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Sample records for beauveria bassiana deuteromycota

  1. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia from 2 strains of Beauveria bassiana – one commercial (GHA) and the other isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto...

  2. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, William G; Mercadier, Guy; Holst, Niels; Girod, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia (asexual spores) from two strains of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus. One strain was commercial (GHA) and the other had been isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto sticky boards. Treatments included conidia formulated with either carnauba or candelilla wax powder, candelilla wax powder alone, or control; in two treatment groups formulation was applied a second time after one week. Treatment did not affect colony health. Colonies treated twice with Bb05002 conidia and carnauba wax powder had significantly higher mite fall compared to colonies treated with blank candelilla wax powder. The proportion of fallen mites that were infected in both conidia treatments was higher than controls for 18 days after the second treatment. The number of fungal propagules on the bees themselves remained elevated for about 14 days after the second treatment. These results were compared to published results from previous experiments with regard to infection duration. PMID:18506583

  3. Production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Józefa Chrzanowska; Maria Kołaczkowska

    2014-01-01

    The production of proteolytic enzymes by two strains of Beauveria bassiana 278, B. bassiana 446 and one strain of Ascosphera apis 496 was analysed. It was demonstrated that the strain of B. bassiana 278 proved to be the best producer of basic and acid proteases. The influence of different environmental factors such as nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes was assessed. In addition the acid protease from B. bassiana was partially characterized.

  4. Production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by Beauveria bassiana

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    Józefa Chrzanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of proteolytic enzymes by two strains of Beauveria bassiana 278, B. bassiana 446 and one strain of Ascosphera apis 496 was analysed. It was demonstrated that the strain of B. bassiana 278 proved to be the best producer of basic and acid proteases. The influence of different environmental factors such as nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes was assessed. In addition the acid protease from B. bassiana was partially characterized.

  5. Beauveria bassiana: quercetinase production and genetic diversity

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    Eula Maria de M. B Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana genetic diversity and ability to synthesize quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (quercetinase were analyzed. B. bassiana isolates, obtained from Brazilian soil samples, produced quercetinase after induction using 0.5 g/L quercetin. B. bassiana ATCC 7159 (29.6 nmol/mL/min and isolate IP 11 (27.5 nmol/ml/min showed the best performances and IP 3a (9.5 nmol/mL/min presented the lowest level of quercetinase activity in the culture supernatant. A high level of polymorphism was detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. The use of internal-transcribed-spacer ribosomal region restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP did not reveal characteristic markers to differentiate isolates. However, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequence analysis provided more information on polymorphism among the isolates, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity into three large groups. Correlation was tested according to the Person's correlation. Data of our studies showed, that lower associations among groups, level of quercetinase production, or geographical origin could be observed. This study presents the production of a novel biocatalyst by B. bassiana and suggests the possible industrial application of this fungal species in large-scale biotechnological manufacture of quercetinase.

  6. Beauveria bassiana: endophytic colonization and plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownley, Bonnie H; Griffin, Mary R; Klingeman, William E; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Moulton, J Kevin; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-07-01

    Seed application of Beauveria bassiana 11-98 resulted in endophytic colonization of tomato and cotton seedlings and protection against plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium myriotylum. Both pathogens cause damping off of seedlings and root rot of older plants. The degree of disease control achieved depended upon the population density of B. bassiana conidia on seed. Using standard plating techniques onto selective medium, endophytic 11-98 was recovered from surface-sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of tomato, cotton, and snap bean seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. As the rate of conidia applied to seed increased, the proportion of plant tissues from which B. bassiana 11-98 was recovered increased. For rapid detection of B. bassiana 11-98 in cotton tissues, we developed new ITS primers that produce a PCR product for B. bassiana 11-98, but not for cotton. In cotton samples containing DNA from B. bassiana11-98, the fungus was detected at DNA ratios of 1:1000; B. bassiana 11-98 was detected also in seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. Using SEM, hyphae of B. bassiana11-98 were observed penetrating epithelial cells of cotton and ramifying through palisade parenchyma and mesophyll leaf tissues. B. bassiana11-98 induced systemic resistance in cotton against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (bacterial blight). In parasitism assays, hyphae of B. bassiana 11-98 were observed coiling around hyphae of Pythium myriotylum. PMID:18442830

  7. Molecular Genetics of Beauveria bassiana Infection of Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Keyhani, N O

    2016-01-01

    Research on the insect pathogenic filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana has witnessed significant growth in recent years from mainly physiological studies related to its insect biological control potential, to addressing fundamental questions regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of fungal development and virulence. This has been in part due to a confluence of robust genetic tools and genomic resources for the fungus, and recognition of expanded ecological interactions with which the fungus engages. Beauveria bassiana is a broad host range insect pathogen that has the ability to form intimate symbiotic relationships with plants. Indeed, there is an increasing realization that the latter may be the predominant environmental interaction in which the fungus participates, and that insect parasitism may be an opportunist lifestyle evolved due to the carbon- and nitrogen-rich resources present in insect bodies. Here, we will review progress on the molecular genetics of B. bassiana, which has largely been directed toward identifying genetic pathways involved in stress response and virulence assumed to have practical applications in improving the insect control potential of the fungus. Important strides have also been made in understanding aspects of B. bassiana development. Finally, although increasingly apparent in a number of studies, there is a need for progressing beyond phenotypic mutant characterization to sufficiently investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying B. bassiana's unique and diverse lifestyles as saprophyte, insect pathogen, and plant mutualist. PMID:27131326

  8. Entomopathogenic fungus \\kur{Beauveria bassiana }- biological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    PAVLÍČEK, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    This literature compilation focuses on current knowledge in the biological characteristics of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, with emphasis on the influence of abiotic factors on the development and its effectiveness in selected species of harmful insects. Knowledge of abiotic factors is important for a successful outcome to protect plants against harmful agents this entomopathogen. There are also set out the specifics, benefits and examples of using the aforementioned entomopa...

  9. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa; Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa; Débora Brand; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40%) with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; ...

  10. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  12. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  13. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  14. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  15. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40% with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; initial pH 6.0; inoculum concentration 10(7 spores.g-1.dw and initial moisture 75%. In the column type reactor using forced aeration under the optimized conditions, the maximum production (1.07x10(10spores.g-1.dw was obtained at the 10th day of fermentation. The respirometric analyses of the fermentation showed a strong correlation between fungal growth and spore production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir Beauveria bassiana por fermentação no estado sólido em resíduos agro-industriais e otimizar as condições de cultivo. Batata-refugo, polpa de café e bagaço de cana de açúcar foram testados. A mistura de batata-refugo e de bagaço de cana de açúcar (60:40%, com granulometria de 2 a 0,8 mm foi escolhida como melhor substrato/suporte. Em frascos de Erlenmeyer a produção de esporos foi maior com as seguintes condições: pH 6,0; temperatura de incubação de 26º C; taxa de inóculo de 10(7 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca; e umidade inicial de 75%. Em bioreator do tipo coluna com aeração forçada, as condições otimizadas possibilitaram uma produção máxima de esporos no 10º dia de fermentação, obtendo-se 1,07x10(10 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca. A análise respirométrica desta fermentação permitiu correlacionar o desenvolvimento do fungo com a produção de esporos.

  16. Preservation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsam Vuillemin (moniliales: moniliaceae pathogenicityagainst the coffee borer in different systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bahamón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find preservation techniques of Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity in the laboratory. Long term storage of B. bassiana cultures is very important to prepare industrial products. Preservation techniques for pathogenicity would replace the need to pass B. bassiana spores frequently in the target insect. Studies on B. bassiana pathogenicity are almost nonexistent. Viability of B. bassiana was evaluated in comparison with pathogenicity when subjected to different preservation temperatures with various protectors. The most succesful procedures were silica gel and mineral oil in refrigeration; glicerol and dimethilsulfoxide in liquid nitrogen; liophilization with skim milk at 10% and 20% and skim milk with inositol at 5%. The tests were carried our during 24 weeks at 6 weeks intervals. A monosporic B. bassiana culture (Bb. 9620 isolated by Cenicafé research center was used for the study. The mean value for the preservation of pathogenicity was influenced by the protectors used.

  17. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

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    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  18. Production of conidia of Beauveria bassiana in solid-state culture: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, M; Rodriguez-Gomez, D; Loera, O

    2015-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus widely commercialized in the world. Recent progress and achievements on conidia production have focused on a yield goal of 10(9) to 10(10) conidia per gram of dry substrate. Due to cost-competitive perspectives, these yields should be associated with better production rates or productivities. This study presents a review of relevant studies of B. bassiana conidia production on solid-state cultures and the parameters that should be taken into account to maintain constant quality in the product to be commercialized. Conditions for maximizing production and infectivity of B. bassiana conidia are also analysed. PMID:24494702

  19. The Existence of Beauveria bassiana in the Third Generation of Corn Seddling

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Daud, Itji; Widiayani, Nuniek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fungus Beauveria bassiana can be endophytic in maize. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots after a month planting. This phenomenon was shown until the third generation of the corn. The result from laboratory shows that B.bassiana appear in F1, F2 and F3 in order 70, 80 and 90% in the roots, 80% in the stems in all generation, 90, 80 and 70% in leaves. In CFU???s ml-1 of B. bassiana in corn seed, show F1 was 8.9 x 106, F2 was 8.1 x 106 a...

  20. Molecular characterization of a novel amalgavirus from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koloniuk, Igor; Hrabáková, Lenka; Petrzik, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2015), s. 1585-1588. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13136; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Monopartite DsRNA Virus * Beauveria bassiana * amalgaviruses infecting fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2014

  1. EICOSANOIDS MEDIATE MANDUCA SEXTA CELLULAR RESPONSE TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA: A ROLE FOR THE LIPOXYGENASE PATHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies have documented the involvement of eicosanoids in insect cellular immune responses to bacteria. The use of Beauveria bassiana as a nodulation elicitor, with inhibition of phospholipase A2 by dexamethasone extends the principal to fungi. This study also provides the first evidence of i...

  2. Comparative impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunncum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypocreales fungi such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae can be negatively affected by fungicides thereby reducing their biocontrol potential. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on two commercial entomopathoge...

  3. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence o...

  4. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond t

  5. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  6. Isolation and Assessment of Stability of Six Formulations of Entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, Lizzy A

    2016-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is the most widely studied and exploited entomopathogen. The development of a suitable formulation for B. bassiana is a critical component in aiding the entomopathogen germinate and infect the host. In addition to being economical to produce, having high residual activity, it is also important that the formulation is easy to handle, stable during storage, and convenient to mix and apply and be consistently effective in controlling the target pest.In this chapter we describe preparation of experimental formulations of conidia of B. bassiana. The formulations are prepared with barley, rice, wheat bran, clay, kaolin, and peat. The protocol for assessing the stability of the formulations of B. bassiana is also described. PMID:27565494

  7. Discovery and demonstration of the teleomorph of Beauve-ria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. , an important entomogenous fun-gus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A Cordyceps specimen was collected in Anhui, China, a strain of Beauveria bassiana, an important entomopathogenic fungus for biological pest control, was isolated and their relationship was demonstrated by microcycle conidiation. The teleomorph is an undescribed species and is named Cordyceps bassiana.

  8. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Rieke; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Patel, Anant V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×109 TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×1010 T...

  9. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH PATHOGENICITY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AGAINST Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Tamai; Sérgio Batista Alves; Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  10. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  11. Optimization of Solid-State Fermentation for Improved Conidia Production of Beauveria bassiana as a Mycoinsecticide

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Kim, Jeong Jun; Kim, Keun

    2010-01-01

    The production of conidia of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation was studied for the development of a biocontrol agent against aphid Myzus persicae. The optimal conditions for conidia production on polished white rice were 40% moisture content, 25℃ culture temperature, 2-day-old seeding culture grown in 3% corn meal, 2% rice bran, 2% corn steep powder medium, initial conidia concentration of 107 conidia/g in the wet rice, 10% inoculum size, and use of a polyethylen...

  12. Efficacy of Molasses and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill on the Control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira; José Bruno Malaquias; Luiz Leonardo Ferreira; Thiago de Souza Ribeiro; Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to study the compatibility between the molasses and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill on the control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824. The study was conducted on the Site Pitiá in a banana plantation of approximately 250 m2, located in the municipality of Areia, state of Paraiba, Brazil. The results showed that the constancy of C. sorditus was significantly higher in traps consisting of molasses+fungi (P

  13. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Hiroko; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Kazama, Shigeyasu; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Ideta, Hidenao; Sunada, Atsuko; Asari, Seishi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Kozaburo

    2008-01-01

    Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within th...

  14. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  15. Field applications of Beauveria bassiana to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Field experiments with foliar applications of Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040 (product Naturalis-L) were conducted to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major pest of cherries in Europe. Naturalis-L was applied at concentrations of 250 ml per 100 l in 7-day intervals during the flight period of R. cerasi. Flight activity monitored by yellow sticky traps was only slightly affected by treatments. Infection and mycosis of adult cherry fruit fl...

  16. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

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    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  17. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

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    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  18. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  19. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. /
    Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Mita; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Jo I Wu; Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves; Dalva Tomoe Miyagui; Geni Varéa-Pereira; Danieli Cristina Sassá; Evelyn Kamogawa

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and the conidia grow...

  20. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  1. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 106 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis. PMID:25242941

  2. Protection of metal artifacts with the formation of metal–oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid a...

  3. RAPD e ITS Detectan Variación Molecular en Poblaciones Chilenea de Beauveria bassiana RAPD and ITS Reveal Molecular Variation of Chilean Populations of Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Becerra V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa atractiva para el control biológico de insectos plagas. En Chile, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu mantiene aproximadamente 400 aislamientos de Beauveria, colectados a través del país. Esta colección ha sido parcialmente clasificada en base a su morfología y a su eficacia como controlador biológico. Sin embargo, es necesario complementar estos estudios con una caracterización a nivel genético-molecular, para determinar el nivel de diversidad genética de Beauveria bassiana e identificar posibles patrones de bandas que permitan dicriminar entre aislamientos. En este estudio, se analizaron 36 aislamientos de B. bassiana provenientes de diversas regiones geográficas del país. El análisis genético se realizó mediante el ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD y la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa-Fragmentos de Restricción Polimórficos (PCR-RFLP de los espaciadores internos transcritos (ITS de las secuencias ribosomales del ADN (ITS-rDNA. El análisis de RAPD indicó una alta diversidad genética entre los aislamientos, con un promedio de 43% de similitud. Por otro lado, el análisis de los ITS determinó una menor diversidad, con un 83% de similitud entre aislamientos. La región ITS 1 mostró un mayor número de sitios de restricción que la región ITS 2. Los RAPD fueron más eficientes para discriminar (o identificar entre cepas debido al bajo número de haplotipos detectados con los ITS. Para los dos marcadores utilizados en este estudio, la diversidad genética no estuvo asociada con el origen geográfico de los aislamientos.Entomopathogenic fungi are an attractive alternative for the biological control of insects. In Chile, the Quilamapu Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA has collected about 400 isolates of the genus Beauveria along the country. A partial

  4. Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, is an ectoparasite that preferentially infests small ruminants and can transmit Theileria sp. and Babesia sp. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of individual and mixed infections of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to H. qinghaiensis nymphs. The estimated LC50 for ticks immersed in solutions of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and a mixture thereof were: 5.88056 × 10(4), 2.65 × 10(4), and 2.85 × 10(4) conidia mL(-1) respectively, and the nymphal mortality ranged from 52 to 100 %. Thus, these results suggest a potential approach for the biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis. PMID:27071674

  5. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai Marco Antonio; Alves Sérgio Batista; Neves Pedro Janeiro

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  6. THE EFFECT OF SELECTED PESTICIDES ON THE GROWTH OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI HIRSUTELLA NODULOSA AND BEAUVERIA BASSIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three pesticides used in corn protection: Targa Super 05 (chizalofop-P-ethyl, Roundup 360SL (glyphosate and Karate Zeon 050CS (lambda-cyhalothrin, on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi Hirsutella nodulosa Petch and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Fungi isolates were cultured on Sabouraud’s medium with addition of pesticides at three different concentrations. H. nodulosa was more susceptible to pesticides than B. bassiana. The most inhibitory effect on tested entomopathogenic fungi showed chizalofop-P-ethyl herbicide. Lambda-cyhalothrin at the recommended field dose showed minor toxic effect on entomopathogenic fungi, which suggests the possibility of compatible use of this insecticide with biopesticides based on the tested species.

  7. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

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    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  8. Efficacy of Molasses and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuill on the Control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824

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    Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to study the compatibility between the molasses and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuill on the control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824. The study was conducted on the Site Pitiá in a banana plantation of approximately 250 m2, located in the municipality of Areia, state of Paraiba, Brazil. The results showed that the constancy of C. sorditus was significantly higher in traps consisting of molasses+fungi (P <0.01. And significantly lower in traps without yeast and molasses. The frequency of C. sorditus was classified as accidental in traps with only B. bassiana (23.44% and in traps without the addition of B. bassiana and molasses (10.71%, and being accessory in traps consisting of molasses (28.43% and in traps with molasses+fungi (37.27%. Therefore the food bait molasses along with the fungi B. bassiana, may be used in an integrated control of C. sorditus in banana plantations.

  9. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

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    Takken Willem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of application as well as reducing their sensitivity to UV radiation, high temperatures and the inevitable contact with water. This study was conducted to develop formulations that facilitate the application of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores for the control of anopheline larvae, and also improve their persistence under field conditions. Methods Laboratory bioassays were conducted to test the ability of aqueous (0.1% Tween 80, dry (organic and inorganic and oil (mineral and synthetic formulations to facilitate the spread of fungal spores over the water surface and improve the efficacy of formulated spores against anopheline larvae as well as improve spore survival after application. Field bioassays were then carried out to test the efficacy of the most promising formulation under field conditions in western Kenya. Results When formulated in a synthetic oil (ShellSol T, fungal spores of both Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were easy to mix and apply to the water surface. This formulation was more effective against anopheline larvae than 0.1% Tween 80, dry powders or mineral oil formulations. ShellSol T also improved the persistence of fungal spores after application to the water. Under field conditions in Kenya, the percentage pupation of An. gambiae was significantly reduced by 39 - 50% by the ShellSol T-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores as compared to the effects of the application of unformulated spores. Conclusions ShellSol T is an effective carrier for fungal spores when targeting anopheline larvae under both laboratory and field conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi formulated with

  10. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based ap

  11. Cellular Immune Reactions of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, to the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Zibaee, Arash; Bandani, Ali Reza; Talaei-Hassanlouei, Reza; Malagoli, Davide

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids. The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated. The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phag...

