived from Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results suggest that a BHS cut-off score ≥8 (sensitivity = 0.70, specificity = 0.76) or cut-off score ≥9 (sensitivity = 0.63, specificity = 0.80) may be useful to detect suicidal ideation with BHS in help-seeking adolescents population. Results remain mainly the same in a separate analysis with adolescents at risk for psychosis. The results support previous cut-off points for BHS in identification of suicidal ideation. The results suggest also that lower cut-off scores may be useful in sense of sensitivity, especially in clinical settings.

  5. Psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Beck hopelessness scale (BHS): results from a German representative population sample.

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    Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Mößle, Thomas; Brähler, Elmar

    2018-04-25

    The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) has been the most frequently used instrument for the measurement of hopelessness in the past 40 years. Only recently has it officially been translated into German. The psychometric properties and factor structure of the BHS have been cause for intensive debate in the past. Based on a representative sample of the German population (N = 2450) item analysis including item sensitivity, item-total correlation and item difficulty was performed. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) for several factor solutions from the literature were performed. Multiple group factor analysis was performed to assess measurement invariance. Construct validity was assessed via the replication of well-established correlations with concurrently assessed measures. Most items exhibited adequate properties. Items #4, #8 and #13 exhibited poor item characteristics- each of these items had previously received negative evaluations in international studies. A one-dimensional factor solution, favorable for the calculation and interpretation of a sum score, was regarded as adequate. A bi-factor model with one content factor and two method factors (defined by positive/negative item coding) resulted in an excellent model fit. Cronbach's alpha in the current sample was .87. Hopelessness, as measured by the BHS, significantly correlated in the expected direction with suicidal ideation (r = .36), depression (r = .53) and life satisfaction (r = -.53). Strict measurement invariance could be established regarding gender and depression status. Due to limited research regarding the interpretation of fit indices with dichotomous data, interpretation of CFA results needs to remain tentative. The BHS is a valid measure of hopelessness in various subgroups of the general population. Future research could aim at replicating these findings using item response theory and cross-cultural samples. A one-dimensional bi-factor model seems appropriate even in a non

  6. Psychometric Adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a Self-Rated Suicide Risk Screening Instrument Among Nigerian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloba, Olutayo; Awe, Oluwatosin; Adelola, Aderopo; Olatunji, Philemon; Aloba, Tolulope

    2018-03-01

    Globally, suicide is the most important cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. The factor that correlates most significantly with suicide is hopelessness. The aim is to explore the psychometric adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) as a suicide risk evaluation tool among Nigerian university students. A total of 554 Nigerian students completed the BHS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Suicide risk level among them was determined by interviewing them with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Suicidality module. Cronbach's alpha for the 16-item BHS was 0.87. It exhibited satisfactory concurrent validity with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Suicidality module and the subscales of the DASS among the students. The 2-factor model of the BHS-16 exhibited satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.930; parsimonious goodness of fit index = 0.601; comparative fit index = 0.934; incremental fit index = 0.936; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.910; root mean square error of approximation = 0.059; χ 2 / df = 1.9). Receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the best cutoff score for those categorized as high suicide risk was 7 (sensitivity 0.700, specificity 0.908, AUC = 0.897). The BHS has satisfactory psychometric properties as a suicide risk screening tool among Nigerian university students.

  7. Escala de Desesperanza BHS (A. Beck, 1974: estudio de las propiedades psicométricas y baremización de la Adaptación Argentina Beck Hopelessness Scale BHS (A. Beck, 1974: psychometric study and standardization of Argentinian Adaptation

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    Isabel María Mikulic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se propone presentar los resultados obtenidos en la adaptación, validación y estandarización de la Escala de Desesperanza-BHS (A. Beck, 1974; Adaptación Argentina: I.M. Mikulic, 1998. La adaptación se realizó mediante la técnica de "back translation" y en el proceso de validación participaron 377 participantes de Capital Federal y Gran Buenos Aires, entre las edades de 18 y 50 años (M: 28; SD: 7,9. Se analizó la consistencia interna de la escala, así como su validez concurrente, predictiva, diferencial y factorial. El coeficiente alpha de confiabilidad del instrumento fue aceptable. Los coeficientes de correlación de la BHS con la adaptación argentina del Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI-II demuestran ser significativos, sobre todo con aquellos ítems del BDI que evalúan pesimismo. El análisis de regresión realizado advierte que el 16% de la variabilidad en los puntajes de la prueba BDI pueden ser atribuidos a la variable desesperanza. El análisis factorial realizado con la técnica de Componentes Principales y rotación Varimax identificó tres factores que explican el 54,8 % de la varianza. Al considerar la validez diferencial de la BHS, se evidencia que no existe asociación entre desesperanza y género, y que las correlaciones con nivel educativo y edad son muy bajas. Con el fin de disponer de normas locales, se han elaborado las tablas de equivalencia para Capital Federal y Gran Buenos Aires. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio permiten concluir que la Escala BHS adaptada evalúa un constructo psicológicamente significativo en nuestro medio y puede ser usada con propósitos de "screening" en diversos contextos.Present study aims to show adaptation process, validation procedures and standardization norms for Beck Hopelessness Scale BHS (A. Beck, 1974; Argentinian Version: I.M. Mikulic, 1998. Argentinian Adaptation underwent a "back translation" process and it has been validated in an

  8. Effectiveness of psycho-education on depression, hopelessness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hopelessness, suicidality, anxiety and substance use among basic diploma students at ... questionnaires were used to collect data: the researcher-designed social ... Beck's Hopelessness Scale, Beck's Suicide Ideation Scale, Beck's Anxiety ...

  9. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Hopelessness, Helplessness, and Haplessness Scale in a Turkish clinical sample.

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    Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the Hopelessness, Helplessness, and Haplessness Scale developed by Lester (1998). Data were obtained from 75 psychiatric patients. Cronbach alphas ranged from .67 to .90. Scores on the scales were associated with Beck, Weissman, Lester, and Trexler's measure of hopelessness, with the correlation strongest for the new hopelessness scale.

  10. Race and Ethnic Differences in Hope and Hopelessness as Moderators of the Association between Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behavior

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    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Visser, Preston L.; Chang, Edward C.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined trait hope and hopelessness as potential moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Participants: A diverse sample of 372 college students. Methods: Depressive symptoms, hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), trait hope (Trait Hope Scale), and suicidal behaviors were assessed.…

  11. Purpose In Life and Hopelessness: An Empirical Study

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    Joaquín García-Alandete

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between purpose inlife and hopelessness in a sample of 302 subjects. Hypothesis declare thatbooth variables are significant, negative, associated. Purpose In Life Test(PIL; Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1969 and Hopelessness Scale (HS; Beck,Weissman, Lester & Trexler, 1974 are used. Statistical used are Pearson’scorrelation coefficient and Spearman’s rho coefficient. Results (r= -0.550,p= 0.000; rs= -0.502, p= 0.000 support hypothesis: purpose in life isnegatively associated to hopelessness. High level of purpose in life involveless hopelessness, and existential vacuum is associated to high level of hopelessness,statistically significant.

  12. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921- Biography

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    K. Fatih Yavuz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available he American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics, which led to his creation of cognitive therapy, for which he received the 2006 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is also known for his creation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and has founded the Beck Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in which his daughter, Dr. Judith Beck, works. He is married with four children, Roy, Judy, Dan, and Alice. He has eight grandchildren.the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. Beck is noted for his research in psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics, which led to his creation of cognitive therapy, for which he received the 2006 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring depression severity. Beck is also known for his creation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and has founded the Beck Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in which his daughter, Dr. Judith Beck, works. He is married with four children, Roy, Judy, Dan, and Alice. He has eight grandchildren.

  13. Assessment of Suicide Ideation and Parasuicide: Hopelessness and Social Desirability.

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    Linehan, Marsha M.; Nielsen, Stevan L.

    1981-01-01

    Shoppers completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Edwards Social Desirability Inventory, and a survey of past suicidal behavior. Results indicated hopelessness and social desirability were reliably related to reports of past suicidal behavior, to frequency of current suicidal ideation, and to subjects' predictions of future suicide potential.…

  14. The relation of hopelessness/helplessness versus beck depression inventory (BDI) in healthy individuals and in patients with benign breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.

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    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-02-01

    The relation between hopelessness/helplessness versus the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared in a prospective study before. We, therefore, investigated hopelessness and helplessness versus the BDI in 115 patients. In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness versus the BDI before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. In the self-rating score (SRS), the hopelessness and the helplessness versus the BDI were highly significantly positively correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa values for hopelessness and helplessness versus the BDI in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) in the hopelessness versus the BDI in the BBD and BC groups and in the ERS in helplessness versus the BDI in the HSS and BBD groups. The unweighted kappa values in the ERS for hopelessness versus the BDI in the HSS and BBD groups were statistically highly significant and the unweighted kappa values in the ERS for helplessness versus the BDI in the BBD and BC groups were statistically significant. The results of this study support a powerful link between hopelessness and helplessness versus BDI in the self-rating and examiner-rating. This finding is of clinical importance since, in the breast cancer diagnostic unit, the patients with hopelessness/helplessness characteristics and high BDI score might be associated with a difficulty and delay in reaching BC diagnosis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of the Life Satisfaction and Hopelessness Levels of Teacher Candidates in Turkey

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    Gencay, Selcuk; Gencay, Okkes Alpaslan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the level of hopelessness and life satisfaction of teacher candidates from the view points of gender and branch variables. With this aim, the "Beck Hopelessness Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale" has been applied to a total of 278 teacher candidates, of which 133 were females and 145 were males. According to…

  16. Construct validity of the helplessness/hopelessness/haplessness scale: correlations with perfectionism and depression.

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    Leenaars, Lindsey; Lester, David

    2007-02-01

    In a sample of 117 undergraduates, helplessness scores and the discrepancy scores on a measure of perfectionism predicted depression scores, providing evidence for construct validity for the hopelessness, helplessness, and haplessness scales.

  17. Study of suicidal ideations, hopelessness and impulsivity in elderly

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    Surbhi C Trivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to assess the suicidal ideations, hopelessness and impulsivity in depressed and non-depressed elderly and to study the relationship of suicidal ideations with hopelessness and impulsivity in them. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 60 elderly patients (30 cases and 30 controls above the age of 60 years. The scales used were Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barrat′s Impulsiveness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale. Results: Mean Geriatric Suicide Ideations Scale scores, mean Beck Hopelessness Scale scores and mean Barrat′s Impulsiveness Scale and scores of depressed elderly were higher than that of elderly who were not depressed and these differences were statistically significant. Hopelessness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation in the entire sample as well as in the depressed and non-depressed elderly when the two groups were considered separately. Impulsivity when considered alone was a significant predictor of suicidal ideations in the entire sample. Conclusion: Hopelessness and impulsivity both by themselves are significant predictors for suicidal ideations in the elderly and when both are considered together hopelessness is a better predictor of suicidal ideations than impulsivity.

  18. Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version by the Rasch Rating Scale model

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    Sónia Quintão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women, aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85. Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. It was found that Beck Anxiety Inventory's system of four categories, the data-model fit, and people reliability were adequate. The measure can be considered as unidimensional. Gender and age-related differences were not a threat to the validity. BAI correlated significantly with other anxiety measures. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

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    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  20. Esteem and hopelessness in adolescents in an educational institution of Quindío

    OpenAIRE

    José Alonso Andrade-Salazar; Lowell Duffay-Pretel; Paola Andrea Ortega-Maya; Elberney Ramirez-Avilés; Jorge Erik Carvajal-Valencia

    2017-01-01

    This is an empirical-analytic correlational research whose intent is to find the relationship between levels of self-esteem and hopelessness in adolescents in an educational institution of Quindío. The Beck Hopelessness Scale was applied, and the Self-Esteem Scale Rosenberg.   It was found that the risk of suicide or grade of hopelessness “none or minimal” is 59,4 %, “mild” 26,8 %, “moderate” 12,9 % and “high” 0,9 %. The type of suicide risk is minimal in women 33,5% and high 0,9 %, while in ...

  1. Interrelationships of locus of control content dimensions and hopelessness.

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    Ward, L C; Thomas, L L

    1985-07-01

    Items from three locus of control (LOC) tests and the Beck Hopelessness Scale were administered to 197 college students. Factor analyses produced multiple factors for each LOC test, but the Beck scale proved to be unidimensional. Factor scales were constructed for each test, and scores were factor analyzed to discover common content. Each LOC test contained a salient dimension that described belief in luck, chance, or fate, and corresponding scales were well correlated. Internal control was the second common theme, with variations according to whether control was attributed to oneself or to people in general. The third common component expressed a personal helplessness or powerlessness. Each common factor was loaded by the Hopelessness Scale, which also correlated with all but one LOC factor scale.

  2. Refining the Assessment of Hopelessness: An Improved Way to Look to the Future

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    Fisher, Lauren B.; Overholser, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its high sensitivity, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) has demonstrated low specificity, has an ambiguous factor structure, and includes inadequate items. The current study examined the psychometric properties of a modified BHS (mBHS) using a Likert scale format that would allow for improved reliability, validity, and clinical utility.…

  3. Ulrich Beck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    En indføring i den verdenskendte tyske sociolog Ulrich Becks teori om risikosamfundet og den refleksive modernitet......En indføring i den verdenskendte tyske sociolog Ulrich Becks teori om risikosamfundet og den refleksive modernitet...

  4. Ulrich Beck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Christiansen, Allan

    Since the 1980s, Ulrich Beck has worked extensively on his theories of second modernity and the risk society. The book Ulrich Beck provides an extensive and thorough introduction to the German sociologist’s collected works. The book covers his sociology of work, his theories of individualization...... of Ulrich Beck comes with a list of suggested further reading, as well as explanations of core terms. The book also includes a biography of Beck, and full bibliographies of his work in both English and German....

  5. Sleep disorders and depressive feelings: a global survey with the Beck depression scale.

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    Vandeputte, Melissa; de Weerd, Al

    2003-07-01

    Patients with (chronic) sleep disorders are prone to depression. Until now studies on the prevalence of depression in the various sleep disorders focused mainly on obstructive sleep apnea patients and narcolepsy. Studies in other common sleep disorders are scarce. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of depressive feelings in the various sleep disorders diagnosed in a Center for Sleep and Wake Disorders. We included 917 consecutive patients (age between 14 and 84 years, median age: 49, 396 male and 521 female), seen in our center for sleep and wake disorders during 2001 and first half of 2002. The diagnosis was based on the history taken at the outpatient-clinic and two consecutive 24-h polysomnographic recordings at home (APSG). The final decisions on the diagnosis were made according to the ASDA international classification of sleep disorders. The severity of depressive feelings was based on the Beck depression scale. Overall, the prevalence of depressive feelings was high. There were no significant differences in age and gender. In psychophysiological insomnia, inadequate sleep- and wake hygiene, sleep state misperception and periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome some form of depression occurred in more than half of the patients. Moderate to severe depression was found in 3.5% of the patients. The study suggests that the use of a depression scale in the daily routine of diagnosing and treating sleep disorders should be encouraged in order to optimise diagnosis and therapy in these patients.

  6. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

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    Audrey Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS. Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs=-0.48; p<0.05 and visual memory (rs=-0.46; p<0.05. The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  7. Esteem and hopelessness in adolescents in an educational institution of Quindío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade-Salazar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is an empirical-analytic correlational research whose intent is to find the relationship between levels of self-esteem and hopelessness in adolescents in an educational institution of Quindío. The Beck Hopelessness Scale was applied, and the Self-Esteem Scale Rosenberg.   It was found that the risk of suicide or grade of hopelessness “none or minimal” is 59,4 %, “mild” 26,8 %, “moderate” 12,9 % and “high” 0,9 %. The type of suicide risk is minimal in women 33,5% and high 0,9 %, while in the men is minimal 29,5 %, mild 17 %, and moderate 7,1 %. Expressing as conclusion that hopelessness is increase for motivational and cognitive factors that shape suicidal ideation and raise the risk of suicide. Low self-esteem is not a consistent factor in suicidal ideation.

  8. [Concurrent validation of the suicidal risk assessment scale (R.S.D.) with the Beck's suicidal ideation scale].

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    Ducher, J-L; Daléry, J

    2004-01-01

    The prevention of suicide is a top priority in mental health. The determination of high risk suicidal groups is not sufficient. The expressing suicidal ideas is not a protective factor, but in contrary a risk factor to take into account, or even to search and to quantify: 80% of the subjects who attempt to commit suicide or commit suicide express such ideas months before. Several evaluation instruments try to help the practitioners or the research workers in this reasoning. The suicidal risk assessment scale RSD can be cited in particular. It is composed of eleven sections. The 0 level corresponds to the absence of particular ideas of death or suicide. Levels 1 and 2, the presence of ideas of death. Levels 3-4-5, the presence of suicidal ideas. The difference compared to the majority of the other scales consecrated to the same subject, the passif desire of death, occupies a place totally particular in the RSD (level 6). From the level 7, the risk of acting out seems to become more important. It stops being a simple idea of suicide, but becomes a real will of dying, firstly retained by something or someone (level 7), the fear of causing suffering to dear ones or a religious belief., then determined (level 8). Finally, the patient has elaborated a concrete plan (level 9) or he has already started the preparation of acting out (level 10). It is just necessary to evaluate and to note the highest level of the scale. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and of the Suicidal Ideation Scale by Beck in an international multicenters, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups, with a fixed dose of fluoxétine or fluvoxamine for six weeks, allowed to search correlations which could exist between the two scales. The ana-lysis before the beginning of the treatment was done on 108 outpatients depressive, male and female, aged 18 or over. It finds a satisfactory concurrent validity between the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and the

  9. German Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS): psychometric properties from a representative population survey.

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    Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Mößle, Thomas; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-12-04

    Suicidal ideation has been identified as one of the major predictors of attempted or actual suicide. Routinely screening individuals for endorsing suicidal thoughts could save lives and protect many from severe psychological consequences following the suicide of loved ones. The aim of this study was to validate the German version of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) in a sample representative for the Federal Republic of Germany. All 2450 participants completed the first part of the Scale, the BSS-Screen. A risk group of n = 112 individuals (4.6%) with active or passive suicidal ideation was identified and subsequently completed the entire BSS. Satisfactory internal reliability (α = .97 for the BSS-Screen; α = .94 for the entire BSS) and excellent model fit indices for the one-dimensional factorial structure of the BSS-Screen (CFI = .998; TLI = .995; RMSEA = .045 [95%-CI: .030-.061]) were confirmed. Measurement invariance analyses supported strict invariance across gender, age, and depression status. We found correlations with related self-report measures in expected directions comparable to previous studies, indicating satisfactory construct validity. Our study involved cross sectional data, hence neither predictive validity nor retest-reliability were examined. As only the risk group of n = 112 individuals completed the entire measure, confirmatory factor analyses could not be conducted for the full BSS. The German translation of the BSS is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing suicidal ideation in the general population. Using it as a screening device in general and specialized medical care could substantially advance suicide prevention.

  10. The Relationship between Neuroticism, Hopelessness, and Depression in Older Korean Immigrants.

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    Bum Jung Kim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neuroticism, hopelessness, and depression among older Korean immigrants. To extend this line of research, this study aimed to examine the effects of neuroticism and hopelessness in predicting depression among older Korean immigrants.Data for this study came from a survey of 220 first generation Korean immigrants aged 65 years or older in Los Angeles County in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with trained social workers using a structured questionnaire translated into Korean. All interviews were conducted in Korean. The neuroticism sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to assess neuroticism (EPQN. Hopelessness was measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS. Depression was measured by the 20-item Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D scale.The study found that age (β = .26, p< .01, gender (β = -.13, p< .01, income (β = -.13, p< .01, neuroticism (β = .51, p< .01, and hopelessness (β = .15, p< .01 were significant predictors of depression.The study provides preventive strategies that would help in the development of depression-reduction services or programs for the population, especially for those living with neuroticism and hopelessness.

  11. The university students’ life satisfactions: Psychological help- seeking attitude and hopelessness

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    Zeynep Karataş

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to reveal to what extent university students’ attitudes towards their psychological help seeking and hopelessness predict theirlife satisfaction. Participants of the study consist of 359 university students, including 178 female and 181 male. In the research, Life Satisfaction Scale, Psychological Help- Seeking Attitude Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Personal Information Form were used as data collection tools. For the analyses of the research, Regression Analyses were made, and it was determined that university students’ attitudes of seeking for psychological help and their hopelessness levels significantly predicted their life satisfactions. Considering these findings, the analyses of the factors that affect university students’ life satisfactions may be instructive in determining the targets for the studies of psychological counselling

  12. Impact of Personality Traits, Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness Levels on Quality of Life in the Patients with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzci, Filiz; Sarsanov, Dauren; Erdogan, Zeynep İyigün; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Çelebi, Esra; Alço, Gül; Kocaman, Nazmiye; Ordu, Çetin; Öztürk, Alper; Duymaz, Tomris; Pilavcı, Kezban Nur; Elbüken, Filiz; Ağaçayak, Filiz; Aktepe, Fatma; Ünveren, Gizem; Özdem, Gözdem; Eralp, Yeşim; Özmen, Vahit

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of personality traits, anxiety, depression and hopelessness levels on quality of life in the patients with breast cancer. The study was performed on 90 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 90 healthy women. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Collection Form designed by us, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Quality of Life Scale-Short Form (SF-36) were administered to patients and to control group. The patients with breast cancer were found to indicate higher levels of anxiety and depression, lower levels of quality of life, and higher scores of personality inventory subscales as compared to the healthy control group. In the patient group, it was identified that the quality of life subscale scores were found to be negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, hopelessness and neurotic personality scores; there was a positive correlation between neurotic personality scores and depression, anxiety and hopelessness scores. It can be concluded that the breast cancer patients with extraversion personality traits have lower levels of anxiety and depression, keeping their quality of life better, whereas the patients with higher neuroticism scores may have more impaired quality of life. Therefore, the psychiatric evaluation of the breast cancer patients during and after the treatment cannot be ruled out.

  13. Internet addiction and hopelessness in high school students

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    Nuray simsek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: 12-18 years of age reported that risky for internet addiction. To determine the relationship between internet addiction and hopelessness was aimed in this study. METHOD: This study was carried out in a high school which the maximum number of students in a city center and has a profile of student who from every region of this city. It was sampling taken 350 students from 1596 in this high school by using simple random numbers table. It was used adolescent information form, Internet Addiction Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale to data collection. In the analysis process, Chi-square, correlation, logistic regression analysis were used. RESULTS: It was found internet addiction between hopelessness in adolescents, bi-directional, moderate and positive relationship. Hopelessness scores of adolescents showing symptoms of internet addiction and who use the internet to surf on the web are high. Adolescents 3.6% of internet addiction profile showed 21.8% per cent were found to be the border of internet addiction. Some of the characteristics of the adolescents at home to the computer, internet usage time and a friend on the relationship between Internet addiction was found to be a significant effect. CONCLUSION: As a result, at home with a computer, internet usage control themselves and dependency profile of adolescents with poor peer relations and adolescents showed that level of hopelessness was found to increase the levels of dependence on the internet. Adolescents in schools, such as feelings of hopelessness, stimulate research and advisory programs offered configuration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 7-14

  14. Impact of Personality Traits, Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness Levels on Quality of Life in the Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsanov, Dauren; Erdogan, Zeynep İyigün; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Çelebi, Esra; Alço, Gül; Kocaman, Nazmiye; Ordu, Çetin; Öztürk, Alper; Duymaz, Tomris; Pilavcı, Kezban Nur; Elbüken, Filiz; Ağaçayak, Filiz; Aktepe, Fatma; Ünveren, Gizem; Özdem, Gözdem; Eralp, Yeşim; Özmen, Vahit

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of personality traits, anxiety, depression and hopelessness levels on quality of life in the patients with breast cancer. Materials and methods The study was performed on 90 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 90 healthy women. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Collection Form designed by us, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Quality of Life Scale–Short Form (SF-36) were administered to patients and to control group. Results The patients with breast cancer were found to indicate higher levels of anxiety and depression, lower levels of quality of life, and higher scores of personality inventory subscales as compared to the healthy control group. In the patient group, it was identified that the quality of life subscale scores were found to be negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, hopelessness and neurotic personality scores; there was a positive correlation between neurotic personality scores and depression, anxiety and hopelessness scores. Conclusions It can be concluded that the breast cancer patients with extraversion personality traits have lower levels of anxiety and depression, keeping their quality of life better, whereas the patients with higher neuroticism scores may have more impaired quality of life. Therefore, the psychiatric evaluation of the breast cancer patients during and after the treatment cannot be ruled out. PMID:29774319

  15. Hopelessness, Depression and Life Satisfaction Among The Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

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    Güler Duru Aşiret

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the level of hopelessness, depression, and life satisfaction among patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: 65 patients with multiple sclerosis, treated at the neurology clinic of a university hospital, were included in this study. In this descriptive study, a data collection form developed by the researchers, the Beck Depression Scale, and the Beck Hopelessness and Life Satisfaction Scale were used. RESULTS: Almost half (43.1% of the patients exhibited severe depressive symptoms. Patients’ hopelessness and life satisfaction levels were moderate. The scores on depression and life satisfaction scales were correlated negatively. While patients’ traits including female gender, low economic level, difficulties in walking, and fatigue were associated with reduced life satisfaction; variables such as having a child, low economic and education levels, experiencing incontinence, and fatigue were related to a higher level of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients were depressed; life satisfaction and hopelessness levels were moderate. Linear regression analysis revealed that education and emotional problems determined 42% of the depression score; and economic level and emotional problems identified 32% of the life satisfaction score

  16. A meta-analytic comparison of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as measures of treatment outcome.

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    Edwards, B C; Lambert, M J; Moran, P W; McCully, T; Smith, K C; Ellingson, A G

    1984-05-01

    Some clinicians have considered the Beck Depression Inventory, a self-rating scale, too reactive to patient halo effects and, therefore, a liberal measure of treatment outcome. On the other hand, interviewer-rating scales, like the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression have been viewed as more conservative measures of treatment gain. Studies which compared the Beck Depression Inventory to the Hamilton Rating Scale, as dependent measures, were reviewed for the purpose of determining if the scales provided comparable data for assessing treatment effects. The use of meta-analysis techniques resulted in a comparison of effect sizes which indicated that the Beck Depression Inventory was significantly less liberal than the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The implications of these results for selecting outcome measures and the application of meta-analysis techniques for comparing dependent measures are discussed.

  17. Comparison of Reliability and Validity of the Breast Cancer depression anxiety stress scales (DASS- 21) with the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bener A; Alsulaiman R; Doodson LG; El Ayoubi HR

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has been conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Hospital Anxiety and Depression [HADS] and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among the Arab Breast Cancer population. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21), the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Breast Cancer women ...

  18. Validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory for use in end-stage renal disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosman, W.L.; Siegert, C.E.H.; Korzec, A.; Honig, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for use in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to compare the outcome of both screening measures with each other. Design. Cross-sectional and between-subjects design. The

  19. Hopelessness Levels of Candidate Students of Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department and Their Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession

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    Serdar BAYRAKDAROĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the professional attitudes towards teaching profession and hopelessness levels of the students taking the special talent test for pyhsi cal education and sports academy in terms of several variables. 244 students ,who came to apply to the Special Talent Tes t of University of Gumushane in the year 2014, attended to the study. “Beck Hopelessness Scale” and “ Attitude Scale Towards Profe ssion of Teaching ” have been used in the scope of the study. The data to be used in the study and collected by data collec tion tools have been subjected to descriptive and relational statistical processes in line with the objectives of the study. In order to interpret the findings of the study, One - way Analysis of Variance, Mann - Whitney U and Kruscal Wallis H Tests have been used. According to the results of the study , it has been found out that there is no significant difference between the attitudes towards the profession of teaching and hopelessness levels in terms of ; age (Attitude; F 240= 1.833, P=.142, H opelessness; F 240= .184, P=.907, family income level (Attitude; F 240= 509, P=.729, Hopelessness; F 240= .891, p=.470, prospective preferences (Attitude; U=991.000, p=.456, Hopelessness; U=928.500, P=.286, and the training applied for the special talent test (Attitude; X 2 =4.786, P=.310, Hopelessness; X 2 = 4.342,P= .362.

  20. The level of hopelessness in the students of an occupational education center and affecting factors

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    Süleyman Erhan Deveci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to define the hopelessness levels in the students of an occupational education center and the definition of the factors affecting them.Materials and methods: The survey is a descriptive type and was made among 630 students who have been taking an apprenticeship, foremanship and proficiency education at an Occupational Education Centre. The whole universe was included in the survey. A questionnaire of a question set, which is made up of health, social and demographic variables and the factors thought to be related with hopelessness and also of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was carried out among 600 students.Results: Totally 88.7% of the students are male, 11.3% are female and their mean age was 20.04 ± 6.0 years. Of all, 83.7% were taking foremanship education; 9.5% apprenticeship education and 6.8% were taking a proficiency education. The average point of BHS was found as 7.31 ± 3.78 (min: 1, max: 19. The rate of the students whose BHS point is ≥10 is 26.2%. The level of hopelessness was found higher among the men who worked more than five days a week, changed jobs, works more than eight hours, don’t like their jobs, had chronic illnesses and smoking and taking alcohol (p<0.05. Also, perception of their health situation goes from positive to negative parallel to increasing hopelessness (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hopelessness mean point of the students was low. But, approximately one per four students’ BHS point is ≥10. Psychological help or guiding activities can be organized, after evaluating the factors affecting their hopelessness.

  1. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Haplessness Scale in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Sevginar; Ertaş, Sedar; Lester, David

    2011-04-01

    In a sample of 100 Turkish psychiatric patients with diagnoses of anxiety disorders, Lester's Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Haplessness inventory had moderate estimates of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity.

  2. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovibond, P F; Lovibond, S H

    1995-03-01

    The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.

  3. Design and psychometric analysis of the Hopelessness and Suicide Ideation Inventory “IDIS”

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    Bertha Lucía Avendaño Prieto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to design the Hopeless and Suicide Ideation Inventory, also know as IDIS - Spanish acronym for Inventario de Desesperanza e Ideación Suicida - and to analyze its psychometric properties. A quantitative empirical research was conducted employing a non-experimental design, an instrumental variable and cross-sectional analysis. Three hundred and thirty-nine people participated in the study (67.6% females, 31.6% males, in which 54.6% were students and 34.8% were employees. Participants completed the IDIS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation Inventory, and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The results indicated an inter-rater reliability and a positive convergent validity in both scales. Suicidal ideation revealed an internal consistency of α = .76, and α = .81 for hopelessness; a total variance of 41.77% and 47.52% was obtained correspondingly. Based on the Item Response Theory (IRT, the adjustments for INFIT and OUTFIT fell under the expected range. It was concluded that the IDIS is a reliable and valid measure, however, further evaluations on sensitivity and specificity are encouraged.

  4. Assessing cognitive insight in nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan: an investigation using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale

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    Lu Chien-Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS was designed for the assessment of the cognitive processes involved in self-reflection and the ability to modify erroneous beliefs and misinterpretations. Studies investigating the factor structure of the BCIS have indicated a two-factor model in the psychotic population. The factor structure of the BCIS, however, has not received much consideration in the nonpsychiatric population. The present study examined the factor structure and validity of the BCIS and compared its scores between nonpsychiatric individuals and outpatients with psychosis. Method The Taiwanese version of the BCIS was administered to 507 nonpsychiatric individuals and 118 outpatients with schizophrenia. The psychometric properties of the BCIS were examined through the following analyses: exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, correlation analyses, and discriminative validity. Results The BCIS showed adequate internal consistency and stability over time. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the 15-item measure indicated a two-factor solution that supported the two dimensions of the Taiwanese BCIS, which was also observed with the original BCIS. Following the construct validation, we obtained a composite index (self-reflectiveness minus self-certainty of the Taiwanese BCIS that reflected cognitive insight. Consistent with previous studies, our results indicated that psychosis is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, which possibly reflect lower cognitive insight. Our results also showed that better cognitive insight is related to worse depression in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but not in nonpsychiatric individuals. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses revealed that the area under the curve (AUC was 0.731. A composite index of 3 was a good limit, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 51%. Conclusion The BCIS proved to be

  5. Agreement between hopelessness/helplessness and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale in healthy individuals and in patients with benign breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The relation between scoring for hopelessness/helplessness and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated hopelessness and helplessness scores versus the MADRS in 115 patients. In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness, and for the MADRS before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. In the self-rating score (SRS), hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS were highly significantly positively correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa values for hopelessness/helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) for hopelessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups and for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. The unweighted kappa values in the ERS for hopelessness versus the MADRS were statistically highly significant for the HSS, BBD and BC groups and those for helplessness versus the MADRS in the HSS and BBD groups were statistically significant. A new finding with clinical relevance in the present work is the agreement between hopelessness/helplessness scores and MADRS in the SRS and ERS. In the breast cancer diagnostic unit, the identification of hopeless/helpless persons is essential in suicide prevention and it is important to assess and treat hopelessness/helplessness even though an individual may report few depressive symptoms. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Temperament, post-partum depression, hopelessness, and suicide risk among women soon after delivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Serafini, Gianluca; Berrettoni, Claudia; Angeletti, Gloria; Koukopoulos, Alexia; Tatarelli, Roberto; Lester, David; Roselli, Domenico; Primiero, Francesco M

    2011-07-22

    The aim of the authors in this study was to assess the prevalence of postpartum depression and evaluate the association of affective temperaments with emotional disorders in a sample of 92 pregnant women consecutively admitted for delivery between March and December 2009. In the first few days postpartum, women completed the Suicidal History Self-rating Screening Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire, and the Gotland Male Depression Scale. Fifty percent of the women reported an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 9 or higher, and 23% a score of 13 or higher. Women with a dysphoric-dysregulated temperament had higher mean scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale (p Depression Scale (p Depression Scale (p Depression Scale was significantly associated with temperament when controlling for the presence of other variables. Women with a dysphoric-dysregulated temperament were 1.23 times as likely to have higher depressive symptom scores. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of psychiatric screening programs in the postpartum period as well as factors associated with depression and suicidality during the same period.

  7. A case-control study of hopelessness and suicidal behavior in the city of Athens, Greece. The role of the financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Korkoliakou, Panagiota; Gkerekou, Maria; Bouras, Georgios; Papadopoulou, Athanasia; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in Greek patients with a recent suicide attempt, the predictive ability of BHS especially in terms of age and the possible effect of the financial crisis on hopelessness as it has been identified as a significant suicide risk factor. The study included a total of 510 individuals, citizens of Athens, Greece. Three hundred and forty individuals (170 attempted suicide patients, and 170 -age and gender- matched healthy individuals used as controls) completed BHS before the financial crisis onset (from 2009 to 2010). A sample of 170 healthy individuals also completed the BHS after the financial crisis onset (from 2013 to 2014), when the impact of the austerity measures was being felt by the Greek society. The Greek BHS version demonstrated good psychometric properties and a sufficient degree of internal consistency. Attempted suicide patients (M = 9) presented higher hopelessness than the controls (M = 3). The patients' age positively correlated with hopelessness (r s  = .35, p  .05) the crisis onset. Nevertheless, regarding the latter group, the women, the younger individuals, the less educated, the unemployed and the participants with low or mediocre self-reported financial status presented increased hopelessness. Our findings suggest that BHS could be a useful instrument especially when screening for suicide risk in people of older age, and that the financial crisis in Greece had a greater impact on subgroups of the population regarding hopelessness.

  8. Beck Self-Esteem Scale-Short Form: Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale for the assessment of self-concept in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth C; Murakami-Brundage, Jessica; Bertolami, Nina; Beck, Aaron T; Grant, Paul M

    2018-05-01

    A requisite step for testing cognitive theories regarding the role of self-concept in schizophrenia is the development of measures that follow a cognitive conceptualization and better capture the multifaceted nature of this construct. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties a new self-concept measure, the Beck Self-Esteem Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), based on a sample of 204 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We evaluated the BSES-SF's dimensionality, internal consistency reliability, and construct and divergent validity using confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations, independent samples t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance. Findings indicate that the 10-item BSES-SF is a reliable and valid measure of self-concept that is appropriate for a broad group of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Following cognitive theory, the scale demonstrated significant relationships with delusion severity, motivation, and depression, further signifying its utility for research and practice efforts that are designed to address psychopathology in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Suicide Ideation in Depressed Male and Female Adolescent Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kristin L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Owen, Victoria J; Rial, Katherine V; Moorehead, Alexandra P; Kennard, Beth D; Emslie, Graham J

    2017-12-21

    We examined hopelessness as a predictor of suicide ideation in depressed youth after acute medication treatment. A total of 158 depressed adolescents were administered the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) as part of a larger battery at baseline and at weekly visits across 6 weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) was administered at baseline and week 6. A negative binomial regression model via a generalized estimating equation analysis of repeated measures was used to estimate suicide ideation over the 6 weeks of acute treatment from baseline measure of hopelessness. Depression severity and gender were included as covariates in the model. The negative binomial analysis was also conducted separately for the sample of males and females (in a gender-stratified analysis). Mean CDRS-R total scores were 60.30 ± 8.93 at baseline and 34.65 ± 10.41 at week 6. Mean baseline and week 6 BHS scores were 9.57 ± 5.51 and 5.59 ± 5.38, respectively. Per the C-SSRS, 43.04% and 83.54% reported having no suicide ideation at baseline and at week 6, respectively. The analyses revealed that baseline hopelessness was positively related to suicide ideation over treatment (p = .0027), independent of changes in depression severity. This significant finding persisted only for females (p = .0024). These results indicate the importance of early identification of hopelessness. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

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    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  11. An inventory to measure helplessness, hopelessness, and haplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    2001-12-01

    Using a sample of 69 undergraduates, scales were devised to measure helplessness, hopelessness, and haplessness and shown to have good reliability. Briefer scales were also developed whose scores were independent of one another in a factor analysis. Scores for 19 male and 50 female undergraduates on the 4-item scales of Helplessness and Hopelessness were associated with two different measures of depression, but scores on Hopelessness provided the stronger correlate.

  12. Suicide prevention after traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial of a program for the psychological treatment of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame K; Tate, Robyn L; Whiting, Diane L; Cotter, Rachel E

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a psychological treatment to reduce moderate to severe hopelessness after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Randomized controlled trial. Participants were aged between 18 and 65 years, experienced posttraumatic amnesia more than 1day and moderate to severe hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale [BHS]) and/or suicide ideation. Intervention comprised a 20-hour manualized group cognitive behavior therapy program. Participants were randomly allocated using concealed allocation (treatment n = 8; wait-list n = 9); all remained in their allocated group. Outcome variables were collected by assessors blind to group allocation. No between-groups differences were observed on demographic, injury, cognitive, and psychosocial variables at baseline (time 1). A significant group-by-time interaction was found for BHS in the treatment group (F1,15 = 13.20, P = .002), reflecting a reduction in mean BHS scores between time 1 and time 2 (posttreatment) with no main effects for group or time. At 3-month follow-up (time 3), the treatment gains were maintained or improved for 75% (6/8) of participants. Secondary outcome variables (suicide ideation, depression, social problem solving, self-esteem, hopefulness) displayed no significant group-by-time interactions or main effects. This trial provides initial evidence for the efficacy of a psychological intervention in reducing hopelessness among long-term survivors with severe TBI.

  13. The Effect of Art Therapy with Clay on Hopelessness Levels Among Neurology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Latife Utas; Kurtuncu, Meltem; Celik, Sevim

    This study was performed to determine the effect of art therapy with clay on hopelessness levels of patients under treatment in departments of neurology. The study was of one group, pre- and posttest design. This study was performed on patients who were hospitalized in the neurology departments of a university and a state hospital between February and May 2012 in Turkey. The sample for the study comprised 50 neurology patients with diagnoses of epilepsy (17 patients) and stroke (33 patients). The patients in the study were asked to create objects of clay of any shape they desired. Data for the research were collected with a sociodemographic data form and by using the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). While BHS scores of neurology patients before clay therapy were found higher compared to the scores after therapy with clay, there was also a statistically significant difference. After clay therapy, BHS scores were lower in women, in married patients, in patients who suffered from a stroke, people who had chronic disease, people without psychological illness, and in the case of children. The study showed that clay therapy had an impact on the hopelessness levels of neurology patients. Art therapy with clay may be used for rehabilitation purposes in neurology patients, both in the hospital and at home after discharge.

  14. Kashin-Beck's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, J.; Uyttendaele, D.; Broecke, van den W.; Claessens, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    A case of Kashin-Beck's disease is presented. It is an acquired, disabling, polyarthritic, degenerative condition of early onset, sometimes leading to a variable degree of dwarfism. It occurs endemically in certain Asian areas. Treatment is, if possible, preventive. In the established disease the

  15. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  16. Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Patients with “Male Depression” Syndrome, Hopelessness, and Suicide Risk: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Angeletti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and Methods. This was an observational study of the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP in a sample of 35 (30 women and 5 men patients with moderate-to-severe “male depression” (Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD ≥ 13 comorbid with unipolar mood disorder (dysthymia and major depression or anxiety disorder. Outcome measures were GSMD and BHS (Beck Hopelessness Scale score changes from baseline. Results. Patients had a strong response to STPP on the GSMD (estimated mean score change (± SE=−9.08 ± 2.74;P<0.01; partial eta squared  =0.50, but not on the BHS (estimated mean score change (± SE=−0.92 ± 1.55;P=0.57; partial eta squared  =0.03. BHS score changes were significantly associated with GSMD score changes (Pearson's r=0.56; P<0.001, even when controlling for the severity of hopelessness at the baseline (partial r=0.62; P<0.001. Conclusions. STPP proved to be effective in patients suffering from “male depression” although hopelessness was only marginally reduced by this treatment which points to the need to better understand how STPP can be involved in the reduction of suicide risk.

  17. Determinaton of Depression, Anxiety and Hopelessness Situations at Parents whose Children Are Followed in Gulhane Military Medical Faculty, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinics Due to Any Malignancy or Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kamil Tuna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic systemic diseases in childhood have negatively affecting the quality of life and debilitating effects for both children and parents. In our study, we investigated depression, anxiety and hopelessness situations at parents of children with these diseases. Materials and methods: The study was done at parents of children diagnosed with malignancy or chronic disease in GATA Department of Pediatrics Heath and Disease, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinics. Beck Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale were applied to the participants. Results: Parents of children, who are followed due to malignancy or chronic disease in department of pediatrics heath and disease, pediatric hematology and oncology clinics, constituted the study group. 60 mothers and 51 fathers as study group and 64 mothers and 45 fathers as control group were enrolled in the study between 1st July 2009 and 1st June 2010. The mean age of the parents in study group was 35,7±5,1 and 33,3 5,6 age in control group. The depression score was significantly higher statistically in study group (p=0,035. No difference was fond for the anxiety and hopelessness scores between the groups (p=0,064 and p=0,695 respectively. There was no difference for depression, hopelessness and anxiety scores between mothers and fathers of the children (p=0,217, p=0,447, p=0,102, respectively. Conclusion: Without gender discrimination the parents of children with malignancy and chronic disease are in the risk group for depression. It is necessary to support the parents both socially and psychologically. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 577-582

  18. Between hope and hopelessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Charlotte; Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Bruun, Poul

    2018-01-01

    and seven family members during follow-up visits at hospital and at the participants' homes between 2014 and 2016. A phenomenological-hermeneutical approach was used to interpret the data. RESULTS: 'Between hope and hopelessness' involved frustrations, concerns and doubts, all of which could relate...... to the interaction with healthcare providers. 'Seeking support from healthcare services', 'navigating between healthcare providers' and 'collaborating with healthcare providers at home' could entail opportunities to strengthen self-management and hope; however, it could also entail reduced faith in getting the right...... help and hopelessness. CONCLUSION: During a period of transition after hospitalisation, available and well-coordinated healthcare services, and alliances with healthcare professionals are crucial to COPD patients and their family members in terms of their self-management, hope and well-being....

  19. The uses of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M I; Bennett, M B

    1984-04-01

    If most emotional problems, like most medical problems, are caused by bad luck as well as by factors over which man has control, then those who suffer from such problems must accept a burden of helplessness. When patients and their families overuse theories of causality to avoid accepting their helplessness and to create an illusory sense of human control, unjust assignment of responsibility and excessive expectations for change may erode self-esteem and make change more difficult. The authors present examples of interventions that challenge the overuse of theories of causality. Although these interventions aroused hopelessness, they also fostered realistic hope and change.