  12. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

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    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  13. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  14. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes) isolates as potential agents for control of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Wa Zhang; Yu-Jun Liu; Jian Yao; Bin Wang; Bo Huang; Zeng-Zhi Li; Mei-Zhen Fan; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, as a destructive invasive pest, has become one of the most economically important forest pest in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, have shown great potential for the management of some bark beetle species. In this study, 12 isolates of B. bassiana from bark beetle were examined for biological characteristics and virulence, to assess their potential as biocontrol agents for RTB. There were significant differences (at P = 0.05) in colony growth rate, conidial yield, conidial germination, tolerance to UV light and extracellular proteases activity among the tested B. bassiana isolates. Isolates, including Bbl801, Bbl906, Bb789 and Bb773, exhibited the best characteristics, because they have faster hyphal growth rate, higher spore production and faster spore germination, higher UV tolerance and protease (Prl) production. The results of a pathogenicity test of B. bassiana on RTB larvae showed that most isolates of B. bassiana have demonstrated high efficacy and the highest virulent isolate was Bbl801, which killed 100% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time (LT50) of 4.60 days at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/mL. Therefore, isolate Bb 1801 has a great potential for sustainable control of RTB in the forest. The correlation between biological characteristics and virulence of the fungal isolates is discussed and the possibility of combination of entomopathogenic fungi with semiochemicals, as one of the promising strategy for RTB control, is considered.

  15. Sensitivity of Beauveria bassiana conidia to abiotic factors after successive in vitro subcultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro successive subcultures of Beauveria bassiana isolates in different nutritional conditions on conidia heat and UV radiation tolerance and on sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide. The fungus was initially inoculated in Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae adults and after its development, the conidia were cultivated in PDA (potato dextrose agar and MPE (medium to produce Beauveria spp. conidia originating the first subculture 1st (A conidia, which were successively multiplied in their media until the 20th cultivation. Conidia taken from the 20th subculture were again inoculated in the insect and after sporulation they were once more multiplied in the media, producing the 1st (B conidia. For the tests, 1st (A, 10th, 20th and 1st (B conidia from the CG 152 and Unioeste 40 isolates were used. Successive subcultures and the medium nutritional conditions interfered on the fungus physiology, and the isolates showed different behaviors. The subcultures on PDA showed higher thermotolerance to Unioeste 40 in all subcultures and to CG 152 just after inoculation in the host. B. bassiana was susceptible to UV radiation, and this characteristic was influenced by the subcultures in different media. Both isolates were more tolerant to UV radiation when subcultivated on MPE, while just for the 40 Unioeste this tolerance increased after host inoculation. The B. bassiana sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide was affected after successive subcultures in both medium. Conidia originated in MPE were more resistant to fungicide and the host inoculation increased this tolerance. These results show that it is possible to enhance the fungi efficiency to control pests, through the selection of a virulent isolate, and handling their nutritional conditions during cultivation and host inoculation.

  16. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 109 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  17. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  18. Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.%Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyu LUO; Yecheng DENG; Yongmei LIAO; Ruiyu LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to investigate the relationship between biological characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and pathogenicity to Bombyx rnori L, with the aim to provide scientific basis for the control of white muscardine in Bombyx mori L. [Method] The strains isolated and purified from the 6 Beauveria bassiana biocontrol agents from all over the country and the 3 white muscardine silkworms collected from Guangxi provincial silkworm rearing areas were identified by the morphological observation and molecular biology technology. The pathogenicity of B. bassaina to silkworms was determined, and the biological characteristics such as growth diameter, sporulation and the extracellular protease activity of the different B. bassiana strains were compared. [Result] The isolated 9 strains were all B. bassaina (Bals.) Vuillemin, and all strains had high pathogenicity to silkworm, but with different pathogenicities. The growth diameter, sporulation and extracellular protease activity of different B. bassiana strains were also different, and showed correlation with the patheogenicity to silkworms. [Conclusion] B. bassiana spores production amount and exocellular protease activity had significant positive correlation with their pathogenicity to silkworm.

  19. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used se

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  1. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houping; Bauer, Leah S

    2006-08-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were susceptible to B. bassiana and M. anisoplae. Significant time-mortality response was found for each isolates. Isolate B. bassiana GHA killed A. planipennis adults at a faster rate compared with other isolates tested, with the lowest average time-to-death values. The LC50 values estimated under direct immersion method ranged from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.9 x 10(7), 3.5 x 10(4) to 5.3 x 10(5), and 4.1 x 10(3) to 2.9 x 10(5) conidia/ml for B. basissiana and from 3.2 x 10(6) to 1.1 x 10(7), 4.5 x 10(3) to 4.5 x 10(5), and 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.2 x 10(5) conidia/ml for M. anisopliae at 4, 5, and 6 d after treatment, respectively. By days 5 and 6, B. bassiana GHA outperformed all other isolates tested except ARSEF 7234, followed by ARSEF 7152, 6393, and 7180. Significant concentration-mortality response was also observed for two B. bassiana GHA formulations, BotaniGard ES and Mycotrol O, and M. anisopliae F52 when insects were treated through foliar exposure. The LC50 values ranged from 114.5 to 309.6, 18.4 to 797.3, and 345.3 to 362.0 conidia/cm2 for BotaniGard, Mycotrol, and M. anisopliae F52, respectively. Based on the results of these bioassays, the efficacy of both B. bassiana GHA formulations and M. anisopliae F52 were similar against adult A. planipennis. The potential use of entomopathogenic fungi for management of A. planipennis in North America is discussed. PMID:16937660

  2. Effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Nuñez-Gaona; Gerardo Saucedo-Castañeda; Raquel Alatorre-Rosas; Octavio Loera

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran (WB).The highest growth rate of B. bassiana 885.2 on WB media was obtained at a w=1.0, with no detected growth at a w < 0.97. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) using WB (66% moisture; a w=1.0) achieved a maximal yield of 1.18x10 10 conidia per gram of dry substrate (gds). This yield decreased one order of magnitude with higher moisture cont...

  3. Optimization of Solid-State Fermentation for Improved Conidia Production of Beauveria bassiana as a Mycoinsecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Kim, Jeong Jun; Kim, Keun

    2010-06-01

    The production of conidia of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation was studied for the development of a biocontrol agent against aphid Myzus persicae. The optimal conditions for conidia production on polished white rice were 40% moisture content, 25℃ culture temperature, 2-day-old seeding culture grown in 3% corn meal, 2% rice bran, 2% corn steep powder medium, initial conidia concentration of 10(7) conidia/g in the wet rice, 10% inoculum size, and use of a polyethylene bag as a container. The polyethylene bag containing inoculated rice was hand-shaken every 12 hr during fermentation. Using optimal conditions, the maximum conidia production obtained was 4.05 g conidia/100 g dry rice after 14 days of cultivation, a rate 2.83 times higher than conidia yield of pre-optimization. PMID:23956642

  4. Biological Control of Aphid Using Fungal Culture and Culture Filtrates of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Jun; Jeong, Gayoung; Han, Ji Hee; Lee, Sangyeob

    2013-12-01

    Aphids are one of the most destructive pests in crop production such as pepper, cucumber, and eggplants. The importance of entomopathogenic fungi as alternative pest control agents is increasing. Conidia of entomopathogenic fungi are influenced by environmental conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity, and cause slow and fluctuating mortality. These factors have prevented wider application and use of biocontrol agents. For investigation of means of mitigation of such problems, we conducted bioassays with 47 fungal culture filtrates in order to evaluate the potential of secondary metabolites produced by entomopathogenic fungi for use in aphid control. Among 47 culture filtrates cultured potato dextrose broth, filtrate of Beauveria bassiana Bb08 showed the highest mortality (78%) against green peach aphid three days after treatments. Filtrate of Bb08 cultured in Adamek's medium showed higher toxicity as 100% to third instar nymphs of the aphid compared with seven other filtrates cultured in different broths amended with colloidal chitin or oil. The culture filtrates and fungal cultures from media amended with colloidal chitin or oil had lower control efficacies than filtrates without these additives in three different media. These results indicate that the fungal culture fluid or culture filtrate of B. bassiana Bb08 cultured in Adamek's medium has potential for development as a mycopesticide for aphid control. PMID:24493943

  5. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  6. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Vici

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3 comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting application of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA was produced in Komagataella pastoris in Buffered Methanol Medium (BMM induced with 1% methanol at 30 °C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in Komagataella pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction.

  7. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, Ana C.; da Cruz, Andrezza F.; Facchini, Fernanda D. A.; de Carvalho, Caio C.; Pereira, Marita G.; Fonseca-Maldonado, Raquel; Ward, Richard J.; Pessela, Benevides C.; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Torres, Fernando A. G.; Jorge, João A.; Polizeli, Maria L. T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting applications of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol) transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA) was produced in Komagataella pastoris in buffered methanol medium (BMM) induced with 1% methanol at 30°C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in K. pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction. PMID:26500628

  8. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaomeng; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  9. Effect of biofertilizers and neem oil on the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana (Bals.) vuill. and metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) sorok.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose Edson; Neves Pedro M. O. J.; Zequi João A. C.; Martins Luís H.; Peralta Cristiane H.; Moino Jr. Alcides

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas Multibi...

  10. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Myriam M. R.; Karina D. Amaral; Vanessa E. Seide; Souza, Bressane M. R.; Della Lucia, Terezinha M. C.; Maria Catarina M. Kasuya; Danival J. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana an...

  11. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Rieke; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Patel, Anant V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×10(9) TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×10(10) TS/g sucrose was obtained in the TKI broth with 5% sugar beet molasses which consists of 50% sucrose as a carbon source. In spite of the lower sugar concentration (2.5%) the amount of TS could be increased up to 11-times in contrast to the cultivation with 5% sucrose. The scale-up to a 2 L stirred tank reactor was carried out at 25°C, 200-600 rpm and 1 vvm at pH 5.5. A TS yield of 5.2×10(10) TS/g sucrose corresponding to a SCS yield of 0.2×10(10) SCS/g sucrose was obtained after 216 h. With regards to the culture medium the cost of 10(12) TS amounts to 0.24 €. Plutella xylostella larvae, which were fed with oilseed rape leaves treated with spores from fermentation resulted in 77 ± 5% mortality. Moreover, spores from submerged cultivation were able to colonize oilseed rape leaves via leaf application. This is the first report of fermentation of an endophytic B. bassiana strain in a low-cost culture medium to very high yields of TS. PMID:24949278

  12. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesada-Moraga Enrique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921. Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2% are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled.

  13. Improving Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Stored Grain Beetles with a Synergistic Co-Formulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Clare; Scoates, Freya; Nunn, Adam; Potin, Olivier; Dillon, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    The potential of a dry powder co-formulant, kaolin, to improve the control of storage beetles by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, isolate IMI389521, was investigated. The response of Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults to the fungus when applied to wheat at 1 × 10(10) conidia per kg with and without kaolin at 1.74 g per kg wheat was assessed. Addition of kaolin increased control from 46% to 88% at day 7 and from 81% to 99% at day 14 post-treatment. Following this the dose response of O. surinamensis and Tribolium confusum to both kaolin and the fungus was investigated. Synergistic effects were evident against O. surinamensis at ≥0.96 g of kaolin per kg of wheat when combined with the fungus at all concentrations tested. For T. confusum, adult mortality did not exceed 55%, however, the larvae were extremely susceptible with almost complete suppression of adult emergence at the lowest fungal rate tested even without the addition of kaolin. Finally, the dose response of Sitophilus granarius to the fungus at 15 and 25 °C, with and without kaolin at 1 g per kg of wheat, was examined. Improvements in efficacy were achieved by including kaolin at every fungal rate tested and by increasing the temperature. Kaolin by itself was not effective, only when combined with the fungus was an effect observed, indicating that kaolin was having a synergistic effect on the fungus. PMID:27571107

  14. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  15. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  16. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 107 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  17. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants. PMID:24681358

  18. [Susceptibility of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gómez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endoparasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10(7) conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. PMID:19943017

  19. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (NeemsetoR). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  20. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  1. Selection of Wetting Agent for Dried Conidia of two Beauveria bassiana Strains from Different Production Systems to Control Tarnished Plant Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) number was used to select surfactant, TDA (polyoxy-ethylene tridecyl ether) with a range of HLB numbers in formulation development of two Beauveria bassiana strains, NI8 and GHA produced from different systems. The results indicated that optimal HLB number of...

  2. Application of hydrophilic-lypophilic balance (HLB) number to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant for dried aerial conidia of Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) number system was used to optimize a compatible non-ionic surfactant, TDA(polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether) in formulations for two Beauveria bassiana strains, NI8 and GHA. The optimal HLB number for TDA was determined on the basis of wetting times for conidia...

  3. Field Applications of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) for the Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin were applied to residential sites in Old Lyme, Connecticut for the control of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis in 1999 and 2000. The pyrethroid bifenthrin was applied to other homes for comparison with B....

  4. Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorscens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were found contaminating a biopesticide used in a previous study against Varroa destructor infestations in honey bee hives. In the aforementioned study the biopesticide, a formulation of the arthropod pathogen Beauveria bassiana, failed to have any impact on t...

  5. Integrated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. tenebrionis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based integrated pest management of Colorado potato beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research conducted over the past decade has indicated a low level of synergism and potentially high degree of complementarity between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and Beauveria bassiana (Bb)-based biopesticides applied for management of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In view...

  6. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite. PMID:26206607

  7. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Qiang; Lin, Miaofeng; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Jingwen; Chen, Dasong; Li, Zhigang; Dai, Jianqing; Han, Shichou

    2016-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest) had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:27341441

  8. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo

    2015-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide. PMID:25947245

  9. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and insecticides used in coffee plantations Compatibilidade entre o fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana e inseticidas usados na cultura do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Natali de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control in integrated pest management (IPM programs of coffee plantations is an important factor for the reduction of pest population densities. The use of selective pesticides can be associated with entomopathogens, increasing the efficiency of the control and reducing the use of required insecticides. The in vitro fungitoxic effect of insecticide formulations of Thiamethoxam, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin, Triazophos, Chlorpyrifos, Fenpropathrin and Endosulfan and Beauveria bassiana (CG 425 strain was evaluated at three concentrations (FR = average field recommendation; 0.5 ´ FR and 2 ´ FR. Effects of these products on conidia germination, vegetative growth and sporulation were compared. Only five insecticides, at the FR concentration, promoted conidia viability higher than 60%. Viability should be considered the most important factor to be evaluated since it is the first step of the infection process. The insecticide formulations of Alpha-Cypermethrin, Thiamethoxam and Cyfluthrin caused the lower inhibition level on conidia germination at the two lower concentrations, with no difference in relation to the control. With respect to vegetative growth analysis, Thiamethoxam at the two lower concentrations was not found to cause radial growth inhibition. Thiamethoxam caused the smallest inhibition level with regard to conidia production. The use of Alpha-Cypermethrin and Thiamethoxam formulations in coffee IPM programs for a B. bassiana inoculum conservation strategy are recommended, since these products were compatible with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (CG 425, an important natural control agent of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.Em programas de Manejo integrado de pragas (MIP deve-se considerar o controle microbiano como um importante fator de redução da densidade populacional de pragas. A utilização de produtos seletivos quando associados a patógenos, pode aumentar a eficiência de

  10. Compatibilidade de isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae com carrapaticidas químicos utilizados no controle do carrapato dos bovinos Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae with chemicals acaricides used in the control of cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila A. G. Barci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como escopo avaliar a compatibilidade dos isolados IBCB66 e IBCB21 de Beauveria bassiana com os carrapaticidas a base de Flumetrina + Coumafós, Deltametrina, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós, Cipermetrina High Cis, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis, Cipermetrina e Amitraz utilizados no controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus em nosso país. O efeito dos produtos comerciais sobre os isolados foi verificado por meio da observação do crescimento vegetativo, produção de conídios e viabilidade das estirpes do fungo B. bassiana. Com referência ao isolado IBCB66, os produtos Deltametrina, Cipermetrina High Cis e Amitraz foram classificados como compatíveis, não interferindo no desenvolvimento do entomopatógeno. O produto Cipermetrina foi classificado como tóxico e os produtos Flumetrina + Coumafós, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós e Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis, muito tóxicos. Em relação ao isolado IBCB21, os produtos Flumetrina + Coumafós, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós, Cipermetrina High Cis, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis e Cipermetrina foram classificados como muito tóxicos e o produto Amitraz como tóxico. Entre os carrapaticidas avaliados, o produto Deltametrina foi o único que não produziu efeito tóxico sobre o entomopatógeno.The purpose of the present study was to assess compatibility between IBCB66 and IBCB21 isolates of Beauveria bassiana and acaricides: Flumethrin + Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos + Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin High Cis, Cypermethrin and Amitraz, utilized on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in our country. The effect of commercial products on the isolates was assayed according to observation of vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of strains of B. bassiana fungus. With concerning about IBCB66

  11. Metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using an LC-MS-based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ruili; Jin, Song; Chen, Yihui; Fan, Meizhen; Huang, Bo; Li, Zengzhi; Hu, Fenglin

    2016-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is commonly used as a biological agent for pest control. Environmental and biological factors expose the fungus to oxidative stress; as a result, B. bassiana has adopted a number of anti-oxidant mechanisms. In this study, we investigated metabolites of B. bassiana that are formed in response to oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed differences between the control and the H2O2-treated groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed 18 up-regulated metabolites and 25 down-regulated metabolites in the H2O2-treated fungus. Pathway analysis indicated that B. bassiana may be able to alleviate oxidative stress by enhancing lipid catabolism and glycometabolism, thus decreasing membrane polarity and preventing polar H2O2 or ROS from permeating into fungal cells and protecting cells against oxidative injury. Meanwhile, most of the unsaturated fatty acids that are derived from glycerophospholipids hydrolysis can convert into oxylipins through autoxidation, which can prevent the reactive oxygen of H2O2 from attacking important macromolecules of the fungus. Results showed also that H2O2 treatment can enhance mycotoxins production which implies that oxidative stress may be able to increase the virulence of the fungus. In comparison to the control group, citric acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine were down-regulated, which suggested that metabolic flux was occurring to the TCA cycle and enhancing carbohydrate metabolism. The findings from this study will contribute to the understanding of how the molecular mechanisms of fungus respond to environmental and biological stress factors as well as how the manipulation of such metabolisms may lead to selection of more effective fungal strains for pest control. PMID:27116916

  12. Could Sterile Males be Used to Vector a Microbiological Control Agent? The Case of Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus and Beauveria Bassiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8±5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana-challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana-infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus. (author)

  13. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. PMID:25110340

  14. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

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    Myriam M. R. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus ochraceus, were tested against worker ants in the laboratory. The two species were highly virulent, achieving 50 percent worker mortality within 4-5 days. It is the first time A. ochraceus, a commonly found fungal species, is reported to infect Atta species at a high prevalence. Possible uses for the fungus within biological control are discussed.

  15. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for the control of Blissus antillus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae Seleção de isolados Beauveria Bassiana e Metarhizium Anisopliae para o controle de Blissus Antillus

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    Richard Ian Samuels

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinch bugs of the genus Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae are serious pests of maize, wheat, sorghum and various grasses. This study is the first to screen isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against 4th instar and adult Blissus antillus aiming to develop a biological control program for this important pasture pest. Ten fungal isolates were initially screened and three isolates were chosen for further investigation. To determine virulence, insects were inoculated by immersion in concentrations of 5 ´ 10(8 conidia mL-1. Mortality was evaluated for 10 days. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 was the most virulent isolate to both nymphs and adults, causing 53 and 78% infection, respectively, and values for LT50 of 7.8 and 5.0 days, respectively. Germination studies were carried out to confirm viability and determine speed of germination as a pathogenicity factor. The production of conidia on the cadavers of insects infected with the three selected isolates was determined. The production of conidia on rice media was also evaluated. B. bassiana CG 24 produced the highest number of conidia on insects cadavers (14.9 ´ 10(7 conidia per insect and also on rice media (10.6 ´ 10(9 conidia per g.Percevejos do gênero Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygeidae são pragas importantes das plantações de milho, trigo e sorgo e de vários tipos de gramíneos forrageiros. Esse estudo é o primeiro a amostrar isolados de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae contra aos 4(0 instares e adultos de Blissus antillus com a finalidade de desenvolver um programa de controle biológico dessa importante praga de pastagens. Dez isolados foram inicialmente testados e três foram escolhidos para maiores investigações. Para determinar a virulência, os insetos foram inoculados por imersão em suspensões de conídios a uma concentração de 5 ´ 10(8 conídios mL-1. Mortalidade foi avaliada por 10 dias. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 foi o isolado mais virulento para as ninfas e os

  16. Controle associado de Alphitobius diaperinuse efeito de microrganismos eficazes no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana Associated control of Alphitobius diaperinus and effect of effective microorganisms in the development of Beauveria bassiana

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    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de Beauveria bassiana (Bb, terra diatomácea (TD e microrganismos eficazes (EM-4, associados ou não, no controle de Alphitobius diaperinus, e o efeito de EM-4 no desenvolvimento de B. bassiana. Os agentes de controle (Bb, TD e EM-4, em diferentes concentrações e combinações, foram aplicados em uma mistura de cama-de-frango e ração, em que os insetos foram acondicionados por dez dias. Avaliaram-se, in vitro: a germinação, as unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC, o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de conídios de Bb em contato com suspensão aquosa de EM-4 (1% não filtrada e filtrada. Os maiores índices de mortalidade foram observados nos tratamentos TD + Bb + EM-4 e TD + Bb, nas maiores concentrações. Verificou-se efeito não-aditivo sinérgico para TD + Bb nas três concentrações. Nos testes com EM-4 filtrado, não houve diferença em relação à testemunha quanto à germinação e às UFC, entretanto, o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de conídios foram negativamente afetados. O uso conjunto de B. bassiana e terra diatomácea, para o manejo de populações de A. diaperinus, pode reduzir o uso de produtos químicos.The objective of this work was to evaluate Beauveria bassiana (Bb, diatomaceous earth (TD and effective microorganisms (EM-4, associated or not, to Alphitobius diaperinus control, and the EM-4 effect on B. bassiana development. The control agents (Bb, TD and EM-4, in different concentrations and combinations, were applied in a mixture of litter and chicken food, where insects had been left per ten days. Conidia germination, colony-forming units (CFU, vegetative growth and the productivity of Bb conidia were evaluated when in contact with a filtered and non filtered watery EM-4 suspension (1%. The highest indices of mortality were observed in the treatments TD + Bb + EM and TD + Bb in the highest concentrations. A synergic non additive effect was

  17. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

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    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  18. Effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Nuñez-Gaona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran (WB.The highest growth rate of B. bassiana 885.2 on WB media was obtained at a w=1.0, with no detected growth at a w < 0.97. Solid-state fermentation (SSF using WB (66% moisture; a w=1.0 achieved a maximal yield of 1.18x10 10 conidia per gram of dry substrate (gds. This yield decreased one order of magnitude with higher moisture contents or the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB as a texturiser. In SSF using WB (66% humidity,the time to obtain a yield of 1x10(10 conidia/gds, referred to as t10, could be predicted using a model considering common inoculum levels and maximal yields. For instance, t10 was 285 h with an inoculum of 1x10(6 conidia/gds; however, t10 was reduced to 232 h and 148 for inocula of 7x10(6 and 5x10(7 conidia/gds, respectively. The estimation of t10 values allowed both comparison between the cultures and prediction of harvesting times in production processes. Values for hydrophobicity were within 90 and 92%, whereas viability averages were around 70% for all the cultures

  19. Evaluación de Beauveria bassiana para el combate de insectos plaga en maíz almacenado

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    Juan Diego Molina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana, para controlar los insectos plaga Prostephanus truncatus y Stophilus zeamais, en mazorcas de maíz almacenado. Se evaluó también la patogenicidad del hongo sobre Teritriosoma nigrescens, depredador natural de P. truncatus. Se mezclaron conidios secos del hongo con kaolinita y se aplicaron a trojas de maíz de 450 mazorcas acomodadas en capas de 50. Se montaron dos ensayos, en el primero se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo al momento de almacenar el maíz, y en el segundo se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo realizadas después de almacenar el maíz. La mortalidad de P. truncatus fue cuatro veces mayor en el ensayo donde se aplicó el hongo en forma preventiva. La mortalidad de S. zeamais fue el doble en el tratamiento donde se aplicó el hongo al momento de inocular con P. truncatus. Los niveles de mortalidad por B. bassiana fueron mayores en P. truncatus que en S. zeamais, pero S. zeamais, pero este último mostró un 20% más de infección que el primero

  20. Evaluation of the pathogenicity of multiple isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) for the assessment of a solid formulation under simulated field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ricaño, Jorge; Güerri Agulló, Berenice; Serna Sarriás, María José; Rubio Llorca, Germán; Asensio Berbegal, Leticia; Barranco, Pablo; López Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2013-01-01

    A solid state formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin has been developed for biological control of the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790). Two kinds of bioassays (dry conidia and dipping) using 10 isolates from several coleopterans in Mediterranean environments, identified 2 RPW derived isolates (193 and 203) as most pathogenic to RPW larvae and adults (zero survival within first 4–5 d for dry conidia, and 14 and 23 d for dipping bioassays). Isolate...

  1. An attempt to use the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in forest protection against the bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki Wojciech; Kosibowicz Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2013, trials on the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against bark beetle (Ips typographus) populations were carried out under open field conditions in Norway spruce stands suffering from an outbreak in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in Poland. Modified pheromone traps were deployed to capture and thereafter release fungus-infected bark beetles to the forest environment. Infested spruce trees felled next to the traps remained unaffected by the transmission of the fungus ...

  2. Laboratory bioassay of Beauveria bassiana against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaf discs and potted bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2015-03-01

    Use of the mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), marketed as BotaniGard(®) ES, was evaluated as a plant protection strategy against the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, which is considered one of the most economically important and cosmopolitan pests of many crops. Tetranychus urticae were treated with four concentrations of conidia (1 × 10(5), 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(7), or 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml), and virulence was assessed on mites held at four relative humidity levels (35, 55, 75, and 95 ± 2 % RH) at 25 ± 1 °C. At 1 × 10(8) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 9.7 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly lower than values for other RH levels. At 1 × 10(7) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 43.8 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly different from values at 55 and 35 % RH. The efficacy of B. bassiana product was also verified on mites infesting potted bean plants with a concentration of 1 × 10(8) spores/ml. In double spray treatment where applications were made 2 × on days 5 and 10 after mite infestation, the nymphal and adult population of T. urticae were reduced to zero on days 20 and 15, respectively. With a single spray on day 5, the nymphal population was also greatly reduced, but increased rapidly after day 20. Single and double sprays with B. bassiana reduced leaf damage as measured by image analysis by 33 and 94 % compared to no treatment, respectively. These results suggest that 1 × 10(8) spores/ml was the most effective dose and that two applications, at a 5-day interval, provided control of T. urticae in our laboratory assay. PMID:25500970

  3. Potential of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), as biological control agents against the June beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Fedai; Ates, A Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) strain PPRI 5339 [BroadBand, an emulsifiable spore concentrate (EC) formulation] and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain F52 [Met52, both EC and granular (GR) formulations] against the larvae of Polyphylla fullo (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Larvicidal bioassays were performed in foam boxes (100 by 75 by 50 cm; length by width by height), containing moist soil medium with some humus and potato tubers as food. Although the B. bassiana product (min. 4 × 10(9) conidia/ml) was applied at 100, 150, and 200 ml/100 l water; M. anisopliae strain F52 was applied at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 g/m(3) of moist soil medium for GR (9 × 10(8) cfu/g) and 75, 100, and 125 ml/100 l water for EC (5.5 × 10(9) conidia/ml) formulation. Both fungi were pathogenic to larvae of the pest; however, young larvae (1st and 2nd instars) were more susceptible to infection than older ones (3rd instar). Mortality rates of young and older larvae varied with conidial concentration of both fungi and elapsed time after application. The B. bassiana product was more effective than both of the formulations of the M. anisopliae product, causing mortalities up to 79.8 and 71.6% in young and older larvae, respectively. The highest mortality rates of young and older larvae caused by the M. anisopliae product were 74.1 and 67.6% for the GR formulation, 70.2 and 61.8% for the EC formulation, respectively. These results may suggest that both fungi have potential to be used for management of P. fullo. PMID:25881632

  4. RAPD e ITS Detectan Variación Molecular en Poblaciones Chilenea de Beauveria bassiana RAPD and ITS Reveal Molecular Variation of Chilean Populations of Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Becerra V; Mario Paredes C.; Carmen Rojo M; Andrés France I

    2007-01-01

    Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa atractiva para el control biológico de insectos plagas. En Chile, el Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu mantiene aproximadamente 400 aislamientos de Beauveria, colectados a través del país. Esta colección ha sido parcialmente clasificada en base a su morfología y a su eficacia como controlador biológico. Sin embargo, es necesario complementar estos estudios con una caracterización a nivel...

  5. A Distinctive Pattern of Beauveria bassiana-biotransformed Ginsenoside Products Triggers Mitochondria/FasL-mediated Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Sang Il; Rahman, Md Khalilur; Won, Jong Soon; Cho, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most commonly used adaptogens. Transformation into the minor ginsenosides produces compounds with more effective action. Beauveria bassiana, a teleomorph of Cordyceps bassiana, is a highly efficient producer of mammalian steroids and produces large amounts of sugar-utilizing enzymes. However, the fermentation of steroid glycosides in ginseng with B. bassiana has never been studied. Thus, we evaluated the bioconversion of the major ginsenosides in white ginseng by B. bassiana. Interestingly, B. bassiana increased the total amount of protopanaxadiols and hydrolyzed Rb1 into minor ginsenosides, exhibiting high levels of Rd and Rg3, as well as moderate levels of Rb2 and Rc analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detection. The β-glucosidase activity was highly increased, which led to the selective elimination of sugar moiety at the 20-C position of Rb1 to Rd, followed by Rg3. Rb2 and Rc accumulated because of the minimal activities of α-L-arabinopyranosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. The fermentation product exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HCT-15 cells, which are resistant to ginseng. The product, but not white ginseng, exhibited apoptotic effects via the Fas ligand and caspase 8/9. This study demonstrates for the first time that the B. bassiana-fermented metabolites have potent apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells, linking to a therapeutic use. PMID:26609787

  6. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information on...... the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid, with...

  7. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates

  8. Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with Neoseiulus barkeri for Control of Frankliniella occidentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng-yong; GAO Yu-lin; XU Xue-nong; Mark S Goettel; LEI Zhong-ren

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungusBeauveriabassiana (Balsamo) Vuilemin and predatory miteNeoseiulusbarkeri Hughes are effective biological control agents ofFranklinielaoccidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), one of the most important pests of ornamentals and vegetables world-wide. Combined application of both may enhance control efifciency. The functional response forN.barkeri on the ifrst instar larvae of western lfower thrips which were infected byB.bassiana for 12 and 24 h in the laboratory ((25±1)°C, (70±5)% RH, L:D=16 h:8 h) was determined. The virulence ofB.bassiana against the second instar and pupae of the thrips attacked byN.barkeri were also tested. The results showed that N.barkeri exhibited a Holing type II functional response on treated thrips. After having been treated with the fungus for 12 h and then offered to the predator, thrips were more vulnerable to be kiled byN.barkeri. The second instar larvae and pupae of the thrips which had been attacked by predatory mites were markedly more susceptible toB.bassiana infection than normal thrips; the cumulative corrected mortality ofB.bassiana of the second instar and pupae which were attacked byN.barkeri were 57 and 94%, respectively, compared to 35 and 80% in controls on the day 8. These ifndings highlight the potential use ofB.bassiana in combination withN.barkeri to controlF. occidentalis.

  9. Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana ao psilídeo Diaphorina citri e compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity to Diaphorina citri and compatibility of the fungus with phytosanitary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana a ninfas de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae e verificar a compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários e sua persistência em plantas de citros. Ninfas de D. citri foram pulverizadas com B. bassiana, nas concentrações 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 e 1x10(9 conídios mL-1, para determinação da concentração letal. Para avaliação da compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários, extrato de nim e cinco inseticidas de quatro grupos químicos diferentes foram incorporados individualmente ao meio de cultura BDA em que o fungo foi cultivado. Avaliaram-se o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a viabilidade do entomopatógeno. Plantas de citros, mantidas em casa de vegetação, foram tratadas primeiramente com os produtos fitossanitários e depois com o entomopatógeno. Avaliaram-se os tempos de exposição de 24 horas e de 7 e 14 dias. O fungo foi patogênico às ninfas de D. citri; a CL50 foi de 0,4x10(7 e a CL90 de 6,7x10(7 conidios mL-1, no décimo dia de avaliação. Em laboratório, os produtos fitosssanitários reduzem o crescimento do fungo. Em casa de vegetação, os produtos não afetam a sobrevivência do fungo nas plantas de citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs, and to check the compatibility of the fungus with phytosanitary products, and its persistence in citrus plants. Nymphs of D. citri were sprayed with B. bassiana in the concentrations 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 and 1x10(9 conidia mL-1 for lethal concentration determination. In order to evaluate the compatibility of the phytosanitary products with the fungus, neem extract and five insecticides of four different chemical groups were individually added to PDA culture medium, in which the fungus was cultivated. Vegetative growth, sporulation and viability

  10. Patogenicidade do fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana sobre o percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae / Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the grass bug Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Barboza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae é uma praga de cereais cultivados e pastagens, e o controle microbiano é uma alternativa para manter estas populações abaixo do nível de dano econômico. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade do isolado CG 460 de Beauveria bassiana sobre este percevejo. Insetos adultos foram inoculados em laboratório com cinco concentrações de conídios (1,0x105; 1,0x106; 1,0x107; 1,0x108 e 1,0x109 conídios.mL-1 e alimentados com folhas de trigo. A mortalidade total e confirmada (conidiogênese sobre os insetos mortos foram avaliadas durante seis dias consecutivos. O isolado apresentou alta capacidade infectiva sobre o mirideo, com mortalidade total variando de 40 a 90%. A mortalidade confirmada apresentou uma correlação linear positiva com a concentração de conídios. A taxa de conidiogênese nas concentrações mais baixas do inoculo foi em torno de 26%, sendo que nas concentrações maiores os valores chegaram a 70%. O tempo letal 50 para a concentração 109 foi de 4,3 dias.AbstractThe grass bug, Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae, is a pest of cereal crops and pastures, and the microbial control is an alternative to maintain the pest population below economic injury level. The present work had the objective to assess the pathogenicity isolate CG460 of Beauveria bassiana against this grass bug. Adult insects had been inoculated in laboratory with five conidia concentrations (1.0x105, 1.0x106, 1.0x107, 1.0x108, 1.0x109 conidia.mL-1, and fed with wheat leaves. Total and confirmed mortality (sporulation on the dead insects had been assessed during six consecutive days. CG460 showed high virulency on the grass bug, with the total mortality ranged from 40 to 90%. Confirmed mortality presented positive and linear correlation with the conidia concentrations. The conidiogenesis rates in the lowest concentrations of inoculum were around 26%, being that in the highest

  11. Virulencia de Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre picudo del nopal Metarnasius spinolae

    OpenAIRE

    Orduño Cruz, Nuvia

    2012-01-01

    El picudo del nopal (Metamasius spinolae), es uno de los principales factores limitantes de la producción comercial de nopal en Tlalnepantla Morelos. El control de plagas se basa en insecticidas y el uso de nuevas alternativas como los hongos entomopatógenos ha sido poco estudiada. Con el objeto de seleccionar aislamientos de las especies B. bassiana y M. anisopliae para el control del picudo del nopal se evaluaron seis aislamientos de B. bassiana y dos de M. anisopliae en...