  20. Perspectives on death and an afterlife in relation to quality of life, depression, and hopelessness in cancer patients without evidence of disease and advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Schilderman, Johannes; Verhagen, Constans A H H V M; Vissers, Kris C; Prins, Judith

    2011-06-01

    It is unknown whether cancer patients with different life expectancies have different attitudes and emotions toward death and an afterlife. Also, it is unclear whether these attitudes and emotions toward death and afterlife influence patients' distress. To assess the relationship of attitudes and emotions towards death and an afterlife with quality of life, depression and hopelessness in cancer patients without evidence of disease and advanced cancer patients facing death. Ninety-one cancer patients without evidence of disease and 57 advanced cancer patients completed the Dutch Attitudes Toward Death and Afterlife Scale. Emotions toward death were measured using the Self-Confrontation Method. Quality of life was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Questionnaire. Depression and hopelessness were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Average scores on attitudes and emotions toward death and an afterlife were not significantly different between the two groups. However, in the no evidence of disease group, a negative association between negative emotions and social functioning was observed, which was not present in the advanced cancer group. In the advanced cancer group, associations were observed that were not present in the no evidence of disease group: positive associations between an explicitly religious attitude and global health status and between reincarnation belief and role and cognitive functioning, and a negative association between other-directed emotions and social functioning. Patients without evidence of disease and advanced cancer patients do not differ in attitudes or emotions toward death, but the relationship between these attitudes and emotions and aspects of quality of life varies. When there is no evidence of disease, negative emotions play the most important role, whereas in the advanced

  1. The Study of Relations between Life Satisfaction, Burnout, Work Engagement and Hopelessness of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapri, Burhan; Gündüz, Bülent; Akbay, Sinem Evin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the relations between high school students' life satisfaction, burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores and examine the contribution of their burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores in the prediction of their life satisfaction scores. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Maslach…

  2. Religiousness and Non-Hopeless Suicide Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Randy H.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals who think about suicide but do not feel suicidally hopeless tend to be less religious and can therefore entertain thoughts of suicide unabated by religiousness. Religiousness, suicide ideation, and hopelessness were surveyed among 279 Idaho college students, 37 (13%) of whom were non-hopeless suicide ideators. A total of only 21 (7%)…

  3. CORRELATION OF MOBILE PHONE ADDICTION SCALE (MPAS SCORE WITH CRANIOVERTEBRAL ANGLE, SCAPULAR INDEX AND BECKS DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCORE IN YOUNG ADULTS

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    Rupali Salvi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobile phone usage has become increasingly common in today’s youth. Its heavy use often leads to an addiction. Dependency on these devices could lead to postural dysfunctions as well as produce an adverse effect on psychology. Hence, this study is done to correlate mobile addiction with the craniovertebral angle, scapular index and Beck’s depression inventory score in young adults. Methods: An observational study was performed on 100 subjects out of which 51 were males and 49 were females in the age group of 18- 25 years who were pursuing their graduation and post-graduation courses. Mobile Phone Addiction Scale was used to determine the level of addiction. Craniovertebral angle, Scapular Index, and Beck’s Depression Inventory score were measured. Correlation of Mobile Phone Addiction Scale score with the above-mentioned parameters was done using GraphPad Instat Version 3.10 (Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: Mobile phone addiction was found low in 27%, moderate in 30% and high in 43% participants. There is significant correlation of mobile phone addiction scale score with Craniovertebral angle (r = -0.6470, p = <0.0001, Scapular Index (r = -0.4370, p = < 0.001 and Beck’s depression Inventory score (r = 0.3172, p = 0.0013. Conclusion: This study shows that mobile phone addiction is common amongst the youth and it contributes to considerable stresses on neck and shoulder. It could even cause unfavorable repercussion on an individual’s psychological status, such as depression. Hence, it is important to create awareness amongst the youth and take preventive measures for the same.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Apache Hopefulness: Relationships with Hopelessness and with Collective as well as Personal Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Vanessa Lea; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Cothran, D. Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Hopelessness is central to prominent mental health problems within American Indian (AI) communities. Apaches living on a reservation in Arizona responded to diverse expressions of hope along with Hopelessness, Personal Self-Esteem, and Collective Self-Esteem scales. An Apache Hopefulness Scale expressed five themes of hope and correlated…

  5. Brief Report Reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective — This study aimed to assess the reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale for epidemiological investigations of adolescents' symptoms. Method — Self-report questionnaires were administered on two occasions to 104 students in four private high schools in Cape Town ...

  6. [A study of relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, S

    1989-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in Japanese school-aged children. In Study 1, the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale for children developed by Kazdin, French, Unis, Esveldt-Dawsan, and Sherick (1983) was constructed. Seventeen original items were translated into Japanese and they were administrated to 405 fifth- and sixth-graders. All of the items could be included to the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale. The reliability and validity was examined. In Study 2, the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in children were investigated. The causal attribution questionnaire developed by Higuchi, Kambare, and Otsuka (1983) and the hopelessness scale developed by Study 1 were administered to 188 sixth-graders. Children with high scores in hopelessness scale significantly attributed negative events to much more effort factor than children with low scores. It supports neither the reformulated learned helplessness model nor the causal attribution theory of achievement motivation. It was explained mainly from points of self-serving attribution, cultural difference, and social desirability. Some questions were discussed for developing studies on depression and causal attribution in Japan.

  7. Adolf Beck: A forgotten pioneer in electroencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Fine, E.; Zayachkivska, O.

    2014-01-01

    Adolf Beck, born in 1863 at Cracow (Poland), joined the Department of Physiology of the Jagiellonian University in 1880 to work directly under the supervision of the prominent physiology professor, Napoleon Cybulski. Following his suggestion, Beck started experimental studies on the electrical brain

  8. Kuu plaat : Beck "Guero". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Beck "Guero", Common "Be", Stupid F ja Hash "Koodeks: R.L.V.", Kulo "Onarhia", Natalie Imbruglia "Counting Down the Days", New Order "Waiting for the Sirens' Call", Human Ground "Human Ground"

  9. Hope and Hopelessness: The Role of Hope in Buffering the Impact of Hopelessness on Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Jenny M. Y.; Ip, Brian Y. T.; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated whether hope and hopelessness are better conceptualized as a single construct of bipolar spectrum or two distinct constructs and whether hope can moderate the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Methods Hope, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were measured in a community sample of 2106 participants through a population-based household survey. Results Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a measurement model with separate, correlated second-order factors of hope and hopelessness provided a good fit to the data and was significantly better than that of the model collapsing hope and hopelessness into a single second-order factor. Negative binomial regression showed that hope and hopelessness interacted such that the effect of hopelessness on suicidal ideation was lower in individuals with higher hope than individuals with lower hope. Conclusions Hope and hopelessness are two distinct but correlated constructs. Hope can act as a resilience factor that buffers the impact of hopelessness on suicidal ideation. Inducing hope in people may be a promising avenue for suicide prevention. PMID:26107687

  10. Hope and Hopelessness: The Role of Hope in Buffering the Impact of Hopelessness on Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Jenny M Y; Ip, Brian Y T; Ho, Samuel M Y; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether hope and hopelessness are better conceptualized as a single construct of bipolar spectrum or two distinct constructs and whether hope can moderate the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Hope, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were measured in a community sample of 2106 participants through a population-based household survey. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a measurement model with separate, correlated second-order factors of hope and hopelessness provided a good fit to the data and was significantly better than that of the model collapsing hope and hopelessness into a single second-order factor. Negative binomial regression showed that hope and hopelessness interacted such that the effect of hopelessness on suicidal ideation was lower in individuals with higher hope than individuals with lower hope. Hope and hopelessness are two distinct but correlated constructs. Hope can act as a resilience factor that buffers the impact of hopelessness on suicidal ideation. Inducing hope in people may be a promising avenue for suicide prevention.

  11. Depression, Hopelessness and Social Support among Breast Cancer Patients: in Highly Endogamous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Alsulaiman, Reem; Doodson, Lisa; Agathangelou, Tony

    2017-07-27

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between different demographic variables, hopelessness, depression and social support of Breast cancer patients in Qatari’s population. Design: This is an observational cohort hospital based study. Subjects and Methods: The study included 678 breast cancer patients. The questionnaires included a demographic questionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Back Depression Scale (BDS) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The demographic questionnaire was used to assess patients’ basic information including gender, age, marital status, education, family size, and place of residence. Medical information regarding cancer stage, the time passed since diagnosis, treatment, and duration of disease were recorded. Results: The mean age of the studied women was 47.7±10.2 years. Among the studied patients, 34.7% were Qataris and 65.3% were Arab expatriates. Nearly 39.2% of the patients were in pre-menopausal status and 60.8% in post-menopausal status. 86.1% of women were married. 14.6% were illiterate women, 20.9% were university graduates and 37.2% were housewives. Smoking habit was less common in studied Arab women (9.1%), but, sheesha smoking was more common, 17.7%. Daily physical activity indicated 25.7% were walking 30 minutes per-day and 14% were walking 60 minutes per day. 30.4% of them had consanguineous parents. Breast feeding was practiced among 67.7% of women and over 73% were considered overweight and obese. Furthermore, over 75% of breast cancer women were at the Stage 3 (40.9%) and Stage 4 (35.8%) of cancer. The percentage of patients who underwent mastectomy and lumpectomy were 49.3 % and 50.7%, respectively. It was observed that 27.7% of BDI patients had moderate depression and 19.5% of the BDI patients had severe depression and with mean and standard deviation 25.1±7.7. Also, the mean and SD of BDI for consanguineous has showed statistically significant 28.4±5.7 than

  12. Helplessness, hopelessness, and haplessness and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1998-06-01

    In a sample of 141 college students, scores on depression and suicidal ideation were best predicted by scores on hopelessness, while a history of attempted suicide was best predicated by helplessness.

  13. Relação entre ansiedade, depressão e desesperança entre grupos de idosos Relación entre ansiedad, depresión y desesperanza entre grupos de ancianos Relations between anxiety, depression and hopelessness among elderly groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Luciane de Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    distribution of medicine, and a nursing home, took part in the study. The material used in the study was a questionnaire for data characterization, as well as, Beck's scales that was used to evaluate anxiety, depression and hopelessness. The results indicated a significant association between anxiety, depression and hopeless in elderly people. The elderly group living in a nursing home showed more incidence of anxiety, depression and hopelessness symptoms when compared to the two others groups.

  14. Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent scale: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available ...

  15. Feelings of hopelessness in stable HIV-positive patients on antiretrovirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The coping skills and styles individuals utilise to deal with the stress of HIV infection greatly influence the psychological impact of this illness and potential consequent feelings of hopelessness. The aim of this study was to describe levels of hopelessness in a group of stable, non-depressed HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, and factors associated with hopelessness. Method. Thirty randomly selected non-depressed patients (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV criteria were included in this study. Demographic and other data were obtained from all subjects, who also completed the Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS. The 20 true-false items of the BHS (29 measured three major aspects of hopelessness, which was interpreted on the total scale score as follows: ≤3 minimal, and >3 significant. Results. The study population comprised 30 patients with a mean age of 37.9 years (standard error (SE 1.18 ( range 28 - 51 years. The mean BHS score was 4.03 (SE 0.55, with a range from 0 to 12. There were no statistically significant correlations between BHS scores of the study population and gender, marital status, employment status, level of education, years since the diagnosis of HIV, or number of children (p>0.05. Eighteen subjects (60% scored 3 or less on the BHS, considered minimal levels of hopelessness. However, 12 (40% scored more than 3, which is considered significant; of these 23% had scores of 7 or more. There was no statistically significant association between BHS scores and gender, employment status, level of education, number of children or number of years since diagnosis (p>0.05. However, patients who were married or living with partners were statistically more likely to score higher on the hopelessness scale compared with those who were single (p

  16. Assessing Hopelessness in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Development of the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Lewis, Charles; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Sachs, Emily; Amakawa, Lia; Kolva, Elissa; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended…

  17. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921- Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fatih Yavuz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aaron Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, the youngest child of four siblings. Beck attended Brown University, graduating magna cum laude in 1942. Then he attended Yale Medical School, graduating with an M.D. in 1946. After his graduation, he served a rotating internship, followed by a residency in pathology at the Rhode Island Hospital. Although initially not interested in psychiatry, a residency in neurology at the Cushing Veterans Administration Hospital in Framingham, MA, required rotation in psychiatry intrigued him with some of the more recent developments in the field. He spent two years as a fellow at Austin Riggs Center at Stockbridge where he acquired substantial experience in conducting longterm psychotherapy. The Korean War shifted Beck’s area of work to the Valley Forge Army Hospital where he was Assistant Chief of Neuropsychiatry. Dr. Beck joined the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Pennsylvania in 1954. He initially conducted research into the psychoanalytic theories of depression. He developed a different theoretical-clinical approach that he labelled cognitive therapy. Since 1959 he has directed funded research investigations of the psychopathology of depression, suicide, anxiety disorders, panic disorders, alcoholism, drug abuse, personality disorders, and schizophrenia and of cognitive therapy of these disorders. Currently Aaron T. Beck, M.D., is the President Emeritus of the non-profit Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research, and University Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania and the director of the Psychopathology Research Unit (PRU, which is the parent organization of the Center for the treatment and Prevention of Suicide. He has published more than 550 scholarly articles and 18 books and has developed widely used assessment scales. He has received many prestigious awards including the 2006 Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award for

  18. The hopelessness theory of depression: attributional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Metalsky, G I; Hartlage, S

    1988-02-01

    In this article, we clarify, expand and revise the basic postulates of the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson, Alloy & Metalsky, 1988a; Abramson, Metalsky & Alloy, 1987, 1988b; previously referred to as the reformulated helplessness theory of depression: Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale, 1978) and place the theory more explicitly in the context of work in descriptive psychiatry about the heterogeneity among the depressive disorders. We suggest that the hopelessness theory hypothesizes the existence in nature of an, as yet, unidentified subtype of depression--'hopelessness depression'--defined, in part, by its cause. We then give a critique of work conducted to test the hopelessness theory and explicate the limitations in research strategy associated with this line of work. Our critique includes a logical analysis that deduces the conceptual and methodological inadequacies of the research strategies used to test the theory. Finally, we suggest more adequate research strategies for testing the hopelessness theory and discuss conceptual and assessment issues that will arise in conducting such tests with special emphasis on attributional styles.

  19. Anxiety and hopelessness levels in patients with migraine and tension headache

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    Yüksel Kıvrak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Migraine and tension type headache (TTH are two most common headaches. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the hopelessness, anxiety and social self-esteem scores are different in two headache groups.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with 72 migraine patients, 28 TTH patients and 50 healthy controls. Participants filled the General Information Form, Hopeless-ness Scale (HS, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-II and Social Comparison Scale (SCS. Results: There were no differences between the groups with respect to gender, age, education years, marital status and economical status. Hopelessness scores of the TTH group was higher than the migraine and control group (p=0.001. There were no statistical differences between the migraine and TTH groups with respect to STAI-II scores but TTH group scores higher in study groups (p=0.003. Control group SCS scores were higher than both patient groups with no significant differences (p=0.072.Conclusion: These findings indicate that the patients with TTH have more hopelessness than the migraine group and more anxious than the healthy control group.

  20. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  1. Conservative orientation as a determinant of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C K; Kwok, S T

    1996-06-01

    Conservative orientation is identified with reference to authoritarianism, work ethic belief, just world belief, and endorsement of individualistic causes of social problems. This over-arching orientation is hypothesized to affect hopelessness and to be affected by self-esteem with reference to ego development theory and learned helplessness theory. Causal modeling of data obtained from 1st-year college students (N = 556) in Hong Kong supports the hypotheses, showing that a student's hopelessness relates to his or her conservative orientation, even when self-esteem is controlled. This relationship can be interpreted by ego development and learned helplessness theories and cannot be explained as a spurious effect. Through the theories, hopelessness is interpreted as a result of maladaptive development and fatalistic, alienated, and helpless outlooks. This maladaptive development and the outlooks in turn result from students' conservative and individualistic orientation.

  2. Verbal Victimization and Changes in Hopelessness among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Andrea J.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness is a known risk factor for a number of negative outcomes including suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about how hopelessness may develop. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of verbal victimization on changes in children's levels of hopelessness. Participants were 448 fourth- and fifth-grade children…

  3. Burnout and hopelessness among farmers: The Farmers Stressors Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchot, Didier; Andela, Marie

    2018-05-03

    Farming is a stressful occupation with a high rate of suicide. However, there have been relatively few studies that have examined the antecedents of stress and suicide in farmers. We also lack methodologically sound scales aimed at assessing the stressors faced by farmers. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to develop an instrument assessing the stressors met by farmers, The Farmers Stressors Inventory, and to test its factorial structure, internal consistency and criterion validity. First, based on the existing literature and interviews with farmers, we designed a scale containing 37 items. Then a sample of 2142 French farmers completed a questionnaire containing the 37 items along with two measures: The MBIGS that assesses burnout and the BHS that assesses hopelessness. The statistical analyses (EFA and CFA) revealed eight factors in accordance with different aspects of farmers job stressors: workload and lack of time, incertitude toward the future and the financial market, agricultural legislation pressure, social and geographical isolation, financial worry, conflicts with associates or family members, family succession of the farm, and unpredictable interference with farm work. The internal consistency of the eight subscales was satisfactory. Correlation between these eight dimensions and burnout on the one side and hopelessness on the other side support the criterion-related validity of the scale.

  4. Conservative Orientation as a Determinant of Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Kwok, Siu-Tong

    1996-01-01

    Hypothesizes that a conservative and individualistic orientation results in the fatalistic, alienated, and helpless outlook known as hopelessness. Provides extensive references to studies and theories characterizing conservatism and a work ethic belief as manifestations of an a maladaptive stage of psychological development. (MJP)

  5. Hopeless love and other lattice walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, Koos; Swart, David; Séquin, Carlo H.; Fenyvesi, Kristóf

    The Hopeless Love theme arose from observations about chess bishops and their walks on the chessboard. In chess, there are two types of bishops: one confined to the white squares and the other to the black squares. If two bishops of opposite type fall in love, then they can walk around each other,

  6. Feelings of Hopelessness in Midlife and Cognitive Health in Later Life: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Krister; Soininen, Hilkka; Winblad, Bengt; Kivipelto, Miia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have found depression and depressive feelings to be associated with subsequent dementia. As dementias typically have a long preclinical development phase, it has been difficult to determine whether depression and depressive feelings reflect a concurrent underlying dementia disease, rather than playing a causative role. Our aim was to investigate hopelessness, one dimension of depressive feelings, and evaluate the likelihood of a prodromal versus a causative role of hopelessness feelings in dementia development. We invited a random sample of 2000 survivors from a representative population in Eastern Finland, originally investigated in midlife between 1972 and 1987, for re-examination an average of 21 years later. The age of the 1449 persons who accepted the invitation was between 39 and 64 years (mean 50.4 years) in midlife and between 65 and 80 (mean 71.3) at follow-up. To measure feelings of hopelessness in midlife and at follow-up, the participants indicated their level of agreement to two statements about their own possible future. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between the combined scores from these two items and cognitive health at follow-up, while adjusting for several health and life-style variables from midlife and for apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) status, depression and hopelessness feelings at follow-up. We compared the associations with late-life cognitive health when feelings of hopelessness were either measured in midlife or at the follow-up. In addition we analyzed the changes in hopelessness scores from midlife to follow-up in participants who were either cognitively healthy or impaired at follow-up. We found higher levels of hopelessness in midlife, but not at follow-up, to be associated with cognitive impairment at follow-up; the adjusted odds ratio for each step of the five-level hopelessness scale was 1.30 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.51) for any cognitive impairment and 1.37 (1.05-1.78) for Alzheimer

  7. The Hopelessness Theory of Depression: A Quarter Century in Review

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Richard T.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Nestor, Bridget A.; Cheek, Shayna M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the formulation of the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) a quarter century ago, it has garnered considerable interest. The current paper presents a systematic review of this theory including its subsequent elaborations (Rose and Abramson’s [1992] developmental elaboration, Abela and Sarin’s [2002] weakest-link approach, Panzarella, Alloy, and Whitehouse’s [2006] expansion of the hopelessness theory, and the hopelessness theory of suicide [Abramson et ...

  8. [Predictors of fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in people with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pok-Ja; Lee, Yeon-Joo

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to identify predictors of the fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in the patients' mental adjustment to cancer. Cancer patients' characteristics like performance status, metastasis and duration of diagnosis with demographic factors, spiritual support and social support were used as predictors of a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness. A total of 124 ambulatory cancer patients completed the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale and responded in a structured instrument about their characteristics, spiritual and social support. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that confidence in the supporter (R(2)=.114, p=.000), duration of cancer diagnosis (R(2)=.041, p=.000) and faith (R(2)=.030, p=.000) were predictive of a fighting spirit (R(2)=.185, p=.000); whereas, education (R(2)=.074, p=.001), performance status (R(2)=.055, p=.000), satisfaction with social support (R(2)=.046, p=.000), and metastasis (R(2)=.037, p=.000) were predictive of helplessness/hopelessness (R(2)=.202, p=.000). Social support, spiritual support and disease related factors like metastasis, performance status, and duration of cancer diagnosis need to be considered in a psychosocial nursing intervention for a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness.

  9. Assessment of depression in medical patients: a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2013-09-01

    To perform a systematic review of the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for detecting depression in medical settings, this article focuses on the revised version of the scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II), which was reformulated according to the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. We examined relevant investigations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II for measuring depression in medical settings to provide guidelines for practicing clinicians. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria seventy articles were retained. Validation studies of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, in both primary care and hospital settings, were found for clinics of cardiology, neurology, obstetrics, brain injury, nephrology, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, oncology, and infectious disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II showed high reliability and good correlation with measures of depression and anxiety. Its threshold for detecting depression varied according to the type of patients, suggesting the need for adjusted cut-off points. The somatic and cognitive-affective dimension described the latent structure of the instrument. The Beck Depression Inventory-II can be easily adapted in most clinical conditions for detecting major depression and recommending an appropriate intervention. Although this scale represents a sound path for detecting depression in patients with medical conditions, the clinician should seek evidence for how to interpret the score before using the Beck Depression Inventory-II to make clinical decisions.

  10. Reformulating the Depression Model of Learned Hopelessness for Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Raymond C. P.; Watkins, David; Hattie, John; Alexander, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This review explores developments in the construct of learned hopelessness, which originated in the clinical literature dealing with depression. In that context, the model developed by Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy [Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). "Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression."…

  11. Achievement Motivation: From the Perspective of Learned Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Chung-park

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the concept of learned hopelessness, with special attention on its development from the helplessness theory of depression, and its application to studies of achievement motivation. Highlights conceptual and assessment issues that arise in researching learned hopelessness and achievement motivation. (DSK)

  12. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  13. The Hopelessness Theory of Depression: A Quarter Century in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T; Kleiman, Evan M; Nestor, Bridget A; Cheek, Shayna M

    2015-12-01

    Since the formulation of the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) a quarter century ago, it has garnered considerable interest. The current paper presents a systematic review of this theory including its subsequent elaborations (Rose and Abramson's [1992] developmental elaboration, Abela and Sarin's [2002] weakest-link approach, Panzarella, Alloy, and Whitehouse's [2006] expansion of the hopelessness theory, and the hopelessness theory of suicide [Abramson et al., 2000]), followed by recommendations for future study. Although empirical support was consistently found for several major components of the hopelessness theory, further work is required assessing this theory in relation to clinically significant phenomena. Among the most significant hindrances to advancement in this area is the frequent conceptual confusion between the hopelessness theory and the reformulated learned helplessness theory.

  14. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.

  15. The Hopelessness Theory of Depression: A Quarter Century in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Nestor, Bridget A.; Cheek, Shayna M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the formulation of the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) a quarter century ago, it has garnered considerable interest. The current paper presents a systematic review of this theory including its subsequent elaborations (Rose and Abramson’s [1992] developmental elaboration, Abela and Sarin’s [2002] weakest-link approach, Panzarella, Alloy, and Whitehouse’s [2006] expansion of the hopelessness theory, and the hopelessness theory of suicide [Abramson et al., 2000]), followed by recommendations for future study. Although empirical support was consistently found for several major components of the hopelessness theory, further work is required assessing this theory in relation to clinically significant phenomena. Among the most significant hindrances to advancement in this area is the frequent conceptual confusion between the hopelessness theory and the reformulated learned helplessness theory. PMID:26709338

  16. Role of depression severity and impulsivity in the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-yu; Jiang, Neng-zhi; Cheung, Eric F C; Sun, Hong-wei; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-09-01

    Hopelessness, depression and impulsivity all contribute to the development of suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder, but the pathway of these factors to suicidal ideation is not clear. This study examined the meditating effect of depression severity on the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation and explored how this mediating effect was moderated by impulsivity. A total of 162 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) completed a structured clinical diagnostic interview and a battery of scales assessing depression severity, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and impulsivity. Regression analyses with bootstrapping methods were used to examine the mediating and moderating effects of various risk factors. Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect effect of hopelessness on suicidal ideation, and the effect was fully mediated through depression severity. On moderation analysis, the moderating effects of the relationship between depression severity and suicidal ideation were significant in both the medium and high impulsivity groups. The present study was limited by the assessment of trait impulsivity and observer-rated depression severity, which might not fully reflect momentary impulsivity and feeling of depression when suicidal ideation occurs. Depression severity plays a mediator role in the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation and this mechanism is contingent on the levels of impulsivity. MDD patients with higher impulsivity appear to be more likely to have suicidal ideations even when they are less depressed. These findings highlight the importance of impulsivity assessment and alleviation of depressive symptoms to prevent suicidality in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 76710 - Merritt, Beck C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-6730-000] Merritt, Beck C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 1, 2011, Beck C. Merritt submitted for filing, an..., 16 U.S.C. 825d (b) and Part 45 of Title 18 of the Code of Federal Regulations, 18 CFR part 45. Any...

  18. Improvement of depressive symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis treated with ustekinumab: an open label trial validated using beck depression inventory, Hamilton depression rating scale measures and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Park, Min-Young; Pak, Kyoungjune; Han, Junhee; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2018-05-07

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially depression. Early detection of psychological vulnerability in patients with psoriasis seems to be of great clinical importance and significantly impacts the quality of life of the patients. We sought to clarify the association between psoriasis and depressive symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, and to determine the risk factors for depressive symptoms and analyze the effect of ustekinumab on the symptoms. We also aimed to evaluate the changes in glucose metabolism using 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Fifteen patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis scheduled to be treated with ustekinumab were enrolled. At baseline and after achieving a 75% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (PASI75), all patients underwent a psychiatric interview and FDG-PET. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled for comparison. Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were more depressed than those in the control group were (p Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale psychiatric interviews (p < .05). However, FDG-PET of the brain showed no significant difference before and after PASI75 achievement using ustekinumab injection. Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms, and treatment with ustekinumab may be beneficial. FDG-PET does not reflect the changes in depressive symptoms in such patients.

  19. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption.

  20. Validation of the Adult Domain-Specific Hope Scale in Iranian Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi Tahour Soltani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties and the Standardization of Simpson’s Hope Scale (1999 in Iranian university students. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-survey research, 1000 students with age range of 18 to 34 and with the mean age of 23.9±5.13 were selected via the categorical cluster sampling method from different universities. Then they answered the Snyder’s Hope Scale, Oxford Happiness Scale, the Ahwaz Hardiness Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Inventory, Riff’s Psychological Well-being Scale, as well as Sympson’s (1999 Hope Scale (with little change.Results: Coefficients of Cronbach’s alpha (0.94, split-half (0.85, convergent validity with Hardiness (0.40, Happiness (0.64, Psychological Well-being scales (0.47, divergent validity (Beck Hopelessness, -0.25 criterion validity (Snyder’s Hope 0.55 were calculated, which were significant at p<0.01 level. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the 40-item Hope Scale for adults is saturated with five factors (social, academic, family, occupational, and leisure hope that explain 56% of the scale’s variance. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the five mentioned factors are well loaded on a principal factor, and therefore, the six-factor model was well fitted with the data (AGFI=0.93, RMSEA= 0.037, NFI=0.98.Conclusion: The results showed that this test has high reliability and validity and can be used in other studies.

  1. A hopelessness model of depressive symptoms in youth with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janelle L; Smith, Gigi; Ferguson, Pamela L; Horton, Stephanie; Wilson, Erin

    2009-01-01

    To test the cognitive diathesis-stress and mediational components of the theory of learned hopelessness in youth with epilepsy. Seventy-seven participants ages 9-17 (35 girls, 42 boys) completed measures of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, self-efficacy for seizure management, and attitude toward epilepsy. Caregivers provided information on seizure activity. Diagnostic and treatment information was obtained via medical record review. Regression analyses revealed that hopelessness mediated the attitude towards epilepsy-depressive symptom relationship. While attitude toward epilepsy and self-efficacy were independent predictors of depressive symptoms, the relationship of attitudes toward epilepsy and depressive symptoms was not enhanced with low self-efficacy for seizure management. Findings support the mediation component of the learned hopelessness theory in youth with epilepsy, suggesting the importance of interventions that assist youth in identifying epilepsy-related aspects of functioning over which they can realistically exercise control and challenging negative thoughts about situations they cannot control.

  2. Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921-) Biography

    OpenAIRE

    K. Fatih Yavuz; M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-01-01

    Aaron Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, the youngest child of four siblings. Beck attended Brown University, graduating magna cum laude in 1942. Then he attended Yale Medical School, graduating with an M.D. in 1946. After his graduation, he served a rotating internship, followed by a residency in pathology at the Rhode Island Hospital. Although initially not interested in psychiatry, a residency in neurology at the Cushing Veterans Administration Hospital in Framingham, MA, requ...

  3. Anxiety, helplessness/hopelessness and 'desire for hastened death' in Korean cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, E-J; Hahm, B-J

    2011-05-01

    Despite a relatively high rate of suicide associated with cancer, this issue has not been explored in Korean patients. This study investigates the prevalence and factors related to 'the desire for hastened death' (DHD) in Korean cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey using standardised measures, including the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, was performed with 131 patients with different types of cancer. 13.7% of the participants experienced moderate DHD (Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death scores 5-9) and 1.7% experienced high DHD (≥10). Socio-demographic and disease-associated factors of the DHD included age, overall health and shortness of breath. The majority of psychosocial variables such as sadness, distress, 'helplessness/hopelessness' and 'anxious preoccupation' had a moderate association with DHD. Patients with a clinically significant level of anxiety or depression reported higher levels of DHD. Other significant correlates included 'meaning/peace', a sense of burdening family, dignity impairment and suicidal thoughts after diagnosis. Helplessness/hopelessness and anxiety were the strongest predictors of DHD in multivariate analysis. In view of significant role of helplessness/hopelessness and anxiety in the DHD of cancer patients, careful monitoring and management of these factors should be an integral part of cancer care to reduce the occurrence of DHD. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Impulsivity and hopelessness as predictors of suicide-related ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Eva; O'Rourke, Norm

    2009-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that impulsivity is strongly associated with suicide-related ideation and behaviour among young adults. However, to date, the potential importance of impulsivity as a predictor of suicide-related ideation in later life has yet to be determined. Our study examined impulsivity, hopelessness, depressive symptomatology, and sociodemographic factors vis-à-vis suicide-related ideation among older adults at risk of self-harm. A sample (n = 117) of older adults was recruited from multiple sources for this study over a 1-year period. Suicide-related ideation was measured with the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale, a multidimensional measure of suicide-related ideation developed for use with older adults. Canonical correlation identified 2 pairings of linear composites in which impulsivity emerged along both as significantly associated with facets of suicide-related ideation. Of note, the greater proportion of variance in impulsivity was subsumed along the second set of vectors with somatic depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the impulse to self-harm may be even more pronounced among older adults less likely to present as typically depressed. It is further suggested that impulsivity is more broadly associated with suicide-related ideation than hopelessness, and that screening for impulsivity as well as hopelessness may increase clinicians' ability to identify older adults at greatest risk of self-harm.

  5. The Ontological Representation of Death: A Scale to Measure the Idea of Annihilation Versus Passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Ines; Ancona, Dorella; Ronconi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Since the borders between natural life and death have been blurred by technique, in Western societies discussions and practices regarding death have became infinite. The studies in this area include all the most important topics of psychology, sociology, and philosophy. From a psychological point of view, the research has created many instruments for measuring death anxiety, fear, threat, depression, meaning of life, and among them, the profiles on death attitude are innumerable. This research presents the validation of a new attitude scale, which conjoins psychological dimensions and philosophical ones. This scale may be useful because the ontological idea of death has not yet been considered in research. The hypothesis is that it is different to believe that death is absolute annihilation than to be sure that it is a passage or a transformation of one's personal identity. The hypothetical difference results in a greater inner suffering caused by the former idea. In order to measure this possibility, we analyzed the correlation between Testoni Death Representation Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale, Suicide Resilience Inventory-25, and Reasons for Living Inventory. The results confirm the hypothesis, showing that the representation of death as total annihilation is positively correlated to hopelessness and negatively correlated to resilience.

  6. Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R G; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Strassman, R J; Motta, V; Cruz, A P M

    2007-07-25

    The use of the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca, obtained from infusing the shredded stalk of the malpighiaceous plant Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of other plants such as Psychotria viridis, is growing in urban centers of Europe, South and North America in the last several decades. Despite this diffusion, little is known about its effects on emotional states. The present study investigated the effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in members of the Santo Daime, an ayahuasca-using religion. Standard questionnaires were used to evaluate state-anxiety (STAI-state), trait-anxiety (STAI-trait), panic-like (ASI-R) and hopelessness (BHS) in participants that ingested ayahuasca for at least 10 consecutive years. The study was done in the Santo Daime church, where the questionnaires were administered 1h after the ingestion of the brew, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure. While under the acute effects of ayahuasca, participants scored lower on the scales for panic and hopelessness related states. Ayahuasca ingestion did not modify state- or trait-anxiety. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of ayahuasca in alleviating signs of hopelessness and panic-like related symptoms.

  7. Application of the Beck model to stock markets: Value-at-Risk and portfolio risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, M.; Sato, A.-H.

    2008-02-01

    We apply the Beck model, developed for turbulent systems that exhibit scaling properties, to stock markets. Our study reveals that the Beck model elucidates the properties of stock market returns and is applicable to practical use such as the Value-at-Risk estimation and the portfolio analysis. We perform empirical analysis with daily/intraday data of the S&P500 index return and find that the volatility fluctuation of real markets is well-consistent with the assumptions of the Beck model: The volatility fluctuates at a much larger time scale than the return itself and the inverse of variance, or “inverse temperature”, β obeys Γ-distribution. As predicted by the Beck model, the distribution of returns is well-fitted by q-Gaussian distribution of Tsallis statistics. The evaluation method of Value-at-Risk (VaR), one of the most significant indicators in risk management, is studied for q-Gaussian distribution. Our proposed method enables the VaR evaluation in consideration of tail risk, which is underestimated by the variance-covariance method. A framework of portfolio risk assessment under the existence of tail risk is considered. We propose a multi-asset model with a single volatility fluctuation shared by all assets, named the single β model, and empirically examine the agreement between the model and an imaginary portfolio with Dow Jones indices. It turns out that the single β model gives good approximation to portfolios composed of the assets with non-Gaussian and correlated returns.

  8. Self-statements, self-esteem, and locus of control in discriminating college students' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S; Philpot, V D

    1996-04-01

    To study the use of the ratio of positive to negative self-statements, locus of control, and self-esteem in discriminating between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory 145 undergraduate college students were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, and the Rotter Locus of Control scale in their classrooms. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that five variables combined to yield a statistically significant discrimination among low, middle, and high scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. The classification analysis indicated that 77.1% (n = 111) of the undergraduate students were correctly classified; 93.2% (82 of 88) were correctly classified as low scorers and 73.3% (18 of 46) were correctly classified as high scorers.

  9. Correlations of hopelessness with motivation and personality traits among Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, K

    1995-06-01

    Correlations for 628 children in Grades 2, 4, 5, and 6 of scores on hopelessness with measures of motivation for learning and personality traits were investigated. Hopelessness scores significantly correlated with lower scores on motivation. Also, hopelessness scores were significantly correlated with scores on personality traits of schizothymia, nervousness, and self-uncertainty.

  10. Towards a Causal Model of Learned Hopelessness for Hong Kong Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Chung-Park; Watkins, David

    1997-01-01

    Interprets a survey of junior secondary students conducted to examine the role of learned hopelessness and academic self-esteem in academic achievement. Finds that learned hopelessness and academic self-esteem play separate mediating roles between prior academic failure and academic achievement; learned hopelessness and academic self-esteem have…

  11. Hope and hopelessness as predictors of suicide ideation in Hungarian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and dispositional hope predict suicide ideation in 395 Hungarian college students. Both hopelessness and hope uniquely predicted suicide ideation, a pattern that remained unchanged even after controlling for psychological symptoms. Moreover, a significant Hopelessness × Hope interaction predicted suicide ideation. Present findings highlight how hope buffers the association between hopelessness and suicide risk in college students.

  12. Enige ervaringen met de Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, TK; Luteijn, F; Albersnagel, FA; van der Ploeg, FAE

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the research outside the Netherlands concerning the reliability and validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and conducted an evaluation of the BDI based on responses from 106 heterogeneous psychiatric patients and 156 undergraduates. Results indicate that the BDI is a reliable

  13. ‘Unattractive, So Hopeless?’ Feelings of Physical Unattractiveness and Hopelessness among Senior High Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Baaba Aggrey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the influence of feelings of unattractiveness on hopelessness among adolescents. Using the cross-sectional survey design, total of 150 participants from two categories of senior high schools were sampled for the study. To achieve the aim for this study, the interaction effect of the following on hopelessness was investigated: gender and perceived attractiveness, school and perceived attractiveness and, religiosity and perceived attractiveness. Results showed that there was a significant positive relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and hopefulness. Implications of findings are discussed.

  14. Carcinoma of the cervix - the hopeless disease | Larsen | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma of the cervix - the hopeless disease. JV Larsen. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.7055 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  15. Hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. HIV/AIDS and suicidal behaviour are major public health concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-infected persons. Methods. The sample consisted of all adult volunteers attending a voluntary counselling ...

  16. Hopelessness, individualism, collectivism, and substance use among young rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the impact of individualism, collectivism, and hopelessness on substance use. Hopelessness was hypothesized as a mediator between individualism and substance use, and between collectivism and substance use. We tested the hypothesis using a survey of 641 young rural-to-urban migrants in China. Consistent with our hypotheses, individualistic orientation predicted increased hopelessness and subsequently predicted more substance use, whereas collectivistic orientation was associated with decreased hopelessness and subsequently predicted less substance use. Hopelessness fully mediated the relations between individualism and substance use and between collectivism and substance use. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  17. Incidental treatment effects of CBT on suicidal ideation and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Tonelle E; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Baker, Amanda L; Lewin, Terry J; Kelly, Brian J; Inder, Kerry J; Attia, John R; Kavanagh, David J

    2013-10-01

    Depression and alcohol misuse are among the most prevalent diagnoses in suicide fatalities. The risk posed by these disorders is exacerbated when they co-occur. Limited research has evaluated the effectiveness of common depression and alcohol treatments for the reduction of suicide vulnerability in individuals experiencing comorbidity. Participants with depressive symptoms and hazardous alcohol use were selected from two randomised controlled trials. They had received either a brief (1 session) intervention, or depression-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), alcohol-focused CBT, therapist-delivered integrated CBT, computer-delivered integrated CBT or person-centred therapy (PCT) over a 10-week period. Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression severity and alcohol consumption were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Three hundred three participants were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Both suicidal ideation and hopelessness were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms, but not with alcohol consumption. Suicidal ideation did not improve significantly at follow-up, with no differences between treatment conditions. Improvements in hopelessness differed between treatment conditions; hopelessness improved more in the CBT conditions compared to PCT and in single-focused CBT compared to integrated CBT. Low retention rates may have impacted on the reliability of our findings. Combining data from two studies may have resulted in heterogeneity of samples between conditions. CBT appears to be associated with reductions in hopelessness in people with co-occurring depression and alcohol misuse, even when it is not the focus of treatment. Less consistent results were observed for suicidal ideation. Establishing specific procedures or therapeutic content for clinicians to monitor these outcomes may result in better management of individuals with higher vulnerability for suicide. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Examination of Psychometric Properties of Positive Functional Attitudes Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saide Umut ZEYBEK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of Coping Attitudes Scale: Measure of Positive Attitudes in Depression (CAS among Turkish young adult community sample and determine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability of this scale. This study was conducted with 419 students attending different departments in Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Education in the spring semester of academic year of 2015-2016. Positive Functional Attitudes Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Automatic Thoughts Scale, Positivity Scale and Developed Automatic Thoughts Scale.were used as data collection tools. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used for investigation of the psychometric properties of the PFAS. Also, criterion-related validity, test-retest validity, and internal consistency were used calculated. The CFA results showed that standardized item estimates of the CAS ranged between 0.45 and 0.47. Also the CFA results showed that the original factor structure of the PFAS confirmed on the Turkish sample. internal consistency was calculated using the total community sample’s PFAS score. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ort he total scale (.93 was high. Test-retest results of the subscales were 0.76. The findings showed that factor structures of the PFAS’ life perspective, personal accomplishment, positive future, self-worth, coping with problems had psychometric quality in Turkish version. As a result of the study, the Turkish version of PFAS has good validity and reliability for young adult community sample. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 59-66

  19. On Sinking and Swimming: The Dialectic of Hope, Hopelessness, and Acceptance in Terminal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Emily; Kolva, Elissa; Pessin, Hayley; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

    2016-01-01

    For terminally ill cancer patients, hope and hopelessness are constructs that significantly impact the quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hope and hopelessness in advanced cancer and to identify factors that maintain hope and increase vulnerability to hopelessness. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 terminally ill cancer patients. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis to identify patient definitions of these terms and associated cognitions and emotions. Hope and hopelessness were identified as distinct, often co-occurring, and dialectically interacting constructs. The relationship between hope and hopelessness often balanced on acceptance, perceived as diametrically opposed to hopelessness, and conducive to redirecting hope toward new goals. Positive interpersonal relationships enhanced hope, and uncontrolled physical pain increased vulnerability to hopelessness. PMID:22556280

  20. Cognitive flexibility and changes in hopelessness across time: A moderation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2017-01-01

    Prior literature has suggested that cognitive flexibility is implicated in the feeling of hopelessness. However, studies on the nature of their relationship have been scarce. This study posits a moderation hypothesis on the relationship between cognitive flexibility and hopelessness. A total of 78 elderly participants (M age  = 70, SD = 6.1) were administered a self-report measure of hopelessness across two time points approximately 10 months apart and a measure of cognitive flexibility. We hypothesized that baseline hopelessness scores would moderate the relationship between cognitive flexibility and hopelessness scores 10 months later. Specifically, among the high baseline hopelessness group, we predicted that cognitively flexible participants would report lower hopelessness scores 10 months later. However, for the low baseline hopelessness group, cognitive flexibility would be unrelated to hopelessness scores 10 months later. The results of a bootstrapped moderation analysis controlling for age, sex, education, and general cognitive status supported our moderation hypothesis and predictions. These findings reveal the complex nature of the relationship between cognitive flexibility and hopelessness. The implications of these findings in the wider clinical context were discussed.

  1. Life events and hopelessness depression: The influence of affective experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhou

    Full Text Available This study explored the association of the affective experience (AE of life events on hopelessness depression (HD. Undergraduates (N = 301 participating in a 12-week prospective study completed measures of HD, cognitive style, and psychological stress. The results indicate AE is an underlying mechanism influencing the longitudinal link between life events and HD. Negative life events with clear negative AE directly promoted the development of HD. Positive life events with clear positive AE directly impeded the development of HD. Neutral life events with mixed AE directly and interacting with negative cognitive style promoted the development of HD. The results should increase understanding of the hopelessness theory of depression, and suggest that neutral life events should be important elements in depression therapy.

  2. Depressive symptoms in breast cancer: Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form

    OpenAIRE

    Cangussu, Renata de Oliveira; Soares, Thiago Barbabela de Castro; Barra, Alexandre de Almeida; Nicolato, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com câncer de mama e identificar os fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, em que foram entrevistadas 71 mulheres com câncer de mama. Foram empregados dois instrumentos: um questionário para verificar os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck – Short Form (BDI-SF), para avaliação dos sintomas depressivos. Para análise dos da...