  12. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²). PMID:27376335

  13. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  14. A protocol for determination of conidial viability of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae from commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daian Guilherme Pinto; Pauli, Giuliano; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for directly determining conidial viability have widespread use but also have limitations for quality control assessments of formulated mycoinsecticides, especially in emulsifiable oil. This study proposes a new method based on adaptations of already established protocols that use the direct viability method to make it more economical and accurate, thus enabling its use in the evaluation of formulated products. Appropriate parameters and conditions were defined using products based on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the forms of pure conidia, fungus-colonized rice, ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion. The established protocol, named ESALQ, consists of the transfer of 150 μL of a suspension containing about 0.7 and 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL onto Rodac® plates with 5 mL of potato dextrose agar culture medium + 5 mg/L of Pentabiotic® and 10 μL/L of Derosal® (Carbendazim) and subsequent counting of germinated and non-germinated conidia. For the ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion formulations, prior to transferring the fungal suspension to the medium, rice should be decanted and the oil removed, respectively. This method was compared with another direct viability method and with the Colony-forming unit (CFU) and Fluorescence viability methods, comparing the accuracy obtained using the coefficient of variation (CV) of the analysis of each method. The results showed that in addition to the ease of application, the developed method has higher accuracy than the other methods (with a CV up to seven times lower than in the Standard method and up to 32 times lower than CFU). The CFU method underestimated the concentration of viable conidia in most of the tested fungal forms, and in the emulsifiable oil products, these values were 54% lower for B. bassiana and 84% lower for M. anisopliae. The adaptations and standardizations proposed in the ESALQ method showed effective improvements for routine quality assessment of

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin increases the susceptibility of Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata to Beauveria bassiana infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most devastating pests of asparagus in China and elsewhere. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bas...

  16. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  17. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  18. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  19. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites. PMID:24253584

  20. Optimization of erythritol and glycerol accumulation in conidia of Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation, using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarocco, Federico; Lecuona, Roberto E; Couto, Alicia S; Arcas, Jorge A

    2005-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely produced for use as mycoinsecticides. Therefore, improvement of the shelf life of fungal propagules under good and adverse conditions should be a pre-requisite of their production. In order to improve conidial physiology as well as mycoinsecticide efficiency, culture conditions may be varied. The Doehlert design was used to generate response surfaces with an estimation of the parameters of the quadratic model allowing the study of three different factors at a different number of levels. This experimental design was applied to optimize water activity (aw), pH, and fermentation time for Beauveria bassiana conidial production and accumulation of polyols in solid-state fermentation. Thus, it was possible to identify the region in the experimental range in which the optimum values of these parameters were simultaneously achieved. Maximal conidia production was achieved at pH 5-6 and aw=0.999. Under these conditions, polyol accumulation was 3 mg erythritol/g conidia and 29.6 mg glycerol/g conidia. However, maximal polyol accumulation was achieved at pH 4.5 and aw 0.950; erythritol production increased 33-fold and glycerol production 4.5-fold. Under these conditions conidia production was 1,000 times lower. The possibilities of increasing the quality of the biocontrol agent without neglecting yield are discussed. PMID:15731900

  1. Evaluación de un biorreactor de lecho empacado para el desarrollo del hongo Beauveria bassiana

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    Zapata Zapata Arley David

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación del biorreactor de lecho empacado para el desarrollo del hongo Beauveria bassiana se hizo con base en las variables temperatura y concentración de conidias, utilizando un sustrato sólido constituido por trigo entero. Se tomaron como parámetros de operación, la altura del lecho, el flujo de aire y la posición dentro del biorreactor, siendo el tiempo de fermentación un parámetro predeterminado que permitió monitorear las variables y comparar la productividad en el desarrollo del hongo. Se pudo observar, con ayuda de un diseño de experimentos factorial y una prueba de Tukey, que bajo ciertas condiciones de operación como una relación H/D = 0.9 (H: altura del lecho, D: diametro del biorreactor y un flujo de aire de 12.3 L/min, se incrementó significativamente la productividad del hongo con respecto al método tradicional de producción (botellas bajo la escala ensayada, siendo la posición un factor poco significativo en el proceso. Palabras clave: Fermentación en estado sólido, control biológico.

  2. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  3. Estudio de las condiciones de mezclado en fermentador para la producción de blastosporas de Beauveria bassiana

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    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Study of the mixing conditions in bioreactor for blastospores production of Beauveria bassiana.Resumen: Se caracterizaron tres fermentadores: New Brunswick M-19 de 14 litros, Applikon Biocontroller 1035 de 7 litros y New Brunswick Bioflo III de 7 litros, determinando el coeficiente volumétrico de transferencia de oxígeno (KLa, la retención de gas (RG y el tiempo de mezclado (tM. El fermentador New Brunswick Bioflo III tuvo los mejores valores con una relación de diámetro del impulsor/diámetro del tanque (DI/DT de 0.43, KLa = 9.5-208 h-1 y tM = 1.0-3.0 s, por lo que fue seleccionado para realizar la producción de blastosporas de Beauveria bassiana, utilizando melaza como fuente de carbono. Se estudiaron las condiciones de mezclado, utilizando diferentes combinaciones de impulsores tipo Rushton, Maxflo y Lightnin, bajo un diseño experimental factorial 32. El tiempo de propagación fue de 4 días, el volumen de trabajo 4 litros, 10% de inóculo (1x106 blastosporas/ml, temperatura 30°C, agitación de 400-500 rpm, aireación de 0.5-1.0 vvm, y pH de 5.4.El hongo se desarrolló mejor utilizando la combinación de impulsores Rushton-Maxflo a 400 rpm y 1.0 vvm (F = 10.324, p £ 0.0123 (DMS=0.585, obteniendo una concentración de 1.2x109 blastosporas/ml, 2.2 g/l de biomasa y 2.48 g/l de consumo de sustrato (Y x/s=0.89. Las condiciones de mezclado y los parámetros obtenidos pueden ser aplicados en otros fermentadores para optimizar la producción de blastosporas de B. bassiana en la elaboración experimental de bioinsecticidas.Palabras clave: fermentación líquida, aireación, agitación, hongo entomopatógeno.Abstract: In this work three fermenters were characterized: New Brunswick M-19 of 14 liters, Biocontroller Applikon 1035 of 7 liters and New Brunswick Bioflo III of 7 liters, determining the volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer (KLa, gas retention (GH and the mixing time (tM. The fermenter New Brunswick Bioflo III

  4. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  5. Conidia production by Beauveria bassiana (for the biocontrol of a diamondback moth) during solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S W; Lee, S H; Yoon, C S; Kim, S W

    2005-01-01

    Conidia of Beauveria bassiana CS-1, which have the potential for the control of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), were produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a packed-bed bioreactor with rice straw and wheat bran. As the packing density and the bed height were increased, the production of conidia decreased. In a packed-bed bioreactor under no aeration and no addition of polypropylene (PP) foam (control), the total average of conidia was 4.9 x 10(8) g-1. The production of conidia was affected more by the addition of PP foam as an inert support than forced aeration and was approx. 23 times higher than that of the control. The total average of conidia produced by B. bassiana was 1.1-1.2 x 10(10) g-1 . PMID:15703878

  6. Preservation of beauveria bassiana (balsam) vuillemin (moniliales: moniliaceae) pathogenicityagainst the coffee borer in different systems

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bahamón; E. Aycardi; Orozco, J; Marín, P. (Pedro); Bustillo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar técnicas de preservación de patogenicidad en el laboratorio, que permitan almacenar por tiempos prolongados cultivos de B. bassiana de manera que se puedan utilizar en la preparación de un producto industrial sin tener que recurrir tan frecuentemente a pases sobre poblaciones de Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) para mantener su efectividad en el control de esta plaga. Existen numerosos trabajos sobre la preservación de la viabilid...

  7. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  8. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

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    Howard Annabel FV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new

  9. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. / Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill.

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    Cristiane Mita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari and the conidia grown on insect were used to prepare the inoculum containing 108conídia/mL. These conidia were inoculated at 1% (v/v in culture liquid medium containing D-glucose (10g, yeast extract (5g, NaNO3 (1,58g, Na2HPO4.7H2O (1,05g, KCl (1g, MgSO4.7H2O (0,6g and KH2PO4 (0,36g per liter. The cultivation was carried at 28°C and 180rpm during 5 days. Culture fluid was obtained by filtration and centrifugation at 8.000g, and the chitinases were isolated and concentrated by ultrafiltration using 10 and 100kDa cut off membranes under nitrogen pressure. Chitinase activity was detected and quantified using N-acetylglucosamine released by hydrolysis of colloidal chitin at 40 to 60ºC, at 50, 100 and 200 mM ionic concentrations of buffers sodium acetate (pH 4.0 to 6.0; sodium phosphate (pH 6.0 to 8.0; and Glycine-NaOH (pH 8.0 to 10.0 during 60 minutes. Maximum chitinase activity was at 45ºC and pH 5.5, and was also high at pH 6.0 and pH 8.5 using 50mM buffer. The chitinase activity increased and was stable during an hour at optimum conditions of the reaction, shown the stable nature of this enzyme.Beauveria bassiana é um fungo entomopatogênico utilizado no controle biológico de insetos-praga que infestam produtos agrícolas. O mecanismo de infecção envolve a produção de enzimas extracelulares, como proteases e quitinases que degradam a cutícula dos insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros cinéticos de pH, temperatura, concentração iônica e tempo de

  10. Endophytic Ability of Different Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin in Stem and Leaf Tissues of Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, S; Ramanujam, B; Poornesha, B

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the ability of six promising indigenous isolates of Beauveria bassiana (NBAII-Bb-5a, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 45) as an endophyte in maize stem and leaf tissues. Maize seedlings (var. Nithyashree) were inoculated with conidial suspensions and were examined for endophytic establishment in leaf and stems at different intervals during 15-90 days after treatment. All six isolates showed colonization in stem and leaf tissues with varying abilities of colonization and persistence. The mean percent colonization ranged from 7.41 to 20.37 % in older stem tissues and 3.70 to 21.29 % in young stem tissues and in leaf, it ranged from 6.46 to 27.78 % in older leaf tissues and 11.11 to 26.85 % in young leaf tissues. Among six isolates tested, Bb-23 isolate recorded the maximum mean colonization in older stem (20.37 %), older leaf (27.78 %) and in young stem (21.29 %). Bb-5a isolate showed maximum mean colonization in young leaf tissues (26.85 %). Persistence of inoculated fungal isolates decreased with increase in age of the plant. No physical symptoms of damage were observed in any of the B. bassiana treated plants. No colonization of B. bassiana was observed in the untreated control maize plants. The results obtained in plating and PCR techniques were similar with regard to the confirmation of endophytic establishment of B. bassiana. This study indicated the possibility of using B. bassiana as an endophyte in maize for management of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. PMID:27570303

  11. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA as an insecticide on tomatoes for strain ATCC-74040 and on tomatoes, cucumbers and ornamentals for strain GHA. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  12. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential. PMID:27143049

  13. Populational parameters of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Pupae of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) treated with two strains of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. (Deuteromycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuona, Roberto; Crespo, Diana; La Rossa, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker is an efficient controller of Dipteran pupae, such as Musca domestica L. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. is a regulator of insect populations, including these synanthropic pests. The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilizing both agents in a combined form for the biocontrol of the domestic fly. Recently formed M. domestica pupae were inoculated by immersion in conidia suspension (10(8) conidia/ml) with two strains of B. bassiana (Bb6 and Bb10). The inoculated pupae were offered to the female parasitoid. In one bioassay they were offered pupae inoculated a single day and in other, pupae inoculated the following day as well. In both bioassays non inoculated (control) pupae were offered to the parasitoids until their death. Thirty females of S. endius were used for each strain and bioassay. From the study of the parasitoid offspring, life tables were built and the reproduction net rate (R(0)) and intrinsic natural increase (r(m)) were obtained among other demographic parameters; the parasitism percentages and sex ratios were also analyzed. B. bassiana did not affect significantly the biodemography of the parasitoid when pupae were inoculated a single time. On the other hand the R0 and the rm were smaller than that of the control without the fungus when pupae were inoculated twice, although sporulation was not observed in the cadavers of S. endius. PMID:17934618

  14. Field applications of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for the control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kirby C; Allan, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin were applied to residential sites in Old Lyme, CT, for the control of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, in 1999 and 2000. The pyrethroid bifenthrin was applied to other premises for comparison with B. bassiana. A wood chip barrier was installed and maintained at six of the treated properties. In 1999, control of I. scapularis nymphs ranged from 74.5 to 83.0% on lawns without wood chips and from 88.9 to 90% on lawns with wood chip barriers. As a control check, no ticks (n = 23) collected at pretreatment or control sites died from B. bassiana, although 15 of 18 nymphs from treated lawns developed mycoses. Control of I. scapularis on the lawns in 2000 with the two B. bassiana products was lower, as follows: 38.0 and 58.7% without the barrier and 56.9 and 55.1% with the wood chip barrier. Posttreatment differences in nymphal numbers between treatments and control were significant (P = 0.005 and P = 0.039, 1999 and 2000, respectively). The bifenthrin provided 86 and 87% control each year, respectively. The application of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain F52 to 9 residential sites in Westport and Weston, CT, in 2002 provided significant (P = 0.034; P = 0.039) reductions in nymphal tick abundance with 55.6 and 84.6% fewer ticks on lawn and woodland plots, respectively. These results suggest the application of entomopathogenic fungi could provide another approach for the control of I. scapularis nymphs in residential or similar landscapes. PMID:21175060

  15. [Interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Hugo J G; Marques, Edmilson J; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are broadly applied to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Diamondback moth is a major pest of cruciferous worldwide, and resistance of this pest to insecticide has been often reported. Thus, this research investigated the interactions among the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) before and after application of the fungi on DBM larvae offered to the parasitoid. The experiment was carried out at 26+/-l degreeC, 75+/- 5% RH and 12h photophase using a completely randomized design, with eight treatments with six replications each. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana, were used at the concentration of 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana reduced the parasitism of P. xylostella by O. sokolowskii. Additive effects were found on the mortality of P. xylostella with the different combinations among the fungi and parasitoid, except for the treatment B. bassiana inoculated 24h before exposition of the larvae to O. sokolowskii. The isolates were more efficacious when applied after exposition of the larvae to the parasitoid. The efficiency of O. sokolowskii was negatively influenced by the presence of the fungi, mainly when the fungi were applied 24h before diamondback's larvae were exposed to the parasitoid. The association of the fungi with the parasitoid presents potential to be tested in field. The use of these natural enemies in the integrated management of P. xylostella may economically improve the cabbage productive system, especially for organic farming. PMID:17348136

  16. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  17. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho; Marcelo Elias Fraga; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Carlos Alberto da Rocha Rosa

    2010-01-01

    As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para...

  18. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampei)
    Identificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei))

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira; Diogo Maciel de Magalhães; Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos; Dalva Trevisan; Eliana Tiemi Ito; Jurandir Pereira Pinto; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Geni Silva Varéa; Jakeliny Akemi Yamamoto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei). Uma suspensão contendo 106 con...

  19. Regulative roles of glutathione reductase and four glutaredoxins in glutathione redox, antioxidant activity, and iron homeostasis of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long-Bin; Tang, Li; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Multiple glutaredoxins (Grx) and glutathione reductase (Glr) are vital for the thiol-disulfide redox system in budding yeast but generally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we characterized the Beauveria bassiana redox system comprising dithiol Grx1, monothiol Grx2-4, Grx-like Grx5, and Glr orthologue. Each grx or glr deletion was compensated by increased transcripts of some other grx genes in normal cultures. Particularly, grx3 compensated the absence of grx1, grx2, grx5, or glr under oxidative stress while its absence was compensated only by undeletable grx4 under normal conditions but by most of other undeleted grx and glr genes in response to menadione. Consequently, the redox state was disturbed in Δglr more than in Δgrx3 but not in Δgrx1/2/5. Superoxide dismutases were more active in normal Δgrx1-3 cultures but less in Δgrx5 or Δglr response to menadione. Total catalase activity increased differentially in all the mutant cultures stressed with or without H2O2 while total peroxidase activity decreased more in the normal or H2O2-stressed culture of Δglr than of Δgrx3. Among the mutants, Δgrx3 showed slightly increased sensitivity to menadione or H2O2; Δglr exhibited greater sensitivity to thiol-oxidizing diamide than thiol-reducing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as well as increased sensitivity to the two oxidants. Intriguingly, all the mutants grew slower in a Fe(3+)-inclusive medium perhaps due to elevated transcripts of two Fe(3+) transporter genes. More or fewer phenotypes linked with biocontrol potential were altered in four deletion mutants excluding Δgrx5. All the changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Overall, Grx3 played more critical role than other Grx homologues in the Glr-dependent redox system of the fungal entomopathogen. PMID:26969041

  20. 球孢白僵菌液体制剂研究%The Study on A Liquid Preparation of Beauveria Bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱天辉; 杨世璋; 李远翔

    2001-01-01

    Effects of different media and fermentative conditions on the production of spores and cumulation of mycelial substence for Beauveria bassiana were studied by means of liquid fermentation. The results show that Beauveria bassiana does not produce blastospores on five media except for the medium (substitute code D) which contains 5% waste sugar, 1% corn abstract, and 0.1% K2HPO4, meanwhile, the D-medium, on which Beauveria bassiana grows well and produces bigger spores, is regarded as a ideal liquid carrier. The optimal fermentative conditions are as follows: temperature 25~30℃, pH6.0~7.0, Vibrating time 96hr, and not excess 1/6 flak volume as ventilation index.%通过液体发酵试验,研究了不同营养基质、不同发酵条件对球孢白僵菌液生分生孢子、芽孢子、干物质积累的影响,结果显示:在5种培养基中,除“糖蜜5%、玉米浸提液1%、K2HPO4 0.1%”(代号D)外,其它均不产生芽孢子,以D配方生物量最高,孢子较大,为本试验选出的液体制剂的理想载体,最佳发酵条件为温度25~30℃,pH6.0~7.0,通气量以瓶装培养液量为指标不超过1/6瓶装量,发酵时间以96小时为佳。白僵菌液体制剂的理想载体与最佳发酵条件的组合可使白僵菌液生分生孢子达2.5×1010左右,超过了目前四川固体发酵的生产水平。

  1. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  2. Natural Occurrence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales on Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rossoni

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Relata-se a ocorrência natural de um fungo entomopatogênico sobre a lagarta Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em uma área de soja convencional situada no município de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. A lagarta foi coletada a campo e levada ao laboratório de microbiologia da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, onde permaneceu em câmera úmida por aproximadamente 7 dias. Posteriormente, o fungo foi isolado em meio de cultura (BDA para identificação da espécie do entomopatógeno. O fungo foi identificado como Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales e, isso representa o primeiro registro de parasitismo, dessa espécie, sobre a lagarta-da-soja no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.