  3. Cognitive correlates of anxious and depressive symptomatology: an examination of the Helplessness/Hopelessness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikar, S V; Craske, M G

    1997-01-01

    Expectancies about future life events were assessed in anxious and depressed patients to test predictions of the Helplessness/Hopelessness model of anxiety and depression (Alloy, Kelly, Mineka, & Clements, 1990). In addition to expectancies for future events, patients from affective and anxiety treatment clinics completed anxiety and depression symptom ratings and positive and negative affects scales. Findings revealed partial support for the model. Negative outcome and helplessness expectancies were related specifically to depression. Cognitions regarding future positive events were interrelated and associated with symptom measures more strongly than were cognitions regarding negative events. Additionally, positive affects was more strongly related to depression than to anxiety symptom ratings. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  4. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Psychiatric Outpatient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background To further understand the relationship between anxiety and depression, this study examined the factor structure of the combined items from two validated measures for anxiety and depression. Methods The participants were 406 patients with mixed psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety and depressive disorders from a psychiatric outpatient unit at a university-affiliated medical center. Responses of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were analyzed. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of 42 items from the BAI and BDI-II. Correlational analyses were performed between subscale scores of the SCL-90-R and factors derived from the factor analysis. Scores of individual items of the BAI and BDI-II were also compared between groups of anxiety disorder (n = 185) and depressive disorder (n = 123). Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed the following five factors explaining 56.2% of the total variance: somatic anxiety (factor 1), cognitive depression (factor 2), somatic depression (factor 3), subjective anxiety (factor 4), and autonomic anxiety (factor 5). The depression group had significantly higher scores for 12 items on the BDI while the anxiety group demonstrated higher scores for six items on the BAI. Conclusion Our results suggest that anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured by the BAI and BDI-II can be empirically differentiated and that particularly items of the cognitive domain in depression and those of physical domain in anxiety are noteworthy. PMID:29651821

  5. Evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory in a nonclinical student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović-Ristić, D; Hinić, D; Jović, J

    2012-08-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders in individuals seeking psychiatric treatment, and a frequent psychological disorder among patients who seek primary healthcare. Therefore, it is vitally important to employ reliable and valid diagnostic instruments and norms, both in clinical and research work to investigate this problem. This article is part of a larger study which has been conducted for ten years now with the aim to create a clearer picture about the level of depression which may be expected in the nonclinical population in Serbia, and in that way provide a basis for comparisons when diagnosing the clinical population. The subsidiary aims were to monitor potential changes in level of depressive reactions within the set time and to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale. The sample consisted of 782 students (40% male, 60% female), mean age = 23.10 years, SD = 1.782. Mean score on the BDI-IA scale was 6.69; SD = 6.412. The study showed no significant relationships between the BDI scores and sociodemographic variables such as age, economic status, and educational profile, but showed significant differences within gender (t (780) = 3.222, p = 0.001). There was also a relatively stable level of depressive reactions in this population over the previous ten years. The Cronbach's coefficient of the BDI scale was alpha = 0.860, with the majority of item-total correlations above 0.37. The three-factor structure represents cognitive aspect, affective component of depression, and somatic problems attached to depression. The cognitive factor prevails in the entire sample, which is in accordance with the Beck theory about dysfunctional attitudes, ie cognitive vulnerability is a psychological predisposition to depression.

  6. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  7. The Development of Future Orientation is Associated with Faster Decline in Hopelessness during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giollabhui, Naoise; Nielsen, Johanna; Seidman, Sam; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2018-01-05

    Hopelessness is implicated in multiple psychological disorders. Little is known, however, about the trajectory of hopelessness during adolescence or how emergent future orientation may influence its trajectory. Parallel process latent growth curve modelling tested whether (i) trajectories of future orientation and hopelessness and (ii) within-individual change in future orientation and hopelessness were related. The study was comprised of 472 adolescents [52% female, 47% Caucasian, 47% received free lunch] recruited at ages 12-13 who completed measures of future orientation and hopelessness at five annual assessments. The results indicate that a general decline in hopelessness across adolescence occurs quicker for those experiencing faster development of future orientation, when controlling for age, sex, low socio-economic status in addition to stressful life events in childhood and adolescence. Stressful childhood life events were associated with worse future orientation at baseline and negative life events experienced during adolescence were associated with both an increase in the trajectory of hopelessness as well as a decrease in the trajectory of future orientation. This study provides compelling evidence that the development of future orientation during adolescence is associated with a faster decline in hopelessness.

  8. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  9. Hopelessness, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Suicidal Ideation among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. Lai; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationships among perceived hopelessness, family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined. Results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to hopelessness, but negatively related to parent-adolescent communication. Compared with father-adolescent…

  10. Co-occurrence of diabetes and hopelessness predicts adverse prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of co-occurring diabetes and hopelessness on 3-year prognosis in percutaneous coronary intervention patients. Consecutive patients (n = 534) treated with the paclitaxel-eluting stent completed a set of questionnaires at baseline and were followed up for 3-year adverse...... clinical events. The incidence of 3-year death/non-fatal myocardial infarction was 3.5% in patients with no risk factors (neither hopelessness nor diabetes), 8.2% in patients with diabetes, 11.2% in patients with high hopelessness, and 15.9% in patients with both factors (p = 0.001). Patients...... with hopelessness (HR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.49-7.23) and co-occurring diabetes and hopelessness (HR: 4.89; 95% CI: 1.86-12.85) were at increased risk of 3-year adverse clinical events compared to patients with no risk factors, whereas patients with diabetes were at a clinically relevant but not statistically significant...

  11. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viinamäki Heimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67% more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being.

  12. Ulrich Beck : ostmine võib olla sama mõjus poliitiline osalusvorm kui valimaskäimine / Ulrich Beck ; interv. Indrek Ibrus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beck, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Sotsioloog on seisukohal, et tänapäeval, kus teadusest ja majandusest on kujunenud poliitika, saab erasektorit ja teadlasi mõjutada tarbijakäitumise ning riikidevahelise koostöö suurendamisega. Lisa: Ulrich Beck

  13. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kaviani H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring anxiety level in clinical and non-clinical population needs valid and reliable tool. This research examined the validity and reliability of Beck Anxiety Inventory in Iranian normal population as well as clinically anxious patients.Methods: First, a two-session course was run to train research workers. After they were sufficiently prepared, they were dispatched to different regions of the city, Tehran, referring to residential places for men and women volunteer to take part in the research. At the end, 1513 respondents were randomly recruited and tested using Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Of this population, 112 respondents were randomly selected and re-tested in order to measure test-retest reliability with a one-month interval time between first and second tests. Meanwhile, 261 clinically anxious patients (from clinics and mental health centers were tested. In order to measure validity, 150 patients were interviewed by two parallel clinicians and the anxiety level was rated based on a 10-point scale from 0 (the least to 10 (the most. The two raters were blind to the BAI scores of the patients.    Results: For data reduction and analysis, the SPSS for Windows-edition 14, was conducted. Findings showed that the Persian version of BAI proved a good reliability (r=0.72, p<0.001, a very good validity (r=0.83, p<0.001, and an excellent internal consistency (Alpha=0.92. Conclusions: The results support the applicability of BAI in Iranian population and suggest the use of this inventory for clinical and research aims. Persian version of BAI not only can help clinicians in assessment and diagnosis, but also assist researchers to evaluate anxiety level when needed.

  14. [Out of hopelessness--problem solving training in suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel Forintos, Dóra; Póos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Psychological studies have great importance in suicide prevention since psychological factors belong to the modifiable risk factors in suicide. These are the negative cognitive triad and hopelessness which are related to vague, over-generalized autobiographical memory and lead to poor problem solving abilities. In this paper we review the most relevant clinical psychology studies and models such as the cognitive model of suicide as well as the entrapment theory by Williams (2004). In the second part we describe the frequently used method of problem solving training/therapy which can be used in either individual or group format. We hope that the problem solving skill training will soon become a part of suicide prevention in Hungary also, since short,focused and evidence based interventions are much needed in psychiatric care.

  15. Sedentary lifestyle and emergence of hopelessness in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Maarit; Laaksonen, David E; Laukkanen, Jari; Tolmunen, Tommi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Viinamäki, Heimo; Mursu, Jaakko; Savonen, Kai; Lakka, Timo A; Niskanen, Leo; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2010-10-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and psychosocial factors such as hopelessness and depression increase cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional evidence suggests positive effects of physical exercise on psychological well being, but the time order of the relationship between physical activity and hopelessness has not been addressed. Population-based prospective cohort study with 630 middle-aged men participating in the 4-year follow-up and 509 men in the 11-year follow-up. We investigated the association of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with the development of hopelessness during the follow-up. LTPA and hopelessness were quantified with questionnaires. In cross-sectional analyses, LTPA was inversely associated with hopelessness, independently of depression. Among men who did not have feelings of hopelessness at baseline, those who reported engaging in at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity had a lower risk (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.39-1.09, P for the trend=0.047) to feel hopeless than sedentary men 4 years later after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, this relationship was not explained by body mass index or maximal oxygen uptake. Adjustment for depressive symptoms slightly weakened the association (odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.39-1.11, P for the trend=0.060). After 11 years, men who reported being physically active at baseline were still less likely to feel hopeless, after adjusting for age. However, after further adjustment for other confounding factors the association was no longer significant. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity seems to prevent development of hopelessness in middle-aged men. This protective effect may diminish over time.

  16. Effectiveness of psycho-education on depression, hopelessness, suicidality, anxiety and substance use among basic diploma students at Kenya Medical Training College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kagwiria Muriungi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of psycho-education on symptom severity in depression, hopelessness, suicidality, anxiety and risk of substance abuse among para-medical students at Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC. Methodology. A clinical trial drew experimental (N=1 181 and control (N=1 926 groups from different KMTC campuses. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data: the researcher-designed social demographic questionnaire was used at baseline only, while Beck’s Depression Inventory, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale, Beck’s Suicide Ideation Scale, Beck’s Anxiety Inventory and World Health Organization alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST (for drug abuse were used for baseline, mid-point and end-point assessments at 3-month intervals. The experimental group received a total of 16 hours of structured psycho-education. All study participants gave informed consent. Results. Overall, there was no significant reduction in symptom severity between the experimental and control groups at 3 months (p>0.05 but there was a significant difference at 6 months (p<0.05. Conclusion. Psycho-education was effective in reducing the severity of symptoms of depression, hopelessness, suicidality, anxiety and risk of substance abuse at 6 months.

  17. Adaptation to the Spanish population of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Díaz-Batanero, Carmen; Rojas-Tejada, Antonio J; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Lozano-Rojas, Óscar M

    2017-07-14

    The identification of different personality risk profiles for substance misuse is useful in preventing substance-related problems. This study aims to test the psychometric properties of a new version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) for Spanish college students. Cross-sectional study with 455 undergraduate students from four Spanish universities. A new version of the SURPS, adapted to the Spanish population, was administered with the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Internal consistency reliability ranged between 0.652 and 0.806 for the four SURPS subscales, while reliability estimated by split-half coefficients varied from 0.686 to 0.829. The estimated test-retest reliability ranged between 0.733 and 0.868. The expected four-factor structure of the original scale was replicated. As evidence of convergent validity, we found that the SURPS subscales were significantly associated with other conceptually-relevant personality scales and significantly associated with alcohol use measures in theoretically-expected ways. This SURPS version may be a useful instrument for measuring personality traits related to vulnerability to substance use and misuse when targeting personality with preventive interventions.

  18. Efektifitas Skala Edinburgh dan Skala Beck dalam Mendeteksi Risiko Depresi Post Partum di Rumah Sakit Umum Prof. DR. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto

    OpenAIRE

    Latifah, Lutfatul; Hartati

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Edinburgh post partum depression scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale to detect risk of post partum depression. This study utilized survey with quantitative approach. Of 25 patients were chosen with purposive sampling method. The criteria of sample was post partum mother who admitted at Margono Soekardjo hospital in the sixth days. The assessment of post partum mother was evaluated directly to the target population ...

  19. Cognitive vulnerability to depression, rumination, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation: multiple pathways to self-injurious thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannette M; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-08-01

    In order to advance the detection and prevention of suicide, recent research has focused on predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior such as negative cognitive styles, dysfunctional attitudes, hopelessness, and rumination. In this study the relationships among these risk factors in the context of the Attention Mediated Hopelessness (AMH) theory of depression are examined. One hundred and twenty-seven undergraduates in the Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) project were followed for 2.5 years. The CVD project followed initially nondepressed freshmen, at either high or low cognitive risk for depression, in order to predict onsets and recurrences of depressive disorders. The presence and duration of suicidal ideation were predicted prospectively by rumination and hopelessness, and hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between rumination and ideation and fully mediated the association between rumination and duration of suicidality. Further, rumination mediated the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and suicidal ideation.

  20. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Iliceto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI and hopelessness (BHS. The final structural model had a good fit with the data, with two factors significantly correlated, the first labeled unstable cyclothymic temperament including Dysthymic/Cyclothymic/Anxious temperament, Irritable temperament and Depression, and the second labeled Demoralization including Anxiety (State/Trait and Hopelessness. Depression, anxiety and hopelessness are in a complex relationship partly mediated by temperament.

  1. Hopelessness and alcohol use: The mediating role of drinking motives and outcome expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baines

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest feelings of hopelessness may predict alcohol consumption through a complex pathway and future research should use these findings to identify individuals at risk of increased alcohol use.

  2. Mediators of the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness association in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Shahane, Amit A; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-08-01

    Although there is an association between experiencing childhood emotional abuse and feeling hopeless as an adult, it is critical to understand the factors that may be protective in this relationship. The goal of this study was to determine if two protective factors, namely spiritual well-being, including both religious and existential well-being, and positive self-esteem, served to mediate the association between childhood emotional abuse and adult hopelessness. The sample for this investigation was low-income African American women suicide attempters who were abused by a partner in the prior year (N=121). A path analysis revealed that in this sample, the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness link was mediated by existential well-being and positive self-esteem, as well as by the two-mediator path of emotional abuse on existential well-being on self-esteem on hopelessness. Results suggested that existential well-being may be a more salient protective factor for hopelessness than religious well-being among abused, suicidal African American women who experienced childhood emotional abuse. Findings highlight the value of culturally relevant strategies for enhancing existential well-being and self-esteem in this at-risk population to reduce their vulnerability to feelings of hopelessness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Alcoholism and depression (Note apropos of a survey using Beck's inventary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, M; Louette, B

    1975-05-01

    The authors summarize recent works that correlate depression and alcoholism. They give the result of an inquiry: 38 patients (7 women and 31 men) admitted for alcoholism were given the Beck inventory for measuring depressio;. Most of the men (18) were not voluntary for entering hospital; they were not depressed clinically and in the results of the Beck inventory (mean score=12,1). 13 men were voluntary for treating their alcoholism, most of them were clearly depressed (mean score=23.3). There is a good concordance between clinical data and Beck scores. This reminds us that depression may masquerade as alcoholism.

  4. A longitudinal twin and sibling study of the hopelessness theory of depression in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, M A; Coulson, A E; Gregory, A M; Eley, T C

    2016-07-01

    Maladaptive cognitive biases such as negative attributional style and hopelessness have been implicated in the development and maintenance of depression. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, hopelessness mediates the association between attributional style and depression. The aetiological processes underpinning this influential theory remain unknown. The current study investigated genetic and environmental influences on hopelessness and its concurrent and longitudinal associations with attributional style and depression across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Furthermore, given high co-morbidity between depression and anxiety, the study investigated whether these maladaptive cognitions constitute transdiagnostic cognitive content common to both internalizing symptoms. A total of 2619 twins/siblings reported attributional style (mean age 15 and 17 years), hopelessness (mean age 17 years), and depression and anxiety symptoms (mean age 17 and 20 years). Partial correlations revealed that attributional style and hopelessness were uniquely associated with depression but not anxiety symptoms. Hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between attributional style and depression. Hopelessness was moderately heritable (A = 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.47), with remaining variance accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. Independent pathway models indicated that a set of common genetic influences largely accounted for the association between attributional style, hopelessness and depression symptoms, both concurrently and across development. The results provide novel evidence that associations between attributional style, hopelessness and depression symptoms are largely due to shared genetic liability, suggesting developmentally stable biological pathways underpinning the hopelessness theory of depression. Both attributional style and hopelessness constituted unique cognitive content in depression. The results inform molecular

  5. [Gunnar Meyer. "Besitzende Bürger" und "Elende Sieche". Lübecks Gesellschaft im Spiegel ihrer Testamente 1400-1449] / Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Gunnar Meyer. "Besitzende Bürger" und "Elende Sieche". Lübecks Gesellschaft im Spiegel ihrer Testamente 1400-1449. (Verhöffentlichungen zur Geschichte der Hansestadt Lübeck. B. 48). (Lübeck, 2010)

  6. Associations of adolescent hopelessness and self-worth with pregnancy attempts and pregnancy desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowicz, Anna R; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bolland, John M

    2014-08-01

    We examined the associations of pregnancy desire (ambivalence or happiness about a pregnancy in the next year) and recent pregnancy attempts with hopelessness and self-worth among low-income adolescents. To evaluate independent associations among the study variables, we conducted gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analyses with data derived from 2285 sexually experienced 9- to 18-year-old participants in the Mobile Youth Survey between 2006 and 2009. Fifty-seven percent of youths reported a desire for pregnancy and 9% reported pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, hopelessness was positively associated and self-worth was negatively associated with pregnancy attempts among both female and male youths. Hopelessness was weakly associated (P = .05) with pregnancy desire among female youths. The negative association of self-worth and the positive association of hopelessness with pregnancy attempts among young men as well as young women and the association of hopelessness with pregnancy desire among young women raise questions about why pregnancy is apparently valued by youths who rate their social and cognitive competence as low and who live in an environment with few options for material success.

  7. The suicide assessment scale: psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsland, Bjørn Odd; Mehlum, Lars; Mellesdal, Liv Solrunn; Walby, Fredrik A; Diep, Lien M

    2012-08-07

    Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S). Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7) with major depression (53.8%), bipolar disorder (25.0%) and/or a personality disorder (63.5%) referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R) and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS) were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time. Cronbach's alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test-retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93- 0.97). SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47-0.85) for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52) and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50) respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81) and the BHS (0.76). The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed. The study revealed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.

  8. The Role of Hopelessness in the Health of Low-Class Rural Chinese Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Mingming

    2018-03-12

    It is well known that health inequality has been happening between rural and urban Chinese populations, however, the health differences among rural Chinese residents remain unclear. This study aims to assess the physical and mental health of rural Chinese residents in different social classes, and then to examine the mediating role of hopelessness between social class and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A stratified multi-stage sampling was used to recruit 2003 rural residents responding to the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The results showed that lower-class rural Chinese residents reported lower physical and mental health as well as a higher level of hopelessness. Furthermore, hopelessness could fully mediate the association between social class and physical and mental health. These findings will generate significant implications for identifying those at particular risk for lower quality of life and designing social work intervention programs in rural China's context.

  9. Problem-Solving Skills and Suicidal Ideation Among Malaysian College Students: the Mediating Role of Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation has increased among Malaysian college students over the past two decades; therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among Malaysian college students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among Malaysian college students. The participants included 500 undergraduate students from two Malaysian public universities who completed the self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling estimated that college students with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between problem-solving skills and suicidal ideation. These findings reinforce the importance of poor problem-solving skills and hopelessness as risk factors for suicidal ideation among college students.

  10. Differentiation of hopelessness, helplessness, and powerlessness using Erik Erikson's "Roots of virtue".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, B L

    1990-10-01

    Hopelessness, helplessness, and powerlessness have been identified as phenomena of concern to psychiatric nursing practice by an American Nurses' Association (ANA) task force. These concepts, however, have not been clearly distinguished from each other. The resulting lack of clarity decreases the usefulness of nursing diagnoses in directing strategies for intervention. The purpose of this article is to differentiate the phenomena of hopelessness, helplessness, and powerlessness using Erik Erikson's "Roots of virtue" as a conceptual framework. The relationship between the frustration of early childhood tasks and later adult response patterns is discussed. Clinical examples illustrate that knowledge of childhood issues guides the formulation of therapeutic goals and interventions to address the experience of hopelessness, helplessness, and powerlessness.

  11. A cry unheard: sudden reductions in blood pressure while talking about feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J J; Lynch, K E; Friedmann, E

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes sudden extreme drops in blood pressure in both experimental and clinical situations when a person is talking about or describing situations of hopelessness and helplessness. These changes are discussed in the context of historical perspectives about the cardiovascular system. A new perspective is introduced, one in which these blood pressure changes are seen as part of an unheard cry for understanding. It is hypothesized that such changes do not occur in response to a person's attempts to communicate a sense of hopelessness, but rather are the biological foundations of the hopelessness itself. Viewed from such a context an entirely new therapeutic approach is outlined regarding the treatment of patients suffering from a wide variety of psychosomatic as well as psychological disturbances.

  12. Low self-esteem and hopelessness in childhood and suicidal ideation in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, R; Williams, S; Nada-Raja, S

    2001-08-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family characteristics in early childhood. self-esteem, hopelessness and thoughts of self-harm in the midchildhood years, and suicidal ideation at ages 18 and 21. Path analysis was used to establish separate models for boys and girls. The results suggested different pathways to later suicidal ideation for boys and girls. For boys, suicidal ideation seemed to have stronger roots in childhood, with significant paths from low self-esteem and hopelessness to early thoughts of self-harm and thence to later ideation. For girls, self-esteem had a small but significant direct effect on later suicidal ideation. The findings provide support for the idea that individual characteristics such as feelings of hopelessness and low self-esteem act as "generative mechanisms," linking early childhood family characteristics to suicidal ideation in early adulthood.

  13. Brain Emotion Systems, Personality, Hopelessness, Self/Other Perception, and Gambling Cognition: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; D'Antuono, Laura; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Giovani, Eleni; Giacolini, Teodosio; Candilera, Gabriella; Sabatello, Ugo; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19-59 years. Two structural models were tested. We found a significant correlation between problem gambling and impulsivity, which in association with aggressivity and negative personality dimensions may help explain the psychopathology factor, i.e. a latent variable involving neurotic personality, hopelessness, high sensation seeking, low metacognitive responsiveness, and disorganized patterns of interpersonal relationships. These results contribute to develop a theoretical framework of gambling in relation with personality factors and provide a new approach for clinical intervention of problem gambling that relies on a solid multidimensional perspective.

  14. Academic Risk Factors and Deficits of Learned Hopelessness: A Longitudinal Study of Hong Kong Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Raymond C. P.; Watkins, David A.; Hattie, John A. C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore a causal model of academic achievement and learning-related personal variables by testing the nature of relationships between learned hopelessness, its risk factors and hopelessness deficits as proposed in major theories in this area. The model investigates affective-motivational characteristics of…

  15. It gets better: future orientation buffers the development of hopelessness and depressive symptoms following emotional victimization during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Connolly, Samantha L; Liu, Richard T; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-04-01

    Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for the future (i.e., future orientation) are protected against the development of hopelessness, particularly in the context of negative events. Thus, the current study evaluated whether peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with a weaker future orientation than those with a stronger orientation towards the future, and whether hopelessness in turn predicted increases in depression. In a diverse sample of 259 early adolescents (54% female; 51% African American; Mage = 12.86 years), both peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with weaker future orientations than among those with stronger future orientations. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between emotional victimization and increases in depressive symptoms more strongly among adolescents with weaker orientations towards the future compared to those with stronger future orientations. These findings indicate that adolescents' tendency to think about the future may impact whether emotional victimization induces hopelessness and ultimately depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Results have important implications regarding intervention and prevention of depression during the critical developmental period of adolescence.

  16. A singing choir: Understanding the dynamics of hope, hopelessness, and despair in palliative care patients. A longitudinal qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsman, Erik; Leget, Carlo; Duggleby, Wendy; Willems, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Hope, despair, and hopelessness are dynamic in nature; however, they have not been explored over time. The objective of the present study was to describe hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, as experienced by palliative care patients. We employed a qualitative longitudinal method based on

  17. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  18. Hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in posttraumatic stress disorder: their association with suicidal behavior and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    Research has shown an increased frequency of suicidal behaviors in those with PTSD, but few studies have investigated the factors that underlie the emergence of suicidal behavior in PTSD. Two theories of suicide, the Cry of Pain and the Schematic Appraisal Model of Suicide, propose that feelings of hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment are core components of suicidality. This study aimed to examine the association between suicidal behavior and hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment in trauma victims with and without a PTSD diagnosis. The results demonstrated that hopelessness, defeat, and entrapment were significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in those with PTSD. Hopelessness and defeat were also significantly positively associated with suicidal behavior in trauma victims without PTSD. In those with PTSD, the relationship between suicidal behavior and hopelessness and entrapment remained significant after controlling for comorbid depression. The findings provide support for the contemporary theories of suicidality and have important clinical implications.

  19. Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka

    2014-12-10

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period. The study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales. A history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions. According to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not

  20. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article...... turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question....

  1. Depression, Hopelessness, and Self-Esteem: Accounting for Suicidality in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Galit A.; Overholser, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Depressed adolescents who had never attempted suicide were compared to depressed adolescents who had attempted suicide. Results showed suicidal adolescents experienced significantly greater depression and hopelessness than did nonsuicidal adolescents. However, suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents reported similar low levels of self esteem.…

  2. The Effect of Automatic Thoughts on Hopelessness: Role of Self-Esteem as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Firdevs Savi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test a theoretical model concerning the role of self-esteem as a mediator between university students' automatic thoughts and their levels of hopelessness. The participants consisted of 338 students (197 females (58.3%) and 141 males (41.7%) from various departments at the Celal Bayar University. The research data…

  3. Defeat and entrapment as predictors of depression and suicidal ideation versus hopelessness and helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 140 undergraduate students, measures of defeat and entrapment and of haplessness, helplessness, and hopelessness were similar in their ability to predict depression and suicidality. It was concluded that the two sets of measures may tap the same cognitive mind set.

  4. Moral Education between Hope and Hopelessness: The Legacy of Janusz Korczak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Sara Efrat

    2008-01-01

    The responsibility for addressing morality and moral education in the current moral climate is a daunting task for conscientious educators. What educational response can extricate us from the debilitating feelings of hopelessness and helplessness as we are confronted by horrific terrorist actions, controversial use of military might, displays of…

  5. The Relationship between Parental Bonding and Peer Victimization: Examining Child Stress and Hopelessness as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, HaeJin; Lee, Dong Hun; Yu, Kumlan; Ham, KyongAe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate a two-stage model in which parent-related stress and hopelessness each served as mediators of the relationship between perceived parental bonding and South Korean adolescent peer victimization. This study also examined whether the mediating relationships differed by the gender of parents and…

  6. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  7. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  8. Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts in Female Inmates: The Hegemony of Hopelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Specht, Matthew W.; Cellucci, Tony

    2005-01-01

    In this study factors associated with past suicide attempts in female inmates were examined. Female inmate participants (N = 105) were given structured diagnostic assessments of antisocial and borderline personality disorders and substance dependence, as well as measures of depression, hopelessness, problem-focused coping styles, and reasons for…

  9. The Application of Nursing Interventions: Generalist Therapy to Against Hopelessness on Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Mardiati Agustin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increasing number of elderly people followed the emergence of mental health problems. One of mental health problem that arises is hopelesness. Nursing action to hopelesness in elderly people in society is not to optimals. The aimed of this paper was gave an overview about the application of nursing intervention: generalist therapy to against hopelesness on elderly. Method: This research was used descriptive analytic design. Population were elders who lived at RW 3 and RW 4, Kelurahan Ciwaringin, Kota Bogor. Samples were 10 respondents, taken according to purposive sampling technique. Independent variable was generalist therapy, while dependent variables were sign and symptoms of hopelessness and ability to cope with hopelessness. Data were collected by using questionnaire, then analyzed by using frequency distribution. Result: The results showed that generalist therapy can decrease elder’s sign and symptoms of hopelessness (21% and increase their ability to cope with hopelessness (72%. Discussion: It can be concluded that generalist therapy can be used as one of nursing intervention to against hopelesness in the elderly. Keywords: hopelesness, elderly, generalist therapy

  10. Co-occurrence of diabetes and hopelessness predicts adverse prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); J. Denollet (Johan); R.A.M. Erdman (Ruud); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined the impact of co-occurring diabetes and hopelessness on 3-year prognosis in percutaneous coronary intervention patients. Consecutive patients (n = 534) treated with the paclitaxel-eluting stent completed a set of questionnaires at baseline and were followed up for 3-year

  11. Social support, hopelessness and life satisfaction among Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, P.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health among Roma adolescents is completely lacking. Our aim was to compare social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness of Slovak Roma and non-Roma adolescents and to assess the impact of parental education and social desirability on these

  12. Older people who are 'weary of life': their expectations for the future and perceived hopelessness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, M.L.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Older people who are 'weary of life': their expectations for the future and perceived hopelessness There has been a debate for over a decade in the Netherlands about whether physicians should be allowed to provide assistance with suicide to older people who are 'weary of life'. Actual knowledge

  13. Predicting Suicidal Ideation with the Depression Hopelessness and Suicide Screening Form (DHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines a series of interactions between a prior history of suicidal behavior and cognitions permissive of suicide, and the variables of depression and hopelessness in the relationship with suicidal ideation in two samples of incarcerated offenders. Results indicate that both a prior history of suicidal behavior and cognitions…

  14. The Mediating Roles of Anxiety Depression, and Hopelessness on Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elaine Adams; Mazza, James J.; Herting, Jerald R.; Randell, Brooke P.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as mediators between known risk factors and suicidal behaviors among 1,287 potential high school dropouts. As a step toward theory development, a model was tested that posited the relationships among these variables and their effects on suicidal behaviors.…

  15. Meta-Analysis of the English Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Johnson, Erin; Bardoshi, Gerta

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 144 studies from 1996 to 2013 using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Internal consistency was 0.89 and test-retest reliability 0.75. Convergent comparisons were robust across 43 depression instruments. Structural validity supported both one- and two-factor solutions and diagnostic accuracy varied according…

  16. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Indonesia's general population and coronary heart disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginting, H.; Näring, G.W.B.; Veld, W.M. van der; Srisayekti, W.; Becker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the validity and determines the cut-off point for the Beck Depression Inventory-II (the BDI-II) among Indonesians. The Indonesian version of the BDI-II (the Indo BDI-II) was administered to 720 healthy individuals from the general population, 215 Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

  17. Reliability and validity of the Beck depression inventory in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Martine; Leentjens, Albert F. G.; Marinus, Johan; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the validity, reliability, and potential responsiveness of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In part 1 of the study, 92 patients with PD underwent a structured clinical interview for DSM major depression and based on this patients were

  18. Norms for the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in a Large Dutch Community Sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; van Breukelen, G.; de Graaf, L.E.; Beck, A.T.; Arntz, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) is a widely used instrument that provides information about the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Although the BDI-II is a psychometrically sound instrument, relatively little is known about norm scores. This study aimed to develop reliable norms

  19. Sex Differences in the Expression of Depressive Responses on the Beck Depression Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance L.; Padesky, Christine A.

    1977-01-01

    Although epidemiological data have documented sex differences in depression, the nature and origins of the differences are unclear. Depression in a large sample of young, unmarried college students was measured and described by the Beck Depression Inventory. Considers the consequences of sex differences in depressive responses, including…

  20. The "Self-Interested" Woman Academic: A Consideration of Beck's Model of the "Individualised Individual"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck, particularly his concept of the "individualised individual", is increasingly cited by educational social scientists. As yet, there have been few empirical investigations that consider how applicable and relevant is the notion of the "individualised individual" in understanding how people make sense of…

  1. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…

  3. High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent scale: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • May 2013. 167. Suicide is the act of ... was receiving psychiatric treatment for depression, and ... communities.6 In another study, it was documented that ... Mediterranean Academy of Forensic Sciences Meeting.

  4. Sensory profiles as potential mediators of the association between hypomania and hopelessness in 488 major affective outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gonda, Xenia; Canepa, Giovanna; Pompili, Maurizio; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Extreme sensory processing patterns may contribute to the pathophysiology of major affective disorders. We aimed to examine whether significant correlations exist between sensory profiles, hypomania, self-reported depression, and hopelessness and whether sensory profiles may be potential mediators of the association between hypomania and depression/hopelessness. The sample consisted of 488 euthymic affective disorder patients of which 283 diagnosed with unipolar and 162 with bipolar disorder with an age ranging from 18 to 65 years (mean = 47.82 ± 11.67). Lower registration of sensory input and sensory sensitivity significantly correlated with elevated self-reported depression, hopelessness, and irritable/risk-taking hypomania while sensation seeking and avoiding significantly correlated with elevated depression and hopelessness but not with irritable/risk-taking hypomania. Moreover, individuals with lower ability to register sensory input and higher hypomania showed higher self-reported depression than those with good registration of sensory information. According to SEM analyses, there was both a direct/indirect effect of irritable/risk-taking on depression-hopelessness with the mediation model explaining 48% of the variance in depression-hopelessness. The relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the study design do not allow the generalization of the main findings. Low registration was associated with enhanced depressed mood and hopelessness while sensory seeking may be considered a resilient factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions: Positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Lindsay-Ann; Atkinson, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associated with long-term conditions and of imagining new meanings and purposes for the future ahead. This process is characterised by a set of linear temporal stages, from loss and denial to acceptance and reappraising the life-course, by an emphasis on the morally desirable exercise of self-care and by a desired outcome that, in the absence of cure, is hope. Through interviews, we aim to unsettle the privileged status given to a positive outlook through examining the expressions, contexts and negotiations of hopelessness of people living with multiple conditions of ill-health and/or disability. These narratives of hopelessness disclose the ways in which realistic imagined possibilities for the future are constrained by external structures of time and function that demand complex negotiations with places, bodies and other people. As a situated and relational narrative, hopelessness draws our attention to the need to rebalance the exclusive attention to individual, internal resources with a renewed attention to contexts and settings. Moreover, hopelessness can be generative for those living with multiple conditions in shaping alternatively framed priorities with respect to their temporal and interpersonal relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Review: Gerald Beck (2013. Sichtbare Soziologie. Visualisierung und soziologische Wissenschaftskommunikation in der Zweiten Moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Philipps

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualisierungen von Wissen hatten und haben im Kern des Faches Soziologie einen schweren Stand. Gerald BECK nimmt sich daher in seinem Buch "Sichtbare Soziologie" der Thematik an, um die Stellung von Visualisierungen in der Soziologie zu verstehen, damit verbundene Problemfelder zu identifizieren und für visuelle Umsetzungen zu sensibilisieren. Er setzt dazu beim Übergang zur Zweiten Moderne an und betrachtet anhand von neun Fallbeispielen gelungene und weniger gelungene Visualisierungen. Durch die verkürzte Aufarbeitung des Verhältnisses der Soziologie zum Bild bleiben jedoch wichtige Einsichten unberücksichtigt, sodass BECKs Empfehlungen, die Zahl der Visualisierungen und die visuelle Kompetenz zu erhöhen, kaum geeignet sind, die Skepsis in der Soziologie gegenüber Visualisierungen zu überwinden. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401228

  7. Orobanche tunetana G. Beck (Orobanchaceae, especie nueva para el continente europeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas, Antonio

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Orobanche tunetana G. Beck in the south-eastern part of the Iberian Península is noted. An original ilhistrabon, the chorology and the description of the Iberian specimens are given. The differences are also analysed between this species and O. caesia Rchb.. with which it shows certain similarities.Se indica la presencia de Orobanche tunetana G. Beck en el sudeste de la Península Ibérica. Aportamos un icono original, la corología y la descripción de los ejemplares ibéricos. Se analizan las diferencias con O. caesia Rchb., con el que presenta ciertas semejanzas.

  8. The Tonian Beck Spring Dolomite: Marine dolomitization in a shallow, anoxic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Alice Mary; Wallace, Malcolm William; van Smeerdijk Hood, Ashleigh; Jiang, Ganqing

    2018-06-01

    The reason for the abundance of dolomite lithologies in Earth's early geological record compared to modern environments remains contentious. This study provides new insight into this Precambrian "dolomite problem" by revisiting one of the most controversial dolomite localities, the Beck Spring Dolomite, of Death Valley, USA. Consistent with some previous studies, petrographic evidence indicates that although the Beck Spring Dolomite now consists almost entirely of dolomite, it was originally precipitated largely as aragonite and high-Mg calcite. Depositional constituents (microbialites and ooids) were likely originally aragonitic, and early marine length-fast cements (now dolomite) are suggested to have precipitated as high-Mg calcite then replaced syntaxially by dolomite. Based on petrographic and geochemical evidence, we suggest that marine dolomitization was the dominant synsedimentary diagenetic process in the unit, and for the most part, involved syntaxial and mimetic replacement. Further, a length-slow fibrous dolomite generation was precipitated during the later stages of marine diagenesis as a primary marine dolomite cement. This is indicated by the length-slow crystallographic structure of the cement and from its preserved geochemical and cathodoluminescence growth zonation. This new evidence for Tonian marine dolomite precipitation reinforces the idea of Precambrian marine environmental conditions, including the chemical composition of seawater, promoting dolomite formation at this time. The trace metal geochemical composition of well-preserved marine components, especially dolomite marine cements, reveals information about redox conditions in this Tonian shallow seawater. In terms of rare earth element geochemistry, the Beck Spring Dolomite has no significant Ce anomaly, and a ubiquitous positive Eu anomaly, consistent with widespread oceanic anoxia during deposition. Furthermore, the relatively low levels of iron and chalcophile elements Co, Cu, Pb and

  9. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ya-xu; Dong, Wei; Liu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine on adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD). A total of 80 patients, aged over 40 years, were randomized into two groups receiving either 1,600 mg oral mixture of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine or placebo......). But the overall mean change in joint space was significant between the two groups (P chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine might play a protective role in preserving articular cartilage and provide...

  10. Hopelessness is associated with decreased heart rate variability during championship chess games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alfons M; Schächinger, Hartmut; Adler, Rolf H; Goetz, Stefan M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest that negative affects such as helplessness/hopelessness (HE/HO) may induce autonomic duration; affects were assessed for every move after reconstruction of the games. In all games compiled, 18 situation of intense confidence/optimism and 20 of intense helplessness/hopelessness were observed. Intense affects of HE/HO were associated with decreasing HF-HRV (Fisher exact test, p =.003), increasing "nervousness" (p =.0005), decreasing "optimism" (p =.0005), and decreasing "calmness" (p =.0005). Investigation of championship chess game players with an ELO strength > or = 2300 in a natural field setting revealed increasing HE/HO being associated with reduced HF-HRV suggestive of vagal withdrawal. Thus, our data may help link negative mood states, autonomic nervous system disturbances, and cardiac events.

  11. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions : positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, L.A.; Atkinson, S.

    2018-01-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associate...

  12. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: A proposed model

    OpenAIRE

    Argaman, M; Gidron, Y; Ariad, S

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1β. Elevated cerebral IL-1β increased ca...

  13. [Which route leads from chronic back pain to depression? A path analysis on direct and indirect effects using the cognitive mediators catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness in a general population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahland, R A; Kohlmann, T; Hasenbring, M; Feng, Y-S; Schmidt, C O

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pain and depression are highly comorbid; however, the longitudinal link is only partially understood. This study examined direct and indirect effects of chronic back pain on depression using path analysis in a general population sample, focussing on cognitive mediator variables. Analyses are based on 413 participants (aged 18-75 years) in a population-based postal survey on back pain who reported chronic back pain at baseline. Follow-up data were collected after 1 year. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Fear-avoidance-beliefs (FABQ), catastrophizing and helplessness/hopelessness (KRSS) were considered as cognitive mediators. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Chronic back pain had no direct effect on depression at follow-up when controlling for cognitive mediators. A mediating effect emerged for helplessness/hopelessness but not for catastrophizing or fear-avoidance beliefs. These results support the cognitive mediation hypothesis which assumes that psychological variables mediate the association between pain and depression. The importance of helplessness/hopelessness is of relevance for the treatment of patients with chronic back pain.

  14. Infants with atopic dermatitis: maternal hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, U; Darui, A; Beckmann, D

    1999-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease of childhood. It frequently starts in the first year of life. There is agreement on the existence of psychological influences on this disease. Although some studies in this field examine aspects of the parent-child relationship, studies concerning early infancy are very rare. The present study was conducted in order to find out whether maternal characteristics relevant to the mother-infant relationship, i.e. depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant behaviour, associated with infant AD. Two cohorts (3- to 4-month- and 10- to 12-month-old infants), each with 20 infants suffering from AD, and 20 healthy infants were recruited. AD infants were further divided into subgroups according to the diagnostic criteria: atopic family history, itching and characteristic locations of eczema. After a paediatric examination of the infant, mothers completed standardized questionnaires concerning depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perception of infant behaviour. Varying with different diagnostic features of the infants' AD, mothers of AD infants described themselves as more depressive/hopeless, as more anxious/overprotective and characterized their infant as less frequently positive and more frequently negative in its emotional behaviour compared to the control group. The results underline the importance of psychological support for mothers of infants with AD.

  15. [Using complementary therapy with a hemodialysis patient with colon cancer and a sense of hopelessness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chun; Yeh, Hui-Fang

    2007-10-01

    Hemodialysis patients usually have a sense of hopelessness. This can affect their physical, mental and spiritual health, and can even be life- threatening. This article discusses a nursing experience involving a dialysis patient who also suffered from cancer had and a sense of hopelessness due to the distress caused by the two severe illnesses. The author assessed the patient by means of Roy's theory during the nursing period (5/7/2005-6/18/2005). Data were collected through physical assessments, interviews, observation of interaction with family members and a medical history review. The patient had characteristics of hopelessness, such as pessimism, moodiness, frequent sighing, frowning, eye-closing and negative thinking. The author applied a safe, easy, and non-invasive complementary therapy program including music therapy, aromatherapy and massage with essential oil to improve the patient's physical and mental states. Through these approaches, the patient learned to release stress, and to express his feelings, so that he could adapt to his current life, changed as it was by the illnesses, and face the impact of those illnesses with a positive attitude. The author would like to share this case report to provide nursing professionals with a source of reference for healthcare quality improvement.

  16. Prevalence of hand osteoarthritis and knee osteoarthritis in Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas and non Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas: A status survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, QuanQuan; Liu, Yun Qi; Sun, Li Yan; Deng, Qing; Wang, Shao Ping; Cao, Yan Hong; Zhang, Xue Ying; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Lv, Hong Yan; Duan, Li Bin; Yu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a considerable health problem worldwide, and the prevalence of OA varies in different regions. In this study, the prevalence of OA in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and non-KBD endemic areas was examined, respectively. According to monitoring data, 4 types of regions (including none, mild, moderate and high KBD endemic areas) in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces were selected. All local residents were eligible for inclusion criteria have undergone X-ray images of hands and anteroposterior image of knees. A total of 1673 cases were collected, 1446 cases were analyzed after removing the KBD patients (227). The overall hand OA and knee OA detection rates were 33.3% (481/1446) and 56.6% (818/1446), respectively. After being standardized by age, the detection rate of hand OA in the KBD endemic areas was significantly higher than that in the non-endemic endemic areas. Differently, there was no significant difference in the detection rates of knee OA between the KBD endemic areas and the non-endemic area. The correlation coefficient between the severity of OA and the severity of knee OA was 0.358 and 0.197 in the KBD and non-KBD endemic areas, respectively. Where the KBD historical prevalence level was higher, the severity of the residents’ hand OA was more serious. The detection rates of hand OA and knee OA increased with age. The detection rate of knee OA increased with the increase in body mass index. The prevalence of hand OA was closely related to the pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease, and the prevalence of knee OA had no significant correlation with KBD pathogenic factors. PMID:29320581

  17. The suicide assessment scale: Psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldsland Bjørn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S. Methods Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7 with major depression (53.8%, bipolar disorder (25.0% and/or a personality disorder (63.5% referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS, the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time. Results Cronbach’s alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test–retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93– 0.97. SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47–0.85 for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52 and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50 respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81 and the BHS (0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed. Conclusions The study revealed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.

  18. Response pattern of depressive symptoms among college students: What lies behind items of the Beck Depression Inventory-II?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Andrade, Laura Helena; Gorenstein, Clarice; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2018-07-01

    This study examines the response pattern of depressive symptoms in a nationwide student sample, through item analyses of a rating scale by both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered to 12,711 college students. First, the psychometric properties of the scale were described. Thereafter, the endorsement probability of depressive symptom in each scale item was analyzed through CTT and IRT. Graphical plots depicted the endorsement probability of scale items and intensity of depression. Three items of different difficulty level were compared through CTT and IRT approach. Four in five students reported the presence of depressive symptoms. The BDI-II items presented good reliability and were distributed along the symptomatic continuum of depression. Similarly, in both CTT and IRT approaches, the item 'changes in sleep' was easily endorsed, 'loss of interest' moderately and 'suicidal thoughts' hardly. Graphical representation of BDI-II of both methods showed much equivalence in terms of item discrimination and item difficulty. The item characteristic curve of the IRT method provided informative evaluation of item performance. The inventory was applied only in college students. Depressive symptoms were frequent psychopathological manifestations among college students. The performance of the BDI-II items indicated convergent results from both methods of analysis. While the CTT was easy to understand and to apply, the IRT was more complex to understand and to implement. Comprehensive assessment of the functioning of each BDI-II item might be helpful in efficient detection of depressive conditions in college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A singing choir: Understanding the dynamics of hope, hopelessness, and despair in palliative care patients. A longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsman, Erik; Leget, Carlo; Duggleby, Wendy; Willems, Dick

    2015-12-01

    Hope, despair, and hopelessness are dynamic in nature; however, they have not been explored over time. The objective of the present study was to describe hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, as experienced by palliative care patients. We employed a qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories. Semistructured interviews with palliative care patients were prospectively conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Data on hope, hopelessness and despair were thematically analyzed, which led to similarities and differences between these concepts. The concepts were then analyzed over time in each case. During all stages, the researchers took a reflexive stance, wrote memos, and did member checking with participants. A total of 29 palliative care patients (mean age, 65.9 years; standard deviation, 14.7; 14 females) were included, 11 of whom suffered from incurable cancer, 10 from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 8 from severe heart failure. They were interviewed a maximum of three times. Participants associated hope with gains in the past or future, such as physical improvement or spending time with significant others. They associated hopelessness with past losses, like loss of health, income, or significant others, and despair with future losses, which included the possibility of losing the future itself. Over time, the nature of their hope, hopelessness, and despair changed when their condition changed. These dynamics could be understood as voices in a singing choir that can sing together, alternate with each other, or sing their own melody. Our findings offer insight into hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, and the metaphor of a choir helps to understand the coexistence of these concepts. The findings also help healthcare professionals to address hope, hopelessness, and despair during encounters with patients, which is particularly important when the patients' physical condition has changed.