  3. Genetic improvement of the nematicidal fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum against Heterodera glycines by expression of the Beauveria bassiana Cdep1 protease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Peng, De-Liang; Yu, Wen-Bin; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important nematophagous fungus with potential as a biopesticide against plant-parasitic nematodes. The Pr1A-like cuticle-degrading protease (Cdep1) gene originating from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was transformed into the nematophagous fungus L. attenuatum using a polyethylene-glycol mediated protoplast-based transformation system. Protease activity was increased 0.64- to 1.63-fold 2-10d after growth in the transformed L. attenuatum. Inhibition of egg-hatching and J2 motility of soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) by cell-free fungal culture filtrates were enhanced by 17-76% 2-14d and 43-152% 1-13d after incubation, respectively. PMID:27342597

  4. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  5. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (PHistological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  6. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana

  7. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  8. Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Insights into a Signaling Hub Role for Cdc14 in Asexual Development and Multiple Stress Responses in Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Kang; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cdc14 is a dual-specificity phosphatase that regulates nuclear behavior by dephosphorylating phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/phosphothreonine in fungi. Previously, Cdc14 was shown to act as a positive regulator of cytokinesis, asexual development and multiple stress responses in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. This study seeks to gain deep insight into a pivotal role of Cdc14 in the signaling network of B. bassiana by analyzing the Cdc14-specific proteome and phosphoproteome generated by the 8-plex iTRAQ labeling and MS/MS analysis of peptides and phosphopeptides. Under normal conditions, 154 proteins and 86 phosphorylation sites in 67 phosphoproteins were upregulated in Δcdc14 versus wild-type, whereas 117 proteins and 85 phosphorylation sites in 58 phosphoproteins were significantly downregulated. Co-cultivation of Δcdc14 with NaCl (1 M), H2O2 (3 mM) and Congo red (0.15 mg/ml) resulted in the upregulation / downregulation of 23/63, 41/39 and 79/79 proteins and of 127/112, 52/47 and 105/226 phosphorylation sites in 85/92, 45/36 and 79/146 phosphoproteins, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that Cdc14 could participate in many biological and cellular processes, such as carbohydrate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, the MAP Kinase signaling pathway, and DNA conformation, by regulating protein expression and key kinase phosphorylation in response to different environmental cues. These indicate that in B. bassiana, Cdc14 is a vital regulator of not only protein expression but also many phosphorylation events involved in developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Fourteen conserved and novel motifs were identified in the fungal phosphorylation events. PMID:27055109

  9. Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Insights into a Signaling Hub Role for Cdc14 in Asexual Development and Multiple Stress Responses in Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Kang; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Cdc14 is a dual-specificity phosphatase that regulates nuclear behavior by dephosphorylating phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/phosphothreonine in fungi. Previously, Cdc14 was shown to act as a positive regulator of cytokinesis, asexual development and multiple stress responses in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. This study seeks to gain deep insight into a pivotal role of Cdc14 in the signaling network of B. bassiana by analyzing the Cdc14-specific proteome and phosphoproteome generated by the 8-plex iTRAQ labeling and MS/MS analysis of peptides and phosphopeptides. Under normal conditions, 154 proteins and 86 phosphorylation sites in 67 phosphoproteins were upregulated in Δcdc14 versus wild-type, whereas 117 proteins and 85 phosphorylation sites in 58 phosphoproteins were significantly downregulated. Co-cultivation of Δcdc14 with NaCl (1 M), H2O2 (3 mM) and Congo red (0.15 mg/ml) resulted in the upregulation / downregulation of 23/63, 41/39 and 79/79 proteins and of 127/112, 52/47 and 105/226 phosphorylation sites in 85/92, 45/36 and 79/146 phosphoproteins, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that Cdc14 could participate in many biological and cellular processes, such as carbohydrate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, the MAP Kinase signaling pathway, and DNA conformation, by regulating protein expression and key kinase phosphorylation in response to different environmental cues. These indicate that in B. bassiana, Cdc14 is a vital regulator of not only protein expression but also many phosphorylation events involved in developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Fourteen conserved and novel motifs were identified in the fungal phosphorylation events. PMID:27055109

  10. The Pal pathway required for ambient pH adaptation regulates growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of Beauveria bassiana in a pH-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-05-01

    The Pal/Rim pathway essential for fungal adaptation to ambient pH has been unexplored in Beauveria bassiana, a classic fungal entomopathogen. Here, we show the characterized Pal pathway comprising transcription factor PacC and upstream six Pal partners (PalA/B/C/F/H/I) in B. bassiana. Their coding genes were all transcribed most abundantly in standard wild-type culture under the alkaline condition of pH 9. Deletion of pacC or each pal gene resulted in a significant delay of culture acidification in a minimal broth (initial pH = 7.3). This delay concurred with altered accumulation levels of intra/extracellular organic acids and drastically depressed expression of some enzyme genes required for the syntheses of oxalic and lactic acids. Our deletion mutants except ΔpalI showed growth defects and maximal sensitivity to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, or sorbitol at pH 9, an alkaline condition leading to fragmented vacuoles in their hyphal cells exposed to osmotic stress. In these mutants, conidiation was significantly facilitated at pH 3 more than at pH 7 but suppressed slightly at pH 9. Mild virulence defects also occurred in the absence of pacC or any pal gene. These changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Taken together, PacC and Pal partners regulate the growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of B. bassiana in a pH-dependent manner, highlighting their vitality for the fungal pH response. PMID:26754817

  11. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  12. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana associado a gel polimerizado de celulose no controle do carrapato Anocentor nitens em teste de campo Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana associated with cellulose polymerized gel in the control of the tick Anocentor nitens in a field test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados 20 equídeos naturalmente infestados por Anocentor nitens, dos quais seus pavilhões auriculares foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos distintos: gel associado a Beauveria bassiana, apenas gel, apenas B. bassiana e um grupo-controle. Procederam-se à contagem e ao registro do número total de fêmeas adultas (>3mm em cada pavilhão auricular, nos dias 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25 e 28, para cálculo do percentual de controle. Foram coletadas e mantidas em laboratório 20 fêmeas pertencentes a cada tratamento, para cálculo dos períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação e eclosão, e peso médio das posturas. No grupo tratado com o composto gel associado a B. bassiana, observou-se percentual de controle maior que 50%, entre o 4º e o 25º dia, assim como decréscimo progressivo do peso médio da postura das fêmeas coletadas no período entre o 7º e 14º dia. Para os outros tratamentos, o percentual de controle manteve-se abaixo de 20%, e o peso da postura não apresentou diferença significativa. Os percentuais de controle, assim como as reduções no peso médio da postura, sugerem que a utilização do composto gel associado a B. bassiana potencializou a virulência do entomopatógeno.Twenty horses naturally infected by Anocentor nitens were selected and their auricular pinna were submitted to four treatments: gel associated with Beauveria bassiana, gel only, B. bassiana only, and a control group. The count and the register of the total number of grown up tick females (>3mm were performed in each auricular pinna on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 for the calculus of percentage of control. Twenty females from each treatment were collected and maintained in laboratory, to calculate the periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, and hatching and mean weight of oviposition. In the group treated with the gel associated to B. bassiana, it was observed a control percentage higher than 50% from the 4º

  13. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

  14. Selection of optimum conditions of medium acidity and aeration for submerget cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dregval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of medium pH and aeration rate on growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Вeauveria bassiana, which are main constituents of the complex microbial insecticide. It was established optimal medium pH for B. thuringiensis – 6.0 and for В. bassiana – 6.0–7.0. The maximum productivity of the studied microorganisms was observed in the same range of aeration – 7– 14 mmol O2/l/h. The selected conditions of cultivation are necessary for the production of complex biological insecticide based on the association of B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana.

  15. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorph genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic...

  16. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  17. Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana ao psilídeo Diaphorina citri e compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários

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    Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana a ninfas de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae e verificar a compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários e sua persistência em plantas de citros. Ninfas de D. citri foram pulverizadas com B. bassiana, nas concentrações 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 e 1x10(9 conídios mL-1, para determinação da concentração letal. Para avaliação da compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários, extrato de nim e cinco inseticidas de quatro grupos químicos diferentes foram incorporados individualmente ao meio de cultura BDA em que o fungo foi cultivado. Avaliaram-se o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a viabilidade do entomopatógeno. Plantas de citros, mantidas em casa de vegetação, foram tratadas primeiramente com os produtos fitossanitários e depois com o entomopatógeno. Avaliaram-se os tempos de exposição de 24 horas e de 7 e 14 dias. O fungo foi patogênico às ninfas de D. citri; a CL50 foi de 0,4x10(7 e a CL90 de 6,7x10(7 conidios mL-1, no décimo dia de avaliação. Em laboratório, os produtos fitosssanitários reduzem o crescimento do fungo. Em casa de vegetação, os produtos não afetam a sobrevivência do fungo nas plantas de citros.

  18. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment.

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    Lucas Forlani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America.We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control.The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling.

  19. Targeting of insect epicuticular lipids by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: hydrocarbon oxidation within the context of a host-pathogen interaction

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    Nicolas ePedrini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Broad host range entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana attack insect hosts via attachment to cuticular substrata and the production of enzymes for the degradation and penetration of insect cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer consists of a complex mixture of non-polar lipids including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and wax esters. Long chain hydrocarbons are major components of the outer waxy layer of diverse insect species, where they serve to protect against desiccation and microbial parasites, and as recognition molecules or as a platform for semiochemicals. Insect pathogenic fungi have evolved mechanisms for overcoming this barrier, likely with sets of lipid degrading enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities.. Alkanes and fatty acids are substrates for a specific subset of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in insect hydrocarbon degradation. These enzymes activate alkanes by terminal oxidation to alcohols, which are further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, whose products can enter β-oxidation pathways. B. bassiana contains at least 83 genes coding for cytochrome P450s (CYP, a subset of which are involved in hydrocarbon oxidation, and several of which represent new CYP subfamilies/families. Expression data indicated differential induction by alkanes and insect lipids and 4 CYP proteins have been partially characterized after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene knockouts revealed a phenotype for only one (cyp52X1 out of 6 genes examined to date. CYP52X1 oxidizes long chain fatty acids and participates in the degradation of specific epicuticular lipid components needed for breaching the insect waxy layer. Examining the hydrocarbon oxidizing CYP repertoire of pathogens involved in insect epicuticle degradation can lead to the characterization of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. Pathogen targeting may also represent an important co-evolutionary process regarding insect cuticular

  20. SELECTION OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALSAMO VUILLEMIN ISOLATES FOR MANAGEMENT OF MYZUS PERSICAE (SULTZAR (HOM.: APHIDAE BASED ON VIRULENCE AND GROWTH RELATED CHARACTERISTICS

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    Mohammad S. Al-alawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana originated from Jordan were evaluated for their efficacy against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Efficacy evaluation involved testing all isolates at a concentration of 1×107 conidia/mL followed by concentration dependent and greenhouse bioassays for the top virulent isolates. Growth characteristics related to virulence were evaluated for high, intermediate and low virulent isolates. Results showed that three isolates namely: BAU004, BAU018 and BAU019 were highly virulent to the aphid in the laboratory causing more than 75% infection. In the greenhouse, the three isolates caused infection from 41.3 to 46.5%. For the growth characteristics, isolate BAU019 produced more spores than the other highly virulent ones including the commercial isolate GHA. Highly virulent isolates also showed faster hyphal growth than low virulent isolates. These findings indicate that isolates BAU004, Bau018 and BAU019 might be developed as commercial microbial insecticides for safe and effective control of green peach aphid.

  1. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Francesco Paparazzo

    Full Text Available The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  2. Patogenitas Beberapa Cendawan Entomopatogen (Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, dan Beauveria bassiana)terhadap Aphis glycines pada Tanaman Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Widariyanto, Riri

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to study the effectiveness of entomopatogen’s fungus ( L. Lecanii, M. Anisopliae, and B. bassiana) to Aphis glycines in soybean on field. Research done at Farm of Faculty of Agriculture of University of Sumatera Utara, Medan from December 2015 until Februari 2016. The method used Randomized Block Design by seven treatment that is : P0/control (Instar 4 of Aphis glycines without treatment Entomopathogen), P1 (Instar 2 of Aphis glycines + Lecanicillium lecani...

  3. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario;

    2016-01-01

    ) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae and......, but reversion to background levels occurred within a year. It remains to be investigated whether this has a detrimental effect on nontarget organisms. Additional work is needed to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory and field efficacy in orchards....

  4. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana, isolado 986, sobre o ciclo biológico do cascudinho Alphitobius diaperinus em laboratório Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, strain 986, over the biologic cycle of the Alphitobius diaperinus beetle in laboratory

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado para verificar a eficácia do fungo Beauveria bassiana em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de Alphitobius diaperinus e assim saber em que fase ele é mais susceptível ao controle biológico. O fungo B. bassiana, isolado 986, foi testado em duas concentrações (3,4 X 10(6 e 3,4 X 10(8 conídios ml-1 mais um grupo controle. Foram realizadas duas leituras, uma sete e outra quatorze dias após a aplicação dos fungos. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(6, 54% dos ovos tratados estavam inférteis, ocorrendo 54% de mortalidade de larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 22,5% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 9,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 24,5% de mortalidade das pupas. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(8, 66,8% dos ovos tratados estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 56% das larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 34% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 24,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 49,5% das pupas. Já no grupo controle, 13,3% dos ovos estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 10% das larvas nos estádios I, II e III, 4% nos estádios IV, V e VI e 0% de mortalidade nos estádios VII, VIII e em pupas. Sobre o cascudinho adulto, o fungo não teve efeito nocivo em nenhum grupo analisado. Com base nesses resultados, observou-se que o fungo nas concentrações testadas apresentou efeito nocivo às fases do ciclo biológico do cascudinho, com exceção do inseto adulto.The present research was carried out to verify the Beauveria bassiana fungus efficacy in all development phases of Alphitobius diaperinus and to know in which phase it is more susceptible for biologic control. The B. bassiana, 986-isolated fungus, was tested in two different concentrations (3.4 x 10(6 and 3.4 x 10(8 conidium ml-1 and a control group. Two readings were realized, one after 7 days of fungus application and the other after 14 days. At concentration of 3.4 x 10(6 conidium ml-1, 54% of treated eggs were infertile, with larva death of 54% at I, II and III

  5. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

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    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  6. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

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    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para a avaliação da patogenicidade, foram utilizados oito isolados de M. anisopliae e seis de B. bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, sendo a parcela composta por um grupo de 10 soldados por espécie de formiga, sendo utilizadas três repetições por tratamento. Para cada isolado, três grupos de soldados foram pulverizados com suspensão de 1,0 x 10(8 conídios ml-1 e mantidos em câmara úmida (25±1°C, 80±1% de UR e no escuro sem alimentação, sendo a mortalidade verificada diariamente. Dos 14 isolados testados, quatro de M. anisopliae e quatro de B. bassiana foram patogênicos aos soldados de ambas as espécies de formigas. A virulência foi avaliada para os isolados que causaram mortalidade igual ou maior a 50%. Para cada isolado, suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,0 x 10(11 conídios ml-1 foram pulverizadas sobre três grupos de 10 soldados e igualmente acondicionados como no teste de patogenicidade. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi calculada a cada 24 horas para determinação do TL50. O isolado ENA04 de M. anisopliae foi mais patogênico, causando mais de 80% de mortalidade nos primeiros três dias após a inoculação, apresentou maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres dos soldados e foi o mais virulento para os soldados de A. bisphaerica, com um TL50 de 1,15 dias. Todos os isolados patogênicos aos soldados de A. sexdens rubropilosa foram igualmente virulentos.The ants of the genus Atta are important pests of several

  7. A New Dibenz[b,e]oxepine Derivative, 1-Hydroxy-10-methoxy-dibenz[b,e]oxepin-6,11-dione, from a Marine-Derived Fungus, Beauveria bassiana TPU942

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    Michio Namikoshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-Hydroxy-10-methoxy-dibenz[b,e]oxepin-6,11-dione (1 was obtained from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungus, Beauveria bassiana TPU942, isolated from a marine sponge collected at Iriomote Island in Okinawa, together with two known compounds, chrysazin (2 and globosuxanthone A (3. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data (HREIMS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments including 1H–1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC spectra. Dibenz[b,e]oxepines are rare in nature, and only six natural products have been reported. Therefore, compound 1 is the seventh natural product in this class. Compounds 2 and 3 showed an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, and 3 inhibited the cell growth against two human cancer cell lines, HCT-15 (colon and Jurkat (T-cell lymphoma. Compound 1 did not show an apparent activity in the same bioassays.

  8. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

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    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  9. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

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    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  10. Antagonism of Beauveria bassiana against Two Fusarium spp.Pathogenic to Cotton%球孢白僵菌对两种植物病原镰孢的拮抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜利; 李增智

    2011-01-01

    体外测定了球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana对两种棉花病原镰孢——棉花枯萎病菌Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.vasinfecturn和棉花红腐病菌Fusarium verticillioides的拮抗作用。平板对峙培养时,两种镰孢的生长均受到明显抑制。不同含孢量的球孢白僵菌对两种镰孢的抑制效果不同,且抑制率与孢子浓度成显著的线性量效关系;在接种量为6×107孢子.mL-1时,对两种菌的抑制率均达到90%以上,对红腐病菌的抑制率稍高。白僵菌代谢液对两种植物病原菌也表现出抑菌作%In vitro antagonism of Beauveria bassiana,an entomopathogenic fungus,was tested against Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.vasinfecturn,pathogen of cotton wilt,and F.verticillioides,pathogen of cotton red rot.On dual culture,B.bassiana showed obvious inhibition on the growth of the two pathogens.Different doses of conidia had different inhibitory effects,with inhibition rate linearly correlated to inoculum,suggesting that the antagonism was associated with competition for nutrition and space.The inhibition on the two pathogens was both over 90% at inoculum of 6×107 spores·mL-1,slightly higher on F.verticillioide.The metabolite in SDY shake culture of B.bassiana also displayed inhibition,with inhibition rate linearly correlated to metabolite concentration,suggesting that the antagonism was also associated with antibiotic substances.Based on the comparison of inhibition rates,antibiosis was considered to contribute more than competition.In the analysis on the antibiotic metabolite,none of the lyophilized supernatant extracted by 4 different organic extractants showed obvious inhibition on the Fusarium spp.,while addition of crude extract of either polysaccharide or protein significantly inhibited mycelium growth of the two Fusarium spp.,suggesting that the main inhibitory substances are polysaccharide and protein with high molecular weight.