  20. Association of Beck Depression Inventory score and Temperament and Character Inventory-125 in patients with eating disorders and severe malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshida, Keizo; Katayama, Hiroto; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Kawano, Naoko; Imaeda, Miho; Kato, Saki; Ando, Masahiko; Aleksic, Branko; Nishioka, Kazuo; Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between personality and physical/mental status in malnourished patients with eating disorders. A total of 45 patients with anorexia nervosa, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders were included and compared with 39 healthy controls. Personality characteristics and severity of depression were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 and Beck?s Depression Inventory. Depression correlat...

  1. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DÝNÇ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored seventeen books and he has been listed as one of the “10 individuals who shaped the face of American Psychiatry” and one of the 5 most influential psychotherapists of all time since then. Beck’s groundbreaking systematic research established for the first time the efficacy of any psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Moreover he not only developed and tested an effective short-term treatment (cognitive therapy for depression, but he and his former students have successfully adapted cognitive therapy to a wide range of other psychiatric disorders as well. Numerous controlled clinical trials have now demonstrated that cognitive therapy is effective in a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, bulimia nervosa, hypochondriasis, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance abuse, body dysmorphic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore knowing the father of cognitive therapy and his journey from 1950’s to 2010’s will help to understand cognitive therapy and its development during these years. This article aims to give an overview of the historical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy by focusing on Beck’s life, characteristics and works. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 70-76

  2. The Beck Initiative: A Partnership to Implement Cognitive Therapy in a Community Behavioral Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Buchhofer, Regina; McLaulin, J. Bryce; Evans, Arthur C.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Initiative is a partnership between researchers and clinicians at a large university and an urban behavioral health managed care system. Both partners share a commitment to ensuring that consumers in the community have access to competently delivered, individualized, evidence-based mental health care and that the providers who serve them have the support they need to deliver high-quality evidence-based treatments. Central features of the program are individualized training and consultation in cognitive therapy for each provider agency and policies to promote the sustainability of the initiative and its continuing evolution to meet the needs of providers and consumers. PMID:19797367

  3. A comparison study of children with sickle cell disease and their non-diseased siblings on hopelessness, depression, and perceived competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E J; Phoenix, D; Brown, W; Jackson, B S

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this comparison study was to explore the extent to which hopelessness and self-perceptions of competence are associated with depression in a community population of children with sickle cell disease compared to their non-diseased siblings. Subjects were African-American children drawn randomly from the case management programme at the L.D. Barksdale Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation. Depression scores were higher for the non-diseased siblings. The children with sickle cell disease scored lower on the perceived physical competence scale. Recommendations for practice include increasing hope, improving relationships, monitoring depression in patients and their siblings, and monitoring perceptions of cognitive, social, physical, and general self-worth.

  4. The role of nonverbal cognitive ability in the association of adverse life events with dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether nonverbal cognitive ability buffers the effect of life stress (number of adverse life events in the last year) on diatheses for depression. It was expected that, as problem-solving aptitude, nonverbal cognitive ability would moderate the effect of life stress on those diatheses (such as dysfunctional attitudes) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in information-processing or problem-solving skills, but not on diatheses (such as hopelessness) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in motivation or effort to apply problem-solving skills. The sample included 558 10- to 19-year-olds from a state secondary school in London. Nonverbal cognitive ability was negatively associated with both dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness. As expected, nonverbal cognitive ability moderated the association between life adversity and dysfunctional attitudes. However, hopelessness was not related to life stress, and therefore, there was no life stress effect for nonverbal cognitive ability to moderate. This study adds to knowledge about the association between problem-solving ability and depressogenic diatheses. By identifying life stress as a risk factor for dysfunctional attitudes but not hopelessness, it highlights the importance of considering outcome specificity in models predicting adolescent outcomes from adverse life events. Importantly for practice, it suggests that an emphasis on recent life adversity will likely underestimate the true level of hopelessness among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of a comprehensive supportive care team on management of hopelessly ill patients with multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, B E; Devich, L E; Carlson, R W

    1989-08-01

    We developed a supportive care team for hopelessly ill patients in an urban emergency/trauma hospital. The team includes a clinical nurse specialist and a faculty physician as well as a chaplain and social worker. The supportive care team provides an alternative to intensive care or conventional ward management of hopelessly ill patients and concentrates on the physical and psychosocial comfort needs of patients and their families. We describe our experience with 20 hopelessly ill patients with multiple organ failure vs a similar group treated before the development of the supportive care team. Although there was no difference in mortality (100 percent), the length of stay in the medical ICU for patients with multiple organ failure decreased by 12 days to 6 days. Additionally, there were 50 percent fewer therapeutic interventions provided by the supportive care team vs intensive care or conventional ward treatment of multiple organ failure patients. We describe the methods that the supportive care team uses in an attempt to meet the physical and psychosocial comfort needs of hopelessly ill multiple organ failure patients and their families. This multidisciplinary approach to the care of the hopelessly ill may have applications in other institutions facing the ethical, medical, and administrative challenges raised by these patients.

  6. El legado psicoanalítico en la terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Pablo Korman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El psicoanálisis en el que Beck se formó tenía como objetivo incluir al psicoanálisis dentro del modelo científico. Esto era consistente con los intereses de un gran número de investigadores clínicos en los Estados Unidos durante las décadas de 1950 y 1960. Este trayecto intelectual lo llevará, años después, a desarrollar la terapia cognitiva. En este trabajo nos enfocaremos en el entrenamiento psicoanalítico de Beck así como en las primeras publicaciones de éste como especialista en psiquiatría durante su práctica hospitalaria en la Clínica de Austen Riggs y en el Hospital Valley Forge Army. Analizaremos sus primeras hipótesis, intentando rastrear los indicios de su modo de actuar como psicoanalista. Esta misma formación posteriormente lo llevará a un replanteo del modelo psicoanalítico, hecho que será clave para explicar las características que adoptará la terapia cognitiva.

  7. Cross-cultural examination of measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Jessica; Watters, Carolyn A; Yu, Stephanie Chee-Min; Bagby, R Michael; Ryder, Andrew G; Harkness, Kate L

    2015-03-01

    Given substantial rates of major depressive disorder among college and university students, as well as the growing cultural diversity on many campuses, establishing the cross-cultural validity of relevant assessment tools is important. In the current investigation, we examined the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) among Chinese-heritage (n = 933) and European-heritage (n = 933) undergraduates in North America. The investigation integrated 3 distinct lines of inquiry: (a) the literature on cultural variation in depressive symptom reporting between people of Chinese and Western heritage; (b) recent developments regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II; and (c) the application of advanced statistical techniques to the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance. A bifactor model was found to represent the optimal factor structure of the BDI-II. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the BDI-II had strong measurement invariance across both culture and gender. In group comparisons with latent and observed variables, Chinese-heritage students scored higher than European-heritage students on cognitive symptoms of depression. This finding deviates from the commonly held view that those of Chinese heritage somatize depression. These findings hold implications for the study and use of the BDI-II, highlight the value of advanced statistical techniques such as multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, and offer methodological lessons for cross-cultural psychopathology research more broadly. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Students' expectations of the future: hopelessness as a barrier to self-determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S B; Wehmeyer, M L

    1998-04-01

    The development of self-determination depends on the emergence of positive beliefs about oneself and one's future. Research has suggested that these positive perceptions are the outcome of a process of learning and using problem-solving skills and the achievement of perceived or actual control, referred to as learned hopefulness. Expectations for the future (e.g., hopefulness/hopelessness) of students with mental retardation, learning disabilities, or students without disabilities were examined. Students with mental retardation were significantly less hopeful than were their peers with learning disabilities or without disabilities. Implications from these findings for the development of self-determination were discussed.

  9. Cognitive-behavioural theories of helplessness/hopelessness: valid models of depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, V; Bussfeld, P; Möller, H-J; Hegerl, U

    2002-10-01

    Helplessness and hopelessness are central aspects of cognitive-behavioural explanations for the development and persistence of depression. In this article a general overview concerning the evolution of those approaches to depression is provided. Included is a critical examination of the theories. The review of the literature suggests that those cognitive models describing helplessness/hopelessness as trait factors mediating depression do not really have a strong empirical base. The majority of those studies had been conducted in healthy or only mildly depressed subjects. Thus, there seems to be little justification for broad generalisations beyond the populations studied. It seems that some of the reported studies have not tested the underlying theories adequately (e. g. correlation had sometimes been interpreted as causation; adequate prospective longitudinal study designs had seldom been applied). Moreover, the theoretical models are not generally prepared to explain all depressive features (e. g. the possibility of a spontaneous shift in a manic episode). Despite those limitations, there is a relevant impact of the learned helplessness paradigm on preclinical research in neurobiological correlates of depressive states. Last but not least, the models are of high interest with respect to the theoretical background of important modules of cognitive-behavioural therapy and its acute and prophylactic effects.

  10. A terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como reflexividade na alta modernidade: uma sociologia do conhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ivan de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Uma sociologia do conhecimento interpreta a produção do conhecimento como vinculada a situações sociais. Partindo dessa premissa epistemológica, nosso artigo objetivou interpretar a terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como conhecimento construído e construtor do fenômeno de reflexividade da alta modernidade, conforme interpretada por Anthony Giddens. Nossa hipótese é que a reorientação do sistema de crenças do cliente, proposta pela terapia cognitiva, é uma forma de reconstrução reflexiva da autoidentidade, visando superar conflitos típicos da instabilidade da alta modernidade. Assinalamos aspectos na terapia cognitiva que a identificam com a reflexividade, sobretudo a ideia de que a construção da autoidentidade é uma tarefa na qual o indivíduo se engaja reflexivamente.

  11. The role of psychological inflexibility in Beck's cognitive model of depression in a sample of undergraduates

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    Francisco J. Ruiz

    Full Text Available Beck's cognitive model of depression proposes that depressogenic schemas have an effect on depressive symptoms by increasing the frequency of negative automatic thoughts in response to negative life events. We aimed to test a moderated, serial mediation model where psychological inflexibility, a core concept of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT model of psychopathology, both mediates and moderates the relationship between depressogenic schemas and the frequency of negative automatic thoughts. A cross-sectional design was used in which 210 undergraduates responded to questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Results supported the proposed moderated mediation model. Both psychological inflexibility and negative automatic thoughts were significant mediators of the relationship between depressogenic schemas and depressive symptoms, and psychological inflexibility also moderated the effect of depressogenic schemas on negative automatic thoughts. We conclude that the role of psychological inflexibility in the cognitive model of depression deserves more attention.

  12. Arthroscopic Ankle Arthrodesis for Treating Osteoarthritis in a Patient with Kashin-Beck Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Iwasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease (KBD is an endemic degenerative osteoarthritis. Death of cartilage and growth plate is the pathologic feature; therefore, KBD involves skeletal deformity and often results in osteoarthritis. Deficiency of selenium, high humic acid levels in water, and fungi on storage gains are considered the cause of KBD. The most frequently involved joints are ankles, knees, wrists, and elbows and symptoms are pain and limited motions of those joints. The main treatments for KBD are rehabilitation and osteotomy to correct the deformities because preventive treatment has not been established. In this report, we present a case of ankle osteoarthritis due to KBD and first describe arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis for treating osteoarthritis of KBD.

  13. [Association between polymorphism in DVWA and IL-1beta and Kashin-Beck disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y U, Min; Guo, Xiong; Gao, Xiao-Yun; Lai, Jiang-Hua; Tu, Qian-Qian

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the association between IL-1beta and DVWA gene and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Peripheral genomic DNA were extracted from 105 patients with KBD and 98 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP were performed to detect SNP loci of IL-1beta gene and DVWA gene. The patients with KBD had significantly higher frequency of rs16944 (IL-1beta) locus (chi2 = 24.28, P rs16944 (chi2 = 5.683, P = 0.0171) than the healthy controls. There were no significant differences in genotype frequencies,single allele frequencies and haplotypes in rs4685241 and rs1143627 between the patients with KBD and the healthy controls. rs16944 (IL-1beta) is associated with KBD.

  14. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  15. [Change on the rate of children's finger metaphysics in the non-Kaschin-Beck disease areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei; Liu, Yunqi; Zhou, Lingwang; Liu, Hui; Deng, Qing; Song, Jiucheng; Yu, Jun

    2014-11-01

    36 non-Kaschin-Beck disease villages in five provinces including Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia in the severe endemic areas of Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD) were selected. The aim of this project was to provide the basis showing these KBD villages had already eliminated the KBD. Fully digital versatile X-ray radiography systems(DR) was used to shoot children's right hand X-ray, in accordance with the "Kashin-Beck Disease Diagnosis Standard" (WS/T 207-2010) for diagnosis. Results indicated that children showing metaphyseal changes only appeared in 13 of the 36 villages, where the rate of change on metaphyseal was less than or equal to three percent. When KBD had been eliminated in a village, the rate of change on aged 7 to 12 children's metaphyseal would have been less than three percent.

  16. The Relationship between 8th Grade Students’ Opinions about Problem Solving, Beliefs about Mathematics, Learned Hopelessness and Academics Success

    OpenAIRE

    Agaç, Gülay; MASAL, Ercan

    2017-01-01

    Related literature emphasizes that affective factors are impactful on cognitive factors. For this reason, this study aims at revealing the relationship between problem solving,  which is one of metacognitive characteristics, beliefs about mathematics and learned hopelessness, which are two affective characteristics. Therefore, addressing emotional aspects together with cognitive abilities will give rise to understanding of the students’ current situation and predicting ab...

  17. The Effects of Familial Acculturative Stress and Hopelessness on Suicidal Ideation by Immigration Status among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert; Miranda, Regina

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Based on acculturative family distancing theory, we examined whether familial acculturative stress interacted with hopelessness to predict suicidal ideation differentially among emerging adult immigrant versus nonimmigrant college students. Participants: We recruited 152 generationally and racially/ethnically diverse college students…

  18. The Relationship between the Styles of Coping with Stress and the Levels of Hopelessness of Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine the relationship between the styles of coping with stress and the levels of hopelessness of preschool teachers. Relational survey method was used in this research. The research sample consists of 108 preschool teachers working in preschool education institutions in Küçükçekmece district of Istanbul in…

  19. Effect of hopelessness on the links between psychiatric symptoms and suicidality in a vulnerable population at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas; Dunn, Graham; Shaw, Jennifer; Awenat, Yvonne; Ulph, Fiona; Pratt, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of two risk factors working together on a measure of suicide probability in a highly vulnerable group who were male prisoners identified as being at risk of self harm. The first risk factor was psychiatric symptoms, including general psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorder. The second risk factor was psychological precursors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours which were defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Sixty-five male prisoners from a high secure prison in NW England, UK, were recruited, all of whom were considered at risk of suicide by prison staff. General psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorders predicted the probability of suicide. Hopelessness amplified the strength of the positive relationship between general psychiatric symptoms and suicide probability. These amplification effects acted most strongly on suicidal ideation as opposed to negative self evaluations or hostility. In contrast, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness did not affect the relationship between personality disorders and suicide probability. Clinical assessments of highly vulnerable individuals, as exemplified by prisoners, should include measures of a range of general psychiatric symptoms, together with measures of psychological components, in particular perceptions of hopelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hopelessness and Loneliness among Suicide Attempters in School-Based Samples of Taiwanese, Philippine and Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Yanagishita, Jun; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Zarco, Emilia Patricia; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of suicide attempts in three school-based samples of Southeast Asian adolescents (Taipei, Taiwan; the Philippines; Chiang Mai, Thailand) and determine whether adolescent suicide attempters score higher on measures of hopelessness and loneliness relative to nonattempters. It was hypothesized that…

  1. The mediating effect of discrimination, social support and hopelessness on self-rated health of Roma adolescents in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the EU-MIDIS report on discrimination, Roma are the most discriminated against group in Europe. Research suggests that experiencing discrimination may itself be detrimental to health. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether discrimination, hopelessness and social

  2. Evaluation of an educational exhibition on global issues and consumer responsibility: From involvement to hopelessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Činčera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the evaluation of an interactive exhibition for secondary education students (15-19 years old, focusing on global problems and consumer responsibility. The evaluation was conducted in three schools. Data were obtained from interviews with teachers (N=3 and questionnaires (N=204 distributed among students after the exhibition. For the analysis, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. The results suggest that the exhibition was successful in terms of involving students and increasing their awareness of the problems. Some students evaluated the exhibition as manipulative. An unintended effect of the exhibition was students’ feeling of hopelessness. This article discusses the results and suggests a change in strategy when dealing with global problems in schools.

  3. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, Miriam; Gidron, Yori; Ariad, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). IL-1beta was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1beta. Elevated cerebral IL-1beta increased cancer metastasis in animals. Inescapable shock was associated with systemic elevations of IL-1beta and peripheral IL-1beta was associated with escape from apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Involvement of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are discussed. Future studies need to identify the role of additional factors in this PNI pathway.

  4. Suicidal Ideation Versus Hopelessness/Helplessness in Healthy Individuals and in Patients with Benign Breast Disease and Breast Cancer: A Prospective Case-control Study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-06-01

    The relation between suicidal ideation versus hopelessness/helplessness in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC) has not been compared to date in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated suicidal ideation versus hopelessness/helplessness in 115 patients. In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated for hopelessness and helplessness versus suicidal/pessimistic thoughts before any diagnostic procedures were carried-out. In the self-rating score (SRS), hopelessness and the helplessness versus pessimistic thoughts were significantly correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. In the SRS, the weighted kappa-values for hopelessness versus pessimistic thoughts in the BBD group were also statistically significant. There was also a significant positive correlation in the examiner-rating score (ERS) in the hopelessness versus pessimistic thoughts in the HSS, BBD and BC groups, as well as in the ERS, in the helplessness versus pessimistic thoughts in the HSS and BBD groups. In SRS, the hopelessness and the helplessness versus suicidal thoughts were significantly correlated in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. There was also a significant positive correlation in the ERS in the hopelessness versus suicidal thoughts in the HSS, BBD and BC groups, as well as in the ERS, in the helplessness versus suicidal thoughts in the BBD group. A new finding with clinical relevance in the present work is the agreement between hopelessness/helplessness versus suicidal/pessimistic thoughts in the self-rating and examiner-rating. In the breast cancer diagnostic Unit, the identification of suicidal ideation is essential in suicide prevention and it is important to assess and treat depression even though a subject reports little suicidal ideation. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. The Beck depression inventory as a measure of subjective well-being : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country

  6. Electronic structure engineering of ZnO with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange versus the classical correlation potential approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Rashid; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Shaari, Amiruddin; Afaq, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    applied. Where for electronic properties in addition to these, Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential has been used. Our computed band gap values of ZnO in WZ and ZB phases with mBJ potential are significantly improved compared to those with LDA

  7. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeland, M.M.; Nijhof, K.S.; Otten, R.; Vermaes, I.P.R.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study tests the validity of Beck’s cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. Methods: The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in

  8. Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed by Beck Youth Inventory among Pupils with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…

  9. THE CONCEPT OF INDIVIDUAL AND INDIVIDUALIZATION IN THE THEORY OF Z. BAUMAN AND U. BECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Batsenkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major trends of the modern world is a process of individualization. Despite the fact that the term “individualization” has existed since the XVII century, it is often confused, mixing with the concept of “individualism”, “individuation” and “individuality”. But individualization is not a political or moral worldview, it is not a process of identity formation, and it is the natural multi-level complex social process associated with defined design conditions of life of the individual and the conditions of its existence.The purpose of this paper is to, based on the works of U. Beck and Z. Bauman, to define the process of individualization, to consider the process of occurrence and development of individualization in the modern society. To reveal features of this process at the present stage of development of society, where the process of individualization acquires new features.According to sociologists, the process of individualization affects all aspects of society and has two levels of its manifestation. The first level the author calls structural or objective level, because it is independent on the actions of individuals and the inertia phenomenon associated with the spreading of social space, social differentiation, division of labor, with the processes of globalization and modernization.The second level is the sphere of individual action. At this level the meaning of individualization is the expansion of individual rights and opportunities and the liberation of the individual from traditional social forms and relationships that defined his model of behavior in the modern society. Due to the change in “life situations”, there is an increase of opportunities of the individual for independent decision-making, self-selection and successful action. The change in “life situations” (under U. Beck due to detraditionalization life spheres and emergence of new “spaces of freedom”, which create new challenges for

  10. Béatrix Beck: The “Barny Cycle”: Writing to Inform and Heal the Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Bell Rochester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the traumatic reality of World War II, French society repressed its memories, resulting in a false collective memory. Today, a more truthful history can be restored with the study of wartime and post-war texts. We examine the first six books (1948-67 of Belgian-French writer Béatrix Beck (1914-2008, alongside the theories of psychiatrist Judith Lewis Herman, who wrote that “traumatic reactions occur when action is of no avail.” Beck’s semi-autobiographical protagonist, Barny, goes through Herman’s stages of forgetting and remembering, healing and recovery. Her emergence as a writer also follows that trajectory: Barny, like Occupied France, was isolated. Helpless to act or react, she was traumatized—by her father’s death, a dysfunctional childhood, her mother’s suicide, and, in Occupied France, her husband’s death, single motherhood, poverty, menial jobs, and fear of arrest. In the first stage of recovery, Barny reaches safety. In the second, she begins to remember, to probe the issues and articulate them, in their painful ambiguity. For Herman, the ultimate goal is to put the story, with its imagery, into words. In the third stage, Barny, against fierce odds, becomes a writer.

  11. Prevalence of depression in patients with β-thalassemia as assessed by the Beck's Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Akbar; Nazari, Shiva; Jorjani, Soudeh; Bahraminia, Emad; Sadeghi-Koupaei, Mohammadtaghi

    2014-01-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-thal) is a frequent, chronic hereditary disease, and a plausible cause for psychological disorders. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify the rate and severity of depression among Iranian patients with β-thal using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). β-Thalassemic patients aged 13-20 years [median age 17.2 years; 27 males (48.2%), 29 females (51.8%)], who presented to the Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, for blood transfusions within a 1-year period, were asked to complete the BDI questionnaire. Based on the BDI score, patients were classified as normal or mild-to-severe depression groups, and the collected data were then analyzed according to age and sex. A total of 56 subjects completed the BDI form. Mean score for BDI was 14.27 ± 12.79. Based on the BDI results, 35 (62.5%) had a BDI score below 16 and were therefore not classified as being depressed, while seven (12.5%) patients suffered from severe depression (BDI > 47). Age and gender did not have any significant association with the BDI results (p = 0.52 and p = 0.67, respectively). The total prevalence of various degrees of depression was 30.8% in this study. We concluded that the noticeable rate of depression in thalassemic patients signifies the necessity for improving psychosocial care in this specific group of patients.

  12. Modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential: improved modeling of lead halides for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi A. Jishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report first-principles calculations, within density functional theory, on the lead halide compounds PbCl2, PbBr2, and CH3NH3PbBr3−xClx, taking into account spin-orbit coupling. We show that, when the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential is used with a suitable choice of defining parameters, excellent agreement between calculations and experiment is obtained. The computational model is then used to study the effect of replacing the methylammonium cation in CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3 with either N2H5+or N2H3+, which have slightly smaller ionic radii than methylammonium. We predict that a considerable downshift in the values of the band gaps occurs with this replacement. The resulting compounds would extend optical absorption down to the near-infrared region, creating excellent light harvesters for solar cells.

  13. Beck x Roberts: Comparativos do Diagrama do Metrô de Londres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Redig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo foi originalmente dirigido à disciplina Design e Visualização da Informação, ministrada pelo Prof. André Monat no curso de Doutorado em Design da ESDI-UERJ, Escola Superior de Desenho Industrial da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, em 2013, a partir da proposta do professor de se examinar a pertinência da estrutura radial proposta por Maxwell J. Roberts para o design de mapas de redes de transporte. No artigo, procuro demonstrar que, por ser uma forma padrão pré-convencionada e abstrata, não valorizando a relação visual analógica com o objeto representado – a rede geo-espacial do sistema de transporte, variável para cada cidade – a estrutura radial não facilita a compreensão e o uso da rede, relativamente ao sistema ortogonal/diagonal projetado por Harry Beck para o assim chamado Diagrama do metrô londrino, que, partindo do código mais universal e ancestral de orientação que é a Rosa dos Ventos, se baseia nos eixos dos percursos. Por isso, este sistema se tornou um paradigma mundial no campo do Design de Informação, ainda não superado.

  14. Body image and nonsuicidal self-injury: Validation of the Body Investment Scale in participants with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, J H; Cañabate, M; García-Alandete, J; Llorca, G; Real-López, M; Beltrán, M; Pérez, S

    2018-01-01

    The Body Investment Scale (BIS) assesses body image feelings, body care, protection of the body, and comfort in touch, in order to identify and distinguish participants with self-harming and self-destructive tendencies. However, the psychometric properties of the BIS were not analysed in participants diagnosed with eating disorders. The main objective of the present study is to confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the BIS and analyse its psychometric properties in a sample composed of women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women between 12 and 60 years old (M = 26.05, SD = 11.97) diagnosed with eating disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a poor fit of the original BIS. The final model showed an acceptable 4-factor structure (Body Feelings, α = .88; Body Touch, α = .82; Body Protection, α = .77; Body Care, α = .68), with a good fit to the data (SBχ 2 (246)  = 393.21, CFI = .906, IFI = .908, RMSEA = .049). The relationships between the BIS and both the Purpose-In-Life Test-10 Items and Beck Hopelessness Scale were analysed, as well as differences in the BIS score according to nonsuicidal self-injuries and suicidal ideation in the past year. The BIS is an appropriate instrument to assess the body investment dimension of body image in women with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Juvenile osteoarthritis as consequence of enchondral injuries.. Frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, rat bites and other causes; Kindliche Arthrosen als Folge enchondraler Schaedigungen. Am Beispiel von Erfrierungen, der Kashin-Beck-Erkrankung, Rattenbissen und anderen Ursachen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, A.E. [Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Purpose. To review the similarities of the radiographic changes in frostbite, the Asian disease of Kashin-Beck, and long term growth damage from injury such as rate bite. Materials and Methods. Radiographs and literature from subjects with these diagnoses were analyzed for the common features and differences. Included was an infant with hand changes 8 months after unwitnessed rat bites. Results. Each condition revealed findings consistent with the hypothesis of localized damage to sites of enchondral ossification, including at acrophyses - the growth plates that are not between epiphysis and metaphysis, but instead lie at the margins of growth centers, including carpal and tarsal bones, and the non-epiphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Discussion. The patterns observed support a final common pathway of damage in frostbite due to cold injury, Kashin-Beck disease (endemic in China) of unknown etiology, and damage from toxines associated, for example, with rat bite. In frostbite, the distribution is acral because of the site of exposure, while the distribution in Kashin-Beck is more diffuse and often less contiguous. In each condition, arthrotic sequelae may be expected in the natural course of follow-up. MRI may play a role in acute diagnosis that might modify the course of each disease. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die radiologische Gleichartigkeit enchondraler Wachstumsschaedigungen im Rahmen von Erfrierungen, der asiatischen Kashin-Beck-Erkrankung und (Ratten-)Bissverletzungen darzustellen. Alle 3 Krankheitsbilder zeigen Veraenderungen, die mit einer lokalen Schaedigung enchondraler Ossifikationszonen in Verbindung zu bringen sind. Zu diesen Ossifikationszonen zaehlen auch die sog. 'Akrophysen'. Das sind Wachstumszonen, die nicht zwischen Epi- und Metaphyse liegen, sondern am Rande der Wachstumszentren bzw. in den nichtepiphysialen Enden der kleinen Roehrenknochen. Das radiologisch aehnliche Erscheinungsbild deutet darauf hin, dass

  16. Correlação entre Inventário de Depressão de Beck e cortisol urinário em diabéticos tipo 2 Correlación entre el inventario de Depresión de Beck y el cortisol urinario en diabeticos tipo 2 Correlation between urine cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression inventory in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bulgarelli do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a correlação entre o cortisol urinário e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck em diabéticos do tipo 2. MÉTODOS: O cortisol urinário foi avaliado em uma amostra composta por 40 pacientes da Liga de Controle de Diabetes da Disciplina de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo e para a avaliação dos sintomas de depressão foi aplicado o Inventário de Depressão de Beck. RESULTADOS: Alta confiabilidade para o Inventário de Depressão de Beck(Alfa de Cronbach=0,920e correlação significativa foi observada entre cortisol urinário e Inventário de Depressão de Beck(Spearman,r=0.523,pOBJETIVO: Verificar la correlación entre el cortisol urinario y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck en diabéticos del tipo 2. MÉTODOS: El cortisol urinario fue evaluado en una muestra compuesta por 40 pacientes de la Liga de Control de Diabetes de la Disciplina de Endocrinología del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Sao Paulo y para la evaluación de los síntomas de depresión fue aplicado el Inventario de Depresión de Beck. RESULTADOS: Alta confiabilidad para el Inventario de Depresión de Beck(Alfa de Cronbach=0,920 y correlación significativa observada entre el cortisol urinario e Inventario de Depresión de Beck (Spearman,r=0.523,pOBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between urinary cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory in type 2 diabetics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes from the diabetes control league of the discipline of endocrinology of the HCFM-USP. Measures consisted of urinary cortisol and depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: The Beck Depression Inventory had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. There was a statistically significant correlation between urinary cortisol and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (Spearman r = 0.52, p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: The

  17. Evaluation of the relationship and genetic overlap between Kashin-Beck disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Hao, J; Xiao, X; Guo, X; Wang, W; Yang, T; Shen, H; Tian, Q; Tan, L; Deng, H-W; Zhang, F

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is one of the major factors affecting the development of osteoarthritis (OA) but there is currently no information available regarding the relationship between BMI and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship and genetic overlap between BMI and KBD. A total of 2050 Han Chinese subjects participated in this study. Using a cohort of 333 grade I KBD patients, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between BMI and KBD. Another independent sample of 1717 subjects was genotyped for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP 6.0 Arrays. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis (SECA) was applied to the GWAS summaries of KBD and BMI for pleiotropy analysis. Genome-wide bivariate association analysis (GWBAA) of KBD and BMI was carried out to identify the genes with pleiotropic effects on KBD and BMI. The relevance of identified genes with KBD was validated by gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. BMI correlated positively with knee movement disorder in KBD (coefficient β = 0.068, p = 0.045). SECA identified a significant pleiotropic effect (empirical p = 0.021) between KBD and BMI. In the GWBAA, the rs1893577 of the ADAMTS1 gene achieved the most significant association signal (p = 7.38 × 10 -9 ). ADAMTS1 was also up-regulated in KBD vs. normal (ratio = 2.64 ± 2.80) and KBD vs. OA (ratio = 2.31 ± 2.01). The rate of ADAMTS1-positive chondrocytes in KBD was significantly higher than that in OA (p < 0.05) and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that ADAMTS1 is a novel susceptibility gene for KBD.

  18. Aaron Temkin BECK: After Cricitical Thinking to A Creative Psychotherapy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DİNÇ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the cognitive psychotherapy all around the world including Turkey. According to American Institute of Cognitive Therapy; cognitive psychotherapy is the fastest growing and most rigorously studied kind of talk therapy and it is practiced around the world, taking hold in places from the Middle East to Japan. Cognitive psychotherapy was designed first by Aaron Temkin Beck in 1950’s. He has published over 450 articles and authored or co-authored seventeen books and he has been listed as one of the “10 individuals who shaped the face of American Psychiatry” and one of the 5 most influential psychotherapists of all time since then. Beck’s groundbreaking systematic research established for the first time the efficacy of any psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Moreover he not only developed and tested an effective short-term treatment (cognitive therapy for depression, but he and his former students have successfully adapted cognitive therapy to a wide range of other psychiatric disorders as well. Numerous controlled clinical trials have now demonstrated that cognitive therapy is effective in a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, bulimia nervosa, hypochondriasis, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance abuse, body dysmorphic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore knowing the father of cognitive therapy and his journey from 1950’s to 2010’s will help to understand cognitive therapy and its development during these years. This article aims to give an overview of the historical background to contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy by focusing on Beck’s life, characteristics and works.

  19. Disordered glycometabolism involved in pathogenesis of Kashin–Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthritis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cuiyan; Lei, Ronghui; Tiainen, Mika; Wu, Shixun; Zhang, Qiang; Pei, Fuxing; Guo, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Kashin–Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic endemic osteoarthritis in China. Previous studies have suggested a role of metabolic dysfunction in causation of this disease. In this investigation, the metabolomics approach and cell experiments were used to discover the metabolic changes and their effects on KBD chondrocytes. Nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy was used to examine serum samples from both the KBD patients and normal controls. The pattern recognition multivariate analysis (OSC–PLS) and quantitative analysis (QMTLS iterator) revealed altered glycometabolism in KBD, with increased glucose and decreased lactate and citrate levels. IPA biological analysis showed the centric location of glucose in the metabolic network. Massive glycogen deposits in chondrocytes and increased uptake of glucose by chondrocytes further confirmed disordered glycometabolism in KBD. An in vitro study showed the effects of disordered glycometabolism in chondrocytes. When chondrocytes were treated with high glucose, expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were decreased, while TNF-α expression, the level of cellular reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis rates all were increased. Therefore, our results demonstrated that disordered glycometabolism in patients with KBD was linked to the damage of chondrocytes. This may provide a new basis for understanding the pathogenesis of KBD. - Highlights: • Disordered glycometabolism in KBD was demonstrated by combining serum metabolomics and chondrocyte studies. • Glucose and TNF-α were key molecules linked to altered metabolism and inflammation in the pathophysiology of KBD. • The glycometabolism disorder was linked to expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, ROS and apoptosis of KBD chondrocytes

  20. Band gaps from the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson approach: A systematic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha (TB-mBJ) have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators. In this work, we have investigated the performance of the TB-mBJ potential for the description of electronic band structures in a comprehensive set of semiconductors and insulators. We point out that a perturbative use of the TB-mBJ potential can give overall better results. By investigating a set of IIB-VI and III-V semiconductors, we point out that although the TB-mBJ approach can describe the band gap of these materials quite well, the binding energies of semi-core d-states in these materials deviate strongly from experiment. The difficulty of the TB-mBJ potential to describe the localized states is likely the cause for the fact that the electronic band structures of Cu2O and La2O3 are still poorly described. Based on these observations, we propose to combine the TB-mBJ approach with the Hubbard U correction for localized d/f states, which is able to provide overall good descriptions for both the band gaps and semi-core states binding energies. We further apply the approach to calculate the band gaps of a set of Ti(IV)-oxides, many of which have complicated structures so that the more advanced methods like GW are expensive to treat directly. An overall good agreement with experiment is obtained, which is remarkable considering its little computational efforts compared to GW.

  1. Disordered glycometabolism involved in pathogenesis of Kashin–Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthritis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cuiyan, E-mail: xj.cy.69@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Lei, Ronghui, E-mail: leirh@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Tiainen, Mika, E-mail: mika.tiainen@uef.fi [School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Wu, Shixun, E-mail: wushixun313@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: wdrr@163.com [Department of Kashin–Beck Disease, Qinghai Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, Qinghai 811602 (China); Pei, Fuxing, E-mail: peifuxing@vip.163.com [Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Guo, Xiong, E-mail: guox@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Health Science Centre of Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education (China); Key Laboratory of Trace elements and Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Kashin–Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic endemic osteoarthritis in China. Previous studies have suggested a role of metabolic dysfunction in causation of this disease. In this investigation, the metabolomics approach and cell experiments were used to discover the metabolic changes and their effects on KBD chondrocytes. Nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy was used to examine serum samples from both the KBD patients and normal controls. The pattern recognition multivariate analysis (OSC–PLS) and quantitative analysis (QMTLS iterator) revealed altered glycometabolism in KBD, with increased glucose and decreased lactate and citrate levels. IPA biological analysis showed the centric location of glucose in the metabolic network. Massive glycogen deposits in chondrocytes and increased uptake of glucose by chondrocytes further confirmed disordered glycometabolism in KBD. An in vitro study showed the effects of disordered glycometabolism in chondrocytes. When chondrocytes were treated with high glucose, expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were decreased, while TNF-α expression, the level of cellular reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis rates all were increased. Therefore, our results demonstrated that disordered glycometabolism in patients with KBD was linked to the damage of chondrocytes. This may provide a new basis for understanding the pathogenesis of KBD. - Highlights: • Disordered glycometabolism in KBD was demonstrated by combining serum metabolomics and chondrocyte studies. • Glucose and TNF-α were key molecules linked to altered metabolism and inflammation in the pathophysiology of KBD. • The glycometabolism disorder was linked to expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, ROS and apoptosis of KBD chondrocytes.

  2. ‘Weakest Link’ as a Cognitive Vulnerability Within the Hopelessness Theory of Depression in Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Qiu, Yu; He, Yini; Cui, Lixia; Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the cognitive vulnerability–stress component of hopelessness theory using a ‘weakest link’ approach (e.g. an individual is as cognitively vulnerable to depression as his or her most depressogenic attributional style makes him or her) in a sample of Chinese university students. Participants included 520 students in Changsha. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures assessing weakest link, depressive symptoms and occurrence of negative events once a month for 6 months. Results from hierarchical linear modelling analyses showed that higher levels of weakest link scores were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of negative events. Higher weakest link level was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms over time. These results provide support for the applicability of the ‘weakest link’ approach to the hopelessness theory to Chinese university students. PMID:24639362

  3. Effects of a psychological inoculation video on helplessness-hopelessness and implicit optimism levels in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ana Neto Branquinho Assis

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicobiologia apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário Helplessness-hopelessness (HH) and optimism are psychological variables which have been suggested as influential factors regarding survival rates and prognosis in cancer patients. Psychological inoculation (PI) is a cognitive method that uses the consecutive rejection of challenging sentences as a tool to destroy cognitive barriers. This study aimed to understand whether the exposure to a video simulatin...

  4. A generalized Grubbs-Beck test statistic for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, T.A.; England, J.F.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Mason, R.R.; Stedinger, J.R.; Lamontagne, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    he Grubbs-Beck test is recommended by the federal guidelines for detection of low outliers in flood flow frequency computation in the United States. This paper presents a generalization of the Grubbs-Beck test for normal data (similar to the Rosner (1983) test; see also Spencer and McCuen (1996)) that can provide a consistent standard for identifying multiple potentially influential low flows. In cases where low outliers have been identified, they can be represented as “less-than” values, and a frequency distribution can be developed using censored-data statistical techniques, such as the Expected Moments Algorithm. This approach can improve the fit of the right-hand tail of a frequency distribution and provide protection from lack-of-fit due to unimportant but potentially influential low flows (PILFs) in a flood series, thus making the flood frequency analysis procedure more robust.

  5. Emergency department patients self-report higher patient inertia, hopelessness, and harmful lifestyle choices than community counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, JaNae; Moore, Ashley R; Mount, David L; Simmons, Debra R; Ferrario, Carlos M; Cline, David M

    2012-12-01

    Patient inertia is defined as an individual's failure to take responsibility for proactive lifestyle change and health conditions including hypertension. Generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia factors were compared in 110 patients (48% women; 52% African American) from a Forsyth County, NC, emergency department (ED) and 104 community members (79% women; 70% African American) using the patient inertia-facilitated survey Patient Inertia-36. Statistically, more ED than community participants added salt to food at the table and consumed fast foods 5 to 7 days a week. ED patients agreed less often with health literacy questions about salt and BP. Hypertension associated Patient inertia questions asked of 45 ED and 40 community participants with a personal history of hypertension revealed a statistically higher sense of hopelessness surrounding blood pressure management in ED participants. Past BP control experiences of family members had statistically greater impact on community participants regarding their own BP control. Using a logistic regression model, advancing age and being surveyed in the ED were correlated with hopelessness towards BP control. ED patients make unhealthier diet choices and possess heightened generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia including hopelessness towards controlling their BP that increases with age. These factors may contribute to this population's poor BP control, particularly self-efficacy barriers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ganesh S.; Jain, Animesh; Hegde, Supriya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Depression among medical students is an area of increasing concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A stratified random sample of 400 students was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory by investigators. Associations between depression and class of studying, social factors like alcohol use, drug addiction, family problems, family history of depression, and st...

  7. Juvenile osteoarthritis as consequence of enchondral injuries.. Frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, rat bites and other causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. To review the similarities of the radiographic changes in frostbite, the Asian disease of Kashin-Beck, and long term growth damage from injury such as rate bite. Materials and Methods. Radiographs and literature from subjects with these diagnoses were analyzed for the common features and differences. Included was an infant with hand changes 8 months after unwitnessed rat bites. Results. Each condition revealed findings consistent with the hypothesis of localized damage to sites of enchondral ossification, including at acrophyses - the growth plates that are not between epiphysis and metaphysis, but instead lie at the margins of growth centers, including carpal and tarsal bones, and the non-epiphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Discussion. The patterns observed support a final common pathway of damage in frostbite due to cold injury, Kashin-Beck disease (endemic in China) of unknown etiology, and damage from toxines associated, for example, with rat bite. In frostbite, the distribution is acral because of the site of exposure, while the distribution in Kashin-Beck is more diffuse and often less contiguous. In each condition, arthrotic sequelae may be expected in the natural course of follow-up. MRI may play a role in acute diagnosis that might modify the course of each disease. (orig.) [de

  8. Neurocognitive correlates of helplessness, hopelessness, and well-being in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, P H; Clements, C A; Wright, D E; Evans, J; Marks, K A

    2001-07-01

    Persons with schizophrenia are widely recognized to experience potent feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, and a fragile sense of well-being. Although these subjective experiences have been linked to positive symptoms, little is known about their relationship to neurocognition. Accordingly, this study examined the relationship of self-reports of hope, self-efficacy, and well-being to measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and coping among 49 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results suggest that poorer executive function, verbal memory, and a greater reliance on escape avoidance as a coping mechanism predicted significantly higher levels of hope and well being with multiple regressions accounting for 34% and 20% of the variance (p < .0001), respectively. Self-efficacy predicted lower levels of positive symptoms and greater preference for escape avoidance as a coping mechanism with a multiple repression accounting for 9% of the variance (p < .05). Results may suggest that higher levels of neurocognitive impairment and an avoidant coping style may shield some with schizophrenia from painful subjective experiences. Theoretical and practical implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  9. Impact of Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome Prior to Open Heart Surgery on Psychiatric Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yüksel

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether experiencing acute coronary syndrome prior to open heart surgery affects patients in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, fear of death and quality of life. Methods: The study included 63 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 2015 and January 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed after acute coronary syndrome (Group 1 and those diagnosed without acute coronary syndrome (Group 2. Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale, Templer death anxiety scale and death depression scale, State-Trait anxiety inventory and WHOQOL-Bref quality of life scale were applied. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the total score obtained from Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale - future-related emotions, loss of motivation, future-related expectations subgroups, death anxiety scale, the death depression scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - social and environmental subgroups. The mental quality of life sub-scores of group 2 were significantly higher. The patients in both groups were found to be depressed and hopeless about the future. Anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher in all of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Acute coronary syndrome before coronary artery bypass surgery impairs more the quality of life in mental terms. But unexpectedly there are no differences in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety and fear of death.

  10. Impact of Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome Prior to Open Heart Surgery on Psychiatric Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Volkan; Gorgulu, Yasemin; Cinar, Rugul Kose; Huseyin, Serhat; Sonmez, Mehmet Bulent; Canbaz, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether experiencing acute coronary syndrome prior to open heart surgery affects patients in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, fear of death and quality of life. The study included 63 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 2015 and January 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed after acute coronary syndrome (Group 1) and those diagnosed without acute coronary syndrome (Group 2). Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale, Templer death anxiety scale and death depression scale, State-Trait anxiety inventory and WHOQOL-Bref quality of life scale were applied. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the total score obtained from Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale - future-related emotions, loss of motivation, future-related expectations subgroups, death anxiety scale, the death depression scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - social and environmental subgroups. The mental quality of life sub-scores of group 2 were significantly higher. The patients in both groups were found to be depressed and hopeless about the future. Anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher in all of the patients in both groups. Acute coronary syndrome before coronary artery bypass surgery impairs more the quality of life in mental terms. But unexpectedly there are no differences in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety and fear of death.

  11. Inventários Beck para crianças e adolescentes: revisão sistemática da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Résia Silva de

    2014-01-01

    A teoria/terapia cognitiva (TC) promoveu profundas mudanças na psiquiatria e psicologia colaborando, assim, para o tratamento de uma ampla variedade de transtornos. Em termos diagnósticos, a TC faz uso de escalas psicométricas e de outros instrumentos. Por exemplo, em 1961, Beck desenvolveu as Escalas de Depressão de Beck (BDI) revisadas em 1978 (BDI-1A) e em 1996 a BDI-II foi publicada. Em 2001, elaborou o Beck Youth Inventory - (BYI-II) para crianças e adolescentes com idades entre 7 a 18 a...