  11. Evaluacion del efecto de Beauveria bassiana en el control biológico de Varroa destructor, parasito de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera en la finca Felisa en el municipio de los Patios, Norte de Santander - Evaluacion del efecto de Beauveria bassiana en el control biológico de Varroa destructor, parasito de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera en la finca Felisa en el municipio de los Patios, Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy Liliana Duarte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping is an activity that produces significant benefits to agriculture and the environment; Through the pollination action of bees helps to increase productivity as well as biodiversity in the ecosystem. In recent years, has significantly increased prevalence of parasites in this species, particularly the Varroasis, a disease caused by the mite Varroa destructor. The causal agent produces losses between 30% and 50% of total production and in turn can cause damage to the quality of honey by the excessive use of chemicals for disease control and the slow and progressive deterioration health of producers. Noting this, we evaluated the incidence of fungus Beauveria bassiana in natural populations of Varroa destructor in acarofauna associated, and the remains of the hive by pathogenicity tests in laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of the biocontrol entomopathogenic then enter in apiaries infected with the disease. According to the results obtained in the adult infestation of V. destructor in Apis mellifera Africanized sampling Felisa made on the farm in the municipality of Los Patios, recorded rates of infestation in hives from 3.4% to 8.3% on the infection status of breeding was 4.5% to 13.7%. In laboratory tests it was possible to observe thatthe fungus B. bassiana attacked by an effective control mites without harming bees, propolis and honey allowing the insect to continue their normal activities, controlling the disease in a biological, not chemical.

  12. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampeiIdentificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei. Uma suspensão contendo 106 conídios ativados/mL foi inoculada em meio de cultura líquido a 28ºC, 150 rpm por 3 dias. O extrato de proteases (EP foi obtido da centrifugação a 8000 g por 20 minutos, fracionado e concentrado por ultrafiltração em membrana de porosidade controlada 100 kDa e 3 kDa, respectivamente. A cromatografia de gel filtração em Sephadex G-100 separou um pico proteico (Pico II que apresentou 56% de resíduos do aminoácido ácido aspártico quando analisado por HPLC em coluna de fase reversa ODS-C18; atividade específica 43 vezes superior ao EP sobre soro albumina bovina; atividade de protease tipo-subtilisina e uma única banda proteica revelada por nitrato de prata e Coomassie Brilhant Blue em zimograma sobre gelatina por eletroforese PAGE em condições nativas. A homogeneidade do Pico II foi confirmada pela revelação de uma única banda durante a determinação do pH isoelétrico igual a 4,5, porém a determinação da massa molecular separou 2 bandas de 23 e 26 kDa por eletroforese PAGE-2D. As proteases foram caracterizadas como serino proteases com resíduo cisteína importante para a atividade, pois foram inibidas por fluoreto fenil-metil-sufonil e ácido p-cloromercúriobenzóico. As proteases do Pico II apresentaram Km 4x10-4 sobre substrato tipo-subtilisina.

  13. Integrated use of Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar.tenebrionis for microbial biocontrol of colorado potato beetle%球孢白僵菌和苏云金杆菌拟步甲血清亚种联合使用防治马铃薯甲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯蒂芬· 瑞特; Mark A Ramos

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for using insect pathogens to control the Colorado potato beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata,and summarizes results from nearly 10 years of research by USDA-ARS-PPRU scientists aimed at developing methods and strategies for integrated use of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based management of potato beetles in the northeastern USA.The described studies have resulted in 1) design of a tractor-mounted hydraulic spray system that improved targeting and consequent efficacy of microbial control agents, 2) discovery of synergism between the bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bb),3) findings that substantial mortality of beetle larvae treated with B.bassiana during foliar spray programs did not occur until after they entered the soil to pupate, and 4) observations that spray applications made in the evening (at sunset) were significantly, but not substantially, more effective than applications made during the morning hours.These findings have led to development of a bio-based pest management system based on three spray applications made in the following order at 3-5-day intervals:Bt alone,Bt and Bb mixed,and Bb alone.This spray program,with the applications initiated at 50% egg hatch,is intended to control the actively feeding larval stages (providing protection from defoliation) and reduce survivorship to the adult stage (providing long-term control by reducing populations of overwintering adults). In the initial test of the integrated management system,beetle control and potato yields were statistically equivalent to those in plots in which the beetles were controlled with chemical insecticides.Demonstration of the effectiveness of this program will continue over the next 2-3 field seasons.

  14. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  15. Effects of multiple applications of a Beauveria based biopesticide on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) densities in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biopesticide, formulated with a strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites, was tested in an experiment in southern France and the results were were compared to published results from previous experiments with the same biopesticide. Bee colonies were treated either with biopesticide, ...

  16. Development of a method for detection and quantification of B. brongniartii and B. bassiana in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, L; Malusà, E; Tkaczuk, C; Tartanus, M; Łabanowska, B H; Pinzari, F

    2016-01-01

    A culture independent method based on qPCR was developed for the detection and quantification of two fungal inoculants in soil. The aim was to adapt a genotyping approach based on SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) marker to a discriminating tracing of two different species of bioinoculants in soil, after their in-field release. Two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii, were traced and quantified in soil samples obtained from field trials. These two fungal species were used as biological agents in Poland to control Melolontha melolontha (European cockchafer), whose larvae live in soil menacing horticultural crops. Specificity of SSR markers was verified using controls consisting of: i) soil samples containing fungal spores of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in known dilutions; ii) the DNA of the fungal microorganisms; iii) soil samples singly inoculated with each fungus species. An initial evaluation of the protocol was performed with analyses of soil DNA and mycelial DNA. Further, the simultaneous detection and quantification of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in soil was achieved in field samples after application of the bio-inoculants. The protocol can be considered as a relatively low cost solution for the detection, identification and traceability of fungal bio-inoculants in soil. PMID:26975931

  17. 不同温度下白僵菌Bb04菌株对红火蚁工蚁的致病力%Pathogenicity of strain Bb04 of Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. to red imported fire ant workers under different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 吕利华; 何余容

    2014-01-01

    Red imported fire ant ( RIFA) , Solenopsis invicta Buren, is one of the most devastating pests in the world . Entomopathengenic fungi have been applied to control many crops insect pests successfully worldwide and may be a promising control for RIFA.The effect of temperature on pathogenicity of strain Bb 04 of Bearveria bassiana, a suitable candidate to the RIFA workers , was studied in the laboratory .[Method]The RIFA workers were infected with two concentrations of B.bassiana spore suspension (1 ×105 conidia· mL-1 and 1 ×108 conidia· mL-1 ) and kept under 17, 21, 25, 29 and 33 ℃ conditions.[Result]The results showed there were significant differences in virulence of Bb 04 to RIFA under different temperatures .When workers of RIFA were treated with 1 ×108 conidia· mL-1 , the total mortality of infected RIFA after 15 days reached as high as 100%under 21℃, 25℃and 29 ℃.Total mortality was 99.36%at 17 ℃and 98.74%at 33 ℃.However, after 15 days with an infection rate of 1 ×105 conidia/mL, total mortalities of treated workers at 17 ℃, 21 ℃, 25 ℃, 29 ℃and 33 ℃were only 16.83%, 29.42%,36.18%, 33.17%and 27.21%, respectively .At 17, 21 and 25 ℃, LT50 values of Bb04 against RIFA decreased from 5.41 at 17℃to 3.88 at 21 ℃and then 2.57 days at 25℃.LT50 increased again to 2.97 at 29℃and 5.11 at 33℃.[Conclusion and significance]25 ℃was the most effective temperature to promote infection of RIFA by Bb 04 and should be applied in both spring and autumn in the field .%【背景】白僵菌是一种应用最广泛的虫生真菌,已被用于工厂化大量生产,可防治多种农林害虫。【方法】试验设置17、21、25、29和33℃5个温度水平,采用喷雾法,将浓度为1×105和1×108个· mL-1的白僵菌孢子悬浮液分别感染红火蚁工蚁,以测试不同温度下白僵菌菌株对红火蚁工蚁的致病力。【结果】当浓度为1×108个· mL-1时,在21、25和29℃条件下,红火蚁工蚁在15 d

  18. 75 FR 10186 - Beauveria bassiana HF23; Amendment of Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... evaluated whether there is any potential for residues of the pesticide to result in or on meat, milk... requirement for a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA... exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in ] establishing a tolerance and...

  19. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Sonoyama; Kaoru Araki-Sasaki; Shigeyasu Kazama; Tsutomu Kawasaki; Hidenao Ideta; et al

    2008-01-01

    Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunol...

  20. Imbibitional damage in conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When dried organisms are immersed in water, rapid imbibition may cause severe damage to plasma membranes; in unicellular organisms, such damage is usually lethal. This study investigated effects of pre-immersion moisture levels and immersion temperature on imbibitional damage in three insect pathoge...

  1. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and insecticides used in coffee plantations Compatibilidade entre o fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana e inseticidas usados na cultura do cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Natali de Oliveira; Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro Neves; Lídio Sueki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    Microbial control in integrated pest management (IPM) programs of coffee plantations is an important factor for the reduction of pest population densities. The use of selective pesticides can be associated with entomopathogens, increasing the efficiency of the control and reducing the use of required insecticides. The in vitro fungitoxic effect of insecticide formulations of Thiamethoxam, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin, Triazophos, Chlorpyrifos, Fenpropathrin and Endosulfan and ...

  2. In vitro compatibility between three bacterial sugarbeet disease-control agents and the entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere is the primary arean for entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) deployed against soil-dwelling pests, and is also the site of action of biological agents used against root pathogens. Interactions between EPF and soil microbes, much less biofungicidal agents, have been barely studied, however, ...

  3. Development of a CO2 releasing co-formulation 1 based on starch, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Beauveria bassiana attractive towards western corn rootworm larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    CO2 is known as an attractant for many soil-dwelling pests. To implement an attract-and-kill strategy for soil pest control, CO2 emitting formulations need to be developed. This work aimed at the development of a slow release bead system in order to bridge the gap between application and hatching of...

  4. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.V. Howard; R. N'Guessan; C.J.M. Koenraadt; A. Asidi; M. Farenhorst; M. Akogbeto; M.B. Thomas; B.G.J. Knols; W. Takken

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show tha

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOASSAY SYSTEM FOR THE PREDATOR XYLOCORIS FLAVIPES (REUTER) AND ITS USE IN SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY/PATHOGENICITY STUDIES OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. STRAIN GHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial biocontrol agents are useful commercially only if they do not harm other natural biocontrol organisms, at recommended use rate in the environment where the microorganism is being used. To test the hypothesis that the predatory warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter), is not adve...

  6. Caracterización molecular de 15 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana asociados con Cosmopolites y Metamasius en plátano y banano en tres regiones de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron picudos de Cosmopolites y Metamasius en municipios del Valle del Cauca, Caldas y Quindío. Se obtuvieron cultivos monospóricos con diluciones de 10-10 y 10-11. Los aislamientos fueron almacenados a -80°C con glicerol al 10% y el ADN a –20°C. Los marcadores moleculares RAM generaron 82 fragmentos de los cuales 67% fueron polimórficos con una heterocigocidad de 0.24, que indica diversidad media a alta. A un índice de similitud 0.84 se formaron 5 grupos: uno con 11 aislamientos y 4 con un solo aislamiento. En el gran grupo se detectó un duplicado y se encontró diversidad del hongo en los sitios muestreados. No se encontró relación entre aislamientos sobre Cosmopolites y Metamasius o zona geográfica en la formación de grupos genéticos.

  7. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite contro...

  8. Assessing deposition and persistence of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) applied for control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in a commercial tree nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the deposition and field persistence of mycoinsecticides is essential in the development of effective and economical application strategies, including specifically the timing and frequency of spray applications. In this study we used three methods to evaluate the persistence of Beauveri...

  9. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil) and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses

    OpenAIRE

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Collins, Debbie A.

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly wid...

  10. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  11. Drug: D09176 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bassiana Vuillemin.; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D09176 Stiff silkworm PubChem: 96025856 ... ...91], Beauveria bassiana [TAX:176275] Same as: E00308 Bombycidae Silkworm infected Cordycepitaceae Beauveria

  12. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  13. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch) against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    OpenAIRE

    Sierpińska Alicja; Popowska-Nowak Elżbieta; Bednarek Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii o...

  14. Cyclodepsipeptides and Other O-Containing Heterocyclic Metabolites from Beauveria felina EN-135, a Marine-Derived Entomopathogenic Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Du

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of a culture extract of Beauveria felina EN-135, an entomopathogenic fungus isolated from a marine bryozoan, led to the isolation of a new cyclodepsipeptide, iso-isariin D (1; two new O-containing heterocyclic compounds that we have named felinones A and B (2 and 3; and four known cyclodepsipeptides (4–7. The structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and CD, respectively. All isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and brine-shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

  15. A multi-screening approach for marine-derived fungal metabolites and the isolation of cyclodepsipeptides from Beauveria felina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts obtained from 57 marine-derived fungal strains were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, TLC and 1H NMR. The analyses showed that the growth conditions affected the chemical profile of crude extracts. Furthermore, the majority of fungal strains which produced either bioactive of chemically distinctive crude extracts have been isolated from sediments or marine algae. The chemical investigation of the antimycobacterial and cytotoxic crude extract obtained from two strains of the fungus Beauveria felina have yielded cyclodepsipeptides related to destruxins. The present approach constitutes a valuable tool for the selection of fungal strains that produce chemically interesting or biologically active secondary metabolites. (author)

  16. A multi-screening approach for marine-derived fungal metabolites and the isolation of cyclodepsipeptides from Beauveria felina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita-Marques, Aline Maria de; Lira, Simone P.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br; Seleghim, Mirna H.R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Sponchiado, Sandra R.P. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica e Tecnologia Quimica; Tauk-Tornisielo, Samia M. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Ambientais; Barata, Margarida [Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro de Biologia Ambiental. Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Pessoa, Claudia; Moraes, Manoel O. de; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coelho [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia; Nascimento, Gislene G.F. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Souza, Ana O. de [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Silva, Marcio; Pimenta, Eli F.; Thiemann, Otavio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Passarini, Michel R.Z.; Sette, Lara D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Bioligicas e Agricolas. Div. de Recursos Microbianos

    2008-07-01

    Extracts obtained from 57 marine-derived fungal strains were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, TLC and {sup 1}H NMR. The analyses showed that the growth conditions affected the chemical profile of crude extracts. Furthermore, the majority of fungal strains which produced either bioactive of chemically distinctive crude extracts have been isolated from sediments or marine algae. The chemical investigation of the antimycobacterial and cytotoxic crude extract obtained from two strains of the fungus Beauveria felina have yielded cyclodepsipeptides related to destruxins. The present approach constitutes a valuable tool for the selection of fungal strains that produce chemically interesting or biologically active secondary metabolites. (author)

  17. A multi-screening approach for marine-derived fungal metabolites and the isolation of cyclodepsipeptides from Beauveria felina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria de Vita-Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts obtained from 57 marine-derived fungal strains were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, TLC and ¹H NMR. The analyses showed that the growth conditions affected the chemical profile of crude extracts. Furthermore, the majority of fungal strains which produced either bioactive of chemically distinctive crude extracts have been isolated from sediments or marine algae. The chemical investigation of the antimycobacterial and cytotoxic crude extract obtained from two strains of the fungus Beauveria felina have yielded cyclodepsipeptides related to destruxins. The present approach constitutes a valuable tool for the selection of fungal strains that produce chemically interesting or biologically active secondary metabolites.

  18. Selection, Identification and Culture Characteristics of a Highly Virulent Strain of Beauveria towards Sympiezomias citri%柑橘灰象甲一株高毒力白僵菌菌株的筛选鉴定及培养特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定锋; 黎健龙; 王庆森; 李慧玲; 吴光远

    2014-01-01

    %, highest muscardine rates of 97.78%and shortest LT50 of 3.77 d after fungal inoculation at a concentration of 1.0×108 spores/mL (7 d, 26 ℃). The LC50 value was 4.55×104 spores/mL at 26 ℃. According to culture characteristics, morphology feature and rDNA ITS sequence analysis, the strain Bb2-1 was identified to be Beauveria bassiana. The effect of five medium types (PDA, PPDA, 1/4 SDAY, SDAY, and Czapek), five temperature gradient (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ℃), seven different pH value (pH 4.0—10.0) and seven different illumination periods (0L:24D, 24L:0D, 18L:6D, 12L:12D, 6L:18D, dark in the first 7 days and light in the last 7 days, and light in the first 7 days and dark in the last 7 days) on colony growth and sporulation of the strain Bb2-1 were evaluated through the determination of colony diameter and sporulation. The results showed that SDAY medium at pH 7.0 was the most optimal medium for the colony growth and sporulation of the strain Bb2-1 at 25 ℃, and photoperiod didn’t pose any obvious effects on colony growth, but prolonging illumination time was benefit to the sporulation. In this study, the selection of a highly virulent B. bassiana (Bb2-1) towards S. citri and the evaluation of culture characteristics of Bb2-1 would provide reference for large scale production of the fungi to control this beetle.

  19. Selection and characterization of Beauveria spp. isolates to control the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P; Souza, L P A

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed under laboratory conditions to identify isolates of the fungus Beauveria spp. that can control Polyphagotarsonemus latus in the greenhouse and field. Thirty Beauveria spp. isolates were tested by spraying 1 mL conidia (1 × 108 conidia/mL) on pepper leaf discs containing 15 mites. Evaluations were performed on the 3rd and 6th day post application by counting the number of dead mites. Vegetative growth and conidial production were measured from the selected isolates, and bioassays were conducted in the greenhouse on bean seedlings in plastic pots. The isolate Unioeste 53 was selected, and a conidial suspension (1 × 108 conidia/mL) was applied with a backpack sprayer. The evaluation consisted of pre- and post-treatment counts of the number of live mites on ten leaflets in both the plots treated with the fungus and control plots, and the same procedure was followed for the field experiment. In the laboratory, the Unioeste 53 isolate resulted in total and confirmed mortality rates of 70% and 57.7%, respectively. In the greenhouse, the population decreased by 76.71% by the 16th day after application. In the field, the population decreased by 66% by the 12th day after application, demonstrating the potential of this fungus for mite management. PMID:27332672

  20. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  1. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  2. Mass production of fungal entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypocrealean fungi encompassing Beauveria bassiana, B. brongniartii, Isaria fumosorosea, I. farinosa, several Lecanicillium spp., Nomuraea rileyi, and Metarhizium spp. are being increasingly exploited worldwide for insect pest management because of the ease with which they can be produced in contras...

  3. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  4. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  5. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom.

  6. Evaluation of Some Biocontrol Agents/Antagonistic Microbes Against Pastule Development of Leaf Rust of Wheat Caused by Puccinia recondita f. sp. Tritici Roberge ex. Desmaz (Erikson and Henn D.M. Henderson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sheroze

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of five biocontrol agents/antagonistic microbes viz., Verticillium lecanii, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Beauveria bassiana, Cladosporium cladosporiodes and Metarrhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana proved the best in retarding the postulation/rust development in wheats. When the microbes tested alone against leaf rust development, B. bassiana proved excellent and in combination with Verticillium lecanii and Paecilomyces furnosoroseus. Although there was an increase in colony diameter after 2nd week but the pattern of growth was the same as after one week of incubation of bio-control agents application.

  7. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA and upstream sequence of Bbhsp70 gene from Beauveria bassiana%球孢白僵菌热休克蛋白基因Bbhsp70的cDNA及上游序列克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢翎; 陈红梅; 蒲顺昌; 汤强; 李增智; 黄勃

    2009-01-01

    运用SMART RACE RT-PCR技术与DNA步移技术,首次从球孢白僵菌中克隆出完整的热休克蛋白基因Bbhsp70编码区序列及上游序列.该基因cDNA全长2405bp,5'端非翻译区171bp,3'端非翻译区263bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1971bp,编码656个氨基酸.成熟蛋白理论分子量为71.3kDa,理论等电点为4.92.上游序列长度3559bp,其中有305bp序列与cDNA序列重叠.分析表明,上游序列中没有明显的TAYA-盒和CAAT-盒,但含有CCAAT-binding factor、GC-box等重要的转录因子结合位点,以及热激应答元件(HSE)和GATA元件等启动子顺式调控元件.

  8. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Seok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, KTH-13 with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1, with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP- treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop.

  9. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  10. Inactivation of certain insect pathogens by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UV-sensitivity of two baculoviruses (granulosis virus, nuclear polyhedrosis virus) and two entomopathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana) was determined by radiation tests. In the far UV (254 nm) the stability, measured at an inactivation rate of 99%, was in declining order: nuclear polyhedra >= conidia of B. bassiana > granula > spores of B. thuringiensis >= vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. In the near UV (285-380 nm) the following order could be found: conidia of B. bassiana >= nuclear polyhedra > spores of B. thuringiensis >= granula > vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. Far UV had a much higher germicidal effect for all pathogens tested than near UV. (orig.)

  11. Susceptibility of entomopathgenic fungi to OMRI certified surfactants for biopesticide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three entomopathgenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium brunneum,and Isaria fumosorosea were evaluated for their compatibility with six surfactants. The surfactants are certified to comply with the U.S. National organic standards and are permitted to be used in organic production systems. The f...

  12. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  13. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. PMID:26855414

  14. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo Seok; Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Kim, Gihyeon; Lee, Yunmi; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, KTH-13) with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1), with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells). Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop. PMID:26819495

  15. Bioassay assessment of metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes against Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae Avaliação do bioensaio de Metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes contra Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolney Dalla Pria Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC is an economically important, destructive disease in Brazil and is caused by Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by sharpshooter insects. In this study, the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in controlling the sharpshooter Oncometopia facialis was studied by bioassay conditions. In the bioassay, insects were sprayed with a suspension containing 5 X 10(7 conidia mL-1. Adults captured in the field were treated in groups of 10 in a total of 11 replications per treatment. Significant differences between the natural mortality and the mortality of insects treated with the fungus were observed 6 days after inoculations (PA Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC é uma doença economicamente importante e destrutiva no Brasil e é causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa e transmitida por insetos vetores tal como Oncometopia facialis. Nesse estudo, a eficácia do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o inseto vetor O. facialis foi estudada em condições de bioensaio. Nesse bioensaio, insetos foram pulverizados com uma suspensão de 5 X 10(7 conídio mL-1. Insetos-adultos capturados no campo foram tratados em grupos de 10, em um total de 11 replicatas por tratamento. Diferenças significativas entre a mortalidade natural e a mortalidade dos insetos tratados com o fungo foram observadas em 6 dias após a inoculação (P<0.05. Estas diferenças significativas aumentaram antes do décimo dia após o tratamento. O fungo causou uma mortalidade de 87,1%, com uma LT50 variando entre 5 e 6 dias. A LC50 foi de 1,2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1, variando de 7,7 X 10(5 a 2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1. Estes resultados mostraram que o vetor O. facialis foi susceptível a ação entomopatogênica de M. anisopliae em condições controladas durante o bioensaio.

  16. New solid-state fermentation chamber for bulk production of aerial conidia of fungal biocontrol agents on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S D; Ying, S H; Chen, C; Feng, M G

    2006-06-01

    A novel solid-state fermentation apparatus, namely an upright multi-tray conidiation chamber, was developed to facilitate the production of aerial conidia of fungal biocontrol agents, such as Beauveria bassiana. The chamber with 25 bottom-meshed metal trays had a capacity of > or =50 kg rice with each tray holding > or =2 kg. In repeated trials, a mean yield of 2.4 (1.8-2.7) x 10(12) conidia kg(-1) rice was harvested from the 7-day cultures of B. bassiana in a fully loaded chamber. The new apparatus has a high potential for bulk production of fungal conidia. PMID:16786244

  17. Transcriptional control of fungal cell cycle and cellular events by Fkh2, a forkhead transcription factor in an insect pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Juan-juan; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Qing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional control of the cell cycle by forkhead (Fkh) transcription factors is likely associated with fungal adaptation to host and environment. Here we show that Fkh2, an ortholog of yeast Fkh1/2, orchestrates cell cycle and many cellular events of Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of Fkh2 in B. bassiana resulted in dramatic down-regulation of the cyclin-B gene cluster and hence altered cell cycle (longer G2/M and S, but shorter G0/G1, phases) in unicel...

  18. Integrated pest management and entomopathogenic fungal biotechnology in the Latin Americas: II key research and development prerequisites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this review article (Valencia and Khachatourians, 1998) we presented the special opportunity that entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) offer for integrated pest management (IPM) in the Latin Americas. As expected, along with the opportunities, there are challenges for the use of EPF. First that there are only two fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, for which some prerequisite knowledge of basic and applied mycology for industrial research and development (R and D) are in place. Because of precedent setting leadership in the development of certain EPF, e.g., B. bassiana in IPM, Latin America stands to contribute to and gain from future

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...... of B. bassiana with high efficacy against all target pests in laboratory assays, and will review the existing information on the natural occurrence of these fungi in farms with confined animals and discuss the possibilities and constraints for exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi as control agents...

  20. Effects of biorational pesticides on four coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) having potential as biological control agents in interiorscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S F; Krischik, V A

    2000-06-01

    The direct toxicity of insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, Azatin, an extract from the Neem tree containing azadiractin, and BotainiGard, a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, was assessed on adults of four species of coccinellids--Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Ménéville), Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. All biorationals caused less mortality than a conventional pesticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Horticultural oil (Sunspray ultrafine oil) consistently had no effect on beetle survivorship. Insecticidal soap (M-Pede) significantly reduced survival in all replicates for C. maculata and in at least one of the three replicates for the other three coccinellid species. Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) significantly reduced survival of C. montrouzieri at 72 h after spray in all three replicates. Azatin reduced survivorship in only one species, C. maculata, in only one of the three replicates. PMID:10902323

  1. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  2. Method To Enhance Growth and Sporulation of Pelletized Biocontrol Fungi †

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, G R; Eschen, D. J.; Dandurand, L. M.; Wang, Z. G.

    1991-01-01

    The biocontrol fungi Trichoderma harzianum, used to control soilborne plant pathogens, and Beauveria bassiana, used to control insect pests, were formulated as mycelial biomass in alginate pellets with wheat bran added. After drying for 0, 4, or 16 h, pellets were placed in water or in aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 for 4 to 24 h and then allowed to continue drying. PEG-treated pellets containing T. harzianum showed significantly greater proliferation of hyphae in soil th...

  3. Evolution in biocontrol strains: insight from the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    OpenAIRE

    Tayeh, Ashraf; Estoup, Arnaud; Laugier, Guillaume; Loiseau, Anne; Turgeon, Julie; Toepfer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    After being used as a biocontrol agent against aphids for decades without harmful consequences, the Asian harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis has suddenly become an invasive pest on a worldwide scale. We investigate the impact of captive breeding on several traits of this ladybird such as genetic diversity, fecundity, survival and pathogen resistance. We conducted an experiment in the laboratory to compare the fecundity and the susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana...

  4. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Sławiński; Danuta Sławińska; Irena Majchrowicz

    2014-01-01

    Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candoll...

  5. S-(−)-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Hwa Baek; Jun-Won Ahn; Sung-Hee Nam; Cheol-Sik Yoon; Jae-Cheon Shin; Sang-Han Lee

    2014-01-01

    The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME), an insect j...

  6. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Entomopathogenic Fungi against Masked Chafer White Grubs, Cyclocephala spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, ShaoHui

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. megidis) and entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana) were evaluated for efficacy against masked chafer white grub, Cyclocephala spp., under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, as well as their efficacy against various grub stages in the field.  Under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, additive interactions were found between EPN and EPF in their combined application against Cy...

  7. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  8. Sequential fungal fermentation-biotransformation process to produce a red pigment from sclerotiorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêia Gomes, Dhionne; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida

    2016-11-01

    The fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum produces sclerotiorin, an orange compound closely related to the useful food coloring pigments produced by Monascus species. The high productivity, together with several biological activities reported for sclerotiorin highlights its potential application in food industry. In this work, sclerotiorin was obtained as the major metabolite produced in liquid fermentation by P. sclerotiorum standing for 30% of the fungal dry extract. Modulation of sclerotiorin color was accomplished by biotransformation using Beauveria bassiana generating a red derivative with 13.8% yield. Color modification was caused by fungal-mediated substitution of oxygen by nitrogen in the pyrone ring changing the molecule's chromophore. A derivative, 1-methyl sclerotiorin was synthesized from sclerotiorin using diazomethane and fed to B. bassiana. In this case, substituent at C-1 avoided heteroatom substitution. Sclerotiorin derivatives obtained in the present show the great potential of sclerotiorin derivatives as food colorants. PMID:27211658

  9. Effects of entomopathogenic fungi on different developmental stages of Cotesia flavipes (Cam. a parasitoid of Diatraea flavipennella (Box (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Conceição Matias da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control using the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cam. is one of the main components in the integrated management of the sugarcane moth borer Diatraea spp. Besides this parasitoid, the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. are used to control sugarcane pests, and they can be found naturally parasitizing caterpillars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on different developmental stages of the C. flavipes parasitoid on Diatraea flavipennella (Box. The experiments were carried at laboratory with isolates PL 43 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana were applied to the parasitoid at the immature and adult phases. No negative effects were observed on the larval development of C. flavipes, and it could complete its development on caterpillars of D. flavipennella treated with fungi. The fungi did not cause pupal mortality. However, B. bassiana caused high mortality in the adult parasitoid (76%. The fungi had negative effects on parasitoids when applied during certain developmental stages of C. flavipes.

  10. Comparative performance evaluation of multi-metal resistant fungal strains for simultaneous removal of multiple hazardous metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Priyadarshini; Gola, Deepak; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Kumar, Peeyush; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Patel, Neelam; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-11-15

    In the present study, five fungal strains viz., Aspergillus terreus AML02, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus 4099, Beauveria bassiana 4580, Aspergillus terreus PD-17, Aspergillus fumigatus PD-18, were screened for simultaneous multimetal removal. Highest metal tolerance index for each individual metal viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (500mg/L) was recorded for A. fumigatus for the metals (Cd, 0.72; Cu, 0.72; Pb, 1.02; Zn, 0.94) followed by B. bassiana for the metals (Cd, 0.56; Cu, 0.14; Ni, 0.29; Zn, 0.85). Next, the strains were exposed to multiple metal mixture (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of various concentrations (6, 12, 18, 30mg/L). Compared to other strains, B. bassiana and A. fumigatus had higher cube root growth (k) constants indicating their better adaptability to multi metal stress. After 72h, multimetal accumulation potential of B. bassiana (26.94±0.07mg/L) and A. fumigatus (27.59±0.09mg/L) were higher than the other strains at initial multimetal concentration of 30mg/L. However, considering the post treatment concentrations of individual metals in multimetal mixture (at all the tested concentrations), A. fumigatus demonstrated exceptional performance and could bring down the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn below the threshold level for irrigation prescribed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). PMID:27497228

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16183-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lfnpq**h*ks*tyr*qnlnwyvnyq*ikscfkfyfssy*kski Frame C: pssplllikqliykfqssefiihqvdlllkmenshsqcifknakdfltannaliyqvvva ilsia...... 36 0.93 3 ( EY072266 ) CAZI10125.fwd CAZI Artemisia annua normalized lea... 34 0.96 3 ( BJ375953 ) Dictyostel...676_4502( AM746676 |pid:none) Sorangium cellulosum 'So ce 56'... 184 2e-70 AP006618_4606( AP006618 |pid:none) Nocardia...aldehyde dehydr... 144 3e-51 DQ767721_1( DQ767721 |pid:none) Beauveria bassiana p...489_898( CP001489 |pid:none) Brucella melitensis ATCC 23457 c... 130 1e-48 CP001026_2110( CP001026 |pid:none) Burkholderia ambifaria

  12. Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively le...

  13. USO DE BIOINSECTICIDAS PARA EL CONTROL DE PLAGAS DE HORTALIZAS EN COMUNIDADES RURALES

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano García-Gutiérrez; María Berenice González-Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el uso de bioinsecticidas elaborados a base de hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae y Paecilomyces fumosoroseus); la producción se hizo de manera artesanal en comunidades rurales y se utilizaron para el control de plagas de hortalizas. Los productos fueron formulados con celite® y se usaron a dosis de 240g (1.2x1012 esporas/ha), para el control de plagas sobre plantaciones de lechuga Lactuca sativa L., rábano Rhapanus sativus, cebolla Allium cepa L., re...

  14. Desarrollo de un prototipo de formulación con hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) / Development of a prototype of making with entomopathogenic fungi for management of Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Castrillón, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Entre los factores que limita la producción en el cultivo de la palma de aceite se encuentra el insecto Demotispa neivai Bondar, el cual ocasiona daños hasta de un 100% en su superficie. Durante el desarrollo de un prototipo de formulación con hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de D. neivai fue necesario evaluar la patogenicidad de tres aislamientos de hongos entomopatógenos en adultos del insecto, utilizando como inóculo dos cepas de Beauveria bassiana (B018, B025), y una de Metarhizium a...

  15. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  16. Stimulation of Armillaria rhizomorph growth by oak root fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one different genera of fungi were isolated from the wood of roots of 5O·year·old oak (Quercus robur. The most frequently isolated fungi were: Mycelium radicis atrovirens alpha (MRAA, Clonostachys sp. and Penicillium daleae, Beauveria bassiana, Clonostachys sp., Cryplosporiopsis rodicicolo, Geotrichum candidum, Mortierella vinacea, MRAA, P. daleae, P. janczewskii P. spinulosum, Sporothrix schenckii and Tolypocladium niveum significantly enhanced Armillaria mellea rhizomorph initiation and growth from oak branch segments in vitro. The biggest stimulation effect was noticed when the dematiaceous hyphomycetes, e.g. MRAA, P. dimorphospora and S. schenckii were studied.

  17. Selection of Native Fungi Strains Pathogenic to Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae Selección de Aislamientos Nativos de Hongos Patogénicos a Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Merino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowjacket wasp, Vespula germanica F., is considered a serious pest of productive and recreational activities worldwide. A pathogenicity study was carried out with 29 strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and 30 of Beauveria bassiana against worker and male wasps. Wasps of the same age were fed with liquid sugar baits containing 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 suspensions of each strain. The highest mortality and sporulation were obtained with the strains Qu-B941 and Qu-B933 of Beauveria bassiana, reaching 79 and 95% mortality for workers and 66 and 73% for males, respectively. The strains were tested on workers of V. germanica with increasing amounts of bait from 0 to 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1. The results also showed that 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 increased up to 90 and 97% the mortality of workers with Qu-B941 and Qu-B933 strains, respectively.La avispa chaqueta amarilla, Vespula germanica F., es una especie cosmopolita, considerada en muchos países como un problema serio para el desarrollo de actividades productivas y recreativas. Entre las nuevas alternativas para el control de la plaga está el uso de hongos entomopatógenos. Se estudió la patogenicidad de 29 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae y 30 de Beauveria bassiana, sobre obreras y machos de la avispa. La evaluación se realizó sobre adultos de igual edad, administrando dosis de 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 de cada aislamiento, en cebos líquidos azucarados. La mortalidad y esporulación de los aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana Qu-B941 y Qu-B933 fueron significativamente mayores, alcanzando porcentajes de mortalidad de 79 y 95% para obreras y de 66 y 73% para machos, respectivamente. Estos aislamientos fueron evaluados en cebos con suspensiones crecientes de 0 a 1 x 10(8 conidia mL-1 sobre obreras de V. germanica. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que mayores concentraciones de inóculo incrementan significativamente los índices de mortalidad, alcanzando 90 y 97% para Qu-B941 y Qu-B933

  18. Efectividad de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos Sobre Larvas de Polilla del Tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Effectivity of Entomopathogenic Fungus Strains on Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rodríguez; Marcos Gerding; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, es una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) en Chile. Estudios de laboratorio fueron realizados para evaluar la virulencia y efectividad de Qu-M558 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y Qu-B912 de Beauveria bassiana. La primera evaluación fue realizada aplicando concentraciones de 0 a 10(8) conidia mL-1 directamente sobre larvas de tercer estadio mediante el sistema de pulverización torre Potter. Las compara...