  12. Factorial Structure of Depressive Symptoms in Anglophone Caribbean University Students: Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    OpenAIRE

    Michael H. Campbell; Jonathan W. Roberti; Donna-Maria Maynard; Maisha K. Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Este estudio buscó establecer propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-Segunda Edición (BDI-II) con estudiantes de una universidad del Caribe (n=400, 76% mujeres, edad media=25.2). Además, administramos la Escala de Elasticidad de Ego-89, La Escala de Tensión Percibida, La Escala de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo (Versión de Rasgo) y La Escala de Depresión de Zung. El análisis factorial confirmativo comparó la estructura observada con las estructuras oblicuas propuestas en los mod...

  13. Sleepless in Fairfax: the difference one more hour of sleep can make for teen hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, Adam; Deutsch, Aaron; Vorona, Robert Daniel; Payne, Phyllis Abramczyk; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for depression, suicidality, and substance use, yet little is known about gender, ethnic, and community-level differences in sleep and its associated outcomes, especially during adolescence. Further, much of the prior work has compared groups of teens getting plenty as opposed to insufficient amounts of sleep rather than examine sleep hours continuously. The present study examined adolescent weekday self-reported sleep duration and its links with hopelessness, suicidality, and substance use in a suburban community with very early high school start times. We utilized a large (N = 27,939, 51.2% female) and ethnically diverse sample of adolescents from the 2009 Fairfax County (Virginia) Youth Survey, an anonymous, self-report, population-level survey administered to all 8th, 10th and 12th grade students in public schools in the county. High-school students reported an average 6.5 h of sleep per school night, with 20% obtaining ≤5 h, and only 3% reporting the recommended 9 h/night. Females and minority youth obtained even less sleep on average, and the reduction in sleep in the transition from middle school to high school was more pronounced for females and for Asian students. Hierarchical, multivariate, logistic regression analyses, controlling for background variables, indicated that just 1 h less of weekday sleep was associated with significantly greater odds of feeling hopeless, seriously considering suicide, suicide attempts, and substance use. Relationships between sleep duration and suicidality were stronger for male teens, and sleep duration was more associated with hopelessness for white students compared to most ethnic minority groups. Implications for intervention at multiple levels are discussed.

  14. In Search of Vitality. Herman Bang’s Hopeless Generations in the Context of Contemporary Bio-political Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Ebbesen; Jørgensen, Jens Lohfert

    2010-01-01

    concepts such as vitalism (Hans Driesch) and degeneration (Max Nordau) can be conceived as different reactions to Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of the Species in the light of bio-power. Even though both Driesch and Nordau use Darwin’s theories to produce positive ideas about respectively the strong...... and healthy body and the strong and healthy society, it is important to note that they do not converge. Secondly, the article aims to discuss how a controversy between these concepts is given literary form in the Danish author Herman Bang’s novel Hopeless Generations (1880), perceived as one of the first...

  15. The "Individualized" (Woman) in the Academy: Ulrich Beck, Gender and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the tensions and struggles that exist between men and women and between women and women in the academic workplace. The research reported here is a small-scale case study of 22 academic women from two generations who were interviewed about their career experiences. The theoretical framework is materialist feminism and draws…

  16. Asymmetric extractions in a patient with a hopeless maxillary central incisor, followed by treatment with mini-implant anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Premolar extraction is 1 option for treatment of patients with malocclusion and severe crowding or protrusion. When the patient has missing or hopeless teeth other than premolars, it is possible to consider removal of those teeth to use the space to decrease crowding. A 15-year-old girl sought treatment for severe crowding. She had already lost her maxillary right first premolar as a result of caries 1 year previously and had a hopeless maxillary right central incisor. Her mandibular left first molar still caused discomfort even after endodontic treatment. Extractions of the maxillary right central incisor and mandibular right first premolar and left first molar were chosen to resolve the occlusion problems. Orthodontic mini-implants were placed to translocate the maxillary left central incisor across the midpalatal suture to use the space in the maxillary right quadrant to relieve the crowding. Although a different extraction option was used in each quadrant, the final occlusion was acceptable. After debonding, porcelain crowns were placed on the anterior teeth to improve esthetics. The treatment result remained stable after 2 years of retention. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Beck's cognitive theory and the response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Martine M; Nijhof, Karin S; Otten, R; Vermaes, Ignace P R; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-10-01

    This study tests the validity of Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in 135 adolescents using linear regression. The cognitive error 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was more prevalent among adolescents with MBID than among adolescents with average intelligence. This was the only negative cognitive error that predicted depressive symptoms. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of the three response styles. In line with the theory, ruminating was positively and problem-solving was negatively related to depressive symptoms. Distractive response styles were not related to depressive symptoms. The relationship between response styles, cognitive errors and depressive symptoms were similar for both groups. The main premises of both theories of depression are equally applicable to adolescents with and without MBID. The cognitive error 'Underestimation of the ability to cope' poses a specific risk factor for developing a depression for adolescents with MBID and requires special attention in treatment and prevention of depression. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Despite the high prevalence of depression among adolescents with MBID, little is known about the etiology and cognitive processes that play a role in the development of depression in this group. The current paper fills this gap in research by examining the core tenets of two important theories on the etiology of depression (Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory) in a clinical sample of adolescents with and without MBID. This paper demonstrated that the theories are equally applicable to adolescents with MBID, as to adolescents with average intellectual ability. However, the cognitive bias 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was the only cognitive error

  18. Prevalencia de intento de suicidio adolescente y factores de riesgo asociados en una comuna rural de la provincia de Concepción

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia,Mario; Silva,Daniel; Sanhueza,Félix; Cova,Félix; Melipillán,Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. Aim: To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. Material and Methods: A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Results: T...

  19. Electronic and Transport Properties of LaNi4Sb12 Skutterudite: Modified Becke-Johnson Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Singh, Srishti; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2018-05-01

    We carried out an ab initio study of structural, electronic, thermodynamic, and thermoelectric properties of the lanthanum-filled skutterudite, LaNi4Sb12. Generalized gradient approximation and modified Becke-Johnson potentials were employed for the exchange-correlation potential. The electronic structure calculations display the metallic behavior of the compound. The alloy offers low lattice thermal conductivity along with a high Seebeck coefficient with a value of - 158 (μVK-1) at room temperature. The effect of high pressure and temperature on thermal properties like thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter are also investigated by means of a quasi-harmonic Debye model. The large Seebeck coefficient and high power factor exhibited by LaNi4Sb12 make it an attractive candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  20. In-plant demonstration of energy optimization in beck dyeing of carpet. Final report, June 1, 1979-January 1, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tincher, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several energy-conservative technologies have been successfully combined and transferred to a commercial carpet finishing plant to optimize beck dyeing. The technology of bump-and-run, in which the dyebath temperature was allowed to drift for the last 85% of the hold time instead of being maintained by active steam sparging, reduced the energy consumption by 38% with negligible capital investment required. Merging of dyebath reuse with bump-and-run only marginally increased the energy consumption (to 39%), but substantially lowered the plant's finishing costs further by directly recycling dyes, auxiliary chemicals, and water. Final optimization, which merged a technique whereby the carpet was pulled directly from the hot bath with bump-and-run and dyebath reuse, further improved the economics by drastically reducing water/sewer requirements by 90% and eliminating the holding tank/pumping assembly as a reuse requirement. From a carpet industry viewpoint, the demonstrated modifications have a direct energy conservation potential of 2.4 x 10/sup 5/ barrels of oil equivalent per year assuming the technology is directly transferable to similar atmospheric dyeing processes, e.g., beck dyeing of nylon and polyester fabrics, the potential to the entire textile industry is 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ BOE/year. Economically, total potential savings for the carpet industry on reuse incorporation was $1.2 x 10/sup 7//year, based on a 2.3 cents/lb. savings figure. When the allied fabric industry was included, the national potential was raised to $1.0 x 10/sup 8//year. These figures include cost savings due to materials recycled (water, auxiliary chemicals and dyes) as well as energy conservation.

  1. Depression and Hopelessness Levels of University Students According to Their Opinions on Finding Employment or Falling out of Labor Force in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of the thoughts on university students' depression and hopelessness levels about whether to become employed or unemployed after graduation. The study sampling consists of 980 students from the departments of Selcuk University, such as the Faculties of Health Sciences, Law, Veterinary, Science,…

  2. Coping, quality of life, depression, and hopelessness in cancer patients in a curative and palliative, end-of-life care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Schilderman, Johannes; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Donders, Rogier; Vissers, Kris C.; Verhagen, Constans A. H. H. V. M.; Prins, Judith B.

    2011-01-01

    Coping strategies may be important factors influencing quality of life (QOL), depression, and hopelessness. However, most studies on this issue were performed in patients still undergoing anticancer treatment. Unknown is which coping strategies are of importance for palliative-cancer patients who no

  3. Coping, quality of life, depression, and hopelessness in cancer patients in a curative and palliative, end-of-life care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Schilderman, J.; Bleijenberg, G.; Donders, R.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Prins, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coping strategies may be important factors influencing quality of life (QOL), depression, and hopelessness. However, most studies on this issue were performed in patients still undergoing anticancer treatment. Unknown is which coping strategies are of importance for palliative-cancer

  4. Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior among Chinese, Thai and Korean College Students and Predictive Effects of the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…

  5. Hopelessness and Lack of Connectedness to Others as Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan: Implications for Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The rates of suicide attempts and death by suicide vary considerably over the lifespan, highlighting the influence of different contextual, risk, and protective factors at different points in development (Daniel & Goldston, 2009). Hopelessness and lack of connectedness to others are two factors that have been associated with increased risk for…

  6. [Antjekathrin Grassmann. Zu den wirtschaftlichen und persönlichen Beziehungen Lübecks ins Baltikum im Lichte einer unbeachteten mittelalterlichen Quellegruppe]/ Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Antjekathrin Grassmann. Zu den wirtschaftlichen und persönlichen Beziehungen Lübecks ins Baltikum im Lichte einer unbeachteten mittelalterlichen Quellegruppe. In: Leder ist Brot. Beiträge zur norddeutschen Landes- und Archivgeseten. Schwerin 2011. S. 125-135

  7. Factorial Structure of Depressive Symptoms in Anglophone Caribbean University Students: Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó establecer propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-Segunda Edición (BDI-II con estudiantes de una universidad del Caribe (n=400, 76% mujeres, edad media=25.2. Además, administramos la Escala de Elasticidad de Ego-89, La Escala de Tensión Percibida, La Escala de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo (Versión de Rasgo y La Escala de Depresión de Zung. El análisis factorial confirmativo comparó la estructura observada con las estructuras oblicuas propuestas en los modelos de dos factores. Las estimaciones factoriales y los índices de calidad de ajuste sugirieron adecuado ajuste para modelos de dos factores. La consistencia interna (=.86 y la fiabilidad test-retest (n=57, r=.78 eran fuertes. Las correlaciones de validez eran significativas en las direcciones teóricamente esperadas. Los resultados apoyan el uso del BDI-II con estudiantes del Caribe.

  8. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Indonesia’s general population and coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henndy Ginting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa la validez y determina los puntos de corte del Inventario de Depresión de Beck -II (BDI-II en Indonesia. La versión indonesia del BDI-II (BDI-II Indo se administró a 720 personas sanas de la población general, a 215 pacientes con Enfermedad Coronaria (EC y a 102 pacientes con depresión. El análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró similitud factorial de las tres muestras. Las correlaciones entre el Indo BDI-II y otras medidas de auto-percepción relacionadas con la depresión fueron significativas, mostrando la validez de constructo del Indo BDI-II. Además, la diferencia de puntuación del Indo BDI-II entre los participantes deprimidos y no deprimidos fue altamente significativa. La consistencia interna y la fiabilidad re- test fueron suficientemente altas. La curva ROC (receiver operating characteristic indicó que el punto de corte de la BDI-II para el nivel de gravedad leve de depresión la población de Indonesia es igual a 17. En conclusión, el Indo BDI-II es una medida válida de depresión, tanto para la población general indonesia como en pacientes con EC.

  9. Electronic structure engineering of ZnO with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange versus the classical correlation potential approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we report investigations of structural and electronic properties of ZnO in wurtzite (WZ), rock salt (RS) and zinc-blende (ZB) phases. Calculations have been done with full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method developed within the frame work of Density Functional Theory (DFT). For structural properties investigations, Perdew and Wang proposed local density approximations (LDA) and Perdew et al. proposed generalized gradient approximations (GGA) have been applied. Where for electronic properties in addition to these, Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential has been used. Our computed band gap values of ZnO in WZ and ZB phases with mBJ potential are significantly improved compared to those with LDA and GGA; however, in RS phase, energy gap is significantly overestimated compared to experimental measurements. The Zn-d band was found to be more narrower with mBJ potential than that of LDA and GGA. On the other hand, our evaluated crystal field splitting energy values overestimate the experimental values. © 2013 Taylor and Francis.

  10. The effect of measurement quality on targeted structural model fit indices: A comment on Lance, Beck, Fan, and Carter (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Hancock, Gregory R

    2018-03-01

    Lance, Beck, Fan, and Carter (2016) recently advanced 6 new fit indices and associated cutoff values for assessing data-model fit in the structural portion of traditional latent variable path models. The authors appropriately argued that, although most researchers' theoretical interest rests with the latent structure, they still rely on indices of global model fit that simultaneously assess both the measurement and structural portions of the model. As such, Lance et al. proposed indices intended to assess the structural portion of the model in isolation of the measurement model. Unfortunately, although these strategies separate the assessment of the structure from the fit of the measurement model, they do not isolate the structure's assessment from the quality of the measurement model. That is, even with a perfectly fitting measurement model, poorer quality (i.e., less reliable) measurements will yield a more favorable verdict regarding structural fit, whereas better quality (i.e., more reliable) measurements will yield a less favorable structural assessment. This phenomenon, referred to by Hancock and Mueller (2011) as the reliability paradox, affects not only traditional global fit indices but also those structural indices proposed by Lance et al. as well. Fortunately, as this comment will clarify, indices proposed by Hancock and Mueller help to mitigate this problem and allow the structural portion of the model to be assessed independently of both the fit of the measurement model as well as the quality of indicator variables contained therein. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Measuring Depression in a Non-Western War-Affected Displaced Population: Measurement Equivalence of the Beck Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuwan Jayawickreme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Depression is commonly seen in survivors of conflict and disaster across the world. There is a dearth of research on the validity of commonly used measures of depression in these populations. Measurements of depression that are used in multiple contexts need to meet measurement equivalence, i.e., the instrument measures the same construct in the same manner across different groups. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was administered to female trauma survivors in the United States (n = 268 and female survivors of war in Sri Lanka (n = 149. Three metrics of measurement equivalence—structural, metric, and scalar—were examined. Two- and three-factor structures of the BDI that have been identified in other populations did not provide a good fit for our data. However, a bifactor model revealed a similar general distress dimension across populations, but dissimilar secondary dimensions or subfactors. The Sri Lankan subfactor comprised of predominantly somatic symptoms and the United States subfactor comprised of cognitive and somatic symptoms. While intercepts of individual BDI items differed, their differences seem to be offsetting. Total BDI scores across these two populations are roughly comparable, although caution is recommended when interpreting them. Making comparisons on subscales is not recommended.

  12. Prediction of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Score Using Acoustic Measurements in a Sample of Iium Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri Zanil, Muhamad; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Azam, Huda

    2017-11-01

    Psychiatrist currently relies on questionnaires and interviews for psychological assessment. These conservative methods often miss true positives and might lead to death, especially in cases where a patient might be experiencing suicidal predisposition but was only diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD). With modern technology, an assessment tool might aid psychiatrist with a more accurate diagnosis and thus hope to reduce casualty. This project will explore on the relationship between speech features of spoken audio signal (reading) in Bahasa Malaysia with the Beck Depression Inventory scores. The speech features used in this project were Power Spectral Density (PSD), Mel-frequency Ceptral Coefficients (MFCC), Transition Parameter, formant and pitch. According to analysis, the optimum combination of speech features to predict BDI-II scores include PSD, MFCC and Transition Parameters. The linear regression approach with sequential forward/backward method was used to predict the BDI-II scores using reading speech. The result showed 0.4096 mean absolute error (MAE) for female reading speech. For male, the BDI-II scores successfully predicted 100% less than 1 scores difference with MAE of 0.098437. A prediction system called Depression Severity Evaluator (DSE) was developed. The DSE managed to predict one out of five subjects. Although the prediction rate was low, the system precisely predict the score within the maximum difference of 4.93 for each person. This demonstrates that the scores are not random numbers.

  13. Optical response of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenides for solar cell applications using the modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, Ushma [Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Joshi, Ritu; Venugopalan, K. [M.L. Sukhadia Univ., Udaipur (India). Dept. of Physics; Kothari, D.C. [Mumbai Univ. (India). National Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology; Tiwari, Harpal [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2016-07-01

    Energy bands and density of states (DOS) of mixed molybdenum dichalcogenides like MoS{sub 2}, MoSeS, MoSe{sub 2}, MoTe{sub 2}, MoTeS, and MoTe{sub 0.5}S{sub 1.5} are reported for the first time using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential within full potential-linearised augmented plane wave technique. From the partial DOS, a strong hybridisation between the Mo-d and chalcogen-p states is observed below the Fermi energy E{sub F}. In addition, the dielectric constants, absorption coefficients, and refractivity spectra of these compounds have also been deduced. The integrated absorption coefficients derived from the frequency-dependent absorption spectra within the energy range of 0-4.5 eV show a possibility of using molybdenum dichalcogenides, particularly MoTe{sub 0.5}S{sub 1.5}, in solar cell applications. Birefringence and degree of anisotropy are also discussed using the data on refractivity and imaginary components of the dielectric constant.

  14. Biological reduction of iron to the elemental state from ochre deposits of Skelton Beck in Northeast England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattanathu K S M Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochre, consequence of acid mine drainage, is iron oxides-rich soil pigments that can be found in the water drainage from historic base metal and coal mines. The anaerobic strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella denitrificans were used for the microbial reduction of iron from samples of ochre collected from Skelton Beck (Saltburn Orange River, NZ 66738 21588 in Northeast England. The aim of the research was to determine the ability of the two anaerobic bacteria to reduce the iron present in ochre and to determine the rate of the reduction process. The physico-chemical changes in the ochre sample after the microbial reduction process were observed by the production of zero-valent iron which was later confirmed by the detection of elemental Fe in XRD spectrum. The XRF results revealed that 69.16% and 84.82% of iron oxide can be reduced using G. sulfurreducens and S. denitrificans respectively after 8 days of incubation. These results could provide the basis for the development of a biohydrometallurgical process for the production of elemental iron from ochre sediments.

  15. Validação da bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades para atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas Validation of beck battery of skills tests to Brazilian players of wheelchair rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irineu Gorla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O "Rugby" em Cadeira de Rodas é uma modalidade praticada por sujeitos com tetraplegia ou tetra-equivalência, desde 2005 no Brasil, onde existem aproximadamente 10 equipes em atividade. A avaliação motora é um dos meios de controle do treinamento que possibilita conquistar avanços no planejamento. A bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades (manejo de bola, precisão de passes, bloqueio, velocidade e passes de longa distância para atletas da modalidade foi desenvolvida nos EUA por Yilla e Sherrill (1998. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os critérios de autenticidade científica da bateria para a população de atletas brasileiros. Os resultados de duas avaliações com a bateria (teste e re-teste realizadas com 11 atletas (média de idade 27,59 ± 5,37 anos, tempo de lesão 8,19 ± 3,83 anos, foram registrados por três avaliadores, o que possibilitou a análise de objetividade, fidedignidade e consistência interna. Foram utilizadas as ferramentas ANOVA para análise de objetividade e, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e teste t para análise de fidedignidade e consistência. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os resultados dos diferentes avaliadores (valores de p variando de 0,45 a 1,00 e os valores de correlação intraclasse encontrados (variação de r de 0,78 a 0,99 permitem concluir que a bateria é consistente e fidedigna. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo são evidências de que os critérios de autenticidade científica para a bateria são satisfeitos e a bateria pode ser considerada um instrumento válido para avaliação motora de atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas.The Wheelchair Rugby is a sport practiced by subjects with tetraplegia or tetra-equivalence, since 2005 in Brazil, where there are approximately 10 teams in business. The motricity evaluation is a means of training control that allows achieve real progress in planning. The BECK battery of skills tests (ball handling, precision

  16. Sintomas depressivos no câncer de mama: Inventário de Depressão de Beck - Short Form Depressive symptoms in breast cancer: Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cangussu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com câncer de mama e identificar os fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, em que foram entrevistadas 71 mulheres com câncer de mama. Foram empregados dois instrumentos: um questionário para verificar os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck - Short Form (BDI-SF, para avaliação dos sintomas depressivos. Para análise dos dados, utilizaram-se medidas descritivas e o teste de qui-quadrado, que avaliou a associação entre variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e os sintomas depressivos. O nível de significância considerado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 29,6%. Os fatores associados à presença desses sintomas foram o tratamento quimioterápico (p = 0,021, presença de dor (p = 0,018 e limitação do movimento do membro superior (p = 0,010 e pior percepção da saúde (p = 0,018. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas depressivos são frequentes no câncer de mama, assim a saúde mental das mulheres com esse tipo de câncer deve ser investigada e tratada quando necessário, reduzindo o impacto desses sintomas na vida da mulher.OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer and identify risk factors associated to its occurrence. METHODS: It was a transversal study where 71 women with breast cancer were interviewed. Two instruments were applied, being one questionnaire used to verify sociodemographic and clinical data, and the Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form to evaluate depressive symptoms. Descriptive methods and chi-square test were utilized to analyze data, evaluating association between depressive symptoms, sociodemographic and clinical data. Significance level was considered of 5%. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms prevalence was 29,6%. Factors associated to the presence of this kind of symptoms were

  17. Use of the mini-MAC scale in the evaluation of mental adjustment to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra Izabela; Marek, Ewelina; Deptała, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate mental adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with an oncologic disease through identification of the coping strategies they had adopted. Seventy-four patients of the Clinic of Oncology and Haematology at the Central Clinical Hospital (CSK) of the Ministry of Interior (MSW) in Warsaw were included in the study. The degree of adaptation to cancer was evaluated with the use of the mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (mini-MAC) scale. The individual subscales, i.e. fighting spirit, positive redefinition, helplessness-hopelessness, and anxious preoccupation, were collated with socio-demographic characteristics. Study findings indicate that: 1) tumour patients typically manifest behaviour that allows one to identify their adjustment to cancer; 2) in malignant tumour patients constructive behaviour prevails over destructive behaviour; 3) the helplessness-hopelessness response is more pronounced in men than women; 4) metastatic patients manifest stronger helplessness-hopelessness response than patients with locally limited tumours; 5) pensioners more often than people of working age adopt the helplessness-hopelessness strategy; and 6) patients with the shortest disease period manifest the strongest fighting spirit. Cancer patients employ various strategies of coping with disease depending on socio-demographic factors.

  18. Reliability and validity of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 in patients with Kashin-Beck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Mohammad Imran; Wang, Di-Miao; Yu, Fang-Fang; Fang, Hua; Guo, Xiong

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to check the reliability and validity of the 12-item Chinese version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for the assessment of disability in patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). We recruited 219 patients with KBD from the high-risk KBD area in the Shaanxi province, using stratified multistage random sampling. We assessed each patient using the Chinese version of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC). Statistical evaluations of the instruments consisted of Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Cronbach's alpha and ICC for the six domains ranged from 0.704 to 0.906 and 0.690 to 0.852, respectively. A six-factor structure fits the data well (CFI = 0.967, TLI = 0.944, RMSEA = 0.08). Regarding convergent validity, the four domains of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 (getting around, self-care, life activity, and participation) showed moderate-to-strong correlation for all three domains of the WOMAC (0.428 < |r| < 0.804). Regarding divergent validity, the two domains of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 (understanding and communication, and getting along with people) showed weak correlation for the three domains of WOMAC (0.182 < |r| < 0.295). The Chinese version of 12-item WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument when administered to KBD patients.

  19. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in patients with breast disease and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Ollonen, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In 1972, Beck introduced an inventory (BDI) for rapid screening of depression. The associations between the BDI and the risk of breast cancer (BC) are rarely considered together in prospective studies. In an extension of the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast cancer symptoms were semi-structurally interviewed in-depth as well as asked to complete standardised questionnaires (Forsen, Spielberger, MADRS), and all study variables were obtained before any diagnostic procedures were carried out. BDI was used to evaluate the depression of the study participants. The clinical examinations and biopsies showed BC in 34 patients, benign breast disease (BBD) in 53 patients, and 28 individuals were shown to be healthy (HSS). There was a trend for the women with HSS to have less sadness (BDI mean score, 0.27) than those of the BC (BDI mean score, 0.56) and BBD groups (BDI mean score, 0.49). The HSS group tended to be less pessimistic (BDI mean score, 0.15) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.44) and in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.42). The HSS group also had less self-accusation (BDI mean score, 0.19) than the patients in the BC group (BDI mean score, 0.50) and the patients in the BBD group (BDI mean score, 0.62). The HSS group also reported less work inhibition and weight loss than the patients in the BC group and in the BBD group. The mean sum of the scores of BDI variables was significantly lower in the HSS group (BDI mean score, 7.1) than in the BC (BDI mean score, 8.4) or BBD groups (BDI mean score, 8.8). The results of this study do not support a specific link between BDI and breast cancer risk. However, the patients with BC and BBD tended to have an increased risk for depressive symptoms.

  20. Factor structure and clinical utility of the Beck depression inventory in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is often used to assess depression symptoms, but its factor structure and its clinical utility have not been evaluated in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. A total of 882 treatment-seeking obese patients with BED were administered structured interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders) and completed self-report questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a brief 16-item BDI version with a three-factor structure (affective, attitudinal and somatic). Both 21- and 16-item versions showed excellent internal consistency (both α=0.89) and had significant correlation patterns with different aspects of eating disorder psychopathology; three factors showed significant but variable associations with eating disorder psychopathology. Area under the curves (AUC) for both BDI versions were significant in predicting major depressive disorder (MDD; AUC=0.773 [16-item], 73.5% sensitivity/70.2% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 79.5% sensitivity/64.1% specificity) and mood disorders (AUC=0.763 [16-item], 67.1% sensitivity/71.5% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 84.2% sensitivity/55.7% specificity). The 21-item BDI (cutoff score ≥16) showed higher negative predictive values (94.0% vs. 93.0% [MDD]; 92.4% vs. 88.3% [mood disorders]) than the brief 16-item BDI (cutoff score ≥13). Both BDI versions demonstrated moderate performance as a screening instrument for MDD/mood disorders in obese patients with BED. Advantages and disadvantages for both versions are discussed. A three-factor structure has potential to inform the conceptualization of depression features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Combination of periodontal, orthodontic and endodontic therapy in upper anterior teeth with hopeless prognosis and long-time follow-up: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, L; Zhou, Y H; Ouyang, X Y; Cao, T

    2017-08-18

    It is complicated to decide the treatment plan of hopeless anterior teeth in esthetic zone due to severe periodontitis, periodontal-endodontic combined lesion or teeth trauma. The optional treatment plan for this kind of teeth includes retention after periodontal treatment, extraction and implant treatment, extraction and prosthodontic treatment and so on. To make an appropriate treatment plan, patients' periodontal conditions, periodontal biotype, local anatomy, esthetic demand, economic condition and social psychological status should be comprehensively considered. A combine of periodontal, endodontic and orthodontic therapy may achieve a good treatment effect in hopeless anterior teeth with severe periodontal destruction, tooth extrusion and occlusal trauma. In this case, a 20-year-old female who presented with symptoms of bleeding on brushing and upper incisors loosening for 1 month came to the Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The clinical examinations revealed that the patient's right upper incisor had signs of mobility (III°), intrusion of 1-2 mm, and probing depth (PD) of 9-10 mm. The periapical radiograph showed that the alveolar bone of right upper incisor absorbed horizontally to the apex. And the patients showed Angle II° malocclusion with II° overbite in anterior teeth and maxillary protrusion. A diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis and Angle II° malocclusion was made. The treatment of this patient lasts for 5 years which include periodontal initial therapy, orthodontic therapy, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) of right upper incisor and supportive periodontal therapy and the clinical result is fine. A hopeless upper incisor was successfully retained and the longtime clinical condition was stable. The strategy of retention of hopeless upper anterior teeth, the relationship of periodontal treatment and orthodontic treatment, and the indications of periodontal and orthodontic combined therapy were

  2. Guido Beck and the night of the long police batons: some observations about the relationship between physics and politics in the Argentinean context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Passos Videira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper consists in presenting the reaction of the physicist Guido Beck (1903-1988 towards the political events that occurred in the University of Buenos Aires (UBA, during the second term of 1966. It is not our intention to write a deep treatise on the problem, but to outline some of the ideas that Guido Beck had on the relation between science, State and society in South-American context. That will be done by describing his reaction to the well-known ‘night of the long police batons’. Beck had always been sensitive to the political instability in Argentinean academic system, once that political and ideological disputes could jeopardize the work towards the establishment of a scientific community in that country. As a conclusion, I defend the thesis that in Beck’s point of view the physicists at UBA had misunderstood the importance they had to Argentinean government and to part of the population in that same country.

  3. Concurrent Validity of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Depression Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joel O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared two new measures of depression (Millon Multiaxial Inventory Dysthymia and Major Depression subscales) with two established instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, a self-report measure which emphasizes the cognitive-affective aspects of depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, an interview measure that emphasizes somatic…

  4. Reliability and validity of the EQ-5D-3L for Kashin-Beck disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Farooq, Umer; Wang, Dimiao; Yu, Fangfang; Younus, Mohammad Imran; Guo, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is an endemic osteoarthropathy in areas which extend from the North-East to the South-West of China. Most of the patients with KBD suffer multiple dysfunctions in major joints causing decreased health status. However because of their low education level and unique living habits, it is hard to find tools to measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL). European quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) patient-reported instrument is widely used to measure HRQOL. This study aimed to establish the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the EQ-5D-3L for evaluating HRQOL of KBD individuals in rural area. 368 individuals who were suffering from KBD were recruited through stratified multistage random sampling from Shaanxi province, China. The EQ-5D-3L and the WHOQOL-BREF were administrated in each individual by face to face interview. Test-retest reliability was assessed at 10-14 days intervals. The test-retest reliability was measured by calculating the Kappa coefficients for EQ-5D-3L five dimensions. For the EQ VAS, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed. Convergent and divergent analysis, construct validity was established using Spearman's rank correlation between the EQ-5D-3L and the WHOQOL-BREF. Known groups' validity was examined by comparing groups with a priori expected differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For 362 individuals (98%), comprehensive data of all the EQ-5D-3L dimensions were available. Kappa values of the EQ-5D-3L five items ranged from 0.324 to 0.554. ICC of the EQ VAS was 0.497. For convergent validity, the three items (self-care, usual activity, and mobility) of EQ-5D-3L, index scores, and VAS showed moderate correlations with the physical health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (r absolute value ranged from 0.339 to 0.475). For divergent validity, the 5 items of EQ-5D-3L showed weak or no correlations with environment and social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF. The Chinese EQ-5D-3L

  5. Resilience, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness among people with schizophrenia: Cultural comparison in Austria and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Alex; Mizuno, Yuya; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Suzuki, Takefumi; Pardeller, Silvia; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Sondermann, Catherine; Mimura, Masaru; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Resilience is becoming an important topic in people with schizophrenia since there is evidence that it increases the probability for long-term recovery. The current study investigated transcultural differences in resilience across schizophrenia patients from two different geographical regions, Austria and Japan. Another objective was to examine transcultural differences in internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness, which can be expected to be relevant in this context, as well as the interrelations between these subjective elements of recovery and symptom severity. To this end, patients from outpatient mental health services in Innsbruck, Austria (N=52) and Tokyo, Japan (N=60) as well as 137 healthy comparison subjects from both countries were included into this cross-sectional study. Notably, we detected a significant country effect with markedly lower resilience (F=74.4, pself-esteem scores (F=226.0, pself-esteem (F=51.8, p<0.001), and hope (F=29.5, p<0.001) compared to healthy control subjects. The inter-correlations between subjective elements of recovery were comparable in size in the two patient samples, but the inter-correlations between these issues and residual symptoms of schizophrenia as objective domains of recovery were markedly higher in Austrian subjects. This suggests that schizophrenia patients from Western European and Japanese cultures may have different needs to achieve recovery. In conclusion, it will be critical to develop culture-specific psychosocial programs and to examine their feasibility and effectiveness among these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Manfred Schneider. Lübeck im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. Archäologische Befunde zur entstehung einer mittelalterlichen Grossstadt. In : Expansion - integration? Danish-Baltic Contacts 1147-1410] / Dennis Hortmuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hortmuth, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus:Manfred Schneider. Lübeck im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. Archäologische Befunde zur entstehung einer mittelalterlichen Grossstadt. In : Expansion - integration? Danish-Baltic Contacts 1147-1410 AD. (Vordingborg, 2009).

  7. Helplessness/hopelessness, minimization and optimism predict survival in women with invasive ovarian cancer: a role for targeted support during initial treatment decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melanie A; Butow, Phyllis N; Bell, Melanie L; deFazio, Anna; Friedlander, Michael; Fardell, Joanna E; Protani, Melinda M; Webb, Penelope M

    2016-06-01

    Women with advanced ovarian cancer generally have a poor prognosis but there is significant variability in survival despite similar disease characteristics and treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to determine whether psychosocial factors predict survival in women with ovarian cancer, controlling for potential confounders. The sample comprised 798 women with invasive ovarian cancer recruited into the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study and a subsequent quality of life study. Validated measures of depression, optimism, minimization, helplessness/hopelessness, and social support were completed 3-6 monthly for up to 2 years. Four hundred nineteen women (52.5 %) died over the follow-up period. Associations between time-varying psychosocial variables and survival were tested using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. There was a significant interaction of psychosocial variables measured prior to first progression and overall survival, with higher optimism (adjusted hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation (HR) = 0.80, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.97), higher minimization (HR = 0.79, CI 0.66-0.94), and lower helplessness/hopelessness (HR = 1.40, CI 1.15-1.71) associated with longer survival. After disease progression, these variables were not associated with survival (optimism HR = 1.10, CI 0.95-1.27; minimization HR = 1.12, CI 0.95-1.31; and helplessness/hopelessness HR = 0.86, CI 0.74-1.00). Depression and social support were not associated with survival. In women with invasive ovarian cancer, psychosocial variables prior to disease progression appear to impact on overall survival, suggesting a preventive rather than modifying role. Addressing psychosocial responses to cancer and their potential impact on treatment decision-making early in the disease trajectory may benefit survival and quality of life.

  8. The association between adolescent risk behaviours and feelings of sadness or hopelessness: a cross-sectional survey of South African secondary school learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Sasiragha Priscilla; Ellahebokus, Afzal; Sewpaul, Ronel; Naidoo, Pamela

    2017-08-01

    Poor mental health in adolescents has shown associations with engagement in other risk behaviours. However, evidence of this association in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly South Africa, is lacking. This study examines the associations between pertinent risk behaviours and feelings of sadness or hopelessness amongst a nationally representative sample of South African school going adolescents. Data was analysed from the South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011 (n=10,997), a cross-sectional national survey among grades 8-11 school learners. Logistic regression examined the association of demographic, substance use, violent behaviour, sexual activity and suicidal plans and attempts with the primary outcome, feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Having feelings of sadness or hopelessness was significantly associated with more senior grades, being bullied (AOR:1.67, 95% CI: 1.42-1.96), being assaulted by a partner (1.33 [1.05-1.68]), forced sex (1.78 [1.37-2.32]); gang membership (1.32 [1.06-1.65]), binge drinking (1.37 [1.14-1.65]), ever having sex (1.23 [1.02-1.47]), having ≥1 partner/s in preceding three months (1.25 [1.02-1.53]), having made a plan to attempt suicide (2.50 [1.95-3.21]) and suicide attempt (1.49 [1.21-1.85]). Adolescents in South Africa are experiencing a multiple burden of risk. Health promotion strategies targeting adolescent mental health and risk behaviours need to be developed and implemented in a timely and comprehensive manner.

  9. CORRELATION OF MOBILE PHONE ADDICTION SCALE (MPAS) SCORE WITH CRANIOVERTEBRAL ANGLE, SCAPULAR INDEX AND BECKS DEPRESSION INVENTORY SCORE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rupali Salvi; Sneha Battin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Mobile phone usage has become increasingly common in today’s youth. Its heavy use often leads to an addiction. Dependency on these devices could lead to postural dysfunctions as well as produce an adverse effect on psychology. Hence, this study is done to correlate mobile addiction with the craniovertebral angle, scapular index and Beck’s depression inventory score in young adults. Methods: An observational study was performed on 100 subjects out of which 51 were males and 49 w...

  10. The end of the Strecknitz asylum at Lübeck - a contribution to the social history of psychiatry during National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delius, P; Dilling, H

    1995-09-01

    At a first place the NS-policy of psychiatry is outlined -its global planning as well as its excecution. The picture is supplemented by and contrasted with its local implementation exemplified by the Strecknitz asylum at Lübeck. It becomes clear how much the global concept of the extermination of patients was interwoven with pragmatic plans of local authorities. At Lübeck only the partial identity of these interests led to the deportation of more than 600 patients. They were distributed to several transit camps in Hesse where more than 80% had died by the end of the Second World War. The main causes of death were hunger and infectious diseases - consequences of a deliberate and well-organized neglect. The behaviour and the reactions on the part of the relatives were shaped by supply shortages during the war, by internalized propaganda and by fear. The long-term effects beyond the end of the NS-regime vary a lot. Some of the relatives' coping strategies are portrayed. In some cases the murder of close family members continues to have its effects in the form of family secrets.

  11. Beck Depression Inventory-II: Factor Analyses with Three Groups of Midlife Women of African Descent in the Midwest, the South, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Faye A; Yarandi, Hossein; Evans, Edris; Still, Carolyn; Mickels, Prince; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris; Conic, Ruzica

    2018-03-01

    This research encompasses a factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), which involves three groups of midlife women of African descent who reside in the Midwest, the South, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The purpose of the study was to determine the factor structure of the BDI-II when administered to a sample of women aged 40-65 of African descent who reside in the three distinct geographical regions of the United States. A correlational, descriptive design was used, and 536 women of African descent were invited to participate in face-to-face interviews that transpired in community settings. Results of the factor analysis revealed a two-factor explanation. Factor one included symptoms such as punishment feelings and pessimism (cognitive), and the second factor included symptoms such as tiredness and loss of energy (somatic-affective). The application of the Beck Depression Inventory-II among the three groups of women generated specific information about each group and common findings across the groups. Knowledge gained from the research could help to guide specific intervention programs for the three groups of women, and explicate the common approaches that could be used for the three groups.

  12. Validity and reliability of Spanish versions of the Ruminative Responses Scale-Short Form and the Distraction Responses Scale in a sample of Spanish high school and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the construct validity and reliability of the Spanish Ruminative Responses Scale-Short From, and the Distraction Responses Scale of the Response Styles Questionnaire for a sample of 727 Spanish high school and college students who responded anonymously and voluntarily to a questionnaire (293 men, 434 women; ages 16 to 29 years, M=18.8, SD=3.0). In addition to the above scales, the questionnaire included the Spanish forms of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trait Anxiety Scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. The internal consistency of the scales was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha=.86 for the Ruminative Responses Scale and .78 for the Distraction Responses Scale). As expected, scores on the Spanish Ruminative Responses Scale showed positive correlations with those on the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Scale and negative associations with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Conversely, the Spanish Distraction Responses Scale was negatively correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory and positively associated with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale. These results provide evidence of appropriate reliability for research purposes. Furthermore, the correlational analysis supported prior findings that ruminative response and distraction response styles are differentially associated with reported depressed and positive moods.

  13. Evaluation of the utility of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in the diagnosis of social anxiety, impulsivity and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrała, Kinga; Seweryn, Mariusz; Bonk, Magdalena; Bulska, Weronika; Orszulak, Kamila; Bratek, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Often mental disorders are serious problems concerning psychological well-being. They require comprehensive and specialized psychiatric and psychological help, but there are no public methods of controlling your mental state. The aim of study was the evaluation of the utility of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in the diagnosis of social anxiety, impulsivity and depression. The study included 85 persons. The study group had 34 patients treated in an open ward of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. The control group included 51 persons without mental disorders. Three self-rating questionnaires were used: Beck Depression Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Statistica v10 Statsoft software was used for statistical analysis. The analyzed groups had significant differences in terms of Beck Scale (U Mann-Whitney test p=0.000001). Average score in study group: 22.94±12.50; in control group: 7.15±6.44. Groups had significant differences in terms of Liebowitz Scale (U test Mann-Whitney test, p=0.000164). Average score in the study group: 60.41±30.30; in control group: 35.01±23.94. Groups had significant differences in terms of Barratt Scale (t-student test p=0.000601). Average in study group: 66.35±9,49; in control group: 59.54±7.87. Significant positive correlation was observed between the results of Beck Scale and Liebowitz Scale (r=0.64465). Correlation was not observed between the results of the Liebowitz and Barrat (r=0.12091 and Beck and Barrat (r=0.21482). The intensity of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale is directly proportional to the severity of depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory. The degree of impulsivity by Barrat Impulsiveness Scale does not correlate with the level of depression according to Beck Depression Inventory. The analyzed scales are relevant in the diagnosis of mental disorders.

  14. Half-metallicity and electronic structures for carbon-doped group III-nitrides: Calculated with a modified Becke-Johnson potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuai-wei; Wang, Ri-gao; Xu, Pemg

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and magnetism for carbon-doped group III-nitrides are investigated by utilizing the first principle method with the modified Becke-Johnson potential. Calculations show that carbon substituting cations (anions) would induce the group III-nitrides to be paramagnetic metals (half-metallic ferromagnets). Single carbon substituting nitrogen could produce 1.00μB magnetic moment. Electronic structures indicate that the carriers-mediated double-exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Based on the mean-field theory, the Curie temperature for carbon-doped group III-nitrides would be above the room temperature. Negative chemical pair interactions imply that carbon dopants tend to form clustering distribution in group III-nitrides. The nitrogen vacancy would make the carbon-doped group III-nitrides lose the half-metallic ferromagnetism.

  15. Electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors: A first-principles investigation using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. S. de; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of semilocal exchange and correlation effects on the electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors considering zinc-blende and wurtzite crystal structures. We find that the inclusion of such effects through the use of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential yields an excellent description of the electronic structures of these materials giving energy band gaps which are systematically larger than the ones obtained with standard functionals such as the generalized gradient approximation. The discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical band gaps is then significantly reduced with semilocal exchange and correlation effects. However, the effective masses are overestimated in the zinc-blende nitrides, but no systematic trend is found in the wurtzite compounds. New results for energy band gaps and effective masses of zinc-blende and wurtzite indium nitrides are presented

  16. Adaptación y propiedades psicométricas del inventario de depresión de Beck II en estudiantes de la Universidad Pública de Huánuco

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Mansilla, Yessica María

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo adaptar y evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Depresión de Beck II (Beck, Steer y Brown, 1996) en una muestra probabilística estratificada de 869 estudiantes de pregrado de la Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán de Huánuco, matriculados en el semestre 2013-I. Se realizó la adaptación lingüística a partir del análisis de contenido con criterio de jueces; el nuevo Inventario de Depresión de Beck II Adaptación Huanuqueña alcanzó una a...

  17. Specificity of Cognitive Vulnerability in Fear and Sad Affect: Anxiety Sensitivity, Looming Cognitive Style and Hopelessness in Emotion Reactivity and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders identify looming cognitive style (LCS) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) as vulnerability factors specifically related to anxiety disorders, whereas hopelessness (HS) is considered more applicable to depression. Given...... their dimensional perspective most cognitive models of psychopathology may also be extended to explain normal emotional responses. To investigate the effect of cognitive vulnerability on the reactivity and regulation of negative emotion, 183 undergraduates were assigned to watch a sad or fearful movie clip. Then......, all participants retrieved positive memories in an expressive writing task. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that LCS was uniquely associated with greater fear reactivity. AS and HS were significant predictors of greater fear and sadness after a down-regulation task, respectively...

  18. Psychometric properties of the reassurance-seeking scale in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençöz, Tülin; Gençöz, Faruk

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Reassurance-Seeking Scale in a sample of 102 Turkish undergraduate students. High internal consistency reliability was found for the Reassurance-Seeking Scale (alpha=.86). Factor analysis of the scale identified a single component that accounted for 71% of the total variance. The scale was significantly positively correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory and had a significantly negative correlation with the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Partial correlations of Reassurance-seeking with Depression scores as controlled by Anxiety scores and with Anxiety scores as controlled by Depression scores indicated that Reassurance-seeking scores maintained association with Depression but not with Anxiety. All these findings were in line with expectations.

  19. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    us to speculate towards the role of obliquity of plate tectonic convergence for the along-strike evolution of extra-regional strike-slip systems. Highly-oblique initiation of the DFS encourages detachment of fault-bounded terranes and provides a driver that encourages a westward-fanning pattern of extrusion towards the free face of the Beringian margin. Plausibly, its less-oblique central segment promotes vertical pathway exhumation observed at (for example) Denali itself. A more orthogonal regime drives the entire LOFZ, precluding slivering at its initiation and promoting upstream buttressing (Beck et al., 1993). The convergent plate boundary setting opens a window through time and space on the evolution of large-magnitude fault-systems. Escape, or not to escape ~ what best answers the question ? Citations Redfield, T. F., Scholl, D. W., Fitzgerald, P. G., and Beck, M. E., & 2007. Escape tectonics and the extrusion of Alaska: past, present, and future. Geology. 35, 11, 1039-1042 Beck, M.E., Rojas, C. and Cembrano, J. (1993). “On the nature of buttressing in margin-parallel strike-fault systems.” Geology, Vol. 21, pp. 755-758.

  20. Insights in the electronic structure and redox reaction energy in LiFePO4 battery material from an accurate Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. de S; Ferreira da Silva, A.; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The main goals of this paper are to investigate the accuracy of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential to predict the electronic structure of lithium iron phosphate and the related redox reaction energy with the lithium deintercalation process. The computed electronic structures show that the TB-mBJ method is able to partially localize Fe-3d electrons in LiFePO 4 and FePO 4 which usually is a problem for the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) due to the self interaction error. The energy band gap is also improved by the TB-mBJ calculations in comparison with the GGA results. It turned out, however, that the redox reaction energy evaluated by the TB-mBJ technique is not in good agreement with the measured one. It is speculated that this disagreement in the computed redox energy and the experimental value is due to the lack of a formal expression to evaluate the exchange and correlation energy. Therefore, the TB-mBJ is an efficient method to improve the prediction of the electronic structures coming form the standard GGA functional in LiFePO 4 and FePO 4 . However, it does not appear to have the same efficiency for evaluating the redox reaction energies for the investigated system

  1. Chondrocytes damage induced by T-2 toxin via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of an endemic osteochondropathy, Kashin-Beck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Ning, Yujie; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yingting; Guo, Xiong

    2017-12-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, is characterized by cartilage degeneration which is caused by abnormal catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in KBD pathogenesis. Among the proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, WNT-3A, FZD1, SOX9, and β-catenin were up-regulated, while FRZB was down-regulated in KBD cartilage. C28/I2 cells were evaluated for cell viability using the MTT assay after exposure to T-2 toxin, a suspicious environmental pathogenic factors of KBD. C28/I2 cells were treated with different intervening concentrations (0.001μg/mL,0.005μg/mL and 0.01μg/mL) of T-2 toxin for 24h. The expression of FZD1 and CTNNB1 (i.e.,β-catenin) was significantly reduced and SOX9 expression was significantly increased in chondrocytes after treatment with different intervening concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results indicate that alterations in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in articular cartilage play an important role in the onset and pathogenesis of KBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-edge band structures and band gaps of Cu-based semiconductors predicted by the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Youwei; Gao, Weiwei; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Wenqing

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors are a rich family of materials that hold promise in a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, accurate theoretical understanding of the electronic properties of these materials is hindered by the involvement of Cu d electrons. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation often give qualitative wrong electronic properties of these materials, especially for narrow-gap systems. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) method has been shown to be a promising alternative to more elaborate theory such as the GW approximation for fast materials screening and predictions. However, straightforward applications of the mBJ method to these materials still encounter significant difficulties because of the insufficient treatment of the localized d electrons. We show that combining the promise of mBJ potential and the spirit of the well-established DFT + U method leads to a much improved description of the electronic structures, including the most challenging narrow-gap systems. A survey of the band gaps of about 20 Cu-based semiconductors calculated using the mBJ + U method shows that the results agree with reliable values to within ±0.2 eV

  3. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of School of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz, Iran in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a debilitating disease which is caused by social and environmental factors in additionto genetic factors. University students are among the young and vulnerable population to depression and theirpopulation is increasing with increase in universities and higher education institutions. Therefore, any disturbance instudent's mental and physical health is a serious threat for the next generation. In this study, we aimed to estimate theprevalence of depression and its related factors in students of School of Health and Nutrition at Tabriz University ofMedical Sciences, Iran. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey on 175 students selected by stratified random sampling, educating indifferent fields at School of Health and Nutrition in 2009. The data collection tool was the short form of the standardBeck Depression Inventory (BDI which is used for screening depression. The collected data were analyzed by softwareStata Statistical Software, Release 10.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. RESULTS: The results showed that 62.7% of the students had depression and from these 10.9% suffered from severedepression. Significantly higher depression rates were seen in students with worrisome about the future. Marriedstudents, those interested in their field of study, those performing prayers and regularly reading the Quran hadsignificantly lower rates of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high prevalence of depression, screening strategies should be implemented to identifydepressed students. Counseling services should be available and accessible to students at risk.

  4. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee A Moore

    Full Text Available Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  5. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashlee A; Neale, Michael C; Silberg, Judy L; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  6. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.

  8. Kriisi fataalne oht / Ulrich Beck

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beck, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Sotsioloogi arvates peitub praeguses majanduskriisis võimalus tuua Euroopa Liit uutele alustele, võttes aluseks printsiibi, et poliitika on rahvuslikul tasemel seda edukam, mida euroopalikum, kosmopoliitlikum ta on

  9. En kommentar til Becks model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipps, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg

    2014-01-01

    Flipped classroom – en trend vi må forholde os til Online læringsressourcer har de sidste par år fået mange til at indse at teknologien har noget radikalt andet at byde på, og dette har skabt en populær didaktik kaldet flipped classroom som vi både ser vinde indpas i folkeskolen og på...... Professionshøjskolen Metropol hvor vi er ansat. Kommentaren her retter sig mod en tidligere bragt artikel i MONA, “Det virtuelle læringsrums topologi” af Claus Jessen. Vi argumenterer for at den didaktiske model flipped classrooms brug af video, frem for tavleundervisning, kan frigøre undervisningstid til at arbejde...

  10. [Difficulties and concerns identified by Puerto Rican youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): their relationship with metabolic control, hopelessness, social support, and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jeannette; Maysonet Guzmán, Marielisa

    2006-12-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic health condition that affects 18 of every 100,000 Puerto Rican youth. Few research studies have been performed on the problems that youth with diabetes encounter and how they are related to adherence to treatment and adequate metabolic control. Adequate metabolic control is associated with fewer short and long-term medical complications, as well as better quality of life. Adapting to the demands and stressors associated with IDDM and its treatment is a task that can prove to be difficult for youth with diabetes due to having to make adjustments, alterations, and following a prescribed regimen in their daily activities. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore difficulties and worries identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM. This study examined whether there is a relationship between difficulties and worries, and adequate metabolic control, hopelessness, social support and depressive symptomatology. One hundred and one youth with IDDM between the ages of 8 and 17 (45 male, 56 female) were evaluated. Analysis of frequencies, correlations, and comparison tests were performed by group (gender, age, diabetes duration, and metabolic control. Results reveal that some of the difficulties identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM were: not eating candy and/or cake, self-monitoring blood glucose at school, doing things on time, and waking up early. Among the worries they reported were: insulin reactions and thinking that they might have to go to the hospital.

  11. The family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care: fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Maira Deguer; dos Santos, Maiara Rodrigues; Ichikawa, Carolliny Rossi de Faria; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Bousso, Regina Szylit

    2015-01-01

    to understand the family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care and building a representative theoretical model of the process experienced by the family. for this purpose the Symbolic Interactionism and the Theory Based on Data were used. Fifteen families with kids and/or teenagers in palliative care were interviewed, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. after the comparative analysis of the data, a substantive theory was formed "fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses", composed by: "having a life shattered ", "managing the new condition", "recognizing the palliative care" and "relearning how to live". Hope, perseverance and spiritual beliefs are determining factors for the family to continue fighting for the life of their child in a context of uncertainty, anguish and suffering, due to the medical condition of the child. Along the way, the family redefines values and integrates palliative care in their lives. staying with the child at home is what was set and kept hope of dreaming about the recovery and support of the child's life, but above all, what takes it away even though temporarily is the possibility of their child's death when staying within the context of the family.

  12. The family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care: fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Deguer Misko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to understand the family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care and building a representative theoretical model of the process experienced by the family.METHODOLOGY: for this purpose the Symbolic Interactionism and the Theory Based on Data were used. Fifteen families with kids and/or teenagers in palliative care were interviewed, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews.RESULTS: after the comparative analysis of the data, a substantive theory was formed "fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses", composed by: "having a life shattered ", "managing the new condition", "recognizing the palliative care" and "relearning how to live". Hope, perseverance and spiritual beliefs are determining factors for the family to continue fighting for the life of their child in a context of uncertainty, anguish and suffering, due to the medical condition of the child. Along the way, the family redefines values and integrates palliative care in their lives.CONCLUSION: staying with the child at home is what was set and kept hope of dreaming about the recovery and support of the child's life, but above all, what takes it away even though temporarily is the possibility of their child's death when staying within the context of the family.

  13. The family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care: fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Maira Deguer; dos Santos, Maiara Rodrigues; Ichikawa, Carolliny Rossi de Faria; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Bousso, Regina Szylit

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to understand the family's experience of the child and/or teenager in palliative care and building a representative theoretical model of the process experienced by the family. METHODOLOGY: for this purpose the Symbolic Interactionism and the Theory Based on Data were used. Fifteen families with kids and/or teenagers in palliative care were interviewed, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: after the comparative analysis of the data, a substantive theory was formed "fluctuating between hope and hopelessness in a world changed by losses", composed by: "having a life shattered ", "managing the new condition", "recognizing the palliative care" and "relearning how to live". Hope, perseverance and spiritual beliefs are determining factors for the family to continue fighting for the life of their child in a context of uncertainty, anguish and suffering, due to the medical condition of the child. Along the way, the family redefines values and integrates palliative care in their lives. CONCLUSION: staying with the child at home is what was set and kept hope of dreaming about the recovery and support of the child's life, but above all, what takes it away even though temporarily is the possibility of their child's death when staying within the context of the family. PMID:26312639

  14. Vitamin D Supplementation Affects the Beck Depression Inventory, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Abedi, Fatemeh; Mazroii, Navid; Assarian, Amin; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D may decrease depression symptoms through its beneficial effects on neurotransmitters, metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress. This study was designed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce symptoms of depression, metabolic profiles, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 40 patients between 18 and 65 y of age with a diagnosis of MDD based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a single capsule of 50 kIU vitamin D/wk (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 8 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and postintervention to quantify relevant variables. The primary [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which examines depressive symptoms] and secondary (glucose homeostasis variables, lipid profiles, hs-CRP, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) outcomes were assessed. Baseline concentrations of mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly different between the 2 groups (9.2 ± 6.0 and 13.6 ± 7.9 μg/L in the placebo and control groups, respectively, P = 0.02). After 8 wk of intervention, changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly greater in the vitamin D group (+20.4 μg/L) than in the placebo group (-0.9 μg/L, P stress. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir as IRCT201412065623N29. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis Christina M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder, depressive disorders or no disorder (controls. Methods Participants were 1601 primary care patients participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. Regression analyses were used to compare the mean BAI scores of the different diagnostic groups and to correct for age and gender. Results Patients with any anxiety disorder had a significantly higher mean score than the controls. A significantly higher score was found for patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia compared to patients with agoraphobia only or social phobia only. BAI scores in patients with an anxiety disorder with a co-morbid anxiety disorder and in patients with an anxiety disorder with a co-morbid depressive disorder were significantly higher than BAI scores in patients with an anxiety disorder alone or patients with a depressive disorder alone. Depressed and anxious patients did not differ significantly in their mean scores. Conclusions The results suggest that the BAI may be used as a severity indicator of anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders. However, because the instrument seems to reflect the severity of depression as well, it is not a suitable instrument to discriminate between anxiety and depression in a primary care population.

  16. Quality of life in stabilized patients with schizophrenia is mainly associated with resilience and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartelsteiner, F; Mizuno, Y; Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Pardeller, S; Sondermann, C; Welte, A; Fleischhacker, W W; Uchida, H; Hofer, A

    2016-10-01

    Improving quality of life (QoL) is an important objective in the treatment of schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to examine to what extent resilience, self-esteem, hopelessness, and psychopathology are correlated with QoL. We recruited 52 out-patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria and 77 healthy control subjects from the general community. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The following scales were used in both patients and control subjects: the Berliner Lebensqualitätsprofil, the Resilience Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Beck Hopelessness Scale to assess QoL, resilience, self-esteem, and hopelessness respectively. Patients with schizophrenia presented with significantly less QoL, resilience, self-esteem, and hope compared to healthy control subjects. In patients, QoL correlated moderately with resilience, self-esteem, and hopelessness and weakly with symptoms. With respect to the latter, particularly depression and positive symptoms were negatively correlated with QoL. Our results highlight the complex nature of QoL in patients suffering from schizophrenia. They underscore that significant efforts are necessary to enhance resilience and self-esteem and to diminish hopelessness as well as affective and positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Correlates of self-harm behaviour in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Jane; McCormack, Vinny; Anderson, Richard; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2007-03-01

    This study compared acutely ill patients with schizophrenia with a history of self-harm (N=17) to those without a history of self-harm (N=16) on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and demographic and psychiatric variables. A subgroup of these patients who experience auditory hallucinations, with and without a history of self-harm, were selected and compared on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation and beliefs about voices. Employing a cross-sectional design, in-patients of two local psychiatric hospital, who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia and who were in an acute phase of the illness, were selected. Each patient was assessed using the Beck Depressions Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS). Patients who experienced auditory verbal hallucinations completed the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire Revised (BAVQ-R). Patients with a history of self-harm completed the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (BSI). Patients with a history of self-harm (N=17) had significantly greater symptoms of depression, greater suicidal thoughts, increased number of hospital admissions, greater duration of illness and were more likely to be married, compared to patients without a history of self-harm (N=16). Among the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, those with a history of self-harm (N=9), believed their voice to be more malevolent, had a tendency to resist their voice and experienced significantly greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness compared to those without a history of self-harm (N=6). These findings highlight the importance for screening by clinicians during inpatient hospital stays and for monitoring to be ongoing following discharge. For the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, future research should seek to explore the relationship between self-harm and beliefs about voices.

  18. [Rolf Hammel-Kiesow. Der Lübecker Katasterplan des 19. Jahrhunderts als historische Quelle. Überlegungen zur Stadtentwicklung Lübecks aus archäologischer, historischer und bauhistorischen Zicht] / Dennis Hormuth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hormuth, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus : Rolf Hammel-Kiesow. Der LÜbecker Katasterplan des 19. Jahrhunderts als historische Quelle. Überlegungen zur Stadtentwicklung Lübecks aus archäologischer, historischer und bauhistorischen Sicht. In: Stadtgründung und Stadterweiterung. Beiträge von Archäologie und Stadtgeschichtsforschung (=Beiträge zur Geschichte der Städte Mitteleuropas XXII). Linz, 2011. S. 75-104

  19. Study of wurtzite and zincblende GaN/InN based solar cells alloys: First-principles investigation within the improved modified Becke-Johnson potential

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar

    2014-09-01

    Wurtzite GaInN alloys with flexible energy gaps are pronounced for their potential applications in optoelectronics and solar cell technology. Recently the unwanted built-in fields caused by spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric effects in wurtzite (WZ) GaInN, has turned the focus towards zinc-blende (ZB) GaInN alloys. To comprehend merits and demerits of GaInN alloys in WZ and ZB structures, we performed a comparative study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of Ga1-xInxN alloys with different In concentration using first-principles methodology with density function theory with generalized gradient approximations (GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential. Investigations pertaining to total energy of GaInN for the both phases, demonstrate a marginal difference, reflecting nearly equivalent stability of the ZB-GaInN to WZ-GaInN. The larger ionic radii of indium (In), result in larger values of lattice parameters of Ga1-xInxN with higher In concentration. For In deficient Ga1-xInxN, at first, the formation enthalpies increase rapidly as the In content approaches to 45% in WZ and 47% in ZB, and then decreases with the further increase in In concentration. ZB-Ga1-xInxN alloys exhibit comparatively narrower energy gaps than WZ, and get smaller with increase in In contents. The smaller values of effective masses of free carriers, in WZ phase, than ZB phase, reflect higher carrier mobility and electrical conductivity of WZ-Ga1-xInxN. Moreover wide energy gap of WZ-Ga1-xInxN results in large values of the absorption coefficients comparatively and smaller static refractive indices compared to ZB-Ga1-xInxN. Comparable electronic and optical characteristics of the ZB-Ga1-xInxN to WZ-Ga1-xInxN endorses it a material of choice for optoelectronics and solar cell applications besides the WZ-Ga1-xInxN. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The relevance of food composition data for nutrition surveys in rural Tibet: pilot study in the context of Kashin-Beck Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermience, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck disease (KBD is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy. This disease principally occurs in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People's Republic of China. The etiology of the disease remains obscure although environmental factors are assumed to be involved. Diet, in particular, differentiates the rural community, affected by KBD, from the other communities (nomads and city-dwellers, who remain unaffected. In anticipation of a nutrition survey, this study aimed to measure the mineral content (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Al, Sr, Mo, Cd, As, Pb, Hg, Cr, and Co of eight Tibetan staple foods and to compare the results against two food composition tables (FCTs. Foods were sampled in twenty households selected from both an endemic and a non-endemic area of rural Tibet. Ten minerals involved in bone metabolism were measured using atomic and molecular spectrometric methods. Results revealed that a very limited number of food/constituent pairs showed a variation in mineral composition during a single year of testing for a given region. In addition, results showed significant differences in mineral content between the endemic and the non-endemic area, especially for wheat flour. Following our analysis of the mineral content of the Tibetan food samples, results were statistically compared with similar foods listed in two food composition tables: the USDA National Nutrient Database (USDA Food Search for Windows, Version 1.0, database version SR23, and the China Food Composition Table (book 1, 2nd edition. More than 50 to 60% of p-values < 0.05 were highlighted, suggesting the inappropriateness of using FCTs as a reference for nutrition surveys in rural Tibet, and emphasizing the need for analysis of traditional foods. Differences were found to be more or less marked depending on the element considered, and calcium content seemed to show the greatest difference. Although it is obviously too early for definite

  1. Study of wurtzite and zincblende GaN/InN based solar cells alloys: First-principles investigation within the improved modified Becke-Johnson potential

    KAUST Repository

    Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Rashid; Shaari, Amiruddin; El Haj Hassan, Fouad; Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2014-01-01

    Wurtzite GaInN alloys with flexible energy gaps are pronounced for their potential applications in optoelectronics and solar cell technology. Recently the unwanted built-in fields caused by spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric effects in wurtzite (WZ) GaInN, has turned the focus towards zinc-blende (ZB) GaInN alloys. To comprehend merits and demerits of GaInN alloys in WZ and ZB structures, we performed a comparative study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of Ga1-xInxN alloys with different In concentration using first-principles methodology with density function theory with generalized gradient approximations (GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential. Investigations pertaining to total energy of GaInN for the both phases, demonstrate a marginal difference, reflecting nearly equivalent stability of the ZB-GaInN to WZ-GaInN. The larger ionic radii of indium (In), result in larger values of lattice parameters of Ga1-xInxN with higher In concentration. For In deficient Ga1-xInxN, at first, the formation enthalpies increase rapidly as the In content approaches to 45% in WZ and 47% in ZB, and then decreases with the further increase in In concentration. ZB-Ga1-xInxN alloys exhibit comparatively narrower energy gaps than WZ, and get smaller with increase in In contents. The smaller values of effective masses of free carriers, in WZ phase, than ZB phase, reflect higher carrier mobility and electrical conductivity of WZ-Ga1-xInxN. Moreover wide energy gap of WZ-Ga1-xInxN results in large values of the absorption coefficients comparatively and smaller static refractive indices compared to ZB-Ga1-xInxN. Comparable electronic and optical characteristics of the ZB-Ga1-xInxN to WZ-Ga1-xInxN endorses it a material of choice for optoelectronics and solar cell applications besides the WZ-Ga1-xInxN. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Associations Between Selenium Content in Hair and Kashin-Beck Disease/Keshan Disease in Children in Northwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yu, Fangfang; Shao, Wanzhen; Ding, Dexiu; Yu, Zhidao; Chen, Fengshi; Geng, Dong; Tan, Xiwang; Lammi, Mikko J; Guo, Xiong

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium content in hair and the incidence of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and Keshan disease (KD) in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted among children aged 5-12 years with different levels of low-selenium (group 1, Se ≤ 110 ng/g; group 2, 110  200 ng/g) exposure. A person-years approach was used to calculate the incidence and rate of positive clinical signs. Relative risk (RR), attributable risk, and etiologic fraction were used to determine the strength of association between selenium and disease incidence. Seven new KBD cases were diagnosed during 3-year follow-up. Positive clinical signs of KBD were found in 17.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.27-21.29) cases per 100 person-years in group 1, 13.28 (9.82-16.74) in group 2, 12.95 (9.34-16.56) in group 3, and 8.18 (5.50-10.85) in group 4. Compared with group 4, the RR (95% CI) of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.17 (1.48-3.19), 1.62 (1.07-2.47), and 1.58 (1.03-2.43), respectively. Positive clinical signs of KD were 25.90 (18.62-33.18) cases per 100 person-years in group 1, 5.66 (1.26-10.06) in group 2, 4.60 (0.20-9.00) in group 3, and 14.62 (8.54-20.69) in group 4. Compared with group 4, the RR (95% CI) were 1.77 (1.07-2.93), 0.39 (0.16-0.93), and 0.31 (0.11-0.89), respectively. In children, the onset of KBD was negatively correlated with selenium content within a certain range. However, there may be a U-shaped association between selenium content and KD in children.

  3. Care satisfaction, hope, and life functioning among adults with bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Chad D; Miklowitz, David J; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Giese, Alexis A; Thomas, Marshall R; Allen, Michael H

    2005-01-01

    The Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) is designed to evaluate the longitudinal outcome of patients with bipolar disorder. The STEP-BD disease-management model is built on evidence-based practices and a collaborative care approach designed to maximize specific and nonspecific treatment mechanisms. This prospective study examined the longitudinal relationships between patients' satisfaction with care, levels of hope, and life functioning in the first 1000 patients to enter STEP-BD. The study used scores from the Care Satisfaction Questionnaire, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Range of Impaired Functioning Tool, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale at 5 time points during a 1-year interval. Analyses tested mediational pathways between care satisfaction, hope, and life functioning, depression, and mania using mixed-effects (random and fixed) regression models. Increases in care satisfaction were associated with decreased hopelessness (P hopelessness was associated with better life functioning (P hopelessness, and life functioning. Findings suggest that providing care that maximizes patient hope may be important. By so doing, patients might overcome the learned helplessness/hopelessness that often accompanies a cyclical illness and build a realistic illness-management strategy.

  4. The clinical utility of the MMPI-2-RF Suicidal/Death Ideation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Emily; Bodell, Lindsay; Carbonell, Joyce; Joiner, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern, with over 100 individuals dying by suicide per day in the United States alone. Therefore, suicide risk assessment is an essential aspect of mental health care. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008-2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) has a Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI) scale consisting of 5 items that describe recent suicidal ideation or behaviors. Although this scale has clear face validity, few studies have examined the clinical utility of this scale. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations between the SUI scale and other established measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, including the Depressive Symptom Inventory Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS; Beck & Steer, 1991; Beck, Steer, & Ranieri, 1988), self-report of lifetime suicide attempts, and clinician ratings of suicide risk. Participants were 998 therapy- and assessment-seeking outpatients. Analyses indicated that the SUI scale was positively associated with other self-reported measures of suicidal ideation and behavior. Significant differences in SUI scale scores also emerged among the clinician rating categories of suicide risk. The SUI scale was able to predict previous suicide attempts over and above age, gender, and other MMPI-2-RF scales related to depression. Finally, relative risk ratios for suicide attempts indicate increased risk of suicidality, with higher T scores on the SUI scale. Overall, findings suggest that the MMPI-2-RF SUI scale may be a useful tool for identifying individuals at risk for suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical settings. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Styles of coping with cancer: the Italian version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Buda, Patrizia; Cavana, Laura; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Torta, Riccardo; Varetto, Antonella

    2005-02-01

    Mental adjustment to cancer has been explored in a large body of the literature by using the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale. Problems in the factor structure of the scale and the need for refining the instrument have determined the development of the Mini-MAC. The aim of this study was to validate, according to a test-oriented approach, the Italian version of the Mini-MAC. Four hundred and thirty cancer patients in five centres in Northern Italy completed the Mini-MAC and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). A subgroup of 153 patients filled out the instruments again within 3 months of the first assessment. The five original subscales (Fighting Spirit, Hopeless, Fatalism, Anxious Preoccupation and Cognitive Avoidance) showed acceptable levels of reliability (Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from 0.55 to 0.80) although alphas were lower for the scales Fighting Spirit and Fatalism. Factor analysis (Varimax rotation) identified the same five factors with minor variations from the original version. Again, alpha coefficients were less robust for the factors Fighting Sprit and Fatalism. Hopeless and Anxious Preoccupation were significantly related to all the BSI psychological stress symptoms, including the Global Stress Index (GSI). Test-retest reliability showed no differences in the sub-scales scores between assessments. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Recomendaciones para la utilización de la adaptación española del Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck (BAI) en la práctica clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sanz

    2014-01-01

    En sus 25 años de existencia, el Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck (BAI) se ha convertido en el cuestionario autoaplicado para evaluar la gravedad de la ansiedad más utilizado en los países con mayor producción científica en psicología, aunque en España dicho instrumento sigue siendo el Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo (STAI). En este trabajo se presentan las características básicas del BAI en comparación con la escala de Ansiedad Rasgo del STAI, se describe el proceso de adapta...

  7. HOPEFULNESS IN HOPELESSNESS: A HERMENEUTICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    time at Auschwitz that people who lost all hope were the first to die. He writes: ... The future was to be one of happiness to which all men are ... The OT's hope falls short with death. .... Going back in our memory lane, one remembers when.

  8. Hope for the Hopeless Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Jim

    1990-01-01

    Writing an effective letter or memorandum should not be difficult. Suggestions on how to write more effectively are presented including: think about the audience, make an outline, use conversational language, think typographically, and read it aloud. (MLW)

  9. Ab-initio study of electronic, magnetic and thermoelectric behaviors of LiV2O4 and LiCr2O4 using modified Becke-Johson (mBJ) potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saima; Rashid, Muhammad; Hassan, M.; Noor, N. A.; Mahmood, Q.; Laref, A.; Haq, Bakhtiar Ul

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the large energy storage capacity and higher working voltage, the spinel oxides LiV2O4 and LiCr2O4, have remained under intense research attention for utilization as electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. In this study, we explore the half-metallic nature and thermoelectric response in both LiV2O4 and LiCr2O4 spinel oxides using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) based computations. The ground-state energies of these compounds have been studied at the optimized structural parameters in the ferromagnetic phase. In order to obtain a correct picture of the electronic structure and magnetic properties, the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential is applied to compute the electronic structures. The half-metallic behavior is confirmed by the spin-polarized electronic band structures and density of state plots. The magnetic nature is elucidated by computing the John-Teller energy, direct and indirect exchange and crystal field splitting energies. Our computations indicate strong hybridization decreasing the V/Cr site magnetic moments and increasing magnetic momenta at the nonmagnetic atomic sites. We also present the computed parameters significant for expressing the thermoelectric response, which are electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, See-beck coefficient and power factor. The computed properties are of immense interest owing to the potential spintronics and Li-ion battery applications of the studied spinel materials.

  10. Diagnostics of suicidal behavior risks of children and adolescents in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova T.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main techniques used in empirical studies abroad for diagnostics of risks of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents in population sampling: Beck Self-Rating Depression Inventory, The Hopelessness Scale for Children, Inventory of Suicide Orientation, Self-Destructive Thought Assessment Scale, The Life-Attitudes Schedule, A measure of adolescent potential for suicide (MAPS, Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent samples, PATHOS, The Reasons for Living Inventory, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS, Validity of the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire

  11. Rasch analysis suggested three unidimensional domains for Affiliate Stigma Scale: additional psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Jian-An; Tsai, Ching-Shu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2015-06-01

    To examine the psychometrics of the Affiliate Stigma Scale using rigorous psychometric analysis: classical test theory (CTT) (traditional) and Rasch analysis (modern). Differential item functioning (DIF) items were also tested using Rasch analysis. Caregivers of relatives with mental illness (n = 453; mean age: 53.29 ± 13.50 years) were recruited from southern Taiwan. Each participant filled out four questionnaires: Affiliate Stigma Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and one background information sheet. CTT analyses showed that the Affiliate Stigma Scale had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.85-0.94) and concurrent validity (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: r = -0.52 to -0.46; Beck Anxiety Inventory: r = 0.27-0.34). Rasch analyses supported the unidimensionality of three domains in the Affiliate Stigma Scale and indicated four DIF items (affect domain: 1; cognitive domain: 3) across gender. Our findings, based on rigorous statistical analysis, verified the psychometrics of the Affiliate Stigma Scale and reported its DIF items. We conclude that the three domains of the Affiliate Stigma Scale can be separately used and are suitable for measuring the affiliate stigma of caregivers of relatives with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of local environment and geographical distance in determining community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the landscape scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; van der Gast, Christopher J; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular fungi have a major role in directing the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about their biogeographical distribution. The Baas-Becking hypothesis (‘everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects') was tested by investigating the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at the landscape scale and the influence of environmental factors and geographical distance in determining community composition. AMF communities in Trifolium repens and Loliu...

  13. Platelet-rich plasma and bi-phasic tri calcium phosphate in the management of periodontally compromised teeth with hopeless prognosis: A case report with six-year follow-up and surgical re-entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramoniam Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of periodontal therapy is to prolong the lifespan of dentition as there is no ideal substitute for natural dentition even in the era of dental implants. Treatment of teeth with advanced periodontal disease with hopeless prognosis is always extraction. However in this case report, we discuss a novel regenerative strategy using a combination of platelet rich plasma and bi-phasic tri calcium phosphate for a lower central incisor that was considered for extraction. Clinical and radiographic examination during the six-year follow-up postoperatively revealed stable periodontal health in the lower right central incisor. The surgical re-entry done in the sixth year postoperatively revealed good periradicular healing and alloplastic bone graft incorporation within the host bone.

  14. 50 AÑOS DE LOS INVENTARIOS DE DEPRESIÓN DE BECK: CONSEJOS PARA LA UTILIZACIÓN DE LA ADAPTACIÓN ESPAÑOLA DEL BDI-II EN LA PRÁCTICA CLÍNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sanz

    2013-01-01

    En 2011 se publicó la primera adaptación española del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II), justo cuando se cumplía el 50º aniversario de la publicación de su primera edición. En este tiempo, el BDI se ha convertido en el cuestionario autoaplicado más utilizado en España y en el mundo para evaluar la gravedad de la depresión. En este trabajo se presentan las características básicas del BDI-II en relación con sus versiones anteriores (BDI-I y BDI-IA) y el proceso de su adaptación a l...

  15. Adaptación española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II: 3. Propiedades psicométricas en pacientes con trastornos psicológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS SANZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan datos sobre la fiabilidad y validez de la adaptación española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer y Brown, 1996, obtenidos con una muestra de 305 pacientes ambulatorios con diversos diagnósticos psicopatológicos según el DSM-IV. El coeficiente alfa de fiabilidad fue alto (alfa = 0,89. Las correlaciones con otras medidas autoaplicadas y heteroaplicadas de depresión fueron elevadas y significativamente mayores que la correlación con una medida de ansiedad, lo que avala la validez convergente y discriminante del BDI-II, respectivamente. Respecto a la validez de criterio, los resultados demostraron que los pacientes diagnosticados con un trastorno depresivo mayor tenían niveles de depresión más elevados, medidos con el BDI-II, que los pacientes de otros grupos diagnósticos, aunque no hubo diferencias con los pacientes con trastornos de personalidad. Finalmente, la validación factorial del BDI-II proporcionó una solución bifactorial (factor somático- motivacional y factor cognitivo que coincide con la hallada en estudios previos. Se concluye que el BDI es un instrumento válido de detección y cuantificación de síntomas depresivos en pacientes, si bien su utilidad como herramienta para el diagnóstico diferencial de la depresión es una cuestión pendiente de investigación.

  16. A Shortened Version of the Reasons for Living-Older Adults Scale for Clinical and Research Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Edelstein, Barry; Katz, Emma; Gallegos, Jarred V

    2018-02-26

    Older adults have elevated suicide rates, and identification of protective factors, such as reasons for living, is important in preventing suicide. The Reasons for Living-Older Adults scale (RFL-OA) is a 69-item measure of these protective factors in late life, which yields good psychometric properties. However, its length limits its utility in some clinical and research contexts where a shorter measure is ideal. The objective of this study was to create a shortened version of the RFL-OA. First, data collected previously during validation of the original RFL-OA (n = 199, age 65 and older, 65% female) were used to select 30 items, spanning all content areas, that were highly endorsed. Second, new data were collected (n = 219, age 60 and older, 52% female) with the 30-item RFL-OA and measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, religiosity, health, and social desirability to examine the measure's internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Scores on the 30-item RFL-OA exhibited strong internal consistency. The short RFL-OA demonstrated good convergent validity via significant, moderate correlations with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, and religiosity. It demonstrated adequate discriminant validity via only small correlations with disability, subjective health, and social desirability. The shorter RFL-OA has good psychometric properties among community-dwelling older adults. It may have greater utility, compared to the original 69-item measure, for clinicians and researchers with limited time but who want to assess protective factors against suicidal behavior in late life.

  17. Iranian Version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoo, Mozhgan; Allahyari, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Ali Reza; Payandeh, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Mental adjustment to cancer is known as a psychological, physical, and psychological health variable among cancer patients. The present study examines the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale (Mini-MAC) in a sample of Iranian adults who suffer from cancer. The sample consists of 320 cancer patients selected through non-random convenient sampling procedure from the hospitals and clinics in the cities of Kermanshah and Shiraz in Iran, using the Mini-MAC scale. One hundred of these patients also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Statistical methods used to analyze the data included confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, discriminate validity, and Cronbach alpha coefficients for internal consistency. Factor analysis confirms five factors in the Mini-MAC. The values of fit indices are within the acceptable range. Significant correlations between the Mini-MAC and other measures also show that this scale has discriminate validity. Alpha coefficients for the subscales are Helplessness/Hopelessness,.94; Cognitive Avoidance.76; Anxious Preoccupation,.90; Fatalism,.77; Fighting Spirit.80; and total scale.84, respectively. The results confirm the five-factor structure of the Persian Mini-MAC scale and also prove that it is a reliable and valid scale. They show that this scale has sufficient power to measure different aspects of mental adjustment in patients with cancer.

  18. An Investigation into the Relationship among Psychiatric, Demographic and Socio-Economic Variables with Bayesian Network Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunal Bilek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the Beck Depression Inventory score, the Beck Hopelessness Scale score and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem score and the relationships among the psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables with Bayesian network modeling. The data of 823 university students consist of 21 continuous and discrete relevant psychiatric, demographic and socio-economic variables. After the discretization of the continuous variables by two approaches, two Bayesian networks models are constructed using the b n l e a r n package in R, and the results are presented via figures and probabilities. One of the most significant results is that in the first Bayesian network model, the gender of the students influences the level of depression, with female students being more depressive. In the second model, social activity directly influences the level of depression. In each model, depression influences both the level of hopelessness and self-esteem in students; additionally, as the level of depression increases, the level of hopelessness increases, but the level of self-esteem drops.

  19. Scale Pretesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matt C.

    2018-01-01

    Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…

  20. Investigation of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the cubic RbMF{sub 3} perovskites (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) using modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandeep, E-mail: sndp.chettri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India); Rai, D.P. [Department of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Mizoram University, 796001 (India); Shankar, A. [Department of Physics, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling, 734013 (India); Ghimire, M.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Research Center, Butwal-13, Rupandehi, Lumbini (Nepal); IFW-Dresden, Helmholtzstraße 20, D-01069, Dresden (Germany); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Mati´ere et de Modélisation Mathématique LPQ3M, Université de Mascara, Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Syrotyuk, S.V. [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Thapa, R.K. [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India)

    2017-05-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of the cubic RbMF{sub 3} perovskites (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) have been investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange and correlation potential was applied using the generalized gradient approximation for calculating the structural properties In addition, the modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential was used for calculating the electronic and optical properties. It was found that the lattice constant increases while the bulk modulus decreases with the change of cation (M) in going from Be to Ba in the RbMF{sub 3} perovskites (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). The reflectivity and absorption properties were also studied using the mBJ method to understand the inter-band transitions and their possible applications in absorption devices in the UV-region. - Highlights: • Closer estimate of the band-gaps of RbMF{sub 3} with experimental results using GGA and mBJ results predicting them to be absorption devices and substrates for thin film growth. • The RbMF{sub 3} were also found to be potential candidate for in absorption devices in UV-region which were correlated to their calculated optical properties. • The materials are transparent, so may be used as substrates for thin film growth, for the optoelectric applications.

  1. 50 AÑOS DE LOS INVENTARIOS DE DEPRESIÓN DE BECK: CONSEJOS PARA LA UTILIZACIÓN DE LA ADAPTACIÓN ESPAÑOLA DEL BDI-II EN LA PRÁCTICA CLÍNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 se publicó la primera adaptación española del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II, justo cuando se cumplía el 50º aniversario de la publicación de su primera edición. En este tiempo, el BDI se ha convertido en el cuestionario autoaplicado más utilizado en España y en el mundo para evaluar la gravedad de la depresión. En este trabajo se presentan las características básicas del BDI-II en relación con sus versiones anteriores (BDI-I y BDI-IA y el proceso de su adaptación a la población española, se resumen las propiedades psicométricas de dicha adaptación y se discute su utilización en la práctica clínica, proponiéndose pautas y puntuaciones de corte para la evaluación de la gravedad de la depresión, la evaluación de la significación clínica de los cambios terapéuticos, el cribado de personas con depresión y la ayuda en el diagnóstico diferencial de los trastornos depresivos.

  2. Inpatients with major depressive disorder: Psychometric properties of the new Multidimensional Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362 and repeat attempters (n = 61 presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034. In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020. Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts.

  4. A multimodal support group with Hispanic traumatic brain injury survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, C G

    1999-06-01

    (a) To design and pilot a culturally sensitive and neuropsychologically informed support group addressing barriers to emotional, social, and vocational adjustment among high-level functioning Hispanic/Latino TBI survivors. (b) To determine efficacy through outcome measures. Ten-week multimodal, culturally sensitive support group focusing on TBI sequelae education, relaxation techniques, coping skills development, behavioral goal setting and monitoring, and family participation. Six Spanish-speaking high-level functioning TBI survivors aged 20-42. Outpatient neuropsychological assessment and treatment center. Beck Hopelessness Scale; Purpose in Life Test; Perceived Self-Regulatory Ability Inventory. Participants' sense of personal destiny and feelings of hopelessness improved, as evidenced by objective measures and self-report. A telephone interview a year later indicated that gains had been maintained, and most participants were vocationally active. Results underscore the importance of considering linguistic and ethnic factors in developing support groups.

  5. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Soon [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kunwoo [Dept. of Natural Radiation Safety, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies.

  6. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun; Park, Tae Soon; Cho, Kunwoo

    2017-01-01

    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies

  7. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals.

  8. Maslowian Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  9. Predicting Gran alkalinity and calcium concentrations in river waters over a national scale using a novel modification to the G-BASH model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresser, Malcolm S.; Ahmed, Nayan; Smart, Richard P.; Arowolo, Toyin; Calver, Louise J.; Chapman, Pippa J.

    2006-01-01

    Monthly stream water calcium and Gran alkalinity concentration data from 11 sub-catchments of the Nether Beck in the English Lake District have been used to appraise the transferability of the Scottish, River Dee-based G-BASH model. Readily available riparian zone geochemistry and flow paths were used initially to predict minimum and mean stream water concentrations at the Nether Beck, based on calibration equations from the River Dee catchment data. Predicted values significantly exceeded observed values. Differences in runoff between the two areas, leading to a dilution effect in the Nether Beck, explained most of the difference between observed and predicted values. Greater acid deposition in the Lake District also reduced stream water Gran alkalinity concentrations in that area. If regional differences in precipitation, evapotranspiration and pollutant deposition are incorporated into the model, it may then be used reliably to predict catchment susceptibility to acidification over a wide regional (national) scale. - A modified G-BASH model predicts calcium and Gran alkalinity in streams at a national scale, taking account of regional deposition and climatic variations

  10. Effect of calcium and vitamin D on growth, rickets and Kashin-Beck disease in 0- to 5-year-old children in a rural area of central Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooze, Shancy; Mathieu, Françoise; Claus, William; Yangzom, Tashi; Yangzom, Dikki; Goyens, Philippe; de Maertelaer, Viviane

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of calcium (15 mmol/day) and vitamin D (625 μg/month), as single supplement or in combination, vs. no supplement on growth, clinical signs of rickets and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and dental health. Prospective controlled trial involving children aged 0-5 years living in four groups of villages in a KBD-endemic rural area of central Tibet who received either calcium and/or vitamin D or no supplement. The cohort was followed over 3 years. Primary outcome was the impact of the different supplementation regimes on KBD, rickets and growth; secondary outcomes were impact on urinary levels of calcium and phosphorus, biomarkers of bone and cartilage turnover, and dental health. No difference was observed between the four groups with regard to anthropometric data, rickets, KBD, urinary levels of CrossLaps(®) and CartiLaps(®) . Weight for height or age, mid-upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness decreased in the four groups. Height for age increased and the prevalence of KBD fell in the four groups. Dental health was better in the group receiving calcium and vitamin D. Urinary calcium levels increased after 3 years of follow-up in all groups; the group receiving vitamin D had a higher increase (P-value: 0.044). The same global increase was observed for urinary phosphorus levels; the group receiving calcium had a higher increase (P-value: 0.01). Calcium and vitamin D failed to improve growth and bone metabolism of children living in a KBD-endemic rural area. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation improved dental health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Development of Social Competence Scale for Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fu Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were 1 to develop a social behavior assessment system for adolescent - social competence scale; and 2 to evaluate the reliability and validity of this proposed scale. The social behavior assessment system for adolescent comprised three scales: the teacher rating scale (TRS, parent rating scale (PRS, and self-report scale (SRS. TRS, PRS, and SRS all included 110 items in two scales: social competence scale (SCS and problem behavior scale (PBS. The social competence scale consisted of 48 items divided into seven subscales for measuring three theoretical dimensions: self-control, interpersonal interaction, and academic behavior. The development of social competence scale yielded the following results regarding validity: 1 evidence based on test content was established and supported by exploring literature and expert validity; 2 TRS-SCS, PRS-SCS, and SRS-SCS all have high internal consistency reliability and 4-week-interval re-test reliability. Besides, the inter-rater reliability between teachers, parents and students were lower to moderate; 3 the concurrent criterion related evidence of the TRS-SCS and PRS-SCS to the behavioral and emotional rating scale and the SRS-SCS to the Beck youth inventories were all significant; 4 the discriminant evidence of TRS-SCS was found to be considerably satisfactory in discriminating children with emotional and behavioral problems from those without; 5 evidence based on internal structure indicates that the results of confirmatory factory analysis were found considerably satisfactory in TRS-SCS, PRS-SCS, and SRS-SCS. In general, the reliability and validity of the study were satisfactory. Finally, the percentile rank and t-score norms were developed for 607 subjects in TRS-SCS, 1,168 subjects in PRS-SCS and 1,246 subjects in SRS-SCS.

  12. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  13. Βιβλιοκρισία:P. SCHREINER-E. VOGT(eds., Karl Krumbacher. Leben und Werk, München, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission beim Verlag C. H. Beck, München 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter PUCHNER

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Βιβλιοκρισία: P. Schreiner-E. Vogt (eds., Karl Krumbacher. Leben und Werk, München, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission beim Verlag C. H. Beck, München 2011 (Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, Jahrgang 2011, Heft 4, σελ. 147, 5 εικ., ΙSBN 978 3 7696 1569 0.

  14. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  15. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  16. KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.; )

    2001-01-01

    A correct version of the KNO scaling of multiplicity distributions is discussed in detail. Some assertions on KNO-scaling violation based on the misinterpretation of experimental data behavior are analyzed. An accurate comparison with experiment is presented for the distributions of negative particles in e + e - annihilation at √S = 3 - 161 GeV, in inelastic pp interactions at √S = 2.4 - 62 GeV and in nucleus-nucleus interactions at p lab = 4.5 - 520 GeV/c per nucleon. The p-bar p data at √S 546 GeV are considered [ru

  17. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  18. The role of local environment and geographical distance in determining community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; van der Gast, Christopher J; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    Arbuscular fungi have a major role in directing the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about their biogeographical distribution. The Baas-Becking hypothesis ('everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects') was tested by investigating the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at the landscape scale and the influence of environmental factors and geographical distance in determining community composition. AMF communities in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne roots were assessed in 40 geographically dispersed sites in Ireland representing different land uses and soil types. Field sampling and laboratory bioassays were used, with AMF communities characterised using 18S rRNA terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Landscape-scale distribution of AMF was driven by the local environment. AMF community composition was influenced by abiotic variables (pH, rainfall and soil type), but not land use or geographical distance. Trifolium repens and L. perenne supported contrasting communities of AMF, and the communities colonising each plant species were consistent across pasture habitats and over distance. Furthermore, L. perenne AMF communities grouped by soil type within pasture habitats. This is the largest and most comprehensive study that has investigated the landscape-scale distribution of AMF. Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis at the landscape scale and demonstrate the strong influence the local environment has on determining AMF community composition.

  19. Scaling satan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  20. TWO GHAZALS WITH THE REDIF “WHAT CAN I DO?" OF AHMED PAŞA AND THE HOPELESS LOVER IMAGE IN THE DIVAN LITERATURE AHMED PAŞA’NIN “ELİMDEN NE GELİR” REDİFLİ İKİ GAZELİ VE DİVAN EDEBİYATINDA ÇARESİZ ÂŞIK İMAJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sıtkı NAZİK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the two ghazals with the redif “what can I do?"of Ahmed Paşa, the situation of the lover in the face beloved is reflected to us in a hopeless situation By taking in hand these two works and benefiting from a variety of sources, we stood on different understanding dimensions of the love in mysticism in axis of administrative structure in tradition of the Divan poetry. Accordingly, different hopeless lover image has appeared. Such as power, force, authority to the lover’s supreme features and eyes, hair, length, lips and to the elements of other beauties and to the effect of on the lover of these have been mentioned. Correspondingly, the lover’ hopeless, wretched, addicted and similar qualifications have been put forward and has been described hopelessness of lover in the face of beloved. Ahmed Paşa’nın “elimden ne gelir” redifli iki gazelinde, âşığın maşuk karşısındaki durumu çaresizlik aynasından bizlere yansıtılmaktadır. Bu iki gazel temel alınıp, çeşitli kaynaklardan da istifade edilerek Divan edebiyatındaki âşık ve maşuk tipine ait özellikler, Divan şiiri geleneği, tasavvuf ve idari yapı eksenli olmak üzere sevgili anlayışının farklı boyutları üzerinde durulmaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak da çaresiz âşık imajı ortaya konulmaktadır. Sevgilinin güç, kudret, otorite gibi üstün özelliklerine; gözü, saçı, boyu, dudağı ve diğer güzellik unsurlarına ve bunların âşık üzerindeki etkisine değinilmektedir. Buna karşılık âşığın aciz, biçare, perişan ve benzeri özellikleri öne çıkarılmakta, sevgili karşısında çaresizliği tasvir edilmektedir.

  1. Polish Adaptation of the Psychache Scale by Ronald Holden and Co-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Jan; Miniszewska, Joanna; Strzelczyk, Dorota; Gąsior, Krzysztof

    2017-04-30

    The conducted study was aimed at making a Polish adaptation of the Scale of Psychache by Ronald Holden and co-workers. The scale is a self-assessment method which comprises 13 statements and is designed to assess subjectively experienced psychological pain. 300 persons were examined - undergraduates and postgraduates of the University of Lodz and the Technical University of Lodz. The group of the study participants consisted of 185 women and 115 men. Moreover, there were examined 150 alcohol addicted men, 50 co-addicted women and 50 major depressive episode (MDE) patients. The Polish version of the Scale is a reliable and valid tool. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis has proved the existence of one factor. The internal consistency, assessed on the basis of Cronbach's alpha, equalled 0.93. The method displays positive and statistically significant relationships to levels of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, anhedonia and negative relations to levels of optimism, life satisfaction, and positive orientation. Alcohol addicted men with presently diagnosed suicidal thoughts were characterised by a significantly higher level of psychological pain as compared to alcoholics without such thoughts. A higher level of psychache was also reported in people with depression who have a history of attempted suicide compared with those who have not attempted suicide. The effect of the conducted adaptation works on the Psychache Scale speaks for recommending the method for scientific research and use in therapeutic practice.

  2. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.

  3. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  4. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  5. Lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder in Turkish alcohol-dependent inpatients: relationship with depression, anxiety and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Can, Suat; Evren, Bilge; Saatcioglu, Omer; Cakmak, Duran

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients, and to investigate the relationship of lifetime PTSD diagnosis with anxiety, depression, hopelessness, erectile dysfunction and psychosocial problems related with alcohol dependency. Eighty-two male inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and 48 subjects without substance use disorder as a control group were included in the study. Subjects were applied the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Rate of lifetime PTSD diagnosis was found to be 26.8% among alcohol-dependent inpatients. The mean age of patients with lifetime PTSD was lower than in patients without this diagnosis, while there were no significant differences between these two groups in terms of age of first alcohol use, lifetime major depression, current depression, presence and severity of erectile dysfunction. Mean scores of HAM-D, HAM-A, BHS and MAST in the group with lifetime PTSD were significantly higher than the group without this diagnosis. There was a positive relationship between lifetime PTSD diagnosis and depression, anxiety, hopelessness and severity of psychosocial problems related to alcohol dependency, while there was no relationship between lifetime PTSD comorbidity and erectile dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients.

  6. [Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the internalized stigma of mental illness scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Mehmet Akif; Varan, Azmi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI) in patients with psychiatric disorders. The study included 203 patients diagnosed with various psychiatric disorders in a psychiatry outpatient clinic of a university hospital. The reliability of the scale was assessed by investigation of its internal consistency and split-half reliability. The convergent validity of the scale was demonstrated by the relationship between the Turkish form of the ISMI and various criteria scales. Cronbach's alpha value was 0.93 for the entire scale and ranged between 0.63 and 0.87 for the 5 subscales of the ISMI. In terms of convergent validity, the total score of the Turkish ISMI significantly correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Clinical Global Impression Scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores. All values were in the expected direction. In the light of the findings, it was concluded that the Turkish version of ISMI could be used as a reliable and valid tool in assessing internalized stigma of the Turkish psychiatric patients.

  7. Discomfort Intolerance Scale: A Study of Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÖZDEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discomfort Intolerance Scale was developed by Norman B. Schmidt et al. to assess the individual differences of capacity to withstand physical perturbations or uncomfortable bodily states (2006. The aim of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of Discomfort Intolerance Scale-Turkish Version (RDÖ. Method: From two different universities, total of 225 students (male=167, female=58 were participated in this study. In order to determine the criterion validity, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used. Construct validity was evaluated by factor analysis after the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Barlett test had been performed. To assess the test-retest reliability the scale was re-applied to 54 participants 6 weeks later. Results: To assess construct validity of DIS, factor analyses were performed using varimax principal components analysis with varimax rotation. The factor analysis resulted in two factors named “discomfort (in tolerance” and “discomfort avoidance”. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the entire scale, discomfort-(intolerance subscale, discomfortavoidance subscale were, .592, .670, .600 respectively. Correlations between two factors of DIS, discomfort intolerance and discomfort avoidance, and Trait Anxiety Inventory of STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were statistically significant at the level of 0.05. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant at the level of 0.01. Conclusion: Analysis demonstrated that DIS had a satisfactory level of reliability and validity in Turkish university students.

  8. [Measuring job satisfaction: development of a multidimensional scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Palmira; Valenti, Giusy

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been done on the topic ofjob satisfaction, as regards the Italian research, the construction of specific psychometric instruments is lacking. The present paper is aimed to develop a scale to measure job satisfaction referring to our cultural context. Participants were 222 workers (36.5% males, 63.5% females) with an average age of 38.39 years (SD = 10.91). The formulated items were selected from a large item pool on the basis of the evaluation by a group of expert judges, and the item analysis procedure. In order to establish test validity, the following instruments were also administered: Occupational Stress Indicator, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Beck Depression Inventory. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses highlighted a 6-factor structure. Those factors were responsible for 51.30% of the total variance. Reliability analyses indicated satisfying internal consistency (ranging from alpha = .73 to alpha = .86). Construct validity was supported by results obtained calculating correlations with the theoretically associated variables. Our findings suggest promising psychometric properties for the presented measure. The instrument could be used in specific programs developed to promote well-being conditions in work settings.

  9. Well-Being and Agency in Parents of Children With Congenital Heart Disease: A Survey in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rodrigo; Frangini, Patricia; Ramírez, Muriel; Valenzuela, Patricia M; Terrazas, Claudia; Pérez, Carolina A; Borchert, Evelyn; Trachsel, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Parents of children having congenital heart diseases (CHDs) develop symptoms of depression, distress, anxiety, and hopelessness more frequently than parents of healthy children. Associated with the described symptoms, parents may experience a lack of control and disempowerment, which decreases the parent's agency, a construct from development studies, and which may have negative consequences on adherence to treatment. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of medical treatment on well-being and agency in parents of children having CHDs, in Chile, and to compare it with reference values. Forty parents of children having CHDs (before surgery and before hospital discharge) and 115 parents of healthy children were surveyed. The following scales were applied to this population: the General Health Questionnaire, the Basic Psychological Needs Scales, the Self-Determination Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and a socioeconomic survey. Children's surgery decreased parents' hopelessness (3.13 ± 0.35 and 2.18 ± 0.40, P = .04), and no significant differences were found in the remaining scales. Parents of children with CHDs scored significantly worse than parents of healthy children on the General Health Questionnaire (13.82 ± 1.03 and 9.21 ± 0.64, P = .001). This difference was not found using the others scales. Children's surgery has a positive effect on parent's hopelessness, but it does not have any impact on their well-being nor agency. Parents of children with CHD have a decreased well-being compared to parents of healthy children but have a similar level of agency. Socioeconomic level and gender may influence this association. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Advance Care Planning Does Not Adversely Affect Hope or Anxiety Among Patients With Advanced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Schubart, Jane R; Whitehead, Megan M; Farace, Elana; Lehman, Erik; Levi, Benjamin H

    2015-06-01

    Many physicians avoid advance care planning (ACP) discussions because they worry such conversations will lead to psychological distress. To investigate whether engaging in ACP using online planning tools adversely affects hope, hopelessness, or anxiety among patients with advanced cancer. Patients with advanced cancer and an estimated survival of two years or less (Intervention group) and a Control group were recruited at a tertiary care academic medical center (2007-2012) to engage in ACP using an online decision aid ("Making Your Wishes Known"). Pre/post and between-group comparisons were made, including hope (Herth Hope Index), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). Secondary outcomes included ACP knowledge, self-determination, and satisfaction. A total of 200 individuals completed the study. After engaging in ACP, there was no decline in hope or increase in hopelessness in either the Control or Intervention group. Anxiety was likewise unchanged in the Control group but decreased slightly in the Intervention group. Knowledge of ACP (% correct answers) increased in both the groups, but more so in the Intervention group (13% increase vs. 4%; P<0.01). Self-determination increased slightly in both groups, and satisfaction with the ACP process was greater (P<0.01) in the Intervention than Control group. Engaging in ACP with online planning tools increases knowledge without diminishing hope, increasing hopelessness, or inducing anxiety in patients with advanced cancer. Physicians need not avoid ACP out of concern for adversely affecting patients' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ulrich Beck : riskiühiskond / Ulrich Beck ; tõlk. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beck, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Katkend raamatust "Risikogesellschaft". Autori hinnangul on tänapäeval poliitikute roll ühiskonna arengu otsustamisel kahanenud, sest võtmelise tähtsusega otsuseid teevad teadlased ja äriühingute juhid. Poliitika ja mittepoliitika vahetavad kohad

  13. Post-critical behavior of Beck`s column with a tip mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. B.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2002-01-01

    This study examines how a tip mass with rotary inertia affects the stability of a follower-loaded cantilevered column. Using nonlinear modeling and perturbation analysis, expressions are set up for determining the stability of the straight column and the amplitude of post-critical flutter...... oscillations. Bifurcation diagrams are given, showing how the vibration amplitude changes with follower load and other parameters. These results agree closely with numerical simulation. It is found that sufficiently large values of tip mass rotary inertia can change the primary bifurcation from supercritical...

  14. [The validity and reliability of the general self-efficacy scale-Turkish form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Fatma; Ilhan, Inci Ozgür

    2010-01-01

    Self-efficacy, which is a basic construct in social cognitive theory, has been defined as one's belief in his/her ability to start, continue, and complete an action in a manner that has an impact on his/her environment. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form. The General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form was administered to 895 individuals ?18 years of age that had at least 5 years of education. Exploratory factor analysis, criterion validity testing (using the Beck Depression Scale, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory, Locus of Control Scale, Learned Resourcefulness Scale, and Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory), internal consistency analysis, and test-retest reliability analysis were performed. The 3-factor structure of the scale explained 41.5% of the observed variance. Correlations between the General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form and the other measures were statistically significant. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the entire scale was 0.80 and the test-retest reliability coefficient estimated from data for 236 individuals that were contacted for follow-up was 0.69. The General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of general self-efficacy in individuals ?18 years of age with at least 5 years of education.

  15. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance

  16. Hopefulness in hopelessness: an exegtical interpretation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiously, the story is not different. Because of the crushing hardship bedeviling our nation, some have created imaginary God and are living in utopian world. Most so called Men of God seize the opportunity to loot the already wounded flock through prosperity preaching and false promises in the name of prophecies.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale in policewomen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 is one of most widely used instruments to measure a global level of perceived stress in a range of clinical and research settings. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Simplified Chinese version of the PSS-10 in policewomen. METHODOLOGY: A total of 240 policewomen were recruited in this study. The Simplified Chinese versions of the PSS-10, the Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were administered to all participants, and 36 of the participants were re-tested two weeks after the initial testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.86, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.68. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 4.76 and 1.48, accounting for 62.41% of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "negative feelings"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "positive feelings". The item loadings ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. The Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated a very good fit of this two-factor model to this sample. The PSS-10 significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI, indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. CONCLUSIONS: The Simplified Chinese version of the PSS-10 demonstrated adequate psychometric properties for evaluating stress levels. The results support its use among the Chinese population.

  18. Adaptation and validation of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS) to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignola, Rose Claudia Batistelli; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa

    2014-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been associated with a range of symptoms that often overlap. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a single instrument to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. This study aimed to adapt and validate the DASS-21 for use in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The DASS-21 has been adapted following the translation-back translation methodology from English to Portuguese. 242 subjects completed the following assessments: the DASS-21, the Beck Depression Index (BDI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Lipp (ISSL). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) result was .949, indicating that the adequacy of the model was high. Cronbach's alpha was .92 for the depression, .90 for the stress, and .86 for the anxiety, indicating a good internal consistency for each subscale. The correlations between DASS scale and BDI scale, BAI scale and ISSL inventory were strong. The factorial analysis and distribution of factors among the subscales indicated that the structure of three distinct factors is adequate. Older subjects over 65 years of age were not largely represented in this sample. A study specific to this elderly population should be conducted. Another limitation of the study was education level. The impact of low education in its applicability should be considered. The findings support the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DASS-21 and add to the evidence of the DASS-21 quality and ability to assess emotional states separately, eliminating the use of different instruments to assess these states. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A revised Thai Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon

    2012-11-01

    In order to ensure the construct validity of the three-factor model of the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and based on the assumption that it helps users differentiate between sources of social support, in this study a revised version was created and tested. The aim was to compare the level of model fit of the original version of the MSPSS against the revised version--which contains a minor change from the original. The study was conducted on 486 medical students who completed the original and revised versions of the MSPSS, as well as the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and Beck Depression Inventory II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to compare the results, showing that the revised version of MSPSS demonstrated a good internal consistency--with a Cronbach's alpha of .92 for the MSPSS questionnaire, and a significant correlation with the other scales, as predicted. The revised version provided better internal consistency, increasing the Cronbach's alpha for the Significant Others sub-scale from 0.86 to 0.92. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model fit: chi2 128.11, df 51, p < .001; TLI 0.94; CFI 0.95; GFI 0.90; PNFI 0.71; AGFI 0.85; RMSEA 0.093 (0.073-0.113) and SRMR 0.042, which is better than the original version. The tendency of the new version was to display a better level of fit with a larger sample size. The limitations of the study are discussed, as well as recommendations for further study.

  20. Religion, coping and outcome in out-patients with depression or diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, K U; Uwakwe, R; Odinka, P C; Ndukuba, A C; Muomah, C R; Ohaeri, J U

    2016-06-01

    The study assesses the association between religiosity and coping style with the outcome of depression and diabetes. Using a simple random sampling, we recruited 112 participants with diabetes and an equal number with depression consecutively, matching for gender. Religiosity was determined using Religious Orientation Scale (revised) (ROS-R), coping styles with Brief Religious Coping (Brief RCOPE) scale and Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale (adapted). Primary and secondary outcomes were evaluated using Sheehan's Disability Scale (SDS) and Becks Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Among participants with diabetes, BDI-II total scores correlated negatively with ROS-R Extrinsic Social (r = -0.2, P < 0.05) and Fighting Spirit (r = -0.3, P < 0.05) but correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.3, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). SDS global scores correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.3, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). Among participants with depression, BDI-II total scores correlated negatively with Intrinsic religiosity (r = -0.2, P < 0.05) and Fighting Spirit (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) but correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.6, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.7, P < 0.05). SDS global scores correlated negatively with Intrinsic religiosity (r = -0.2, P < 0.05) and Fighting Spirit (r = -0.3, P < 0.05) but correlated positively with Helplessness/Hopelessness (r = 0.5, P < 0.05) and Brief RCOPE Negative (r = 0.4, P < 0.05). High intrinsic and extrinsic religiosities are likely to be associated with positive coping skills and better treatment outcome in patients with depression or diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Gordon's model applied to nursing care of people with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, M; Kutlu, F Y

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric nurses should consider the patient's biological, psychological and social aspects. Marjory Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model ensures a holistic approach for the patient. To examine the effectiveness of Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model in reducing depressive symptoms, increasing self-efficacy, coping with depression and increasing hope in people with depression. A quasi-experimental two-group pre-test and post-test design was adopted. Data were collected from April 2013 to May 2014 from people with depression at the psychiatry clinic of a state hospital in Turkey; they were assigned to the intervention (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). The intervention group received nursing care according to Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model and routine care, while the control group received routine care only. The Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale were used. The intervention group had significantly lower scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale at the post-test and 3-month follow-up; they had higher scores on the Depression Coping Self-Efficacy Scale at the 3-month follow-up when compared with the control group. The study was conducted at only one psychiatry clinic. The intervention and control group patients were at the clinic at the same time and influenced each other. Moreover, because clinical routines were in progress during the study, the results cannot only be attributed to nursing interventions. Nursing models offer guidance for the care provided. Practices based on the models return more efficient and systematic caregiving results with fewer health problems. Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Model was effective in improving the health of people with depression and could be introduced as routine care with ongoing evaluation in psychiatric clinics. More research is needed to evaluate Gordon's Nursing Model effect on people with depression. Future

  2. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  3. Validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in assessing depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Achondroplasia: a pilot study on the psychosocial and medical features of a sample in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gomez, José; Aldarondo, Ariadna; Vidot, Frances; Quiñones, Ana; Rivera, Maily; Cintrón, Eledy; Gonzilez, Natalie; Trujillo, Rodolfo F; Lopez-Cordova, Nanet M; Colón, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the psychological wellbeing of twenty-two (n = 22) adults with achondroplasia. The sample was composed of seven (n = 7) males and fifteen (n = 15) females between the ages of 21 and 75 (mean age = 39.6). Each individual completed four self-administered questionnaires: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-l), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and Derogatis Symptom Check-list-90-Revisited (SCL-90-R). They also filled out a socio-demographic questionnaire. We found that 31.8% of the sample reported at least one comorbid condition such as, hypertension, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, scoliosis, thyroid problems, neuropathy, psoriasis, gastritis and/or sleep apnea; 32% reported mild to severe depressive symp- toms; 55% reported mild to severe symptoms associated to anxiety and 18% reported mild to severe symptoms associated with hopelessness; 22.7% reported mild to severe symptoms in at least one of the sub-scales in Derogatis Symptom Checklist-90-Revisited (SCL-90-R) particularly the obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and depressive subscales. Chi Square correlations (X2) were made to observe if there was interdependence between the socio-demographic variables and the administered tests. In general, no significant correlations were found between BDI-Il, BAI, BHS, SCL-90-R and civil status, gender, income and age. However, a significant correlation was found between age and the somatization sub-scale of the SCL-90-R (rs = 0.510, p achondroplasia. The development of preventive and cultural sensitive interventions is suggested in order to protect and treat individuals with the condition.

  5. Validation of the Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale to predict repeated self-harm in emergency attendees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Huang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Shu-I; Sun, Fang-Ju; Huang, Chiu-Ron; Liu, Shen-Ing

    2014-02-17

    Past and repeated self-harm are long-term risks to completed suicide. A brief rating scale to assess repetition risk of self-harm is important for high-risk identification and early interventions in suicide prevention. The study aimed to examine the validity of the Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale (CSPS) and to evaluate its feasibility in clinical settings. One hundred and forty-seven patients with self-harm were recruited from the Emergency Department and assessed at baseline and the sixth month. The controls, 284 people without self-harm from the Family Medicine Department in the same hospital were recruited and assessed concurrently. The psychometric properties of the CSPS were examined using baseline and follow-up measurements that assessed a variety of suicide risk factors. Clinical feasibility and applicability of the CSPS were further evaluated by a group of general nurses who used case vignette approach in CSPS risk assessment in clinical settings. An open-ended question inquiring their opinions of scale adaptation to hospital inpatient assessment for suicide risks were also analyzed using content analysis. The CSPS was significantly correlated with other scales measuring depression, hopelessness and suicide ideation. A cut-off point of the scale was at 4/5 in predicting 6-month self-harm repetition with the sensitivity and specificity being 65.4% and 58.1%, respectively. Based on the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, the predictive validity of the scale showed a better performance than the other scales. Fifty-four nurses, evaluating the scale using case vignette found it a useful tool to raise the awareness of suicide risk and a considerable tool to be adopted into nursing care. The Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale is a brief instrument with acceptable psychometric properties for self-harm prediction. However, cautions should be paid to level of therapeutic relationships during assessment, staff workload and adequate training for wider clinical

  6. Psychometric properties of the French version of a scale measuring perceived emotional intelligence : the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdier, Léna; Duclos, Jeanne; Ringuenet, Damien; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-assessment questionnaire, has been developed to measure perceived emotional intelligence (EI) level in 3 dimensions: Attention, Clarity and Repair. This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the French version of this instrument. Method: The instrument factor structure, normality, internal consistency, stability and concurrent validity were assessed in a sample of 824 young adults (456 female). Besides TMMS, participants completed self-assessment questionnaires for affectivity (Shortened Beck Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Positive and Negative emotion scale), alexithymia (Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire-B) and interpersonal functioning (Empathy Quotient). Discriminant validity was tested in 64 female patients with anorexia nervosa, identified in literature as having difficulties with introspection, expression and emotional regulation. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results replicate the 3-factor structure. Internal consistency and reliability indices are adequate. Direction and degree of correlation coefficients between TMMS dimensions and other questionnaires support the instrument concurrent validity. TMMS allows to highlight differences in perceived EI levels between men and women (Attention: p < 0.001 ; Clarity: p < 0.05) as well as between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects (p < 0.001 for all 3 dimensions). Conclusion: This first validation study shows satisfying psychometric properties for TMMS French version. PMID:27310229

  7. Positive effects of Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy for patients with unipolar mood disorders with suicidal ideation in Malaysia: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Oei, T P S; Maniam, T; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) in treating patients with mood disorders with suicidal ideation. A total of 69 patients (48 females, 21 males) with the diagnoses above were randomly allocated to either the group of Treatment As Usual (TAU)+ICBT (n=33) or the TAU group (n=36). All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS), Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation Inventory (PANSI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). These questionnaires were administered at pre-treatment, midway through treatment (week 4), post-treatment (week 8), and at follow-ups after three months (week 20) and six months (week 32). Factorial ANOVA results showed that the TAU+ICBT patients improved significantly and at faster rate as compared to the TAU group, which showed improvement only from pre to mid treatment on DASS-D and BHS-T measures. The effect size (Cohen's d), for the TAU+ICBT group showed large effect (1.47) for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation (1.00). These findings suggest that ICBT used in addition to the TAU, was effective in enhancing treatment outcome of patients with unipolar mood disorders as well as, reducing risk for suicide behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validação da Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale para a língua portuguesa Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale portuguese validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Góes Salvetti

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A crença de auto-eficácia relaciona-se com a percepção da dor e com a funcionalidade física e psíquica dos doentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar para a língua portuguesa a Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale. A amostra foi de 132 pacientes com dor crônica de etiologia variada. A validade da escala em língua portuguesa foi confirmada pela análise fatorial, que manteve os três domínios e os 22 itens da escala original; a variância explicada foi de 60,8%. A confiabilidade, analisada pelo alfa de Cronbach, variou entre 0,76 e 0,92 para os domínios e foi de 0,94 para a escala total. A validade convergente, verificada por meio da comparação entre a Escala de Auto-Eficácia para Dor Crônica (AEDC e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck (IDB mostrou correlação negativa e estatisticamente significativa. Este estudo disponibiliza para a língua portuguesa um instrumento válido e confiável para a avaliação da auto-eficácia de pacientes com dor crônica.The self-efficacy belief relates to pain perception and physical and psychiatric functionality. The goal of this study was to validate to the Portuguese language the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (CPSS. The subjects were 132 chronic pain patients with pain from several etiologies. The scale validity in the Portuguese language was confirmed by factor analyzis, which maintained the 3 factors and 22 items of the original scale; the accounted variance was 60,8%. The reliability, analyzed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, were 0,76 - 0,92 to the factors and 0,94 to the total scale. The convergent validity, verified by the comparison with the Portuguese version of the Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (IDB showed significantly negative correlation. This study made available to the Portuguese language a valid and reliable instrument to assess self-efficacy in chronic pain patients.

  9. Examining the relationship between personality and affect-related attributes and adolescents' intentions to try smoking using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memetovic, Jasmina; Ratner, Pamela A; Gotay, Carolyn; Richardson, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Assessments of adolescents' smoking intentions indicate that many are susceptible to smoking initiation because they do not have resolute intentions to abstain from trying smoking in the future. Although researchers have developed personality and affect-related risk factor profiles to understand risk for the initiation of substance use and abuse (e.g., alcohol), few have examined the extent to which these risk factors are related to the tobacco use intentions of adolescents who have yet to try tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between personality and affect-related risk factors measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and smoking intentions in a sample of adolescents who have not experimented with tobacco smoking. Data is based on responses from 1352 participants in the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (56% female, 76% in Grade 8) who had never tried smoking tobacco. Of these 1352 participants, 29% (n=338) were classified as not having resolute intentions to not try smoking. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between each SURPS dimension (Anxiety Sensitivity, Hopelessness, Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking) and the intention to try cigarettes in the future. Hopelessness (AOR 1.06, 95% CI [1.03, 1.10], p<.001), Impulsivity (AOR 1.07 [1.03, 1.11], p<.001) and Sensation Seeking (AOR 1.05 95% CI [1.02, 1.09], p<.01) had independent statistically significant associations with having an intention to try smoking. These findings may be used to inform a prevention-oriented framework to reduce susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Personality factors in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients: a preliminary investigation with the NEO-FFI scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Braz de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some prevalent personality dimensions of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients. A sample of 33 female recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS was assessed with the NEO-FFI personality scale. Beck depression (BDI and anxiety (BAI scales were also used. No significant levels of anxiety or depression were identified in this group. As for personality factors, conscientiousness was the most common factor found, whereas openness to experience was the least observed. Literature on the relationship between personality and MS is scarce and there are no Brazilian studies on this subject. Some personality traits might complicate or facilitate the experience of living with a chronic, disabling and uncertain neurological condition such as MS.

  11. 50 años de los Inventarios de Depresión de Beck: consejos para la utilización de la adaptación española del BDI-II en la práctica clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Fernández, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    En 2011 se publicó la primera adaptación española del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II), justo cuando se cumplía el 50º aniversario de la publicación de su primera edición. En este tiempo, el BDI se ha convertido en el cuestionario autoaplicado más utilizado en España y en el mundo para evaluar la gravedad de la depresión. En este trabajo se presentan las características básicas del BDI-II en relación con sus versiones anteriores (BDI-I y BDI-IA) y el proceso de su adaptación a la p...

  12. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the 42 item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42) in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoglu, Levent; Altun, Zeren Ozturk; Kaya, Emine Zeynep; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2012-01-01

    To study the psychometric properties of the Turkish translation of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) in a clinical group. Outpatients diagnosed with anxiety (n = 138; mean age = 44.5 years; 74.6% female) or depression (n = 112; mean age = 46.2 years; 77.7% female) from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a public hospital were evaluated. A group of non-clinical volunteers (n = 250; mean age = 37 years; 68% female) served as a community group for comparison. The participants completed the Turkish versions of the DASS-42, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The structure of the DASS-42 was analyzed in the clinical sample using principal components extraction. The three-factor solution accounted for 56% of the total variance, with eigenvalues of 17.6, 3.0, and 2.6. The range of factor loadings was 0.55-0.85 for depression, 0.47-0.62 for anxiety, and 0.49-0.74 for stress. The Cronbach alpha values for the DASS depression, anxiety, and stress subscales were 0.94, 0.88, 0.94 respectively. The concurrent validity of the DASS was satisfactory. The non-clincal participants scored lower on all three subscales than the individuals in all of the clinical groups. The Turkish version of the DASS-42 appears to be an excellent instrument for measuring features of depression, hyperarousal, and tension in clinical groups.

  13. Distress Tolerance Scale: A Study of Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Emre SARGIN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS is developed by Simons and Gaher in order to measure individual differences in the capacity of distress tolerance.The aim of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of DTS. Method: One hundred and sixty seven university students (male=66, female=101 participated in this study. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Discomfort Intolerance Scale (DIS were used to determine the criterion validity. Construct validity was evaluated with factor analysis after the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Barlett test had been performed. To assess the test-retest reliability, the scale was re-applied to 79 participants six weeks later. Results: To assess construct validity, factor analyses were performed using varimax principal components analysis with varimax rotation. While there were factors in the original study, our factor analysis resulted in three factors. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the entire scale and tolerance, regulation, self-efficacy subscales were .89, .90, .80 and .64 respectively. There were correlations at the level of 0.01 between the Trait Anxiety Inventory of STAI and BAI, and all the subscales of DTS and also between the State Anxiety Inventory and regulation subscale. Both of the subscales of DIS were correlated with the entire subscale and all the subscales except regulation at the level of 0.05.Test-retest reliability was statistically significant at the level of 0.01. Conclusion: Analysis demonstrated that DTS had a satisfactory level of reliability and validity in Turkish university students.

  14. Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS): reliability, convergent and discriminative validity in young Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Sheehan, David V; Coric, Vladimir; Distinto, Marco; Pitanti, Mirko; Vacca, Irene; Siddi, Alessandra; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita

    2013-10-01

    The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS) is a patient self-report or clinician-administered rating scale that tracks spontaneous and treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behaviors. This study set out to evaluate the reliability, convergent and divergent validity of the S-STS in a sample of college students, a population with a high risk of completed and attempted suicide. Cross-sectional, survey design. Participants (303 undergraduate students; males: 42%) completed several measures assessing psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire; GHQ); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale; RSES); social support (Modified Social Support Survey; MOSSS); and suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts (S-STS). Both internal consistency and test-retest stability were excellent for the S-STS-global score. The S-STS subscale on suicide ideation also showed good reliability, while the subscale on suicidal behavior showed some inconsistency at retest. Convergent and divergent validity of S-STS was confirmed. All S-STS items loaded on a single factor, which had an excellent fit for the unidimensional model, thus justifying the use of the S-STS as a screening tool. In a mediation model, self-esteem and social support explained 45% of the effects of psychological distress on suicide ideation and behavior as measured by the S-STS-global score. This study provided promising evidence on the convergent, divergent, internal consistency and test-retest stability of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale. The cross-sectional design and lack of measures of hopelessness and helplessness prevent any conclusion about the links of suicidal behavior with self-esteem and social support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability and validity of the korean version of the connor-davidson resilience scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Mi-Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2010-06-01

    The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) measures various aspects of psychological resilience in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ailments. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC). In total, 576 participants were enrolled (497 females and 79 males), including hospital nurses, university students, and firefighters. Subjects were evaluated using the K-CD-RISC, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were examined as a measure of reliability, and convergent validity and factor analysis were also performed to evaluate validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. The total score on the K-CD-RISC was positively correlated with the RSES (r=0.56, preliability and validity for measurement of resilience among Korean subjects.

  16. French validation of the compulsive internet use scale (CIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Horn, Alessandra; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele; Billieux, Joël

    2012-12-01

    The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in European countries in the last two decades. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may be associated with excessive use and possible Internet addiction. The goals of the current study were to validate a French version of the compulsive Internet use scale (CIUS) and to assess its links with common psychiatric symptoms such as depression (assessed with the Beck depression inventory: BDI), anxiety (assessed with the trait anxiety inventory: STAI) and alcohol misuse (assessed with the alcohol use disorder identification test: AUDIT). The French versions of the CIUS, BDI, STAI and AUDIT were administered to a sample of Internet users. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses, correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed. As previously found with the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. Excessive use of the Internet was associated with depressive symptoms.

  17. Screening diagnostics of antivital experiences and propensity toward impulsive, autoagressive behavior in adolescents (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannikov G.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for revealing antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in educational institutions is one of the key steps in developing strategies for the primary prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening diagnostic package aimed at identifying antivital experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior. The survey methods we used were: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Russell Loneliness Scale, A.G. Shmelev Suicide Risk Questionnaire, PDQ-IV Borderline disorder and Narcissism scales. At the first stage we examined 750 minors aged 12-18 and identified risk group (85 people – 11.4%, which included adolescents with high levels of both individual scales, and their combination. At the second stage we examined 10 adolescents at risk. In 7 of them (70% were identified antivital, suicidal thoughts of passive or compulsive nature, signs of subjective and objective socio- psychological maladjustment. Our preliminary conclusion is that high levels of hopelessness and loneliness in adolescents are stable predictors of mental and emotional distress and psychosocial maladjustment in the period of psychological crises and decompensation of character accentuation of borderline and narcissistic types. These scales can be recommended for primary screening of antivital (depressive experiences and propensity to autoaggressive behavior in adolescents.

  18. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory

  19. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  20. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  1. [Spanish adaptation of the adult version of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Diane C; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Pérez de Albéniz, Alicia; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a relative dearth of measures focusing on social anhedonia that are suitable for both patient and non-patient samples, up to date in terms of their content, and relatively brief. The goal of the present investigation was to validate the Spanish translation of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS)-Adult version for use with Spanish-speaking populations. The total sample included 387 nonclinical individuals from Spain (128 males). The mean age was 21.86 years (SD=5.11; range 18-46 years). The ACIPS and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 3-factor solution which explained 79.1% of the variance (intimate social interactions, social bonding in the context of media/communications, and casual socialization). The total ACIPS showed good internal consistency, estimated with ordinal alpha; it was 0.92, ranging from 0.76 to 0.84 for the subscales. The participants who reported a minimal to low level of depressive symptoms had significantly higher total ACIPS scores than the participants who reported experiencing moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms. Total scores on the ACIPS were negatively associated with scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r=-0.22, p≤.001). Participants with a family history reported significantly lower total ACIPS scores than those without a family history of schizophrenia. The present results showed that the Spanish version of the ACIPS scores had adequate psychometric properties. The ACIPS may be useful in terms of helping to elucidate the ways in which individual differences in hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal relationships relates meaningfully to risk for various forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. To scale or not to scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, dynamic energy budget (DEB) models operate with animals that have maintenance rates scaling with their body volume, and assimilation rates scaling with body surface area. However, when applying such criteria for the individual in a population level model, the emergent behaviour...

  3. Factorial validity and reliability of the Malaysian simplified Chinese version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-SCV) among a group of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ng Chong; Seng, Loh Huai; Hway Ann, Anne Yee; Hui, Koh Ong

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed at validating the simplified Chinese version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Support (MSPSS-SCV) among a group of medical and dental students in University Malaya. Two hundred and two students who took part in this study were given the MSPSS-SCV, the Medical Outcome Study social support survey, the Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Malay version of the General Health Questionnaire, and the English version of the MSPSS. After 1 week, these students were again required to complete the MSPSS-SCV but with the item sequences shuffled. This scale displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .924), high test-retest reliability (.71), parallel form reliability (.92; Spearman's ρ, P students. It could therefore be used as a simple screening tool among young educated Malaysian adolescents. © 2013 APJPH.

  4. Living with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: coping and psychological distress - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirdal, Amy Østertun; Dheyauldeen, Sinan; Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Heimdal, Ketil

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies measured by Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Scale (COPE) and psychological distress measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Becks Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in individuals living with Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and to examine if coping strategies might have a mediating role between experienced illness and psychological distress. HHT is mainly caused by mutations in the ENG- or ALK1-genes and associated with a shorter life span. 90% of patients have recurrent nosebleeds. 66 individuals affected of HHT participated in this cross-sectional study, completing questions due to demographic variables, Experience of illness, COPE, BHS and HADS. X(2) test, bivariate correlations with Pearson r and hierarchical multiple regression were used using PASW 18. Experience of illness made the highest variance in anxiety, depression and hopelessness and the coping strategy "behavioral disengagement" seems to have a mediating role between nose bleedings, being afraid of complications, satisfied with life and psychological distress. Experience of illness is of big importance in psychological distress in individuals affected of HHT, and behavioral disengagement explained the actual relationship between experience of illness and psychological distress.

  5. Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Caregiver Burden Scale in Iranian caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Ata; Akbarfahimi, Malahat; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Rostami, Hamid Reza; Kohan, Amir Hassan

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS) in caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury. This is a cross-sectional study. After a forward-backward translation, the CBS was administered to 110 caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury (men = 60, women = 50). Factor structure was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis. The Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the CBS were examined using Cronbach's α and the intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship among CBS and the World Health Organization Quality of Life, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The results of confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a five-factor model of CBS. All subscales of CBS revealed acceptable internal consistency (0.698-0.755), except for environment subscale (0.559). The CBS showed adequate test-retest reliability for its subscales (0.745-0.900). All subscales of CBS significantly correlated with both Beck Depression Inventory and World Health Organization Quality of Life, confirming construct validity. The Persian version of the CBS is a valid and reliable measure for assessing burden of care in caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury leads to depression, high levels of stress and diminished quality of life due to the high physical, emotional, and social burdens in caregivers. Persian version of the Caregiver Burden Scale is a valid and reliable tool for assessing burden in Iranian caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury.

  6. Assessment of psychological pain in major depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Steven; Bunney, Blynn G; Bunney, William E; Hetrick, William; Potkin, Steven G; Reist, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    Severe psychological or mental pain is defined as an experience of unbearable torment which can be associated with a psychiatric illness (e.g., major depressive disorder) or a tragic loss such as the death of a child. A brief self-rating scale (Mee-Bunney Psychological Pain Assessment Scale [MBPPAS]) was developed to assess the intensity of psychological pain. The scale was used to measure psychological pain in 73 major depressive episode (MDE) patients and 96 non-psychiatric controls. In addition to the MBPPAS, all subjects completed four additional instruments: Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Known-groups, content and convergent validity, and internal reliability of the scale were established. MDE and control subjects were ranked according to MBPPAS scores. A threshold was set at 32 representing 0.5 SD above the mean for MDEs. MDE subjects above the threshold of 32 had significantly higher SBQ scores than those below. A significant linear correlation between psychological pain and SBQ suicidality scores was observed. This is the first study to contrast psychological pain in controls and patients with MDE. Our results suggest that psychological pain is a useful and unique construct in patients with MDE that can be reliably assessed and may aid in the evaluation of suicidal risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Atlantic Salmon Scale Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scales are collected annually from smolt trapping operations in Maine as wellas other sampling opportunities (e.g. marine surveys, fishery sampling etc.). Scale...

  8. Satisfaction With Appearance Scale-SWAP: Adaptation and validation for Brazilian burn victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltran, Marina P; Freitas, Noélle O; Dantas, Rosana A S; Farina, Jayme Adriano; Rossi, Lidia A

    2016-09-01

    Methodological study that aimed to adapt the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) into Brazilian Portuguese language and to assess the validity, the reliability and the dimensionality of the adapted version in a sample of Brazilian burn victims. We carried out the adaptation process according to the international literature. Construct validity was assessed by correlating the adapted version of SWAP scores with depression (Beck Depression Index), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), health-related quality of Life (Short Form Health Survey-36) and health status of burn victims (Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised), and with gender, total body surface area burned, and visibility of the scars. We tested dimensionality using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and the reliability by means of Cronbach's alpha. Participants were 106 adult burned patients. The correlations between the Brazilian version of the SWAP scores and the correlated construct measures varied from moderate to strong (r=.30-.77). The participants who perceived their burn sequelae was visible reported being more dissatisfied with their body image than the participants who answered that their scars would not be visible (preliable for use with Brazilian burn victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychometric validation of the Columbia-Suicide Severity rating scale in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrani Azcurra, Daniel

    2017-12-30

    Adolescent suicide is a major public health issue, and early and accurate detection is of great concern. There are many reliable instruments for this purpose, such as the Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS), but no validation exists for Spanish speaking Latin American adolescents. To assess psychometric properties and cut-off scores of the C-SSRS in Spanish speaking adolescents. Exploratory assessment with principal component analysis (PCA) and Varimax rotation, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) were performed on two groups with 782 and 834 participants respectively (N=1616). Mean age was 24.8 years. A Receiver operator analysis was applied to distinguish between control and suicide-risk subgroups adolescents. Promax rotation yielded two 10-items factors, for suicide ideation and behavior respectively. C-SSRS was positively correlated with other suicide risk scales, such as Beck Depression Inventory-II, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, or PHQ-9. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution as the best goodness of fit model. C-SSRS showed adequate ability to detect suicide risk group with positive predictive value of 68.3%. ROC analyses showed cutoff scores of ≥ 6 and ≥ 4 for suicide ideation and behavior scales respectively. This research offers data supporting psychometric validity and reliability of C-SSRS in nonclinical Spanish-speaking students. Added benefits are flexible scoring and management easiness. This questionnaire yields data on distinct aspects of suicidality, being more parsimonious than separate administration of a bunch of questionnaires.

  10. Concepts of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.J.G.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides some clarity to the scale debate. It bridges a variety of approaches, definitions and jargons used in various disciplines in order to provide common ground for a concept of scale as a basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment. The chapter introduces the concept of

  11. Investigating the psychometric properties of the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS) among community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Flett, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties of the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS) among community-residing older adults. We recruited 173 voluntary participants, 65 years and older, into a 2+ year longitudinal study of the onset or exacerbation of depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. We assessed the internal consistency of the GSIS and its four component subscales, and its shorter and longer duration test-retest reliability, convergent (depression, social hopelessness, and loneliness), divergent (psychological well-being, life satisfaction, perceived social support, and self-rated health), discriminant (basic and instrumental activities of daily living and social desirability), criterion (history of suicide behavior), and predictive validity (future suicide ideation). The GSIS demonstrated strong test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Baseline GSIS scores were significantly positively associated with suicide risk factors, negatively associated with potential resiliency factors, and not associated with functional impairment or social desirability. GSIS scores significantly differentiated between participants with as compared to those without a history of suicide behavior. Baseline GSIS scores significantly predicted suicide ideation at a 2+ year follow-up assessment. Findings suggest strong measurement characteristics for the GSIS with community-residing older adults, including impressive consistency over time. These results are consistent with research attesting to the empirical and pragmatic strengths of this measure. These findings have implications for the monitoring of suicide risk when aiming to enhance mental health and well-being and prevent suicide in later life.

  12. The Norwegian version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: factor structure and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredal, Inger Schou

    2010-02-01

    The object of the study was to examine the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) among a large sample of Norwegian breast cancer patients. A total of 402 patients with breast cancer completed the Mini-MAC. Principal component analysis with varimax rotion confirmed four factors. Three had psychometric properties to the original Mini-MAC Helpless-Hopeless (HH), Anxious Preoccupation (AP) and Cognitive Avoidance (CA) subscales. The fourth, named Positive Attitude (PA) combined the Fighting Spirit (FS) and the Fatalism subscales of the original Mini-MAC. Construct validities were assessed by examining the interscale correlations as well as the correlations between the Mini-MAC subscales and the HADS subscales scores. Internal consistency of the five subscales was satisfactory for the original (HH, AP, CA, FA, coefficients=0.60-0.83), except for the FS subscale (coefficient=21). In view of the low internal reliability for the Norwegian Mini-MAC FS subscale coefficient; it appears to be more appropriate to use the Norwegian Mini-MAC as a four-factor model. If researcher or clinicians in Norway use the five-factor model, they should take great care when interpreting the fighting spirit subscale.

  13. Optimal renormalization scales and commensurate scale relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lu, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations relate observables to observables and thus are independent of theoretical conventions, such as the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme. The physical quantities are related at commensurate scales which satisfy a transitivity rule which ensures that predictions are independent of the choice of an intermediate renormalization scheme. QCD can thus be tested in a new and precise way by checking that the observables track both in their relative normalization and in their commensurate scale dependence. For example, the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule at a given momentum transfer Q can be predicted from measurements of the e+e - annihilation cross section at a corresponding commensurate energy scale √s ∝ Q, thus generalizing Crewther's relation to non-conformal QCD. The coefficients that appear in this perturbative expansion take the form of a simple geometric series and thus have no renormalon divergent behavior. The authors also discuss scale-fixed relations between the threshold corrections to the heavy quark production cross section in e+e - annihilation and the heavy quark coupling α V which is measurable in lattice gauge theory

  14. [Low-intensity, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy of a patient with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal-Uram, Dóra; Harsányi, László; Perczel-Forintos, Dóra

    2018-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease. This case study illustrates the management and stabilization of a 21-year-old adult male patient with active Crohn's disease and with severe psychiatric comorbidity. The patient was diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder and dysruptive mood dysregulation disorder based on the results of psychodiagnostics (SCID-II structured clinical interview, MMPI personality inventory and disease-specific clinical questionnaires such as Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Social Cognition Questionnaire, Anger Expression Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The main aim of psychotherapy is to increase the adherence to pharmacotherapy, to promote psychosocial functioning, to improve well-being and to enhance adaptive coping strategies. Low-intensity cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy was used which included psychoeducation, motivational interview, behavioural activation, patient diary, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving training, and family consulting. Twenty-five sessions were held weekly in outpatient form and 3 sessions of crisis intervention after the surgery at the hospital. The efficacy of the treatment was measured by self-reported questionnaires at baseline and at two follow-up sessions which corroborated a very significant decrease in the severity of depression, hopelessness, while emotional regulation and self-esteem became more adaptive. The remission of the above

  15. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  16. Scaling of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models. Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics. The text is easily accessible and exam...

  17. Learned helplessness, cognitive errors and perfectionism in depressed and non-depressed chronic pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Clinical Psychology) The increasing interest in cognitive factors both in the literature on pain and in developments in research on depression has led to the present study, where cognitive factors associated with depression were investigated in clinical groups of chroni c pa in patients. The cognitive factors studied were learned helplessness (Seligman, 1975), cognitive errors and distortions (Beck, 1976), perfectionism (Bums, 19800 1980b), as well as hopelessness (Beck, 1974). It wa...

  18. Morals, Metaphysics and The Method of Cases | Beck | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I discuss a set of problems concerning the method of cases as it is used in applied ethics and in the metaphysical debate about personal identity. These problems stem from research in social psychology concerning our access to the data with which the method operates. I argue that the issues facing ethics are ...

  19. Going narrative: Schechtman and the Russians | Beck | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. South African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 27 (2) 2008: pp. 69-79. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajpem.v27i2.31502 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  20. Avalik kiri Euroopa tulevikust / Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Giddens, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Autorid kutsuvad üles mõtlema Euroopa Liidust mitte kui "lõpetamata (rahvus)riigist" või "poolikust föderaalriigist", vaid pigem kui uuelaadsest kosmopoliitsest projektist. Kui Euroopa soovib, et teda maailmas kuulda võetaks, siis ei saa me deklareerida laienemise lõppemist ega loobuda EL-i juhtimismudeli muutmisest

  1. Claus Beck-Nielsen som spøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Stein

    2012-01-01

    Med Brian Grahams artikel “Sympathy for the Spectres: The Double Nature of Blake’s Spectral Figures in Jerusalem” forbliver vi inden for den litterære tradition, men bevæger os en smule længere frem i tiden. Graham retter blikket mod William Blakes forfatterskab og påpeger, at Blakes univers er...... feministisk synsvinkel – er spøgelserne dobbelte: de spiller en rolle i kristendommens historie, samtidig med at de spiller en kontrasterende sympatisk rolle i den universelle strid mellem Blakes ”male and female powers”, denne evige strid mellem disse to poler ses af Blake som grundlaget for al skabelse og...

  2. Anxious and avoidant attachment styles and indicators of recovery in schizophrenia: associations with self-esteem and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Jamie M; Buchanan, Erin E; Olesek, Kyle; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-06-01

    Having an insecure attachment style in schizophrenia has been linked to treatment response and symptom severity in schizophrenia. This study sought to further examine whether attachment style is related to subjective indicators of recovery including hope and self-esteem, independent of symptom level and secondly, whether attachment style in schizophrenia differs from attachment style of persons facing adversity in the form of a prolonged non-psychiatric medical illness. Participants were 52 men with schizophrenia, and 26 with HIV/AIDS who had no history of experiencing severe mental illness. These groups were compared in terms of their endorsement of attachment style. All participants were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of adult attachment style. The schizophrenia group was also given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to assess self-esteem, the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a measure of hope, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, as an assessment of symptoms. Avoidant attachment in the schizophrenia group was linked with higher levels of hopelessness while anxious attachment was linked to lower levels of self-esteem. The association between anxious attachment and self-esteem persisted after controlling for severity of positive, negative, and depressive symptoms in a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Compared to the HIV/AIDS group, participants with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of anxious attachment but not avoidant attachment style. Attachment style may impact attainment of key subjective domains of recovery in schizophrenia such as self-esteem, independent of symptom severity. If self-esteem and/or hopelessness are identified as a focus of treatment, focusing on attachment style may be an important treatment component. Therapist understanding of patients' attachment style may allow for a better understanding of resistance in the therapeutic relationship. Helping persons with schizophrenia to recognize and

  3. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1994-01-01

    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  4. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  5. Evaluation of the negative expectations and type of suicide risk in students of 9°, 10° and 11° grade of an educational institution of the department of Quindío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gonzales-Portillo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This empirical and analytical study follows a descriptive - transversal design in order to assess the negative expectations and risk of suicide in students of 9°, 10° and 11° year of an educational institution in the Department of Quindío, counting with a personal questionnaire and the Beck hopelessness scale as tools to do so. The risk of suicide is an issue of local, national and global public health that affects the quality of life of teenagers and youngsters from the “Eje Cafetero” area. The research showed that 8 out of every 10 students have a moderate risk, and the ages of prevalence are 15 and 16 years old. Bullying, domestic violence and permanent sadness contribute to increase this risk.

  6. Standardization of the Czech version of the Snyder´s Adult dispositional hope scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ocisková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hope is one of important factors affecting the psychological state of individuals. It influences well-being and self-esteem, academic and athletic performance, and even the probability of repeated incarceration of offenders. It also predicts the efficacy of the systematic psychotherapy of mental disorders, as well as the supportive psychotherapy in patients with oncologic illnesses. Hope has a central position in positive and clinical psychology. The aim of the presented work was to translate the adult dispositional hope scale into Czech, verify its psychometric properties and develop the norms for interpreting the resulting scores. The scale could be helpful both in mental health research and practice. 394 healthy adults participated in the study. The average age of the probands was 27.1 + 11.7 years. There were more women (n = 303; i.e. 76.9 % than men. The most common level of education was secondary (n = 309; 78.4 %. The participants were mainly students (n = 273; 69.3 % or employees and self-employed individuals (n = 113; 28.7 %. Most of them were single (n = 300; 76.1 % or married (n = 84; 21.3 %. The Adult Dispositional Hope Scale consists of 12 items. Four items measure pathways thinking (i.e. the ability to find ways to achieve one's goals and four items assess agency (i.e. goal-directed energy. The remaining four items are fillers that are not interpreted. Apart from this scale, all participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analyses consisted of the Cronbach's alpha and Spearman-Brown coefficient analysis, the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the correlation between the standardized scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and finally the creation of the norms based on the stens. The overall rate of hope was not statistically significantly associated with the subjects' age (Spearman r = -0.06, non-significant, nor with their sex (Mann

  7. Investigation of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Factors with Effect on Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescents with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Nusret; Taneli, Yeşim; Taneli, Suna

    2013-12-01

    Our study aimed at investigating social, emotional, and cognitive factors playing a role in the development of suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents and its turning into a suicide attempt. Sixty-three adolescents (48 female, 15 male) aged 12 to 18 years were included in the study. In face-to-face interviews, suicide ideation, suicide plans, and previous suicide attempts were evaluated, sociodemographic data were collected. Additionally, the Children's Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I, II), Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Strengths and the Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent forms were applied. SPSS version 13.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. It has been established that in the last six months, 71.4% of cases (n=45) had suicidal ideation and 27% (n=17) attempted suicide. Factors associated with suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents were: high depression and anxiety levels, hopelessness and low self-esteem (psuicide attempts were: separated family background, lower perceived family support and high rates of conduct difficulties (psuicide attempt differed from patients with suicidal ideation but without suicide attempt in lower perceived family support only (psuicidal ideation and its turning into a suicide attempt, will help clinicians in preventing suicide attempts in depressed adolescents.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of a brief personality screening instrument in predicting future substance use, emotional, and behavioral problems: 18-month predictive validity of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Sully, Laura; Conrod, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS), a measure of personality risk factors for substance use and other behavioral problems in adolescence. The concurrent and predictive validity of the SURPS was tested in a sample of 1,162 adolescents (mean age: 13.7 years) using linear and logistic regressions, while its sensitivity and specificity were examined using the receiver operating characteristics curve analyses. Concurrent and predictive validity tests showed that all 4 brief scales-hopelessness (H), anxiety sensitivity (AS), impulsivity (IMP), and sensation seeking (SS)-were related, in theoretically expected ways, to measures of substance use and other behavioral and emotional problems. Results also showed that when using the 4 SURPS subscales to identify adolescents "at risk," one can identify a high number of those who developed problems (high sensitivity scores ranging from 72 to 91%). And, as predicted, because each scale is related to specific substance and mental health problems, good specificity was obtained when using the individual personality subscales (e.g., most adolescents identified at high risk by the IMP scale developed conduct or drug use problems within the next 18 months [a high specificity score of 70 to 80%]). The SURPS is a valuable tool for identifying adolescents at high risk for substance misuse and other emotional and behavioral problems. Implications of findings for the use of this measure in future research and prevention interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Personality and substance use: psychometric evaluation and validation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in English, Irish, French, and German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Sarah; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Kroemer, Nils B; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Mann, Karl F; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Struve, Maren; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal study was the psychometric evaluation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS). We analyzed data from N = 2,022 adolescents aged 13 to 15 at baseline assessment and 2 years later (mean interval 2.11 years). Missing data at follow-up were imputed (N = 522). Psychometric properties of the SURPS were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined structural as well as convergent validity with other personality measurements and drinking motives, and predictive validity for substance use at follow-up. The hypothesized 4-factorial structure (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity [IMP], and sensation seeking [SS]) based on all 23 items resulted in acceptable fit to empirical data, acceptable internal consistencies, low to moderate test-retest reliability coefficients, as well as evidence for factorial and convergent validity. The proposed factor structure was stable for both males and females and, to lesser degree, across languages. However, only the SS and the IMP subscales of the SURPS predicted substance use outcomes at 16 years of age. The SURPS is unique in its specific assessment of traits related to substance use disorders as well as the resulting shortened administration time. Test-retest reliability was low to moderate and comparable to other personality scales. However, its relation to future substance use was limited to the SS and IMP subscales, which may be due to the relatively low-risk substance use pattern in the present sample. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Re-examining the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale in a sample of 364 Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ted C T; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2015-02-01

    The Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) is widely used to evaluate cancer patients' psychological responses. Validation studies of the scale have shown methodological shortcomings and inconsistency in the factor solutions. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-MAC. A large sample of 364 Chinese patients with breast or colorectal cancer completed the Mini-MAC and psychosocial measures (general health, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression). Exploratory factor analyses examined the relative fit of two- to six-factor models using robust weighted least square estimation and oblique target rotation. Convergent validity was evaluated via correlations between the Mini-MAC factor scores and the psychosocial outcomes. The five-factor model showed the best model fit and largely replicated the original Mini-MAC's helpless/hopeless (HH), anxious preoccupation (AP), fighting spirit (FS), fatalism (FA), and cognitive avoidance (CA) subscales. The five factors had acceptable reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.67-0.88) and 4-month test-retest reliability (r = 0.45-0.64). HH, AP, and CA were positively associated with the psychosocial outcomes (r = 0.19-0.60). Modest and negative correlations were found between the psychosocial outcomes and FS and FA. The results support the Mini-MAC's original five-factor structure with satisfactory reliability and convergent validity. The results demonstrate that the Mini-MAC is a valid measure for assessing psychological responses in cancer patients.

  11. Scale of Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Semerci, Nuriye

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.

  12. Intensive dialectical behavior therapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder who are in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Annabel; Nicastro, Rosetta; Guenot, Florence; Girard, Michele; Lissner, Catherine; Ferrero, Francois

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an intensive version of dialectical behavior therapy for patients in an outpatient setting who met criteria for borderline personality disorder and who were in crisis. Over the two-year study period, 127 patients (103 women) between the ages of 18 and 52 years were referred to the program; 87 were admitted, and because of a limited number of places, 40 were referred elsewhere. Patients were admitted after recent suicidal or parasuicidal behavior, and the most suicidal patients were given priority. The treatment was a three-week intensive version of dialectical behavior therapy consisting of individual therapy sessions; an emphasis on skills training provided in groups, including mindfulness skills; and team consultation. A diagnostic interview was administered, and patients were screened with the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. The only significant difference at intake between patients admitted to the program and those referred elsewhere was a slighter higher incidence of antisocial traits in the latter group. Of the 87 patients admitted, 71 (82 percent) completed the program and 16 (18 percent) dropped out. Pre-post analysis showed significant improvement in scores on the BDI and BHS. The three-week, intensive version of dialectical behavior therapy was found to be an effective treatment. Treatment completion was high, and patients showed statistically significant improvements in depression and hopelessness measures. This approach allowed therapists to treat a large number of patients in a short time.

  13. Psychometric properties of the postpartum depression screening scale beyond the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeli, Jo M; Hooker, Stephanie A; Everhart, Kevin D; Kaplan, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Accurate postpartum depression screening measures are needed to identify mothers with depressive symptoms both in the postpartum period and beyond. Because it had not been tested beyond the immediate postpartum period, the reliability and validity of the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and its sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed in a diverse community sample of 238 mothers of 4- to 15-month-old infants. Mothers (N = 238; M age = 30.2, SD = 5.3) attended a lab session and completed the PDSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a structured clinical interview (SCID) to diagnose MDD. The reliability, validity, specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value of the PDSS to identify maternal depression were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of five but not seven content subscales. The PDSS total and subscale scores demonstrated acceptable to high reliability (α = 0.68-0.95). Discriminant function analysis showed the scale correctly provided diagnostic classification at a rate higher than chance alone. Sensitivity and specificity for major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis were good and comparable to those of the BDI-II. Even in mothers who were somewhat more diverse and had older infants than those in the original normative study, the PDSS appears to be a psychometrically sound screener for identifying depressed mothers in the 15 months after childbirth. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS: validation in a Greek general hospital sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patapis Paulos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS has been used in several languages to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients with good results. Methods The HADS was administered to 521 participants (275 controls and 246 inpatients and outpatients of the Internal Medicine and Surgical Departments in 'Attikon' General Hospital in Athens. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used as 'gold standards' for depression and anxiety respectively. Results The HADS presented high internal consistency; Cronbach's α cofficient was 0.884 (0.829 for anxiety and 0.840 for depression and stability (test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient 0.944. Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure. The HADS showed high concurrent validity; the correlations of the scale and its subscales with the BDI and the STAI were high (0.722 – 0.749. Conclusion The Greek version of HADS showed good psychometric properties and could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients.

  15. Validity and reliability assessment of the Brazilian version of the game addiction scale (GAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Igor Lins; Cardoso, Adriana; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2016-05-01

    The uncontrolled use of video games can be addictive. The Game Addiction Scale (GAS) is an instrument that was developed to assess this type of addiction. The GAS consists of 21 items that are divided into the following seven factors: salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict and problems. This study assessed the convergent validity and reliability of the GAS according to measures of internal consistency and test-retest stability. Three hundred and eighty four students completed the GAS, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Video Game Addiction Test (VAT). A subgroup of the participants (n=76) completed the GAS again after 30days to determine test-retest stability. The GAS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92), was highly correlated with the VAT (r=0.883) and was moderately correlated with the BDI (r=0.358), the LSAS (r=0.326) and the IAT (r=0.454). In the Brazilian Portuguese population, the GAS shows good internal consistency. These data indicate that the GAS can be used to assess video game addiction due to its demonstrated psychometric validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A study on construction, validation and determination of normalization of adolescents depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to construct, to validate and to determine normalization factors associated with adolescents depression scale. The study is performed among 750 randomly selected guided and high school students, 364 male and 386 female, who live in city of Zanjan, Iran. Validity of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS and divergence validity of the Coopersmith self- esteem coefficients are 0.72, 0.37 and -0.71, respectively. Result suggests that adolescents’ depression test is a reliable and valid tool for assessing depression, with utility in both research and clinical settings, counseling centers. In addition, the results of correlation test indicate there are some meaningful differences between depression levels of female and male students. In fact, our survey indicates that female students have more depression than male students do (F-value = 33.06, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there are some meaningful differences between depression levels in various educational levels (F-value = 8.59, Sig. = 0.000. However, the study does not find sufficient evidence to believe there is any meaningful correlation between educational backgrounds and gender.

  17. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  18. Pre-Kindergarten Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  19. Scales of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2018-01-01

    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  20. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  1. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  2. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  3. Scales and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  4. Validation and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro A; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Martínez-López, Emilio; Moral, Angel; Santos, María A; Hita-Contreras, Fidel

    2014-04-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease associated with high disability levels, which in turn lead to low quality of life (QOL). The objectives of this study were to translate the Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) into Spanish and to assess its reliability and validity for its use in patients with FM. A total of 140 women are suffering from FM (52.87 ± 9.35 years old). All belonged to an association of FM patients (AFIXA, Jaén, Spain). The Spanish versions of the FM impact questionnaire (FIQ), the SF-36, and Beck's Depression Inventory were used to assess them. The construct's validity was checked by means of exploratory factorial analysis (varimax with Kaiser normalization). Test-retest reliability was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and convergent validity through Spearman's correlation. Results show that Cronbach's alpha was 0.887, which revealed high internal consistency. The value of ICC for the QOLS total was 0.765 (95 % CI 0.649-0.843, p < 0.001). QOLS presented a significant Spearman's correlation (p < 0.01) with Beck's Inventory, with the physical and mental subtotals of SF-36 and with FIQ. The main component analysis and the varimax rotation revealed the convergence on three factors that account for 54.05 % of variance. Taking into account the severity of the disorder, significant differences (p < 0.05) appeared in QOLS, with moderately afflicted patients getting higher scores than the most severe cases. In conclusion, our study shows that the Spanish version of the QOLS is a reliable instrument, with a good convergent and discriminant construct validity, for measuring the QOL of Spanish FM patients.

  5. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA and the Herth hope scale (HHS in the prediction of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanna Morote

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS, in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25. Methods Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25. Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM. First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r, then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. Results The hierarchical models showed that (1 hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2 Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3 RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness. Women showed higher scores

  6. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA) and the Herth hope scale (HHS) in the prediction of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Krysinska, Karolina; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-10-27

    Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS), in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25). Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM). First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r), then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. The hierarchical models showed that (1) hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2) Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3) RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope) and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness). Women showed higher scores in social competences and resources (RSA

  7. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Mark D.; Williams, Mark L.; Bowman, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  8. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  9. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  10. Scale-relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the

  11. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…

  12. Beyond KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, S.

    1998-01-01

    A generalization of the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling law of the multiplicity distributions P(n) is presented. It consists of a change in the normalization point of P(n) compensated by a suitable change in the renormalized parameters and a rescaling. The iterative repetition of the transformation yields the sequence of higher-order moment distributions of P(n). Each member of this sequence may exhibit data collapsing behavior in case of violation of the original KNO scaling hypothesis. It is shown that the iterative procedure can be viewed as varying the collision energy, i.e. the moment distributions of P(n) can represent the pattern of pre-asymptotic KNO scaling violation. The fixed points of the iteration will be determined and a consistency test based on Feynman scaling is to be given. (author)

  13. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  14. Scale-Dependent Grasp

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Makoto; Shirai, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the scale-dependent grasp.Suppose that a human approaches an object initially placed on atable and finally achieves an enveloping grasp. Under such initialand final conditions, he (or she) unconsciously changes the graspstrategy according to the size of objects, even though they havesimilar geometry. We call the grasp planning the scale-dependentgrasp. We find that grasp patterns are also changed according tothe surface friction and the geometry of cross section in additi...

  15. Characteristics of individuals who make impulsive suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has identified only a few variables that have been associated with making an impulsive suicide attempt. The aim of the current study was to compare individuals who made an impulsive suicide attempt with those who made a premeditated attempt on both previously examined and novel characteristics. Participants were classified as making an impulsive or premeditated attempt based on the Suicide Intent Scale (Beck et al., 1974a) and were compared on a number of characteristics relevant to suicidality, psychiatric history, and demographics. Individuals who made an impulsive attempt expected that their attempts would be less lethal; yet the actual lethality of both groups' attempts was similar. Those who made an impulsive attempt were less depressed and hopeless than those who made a premeditated attempt. Participants who made an impulsive attempt were less likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse and more likely to be diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder than those who made a premeditated attempt. Although the sample size was adequate for bivariate statistics, future studies using larger sample sizes will allow for multivariate analyses of characteristics that differentiate individuals who make impulsive and premeditated attempts. Clinicians should not minimize the significance of impulsive attempts, as they are associated with a similar level of lethality as premeditated attempts. Focusing mainly on depression and hopelessness as indicators of suicide risk has the potential to under-identify those who are at risk for making impulsive attempts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spiritual Well-being May Reduce the Negative Impacts of Cancer Symptoms on the Quality of Life and the Desire for Hastened Death in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Chih; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality is a central component of the well-being of terminally ill cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating or moderating role of spiritual well-being in reducing the impact of cancer-related symptoms on quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients. Eighty-five terminally ill cancer patients were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death. Spiritual well-being was significantly negatively correlated with symptom severity (r = -0.46, P quality of life (r = -0.54) and positively correlated with hopelessness (r = 0.51, P quality of life. Spiritual well-being was a partial mediator between symptom severity and the desire for hastened death. The meaning subscale of spiritual well-being was a more significant predictor of the desire for hastened death and quality of life than the faith subscale was. Spiritual well-being may reduce the negative impacts of cancer on quality of life and the desire for hastened death. Appropriate spiritual care may reduce the negative impact of severe cancer symptoms on quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients.

  17. Psychometric assessment of the Brazilian version of the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of male body image has increased substantially, but there are few assessment tools available for this population. The Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS has been widely used among students to research body image disturbances and eating disorders. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested in the Brazilian context.Objectives To explore the psychometric properties (convergent validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure of the Brazilian version of the MBDS.Methods Two-hundred sixty-four undergraduate students were evaluated. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the convergent validity of the MBDS and the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Swansea Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Eating Attitudes Test-26, and the Commitment to Exercise Scale. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using t-tests for repeated measures and by calculating the coefficient of intraclass correlation. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and Cronbach’s α coefficients were determined. A significance level of 5% was adopted.Results The MBDS had an adequate factor structure, with two factors explaining 52.67% of the total variance. It showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α between 0.90 and 0.92, a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.81, and convergent validity with the drive for muscularity, the psychological commitment to exercise, low self-esteem, and eating disorder risk behaviour measures.Discussion The MBDS appears to be a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Brazilian male body image dissatisfaction.

  18. Detecting the severity of perinatal anxiety with the Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Susanne; Byrne, Shannon L; Dedman, Kellie; Hagan, Rosemary; Coo, Soledad; Oxnam, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Cunningham, Nadia; Page, Andrew C

    2015-11-01

    The Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS; Somerville et al., 2014) reliably identifies perinatal women at risk of problematic anxiety when a clinical cut-off score of 26 is used. This study aimed to identify a severity continuum of anxiety symptoms with the PASS to enhance screening, treatment and research for perinatal anxiety. Antenatal and postnatal women (n=410) recruited from the antenatal clinics and mental health services at an obstetric hospital completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), and the PASS. The women referred to mental health services were assessed to determine anxiety diagnoses via a diagnostic interview conducted by an experienced mental health professional from the Department of Psychological Medicine - King Edward Memorial Hospital. Three normative groups for the PASS, namely minimal anxiety, mild-moderate anxiety, and severe anxiety, were identified based on the severity of anxiety indicated on the standardised scales and anxiety diagnoses. Two cut-off points for the normative groups were calculated using the Jacobson-Truax method (Jacobson and Truax, 1991) resulting in three severity ranges: 'minimal anxiety'; 'mild-moderate anxiety'; and 'severe anxiety'. The most frequent diagnoses in the study sample were adjustment disorder, mixed anxiety and depression, generalised anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This may limit the generalisability of the severity range results to other anxiety diagnoses including obsessive compulsive disorder and specific phobia. Severity ranges for the PASS add value to having a clinically validated cut-off score in the detection and monitoring of problematic perinatal anxiety. The PASS can now be used to identify risk of an anxiety disorder and the severity ranges can indicate developing risk for early referrals for further assessments

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Symptom Checklist-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Symptom Checklist - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (SCL-PTSD), also known as Crime-Related PTSD Scale has been validated in survivors of interpersonal trauma in the general population. However, the psychometric properties have not been investigated in a clinical setting for patients with PTSD from diverse traumatic events. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD among 104 psychiatric outpatients with PTSD, caused by interpersonal (n = 50) or non-interpersonal trauma (n = 54). Self-report data of the SCL-PTSD, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) were gathered. The Korean version of the SCL-PTSD showed excellent internal consistency and moderate-to-good four-week temporal stability in both the interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma groups. In comparison with other diagnostic groups, the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly higher compared to those of adjustment disorder, depression, other anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia, demonstrating its criteria-related validity. Convergent validity was confirmed because the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly correlated with BDI, SAI and TAI scores. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlation with the IES-R score. This study demonstrated the favorable psychometric prosperities of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD, supporting its use in clinical research and practice. PMID:27134501

  20. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale: two-factor model and association with adult depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2007-06-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression. 664 respondents from the general population (48% men, mean age 54.6+/-14.2 years) completed the RRP(10), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Beck Depression Inventory. The Alienation and Control dimensions of the RRP(10) displayed a sound factor structure, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83-0.86), and convergent validity against the PBI scales. No significant gender differences were found on the RRP(10) scales. Stratifying by RRP(10) dimensions showed that respondents high in Alienation and Control, for both father (33.3% vs. 14.5%, pparental Alienation and Control. High Alienation and Control were independently related to increased risk of depressive symptoms. Given the brevity of the RRP(10), it can easily be used in epidemiological/clinical research on the link between the remembered relationship with parents and mental/physical health.

  1. A suicide risk screening scale for HIV- infected persons in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Department of Family Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 2 Emeritus Professor of ... In contrast, self-report questionnaires may be inadequate for ... and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Although these items do ...

  2. Treatment received, satisfaction with health care services, and psychiatric symptoms 3 months after hospitalization for self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimholt Tine K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients who self-poison have high repetition and high mortality rates. Therefore, appropriate follow-up is important. The aims of the present work were to study treatment received, satisfaction with health care services, and psychiatric symptoms after hospitalization for self-poisoning. Methods A cohort of patients who self-poisoned (n = 867 over a period of 1 year received a questionnaire 3 months after discharge. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE were used. The participation rate was 28% (n = 242; mean age, 41 years; 66% females. Results Although only 14% of patients were registered without follow-up referrals at discharge, 41% reported no such measures. Overall, satisfaction with treatment was fairly good, although 29% of patients waited more than 3 weeks for their first appointment. A total of 22% reported repeated self-poisoning and 17% cutting. The mean BDI and BHS scores were 23.3 and 10.1, respectively (both moderate to severe. The GSE score was 25.2. BDI score was 25.6 among patients with suicide attempts, 24.9 for appeals, and 20.1 for substance-use-related poisonings. Conclusions Despite plans for follow-up, many patients reported that they did not receive any. The reported frequency of psychiatric symptoms and self-harm behavior indicate that a more active follow-up is needed.

  3. Fast ignition breakeven scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E T = 7.5(ρ/100) -1.87 kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E UT = 15.3(ρ/100) -1.5 kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even

  4. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  5. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  6. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  7. Risk factors for substances use and misuse among young people in France: What can we learn from the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Carré, A; Hassler, C; Spilka, S; Vanier, A; Barry, C; Berthoz, S

    2016-06-01

    The prevention of addictions in young people is a challenge for Mental and Public Health policies, and requires specific risk-screening tools. Specific personality traits, as assessed using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS), could play a key role in the onset and escalation of substance use. This study aimed to examine (1) measurement invariance across age and gender (2) the effects of age and gender on associations between SURPS scores and the most frequently-consumed substances. Analyses were based on the responses from 5069 participants (aged 14-20 years) from the 2011 ESPAD-France dataset. Substance-use outcomes were experimentation and current frequency of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, and drunkenness. Our approach, consisting in analysing measurement and structural invariance and interaction terms, established the stability of (i) SURPS profiles, and (ii) relationships between these scores and substance experimentation and use over a developmental period ranging from mid-adolescence to early adulthood. Measurement invariance across genders was also confirmed despite the absence of scalar invariance for 2 items. Significant interactions between gender and SURPS factors were established, highlighting differential vulnerability, especially concerning Hopelessness and experimentation of alcohol and drunkenness, or Impulsivity and tobacco experimentation. Finally, Anxiety Sensitivity could be protective against substance use, especially for cannabis in girls. Our results suggest the relevance of the SURPS to assess vulnerability towards drug use, and underline the need to consider gender differences in addiction risks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  9. The INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) which has been created to classify nuclear and radiological events in terms of severity. This scale comprises eight levels from 0 to 7, from a slight but noticeable shift with respect to nominal operation to a major accident. Criteria used for incident and accident classification are indicated; they are based on consequences outside the site, consequences within the site, degradation of in-depth defence. The benefit and weaknesses of this scale are briefly indicated. The major concerned actors are the IAEA, the NEA and the ASN. Some key figures are given (number of declared events and incidents), and a ranking of the main nuclear events is proposed with a brief description of the event: Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Sellafield, Tokaimura, Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux. Countries which have adopted INES are indicated, as well as the number of incidents reports in France to the ASN

  10. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  11. No-Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on $R + R^2$ gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: $n_s \\sim 0.96$, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r < 0.1$, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  12. No-scale inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  13. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  14. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  15. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  16. X and Y scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Although much of the intuition for interpreting the high energy data as scattering from structureless constituents came from nuclear physics (and to a lesser extent atomic physics) virtually no data existed for nuclear targets in the non-relativistic regime until relatively recently. It is therefore not so surprising that,in site of the fact that the basic nuclear physics has been well understood for a very long time, the corresponding non-relativistic scaling law was not written down until after the relativistic one,relevant to particle physics, had been explored. Of course, to the extent that these scaling laws simply reflect quasi-elastic scattering of the probe from the constituents, they contain little new physics once the nature of the constitutents is known and understood. On the other hand, deviations from scaling represent corrections to the impulse approximation and can reflect important dynamical and coherent features of the system. Furthermore, as will be discussed in detail here, the scaling curve itself represents the single particle momentum distribution of constituents inside the target. It is therefore prudent to plot the data in terms of a suitable scaling variable since this immediately focuses attention on the dominant physics. Extraneous physics, such as Rutherford scattering in the case of electrons, or magnetic scattering in the case of thermal neutrons is factored out and the use of a scaling variable (such as y) automatically takes into account the fact that the target is a bound state of well-defined constituents. In this talk I shall concentrate almost entirely on non-relativistic systems. Although the formalism applies equally well to both electron scattering from nuclei and thermal neutron scattering from liquids, I shall, because of my background, usually be thinking of the former. On the other hand I shall completely ignore spin considerations so, ironically, the results actually apply more to the latter case!

  17. Elders Health Empowerment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  18. Scaling law systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Duechs, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of statistical implications of empirical scaling laws in form of power products obtained by linear regression are analysed. The sensitivity of the error against a change of exponents is described by a sensitivity factor and the uncertainty of predictions by a ''range of predictions factor''. Inner relations in the statistical material is discussed, as well as the consequences of discarding variables.A recipe is given for the computations to be done. The whole is exemplified by considering scaling laws for the electron energy confinement time of ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. (author)

  19. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  20. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  1. Scaling up Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jannie Kristine Bang; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Gustafsson, Jeppe

    through negotiating, mobilizing coalitions, and legitimacy building. To illustrate and further develop this conceptualization, we build on insights from a longitudinal case study (2008-2014) and provide a rich empirical account of how a Danish telemedicine pilot was transformed into a large......-scale telemedicine project through simultaneous translation and theorization efforts in a cross-sectorial, politicized social context. Although we focus on upscaling as a bottom up process (from pilot to large scale), we argue that translation and theorization, and associated political behavior occurs in a broader...

  2. Psychometric properties of the Ruminative Response Scale-short form in a clinical sample of patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parola N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nathalie Parola,1,2,* Xavier Yves Zendjidjian,1,3,* Marine Alessandrini,1 Karine Baumstarck,1 Anderson Loundou,1 Guillaume Fond,4,5 Fabrice Berna,4,6 Christophe Lançon,1–3 Pascal Auquier,1 Laurent Boyer1 1Public Health, Chronic Diseases and Quality of Life – Research Unit EA 3279, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, 2Department of Psychiatry, Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Marseille, 3Department of Psychiatry, La Conception University Hospital, Marseille, 4Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, 5Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, Henri Mondor University Hospital, INSERM U955, Eq 15 Genetic Psychiatry and Psychopathology, Paris Est-Créteil University, Créteil, 6Department of Psychiatry, INSERM U1114, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS-short form is one of the most widely used measures of rumination, comprising ten items and two components: reflection and brooding. The aim of this study was to investigate RRS validity and reliability in a clinical sample of French patients with major depressive disorder (MDD.Subjects and methods: Outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of MDD were recruited from a public academic hospital in France. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – state scale, and quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses, item-dimension correlations, Cronbach’s α-coefficients, Rasch statistics, and external validity were tested. Differential item functioning analyses were performed for sex.Results: A total of 109 patients participated. The final reflection–brooding two-factor model of the RRS showed a good fit (root-mean-square error of approximation 0.041, comparative fit index 0.987, standardized root

  3. Validation of a short Korean version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Young; Kim, Seog Ju

    2018-04-23

    The purpose of the present study was to validate a Korean version of the short UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P). This study included 724 undergraduate students who completed the following questionnaires: the Korean UPPS-P, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Canadian Problem Gambling Index. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a 5-factor interrelated model. The internal consistency coefficients for the 5 factors of the short Korean UPPS-P were acceptable (.65-.78 across the subscales), and the subscales of the short Korean UPPS-P were strongly correlated with the long UPPS-P subscales. External validity was demonstrated by associations between the subfactors of impulsivity and various psychopathologies, including depression, anxiety, binge eating, alcohol abuse, and gambling. The present results indicate that the short Korean version of the UPPS-P may be a useful and reliable alternative to the original long-form UPPS-P. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Depression Subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale applied preoperatively in spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D in spine surgery, comparing it to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the HADS-D and the BDI were applied to patients undergoing spine surgery for lumbar (n=139 or cervical spondylosis (n=17. Spearman correlation tests for HADS-D and BDI were applied. The internal consistency of HADS-D was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: According to the BDI, the prevalence of depression was of 28.8% (n=45. The Spearman r coefficient between HADS-D and BDI was 0.714 (p10, there was a sensitivity of 71.1%, specificity of 95.4%, and positive likelihood-ratio of 15.78. CONCLUSIONS: HADS-D showed a strong correlation with BDI and good reliability. HADS-D is a good alternative for screening depression and assessing its severity.

  5. The greek translation of the symptoms rating scale for depression and anxiety: preliminary results of the validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougoulias Kyriakos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 items and permits the calculation of the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21, the BDI 13, the Melancholia Subscale, the Asthenia Subscale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Mania Subscale Methods 29 depressed patients 30.48 ± 9.83 years old, and 120 normal controls 27.45 ± 10.85 years old entered the study. In 20 of them (8 patients and 12 controls the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later. Translation and Back Translation was made. Clinical Diagnosis was reached by consensus of two examiners with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the IPDE. CES-D and ZDRS were used for cross-validation purposes. The Statistical Analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Results The optimal cut-off points were: BDI-21: 14/15, BDI-13: 7/8, Melancholia: 8/9, Asthenia: 9/10, Anxiety: 10/11. Chronbach's alpha ranged between 0.86 and 0.92 for individual scales. Only the Mania subscale had very low alpha (0.12. The test-retest reliability was excellent for all scales with Spearman's Rho between 0.79 and 0.91. Conclusions The Greek translation of the SRSDA and the scales that consist it are both reliable and valid and are suitable for clinical and research use with satisfactory properties. Their properties are close to those reported in the international literature. However one should always have in mind the limitations inherent in the use of self-report scales.

  6. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  7. Scaling violation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanski, W.

    1981-08-01

    The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)

  8. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.

    1986-01-01

    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  9. Civic Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Doolittle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the development and validation of the Civic Engagement Scale (CES. This scale is developed to be easily administered and useful to educators who are seeking to measure the attitudes and behaviors that have been affected by a service-learning experience. This instrument was administered as a validation study in a purposive sample of social work and education majors at three universities (N = 513 with a return of 354 (69%. After the reliability and validity analysis was completed, the Attitude subscale was left with eight items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .91. The Behavior subscale was left with six items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .85. Principal component analysis indicated a two-dimensional scale with high loadings on both factors (mean factor loading for the attitude factor = .79, and mean factor loading for the behavior factor = .77. These results indicate that the CES is strong enough to recommend its use in educational settings. Preliminary use has demonstrated that this scale will be useful to researchers seeking to better understand the relationship of attitudes and behaviors with civic engagement in the service-learning setting. The primary limitations of this research are that the sample was limited to social work and education majors who were primarily White (n = 312, 88.1% and female (n = 294, 83.1%. Therefore, further research would be needed to generalize this research to other populations.

  10. Difficulty scaling through incongruity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, van G.; Spronck, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mateas, M.; Darken, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.

  11. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  12. Cardinal scales for health evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    Policy studies often evaluate health for an individual or for a population by using measurement scales that are ordinal scales or expected-utility scales. This paper develops scales of a different type, commonly called cardinal scales, that measure changes in health. Also, we argue that cardinal...... scales provide a meaningful and useful means of evaluating health policies. Thus, we develop a means of using the perspective of early neoclassical welfare economics as an alternative to ordinalist and expected-utility perspectives....

  13. SCALE Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL

    2016-04-01

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.SCALE 6.2 provides many new capabilities and significant improvements of existing features.New capabilities include:• ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries CE and MG with enhanced group structures,• Neutron covariance data based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and supplemented with ORNL data,• Covariance data for fission product yields and decay constants,• Stochastic uncertainty and correlation quantification for any SCALE sequence with Sampler,• Parallel calculations with KENO,• Problem-dependent temperature corrections for CE calculations,• CE shielding and criticality accident alarm system analysis with MAVRIC,• CE

  14. Rasch analysis of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC among a heterogeneous sample of long-term cancer survivors: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucca Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC is a well-recognised, popular measure of coping in psycho-oncology and assesses five cancer-specific coping strategies. It has been suggested that these five subscales could be grouped to form the over-arching adaptive and maladptive coping subscales to facilitate the interpretation and clinical application of the scale. Despite the popularity of the mini-MAC, few studies have examined its psychometric properties among long-term cancer survivors, and further validation of the mini-MAC is needed to substantiate its use with the growing population of survivors. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the mini-MAC in a sample of long-term cancer survivors using Rasch analysis. Methods RUMM 2030 was used to analyse the mini-MAC data (n=851. Separate Rasch analyses were conducted for each of the original mini-MAC subscales as well as the over-arching adaptive and maladaptive coping subscales to examine summary and individual model fit statistics, person separation index (PSI, response format, local dependency, targeting, item bias (or differential item functioning -DIF, and dimensionality. Results For the fighting spirit, fatalism, and helplessness-hopelessness subscales, a revised three-point response format seemed more optimal than the original four-point response. To achieve model fit, items were deleted from four of the five subscales – Anxious Preoccupation items 7, 25, and 29; Cognitive Avoidance items 11 and 17; Fighting Spirit item 18; and Helplessness-Hopelessness items 16 and 20. For those subscales with sufficient items, analyses supported unidimensionality. Combining items to form the adaptive and maladaptive subscales was partially supported. Conclusions The original five subscales required item deletion and/or rescaling to improve goodness of fit to the Rasch model. While evidence was found for overarching subscales of

  15. Rasch analysis of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC) among a heterogeneous sample of long-term cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Alison; Lambert, Sylvie D; Boyes, Allison W; Pallant, Julie F

    2012-05-20

    The mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC) is a well-recognised, popular measure of coping in psycho-oncology and assesses five cancer-specific coping strategies. It has been suggested that these five subscales could be grouped to form the over-arching adaptive and maladptive coping subscales to facilitate the interpretation and clinical application of the scale. Despite the popularity of the mini-MAC, few studies have examined its psychometric properties among long-term cancer survivors, and further validation of the mini-MAC is needed to substantiate its use with the growing population of survivors. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the mini-MAC in a sample of long-term cancer survivors using Rasch analysis. RUMM 2030 was used to analyse the mini-MAC data (n=851). Separate Rasch analyses were conducted for each of the original mini-MAC subscales as well as the over-arching adaptive and maladaptive coping subscales to examine summary and individual model fit statistics, person separation index (PSI), response format, local dependency, targeting, item bias (or differential item functioning -DIF), and dimensionality. For the fighting spirit, fatalism, and helplessness-hopelessness subscales, a revised three-point response format seemed more optimal than the original four-point response. To achieve model fit, items were deleted from four of the five subscales - Anxious Preoccupation items 7, 25, and 29; Cognitive Avoidance items 11 and 17; Fighting Spirit item 18; and Helplessness-Hopelessness items 16 and 20. For those subscales with sufficient items, analyses supported unidimensionality. Combining items to form the adaptive and maladaptive subscales was partially supported. The original five subscales required item deletion and/or rescaling to improve goodness of fit to the Rasch model. While evidence was found for overarching subscales of adaptive and maladaptive coping, extensive modifications were

  16. Hopeless Cases: Queer Chronicities and Gertrude Stein's "Melanctha".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    For this contribution to the special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," the author offers a reflection on the nature of the literary, written word as the ethically fraught site of queer bioethics. By invoking the historical tendencies and tropes of the clinical case history alongside a seminal text by Gertrude Stein, the author at once asks if we should liberate a queer bioethics from biomedical discourse via mainstream narrative; or if we should see this strategy as unavoidably housed in narrative forms of storytelling because it echoes the tropes and stakes of the clinical, pathologized case history as regards queer sensibilities.

  17. South Dakota's 1996 Homeless Report. Homeless, Not Hopeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    To study the number and status of homeless people in South Dakota, a questionnaire was mailed to approximately 701 persons who were likely to have knowledge of homeless people. Responses were received from 349 people. Estimated numbers of homeless people include those who live with others because they lack adequate resources to maintain a fixed,…

  18. Sex Differences in Locus of Control, Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkin, Richard A.; And Others

    This experiment investigated: (1) relationships among locus of control, attributional style, and depression; (2) if a depressogenic attributional style could be empirically isolated; and (3) if reliable relationships existed between attribution and depression when depression was operationalized using different instruments. Subjects completed the…

  19. Effectiveness of psycho-education on depression, hopelessness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the prevention or treatment of mild to moderate ... smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) (for drug abuse) were used for baseline, mid-point and end-point ...... by a relative other than a member of the nuclear family.

  20. Microsurgical tubal recanalization: A hope for the hopeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the various factors affecting pregnancy rate after microsurgical tubal recanalisation. Design: Prospective study, follow-up of 5 years in patients treated with tubal microsurgery. Setting: Referral Tertiary Care Hospital. Patients: Fifty women underwent microsurgical tubal recanalisation procedure. Principles of microsurgery were followed throughout the procedure meticulously. Interventions: Microsurgical tubal recanalisation. Main outcome measure: Pregnancy rate. Results: With microsurgery, an overall 60% pregnancy rate was achieved. In these patients, pregnancy outcome was in form of intrauterine pregnancy (96.66%, ectopic pregnancy (3.33%, term viable pregnancy (96.55% and spontaneous abortion (3.45%. Conclusions: The important factors for determining the success of operation were age of the patient, time interval between sterilization and reversal, site of ligation, method used for previous ligation & the remaining length of the tube after recanalisation. The microsurgical technique should be available at specialized centres to improve the success of family planning services.