  19. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rodríguez S.; Marcos Gerding P.; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7) conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bass...

  20. Natural occurrence and distribution of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi in shahrood region, northeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Derakhshan, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the occurrence of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) in potato, wheat, sugar beet, alfalfa fields and orchards. A total of 150 soil samples were collected and EPF were isolated using Galleria method. Soil pH was rages from 6.8 to 8.1 and soil texture was sandy, loam, sandy- loam, clay and sandy-loam-clay. Soil borne EPF occurred at 78% of soil samples from which 40% Beauveria bassiana, 21% Metarhizium anisopliae and 17% had both species. Occurrence and ...

  1. Selección de cepas de hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de anastrepha obliqua (macquart, 1835) (diptera: tephritidae) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio-Fajardo, Armando; Nelson A Canal

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x107 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauv...

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were recorded from field samples of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive coccinellid that has recently arrived in Denmark. Larvae, pupae and adults were found to be infected by Isaria farinosa, Beauveria bassiana and species of Lecanicillium. This is the fi...... first record of entomopathogenic fungi infecting larvae and pupae. Winter mortality due to fungal infection reached 17.9% in adults collected at one location. The larval stage was most susceptible to fungal infection, as confirmed through bioassay with I. farinosa....

  3. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Andy G; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette B; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on phylloplanes in Tilia × europaea crowns between 1 and 13 m was assessed in urban parks. Prevalence of fungal infections in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from Tilia × europaea was assessed to determine whether fungi found on phylloplanes also occurred as infections in ladybirds. Isaria spp. was most abundant on phylloplanes (mean colony forming units (CFU) per leaf ± SE, 0.33 ± 0.03) followed by Beauveria spp. (0.22 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf) and Lecanicillium spp. (0.19 ± 0.02 CFU per leaf). Densities of inoculum were higher in inner crowns and decreased with height, although Lecanicillium spp. peaked at 5-7 m. Upper phylloplane surfaces harboured higher densities of Isaria spp. and Beauveria spp. than lower surfaces, whereas Lecanicillium spp. was equally distributed. Most prevalent on ladybirds were Isaria spp. (20.6% Harmonia axyridis; 4.8% natives), Lecanicillium spp. (13.6% H. axyridis; 4.8% natives), with fewer Beauveria spp. infections (2.6% H. axyridis). Molecular identification revealed Beauveria bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, Isaria farinosa and Lecanicillium muscarium among isolates of both tree and ladybird origin. Tilia × europaea phylloplanes support a diverse assemblage of entomopathogenic fungal species with a different prevalence in coccinellids compared to their relative abundance in this habitat. PMID:27353660

  4. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7 conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 y Qu-B928. Estos aislamientos fueron evaluados nuevamente en suspensiones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1. Los aislamientos Qu-M558 y Qu-B912, produjeron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad sobre la base del cálculo del área bajo la curva del progreso de mortalidad de huevos, 80 y 60%, respectivamente.A pathogenicity study of 64 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and 70 Beauveria bassiana isolates against tomato moth Tuta absoluta eggs, was carried out under laboratory conditions. The first evaluation was accomplished by spraying suspensions of 10(7 conidias mL-1 of each isolate directly on eggs, through a Potter tower. Mortality and conidia production on the eggs were significantly higher with the isolates M. anisopliae Qu-M558 and B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 and Qu-B928. These isolates were newly evaluated using increasing conidia concentrations (0 to 10(8 conidia mL-1 of each of the five selected isolates. The isolates Qu-B912 and Qu-M558 produced the highest mortality percentages based on the area under mortality progress curve for each concentration, 80 and 60%, respectively.

  5. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica Growth, esporulation and viability of entomopathogenic fungi under mediums with differents Nim oil (Azadirachta indica concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paro Marques

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim, e sucessivamente concentrações iguais a ½ da concentração anterior, até C11: 0,0048% de óleo de nim. O óleo de nim reduziu o crescimento de colônias de B. bassiana e P. farinosus, que não diferiram significativamente do controle apenas na concentração C11, mas para M. anisopliae o mesmo efeito foi observado com 0,039% de óleo de nim (C8. A esporulação também foi significativamente reduzida pelo óleo de nim, exceto na concentração C11 para B. bassiana; contudo, não se verificou efeito do óleo na viabilidade de esporos dos fungos.The association of vegetable extracts with entomopathogenic fungi can increase the efficiency of biological control of pests, to reduce costs and environmental impacts. The present work aimed to evaluate, through minimal inibitory concentration, the effect of the neem oil (NIM-I-GO on the growth, esporulation and viability of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus. For this purpose the PDA medium was used containing different concentrations of neem oil (C1: 5% of neem oil, and successively concentrations ½ of the previous concentration, until the concentration C11:0,0048% of neen oil. The neen oil reduced the growth of B. bassiana and P. farinosus, which didn’t differ significantly of the control at the concentration C11. Similar effect was observed for M. anisopliae with 0,039% of neem oil (C8. The esporulation was also significantly reduced by the neem oil

  6. Ecological aspects of a Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae population in São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR./ Aspectos ecológicos da população de Cosmopolites sordidus, (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rohde

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar was studied in banana crops (cultivar Nanicão at São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, using roof-tile-like baits, between June/2003 and May/2004. Adults infected by entomopathogenic fungi were recorded, and predators were also found on the baits. A comparative bioassay was carried out between the Beauveria bassiana isolate obtained from the experiment area and from other regions in Brazil against C. sordidus adults. The population peaks of C. sordidus adults occurred in June and July, a period with mild temperatures and low precipitation. The population of C. sordidus larvae, however, was concentrated in December. The insect predators found in the area were insects of the following orders: Coleoptera (Carabidae, Dermaptera (Forficulidae, Hemiptera (Reduviidae, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and spiders of the families Ctenidae, Clubionidae, and Lycosidae, with a population peak two months after the pest population peak. A low number of C. sordidus adults infected by B. bassiana was found, with an annual mean of 0.44%. In the laboratory, the B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic to the insects.Estudou-se a dinâmica populacional de Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar em cultivo de banana(cultivar Nanicão, em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, através de iscas do tipo telha, entre junho/2003 a maio/2004. Atribuiu-se conceito ao estado de conservação da isca, visando observar sua durabilidade e atratividade. Registraram-se adultos infectados por fungos entomopatogênicos, sendo também encontrados predadores nas iscas. Realizou-se um bioensaio com isolados de Beauveria bassiana da área experimental e de Centros de Pesquisa do Brasil, para avaliar a patogenicidade em C. sordidus. Verificou-se que os picos populacionais de adultos de C. sordidus ocorreram em junho e julho, período de temperaturas amenas e baixas precipitações, enquanto que as larvas foram mais abundantes em dezembro. Os insetos predadores

  7. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Host Responses to Four Different Types of Microorganisms in Bombyx Mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tingcai; Lin, Ping; Huang, Lulin; Wu, Yuqian; Jin, Shengkai; Liu, Chun; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogenic microorganisms have been used to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional responses of Bombyx mori to infection. However, studies have so far each focused on one microorganism, and systematic genome-wide comparison of transcriptional responses to different pathogenic microorganisms has not been undertaken. Here, we surveyed transcriptional responses of B. mori to its natural bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens, Bacillus bombyseptieus, B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), and Beauveria bassiana, respectively, and to nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, by microarray analysis. In total, the expression of 2,436, 1,804, 1,743, and 912 B. mori genes was modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, and E. coli, respectively. Notably, the expression of 620, 400, 177, or 165 of these genes was only modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, or E. coli, respectively. In contrast to the expression of genes related to juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism, that of genes encoding juvenile hormone binding proteins was microorganism-specific. Three basal metabolic pathways were modulated by infection with any of the four microorganisms, and 3, 14, 5, and 2 metabolic pathways were specifically modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, and E. coli, respectively. Interestingly, BmNPV infection modulated the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, whereas both the Imd and Toll signaling pathways were modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, B. bassiana, or E. coli These results elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of the host response to different microorganisms, and provide a foundation for further work on host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27382132

  9. Entomopathogens Isolated from Invasive Ants and Tests of Their Pathogenicity

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    Maria Fernanda Miori de Zarzuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species cause severe ecological and health impact in urban areas. Many attempts have been tested to control such species, although they do not always succeed. Biological control is an alternative to chemical control and has gained great prominence in research, and fungi and nematodes are among the successful organisms controlling insects. This study aimed to clarify some questions regarding the biological control of ants. Invasive ant species in Brazil had their nests evaluated for the presence of entomopathogens. Isolated entomopathogens were later applied in colonies of Monomorium floricola under laboratory conditions to evaluate their effectiveness and the behavior of the ant colonies after treatment. The entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp. and the fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces sp. were isolated from the invasive ant nests. M. floricola colonies treated with Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. showed a higher mortality of workers than control. The fungus Beauveria bassiana caused higher mortality of M. floricola workers. However, no colony reduction or elimination was observed in any treatment. The defensive behaviors of ants, such as grooming behavior and colony budding, must be considered when using fungi and nematodes for biological control of ants.

  10. EVALUATIO OF MICROBIAL AGENTS AND BIO-PRODUCTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MUSTARD APHID, LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI (KALT.

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    RAJENDRA NAGAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial agents (Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water,plant products (Tobacco, onion and neem seed kernel extract @ 5%, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha and dimethoate30EC @ 300 g a.i/ha were evaluated against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt. and their safety to naturalenemies and pollinators. Significantly higher aphid reduction was recorded under these treatments over thecontrol without any phytotoxic effect and found safe to natural enemies of mustard aphid and honeybee. Mostfavourable cost-benefit ratio was obtained under the treatment i.e. dimethoate 30 EC @ 300 g a.i/ha (1:38followed by neem seed kernel extract @ 5% (1:18, onion extract @ 5% (1:17, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha (1:11,Beauveria bassiana @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Verticillium lecanii @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Metarhiziumanisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water (1:8, tobacco extract @ 5% (1:6 and water spray (1:2.

  11. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  12. Diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales in soil and phylloplanes of five Mediterranean cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Fernández-Bravo, María; Campos, Carlos; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales from the soil and phylloplanes in five Mediterranean cropping systems with different degrees of management [organic olive orchard conventional olive orchard, holm oak reforestation, holm oak dehesa (a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system), and sunflower plantation] was studied during four seasons. A total of 697 entomopathogenic fungal isolates were obtained from 272 soil samples, 1608 crop phylloplane samples and 1368 weed phylloplane samples. The following nine species were identified: Beauveria amorpha, B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, B. varroae, Metarhizium brunneum, M. guizhoense, M. robertsii, Paecilomyces marquandii and lilacinum using EF-1α gene sequences. All the fungal entomopathogenic species were found in both the soil and phylloplane samples, with the exception of M. robertsii, which was only isolated from the soil. The species richness, diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) and evenness (Pielou index) were calculated for each cropping system, yielding the following species ranking, which was correlated with the crop management intensity: holm oak reforestation>organic olive orchard>conventional olive orchard>holm oak dehesa>sunflower plantation. The number of fungal species isolated was similar in both phylloplane habitats and dissimilar between the soil and the crop phylloplane habitats. The ISSR analysis revealed high genotypic diversity among the B. bassiana isolates on the neighbourhood scale, and the isolates were clustered according to the habitat. These results suggest that the entomopathogenic Hypocreales in the phylloplane could result from the dispersal of fungal propagules from the soil, which might be their habitat of origin; a few isolates, including EABb 09/28-Fil of Beauveria bassiana, inhabit only the phylloplane. PMID:26146223

  13. Ochratoxin A Management in Vineyards by Lobesia botrana Biocontrol

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    Giuseppe Cozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape berries attacked by Lobesia botrana larvae are more easily infected by Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli ochratoxigenic species. Two-year field trials were carried out in Apulia (Italy to evaluate a bioinsecticide control strategy against L. botrana and the indirect effect on reducing ochratoxin A (OTA contamination in vineyards. A commercial Bacillus thuringiensis formulate and an experimental Beauveria bassiana (ITEM-1559 formulate were tested in two vineyards cultivated with the same grape variety, Negroamaro, but with two different training systems (espalier and little-arbor techniques. In both years and training systems the treatments by B. bassiana ITEM-1559 significantly controlled L. botrana larvae attacks with effectiveness similar to B. thuringensis (more than 20%. A significant reduction of OTA concentrations (up to 80% compared to untreated controls was observed only in the first year in both training systems, when the metereological parameters prior to harvest were more favorable to the insect attack. Results of field trials showed that B. bassiana ITEM-1559 is a valid bioinsecticide against L. botrana and that grape moth biocontrol is a strategy to reduce OTA contamination in vineyard in seasons with heavy natural infestation.

  14. Control of the Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae with entomopathogenic fungi

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    SRF Rezende

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, considered a worldwide pest in the poultry industry, is difficult to control and it is a vector for pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control of the lesser mealworm, by strains of fungi Beauveria bassiana, Cladosporium sp. and Trichoderma sp. Larvae and adults of the A. diaperinus were inoculated with suspensions of conidia in the concentration of 10(7 conídia.mL-1. The B. bassiana isolate caused higher insect mortality as compared to Cladosporium sp. and Trichoderma sp. isolates, with the larvae being more susceptible than adults. The entomopathogenicity of B. bassiana was further evaluated with 200 larvae and 200 adults of A. diaperinus inoculated with suspensions 10(6, 10(7, and 10(8 conidia.mL-1, and observed for ten days. Larvae mortality started at the fourth day at the lowest concentration, and the adult mortality was only observed on the sixth day at the concentration of 10(8 conidia.mL-1.

  15. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutse, Komivi S; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd) and 3(rd) instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  16. Effects of Endophyte Colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) Plants on the Life–History of Leafminer Parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutse, Komivi S.; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Van den Berg, Johnnie; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1) and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1) on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2nd and 3rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68) and D. isaea (p = 0.45) and adult' survival times (p = 0.06). The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001) in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54) was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression. PMID:25338084

  17. Selection of Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi and the Bioefficacy of Their Liquid Production against Leptocorisa oratorius Nymphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HERLINDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi are fungi pathogenic to insects and are widely used as biocontrol agents for insect pests. The aim of this research was to study the virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium sp. isolates and to evaluate the efficacy of liquid production of those fungi against Leptocorisa oratorius (rice bug. Twelve isolates of B. bassiana and five isolates of Metarhizium sp. were used in this research. Selection result of B. bassiana isolates on third-instar rice bug nymphs showed that the isolate KBC caused the highest mortality rate (93%, while the lowest (46% was caused by the isolate BBY 725. The shortest time needed to produce 50% mortality (Lethal time, LT50 was 3.52 days (isolate KBC. The longest time (10.36 days was produced by isolate SLSS. The mortality of rice bug nymphs caused by Metarhizium isolates was only 50-62%. The shortest LT50 of Metarhizium (5.75 days was produced by isolate Mtm, while the longest (7.46 days was produced by isolate Mpx. Bioefficacy tests on six kinds of liquid formations of entomopathogenic fungi indicated that all were effective, mostly with LT50 d” two days. The mortality rates of rice bug nymphs caused by bioefficacy of fungus liquid production was generally above 85% up to 100%. The liquid media for entomopathogenic fungi performed better compared with solid media (SDA, as indicated by the greater mortality rate and shorter LT50.

  18. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (Fabaceae plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi S Akutse

    Full Text Available Effects of the fungal endophytes Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 279, G1LU3, S4SU1 and Hypocrea lixii (isolate F3ST1 on the life-history of Phaedrotoma scabriventris and Diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. Parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd and 3(rd instar L. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, Vicia faba. In the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. Parasitism, pupation, adult emergence and survival were recorded. No significant difference was observed between the control and the endophyte-inoculated plants in terms of parasitism rates of P. scabriventris (p = 0.68 and D. isaea (p = 0.45 and adult' survival times (p = 0.06. The survival period of the F1 progeny of P. scabriventris was reduced (p<0.0001 in B. bassiana S4SU1 to 28 days as compared to more than 40 days for B. bassiana G1LU3, ICIPE 279 and H. lixii F3ST1. However, no significant difference (p = 0.54 was observed in the survival times of the F1 progeny of D. isaea. This study has demonstrated that together, endophytes and parasitoids have beneficial effects in L. huidobrensis population suppression.

  19. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi against the red spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Kishida (Tetranychidae: Acarina

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    Yayan Sanjaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungal species to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Seven isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, six isolates of Beauveria bassiana, and an isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus from the Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following studies were undertaken: (1 screening of M. anisoplae, B. bassiana and P. lilicanus pathogenic to T. kanzawai, and (2 bioefficacy studies of the selected entomopathogenic fungi under greenhouse conditions. Conidia of each isolate were mass-produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA at 26+-1 oC and a 12-hour photophase for a maximum of 21 days. Preliminary screening for the most pathogenic isolate within the same species was determined using suspension with 104 to 108 conidia ml-1. At 4 days after treatment (DAT, the pathogenicity within M. anisopliae isolates in decreasing order was Ma5>Ma6>Ma4>Ma2>Ma1>Ma3>Ma7 while for B. bassiana, was Bb6>Bb5>Bb4>Bb3>Bb1>Bb2. The top three most pathogenic isolates within the two species were subjected to further studies to determine the most virulent isolate against T. kanzawai. At 5 DAT, the LC50 values of M. anisopliae isolates ranged from 5.0 x102 to 1.4x103 while for B. bassiana ranged from 1.2 x 103 to 2.4x 103 conidia ml-1. Based on LC50, the virulence of the fungal isolates within the species in decreasing order was Ma6>Ma5>Ma4 and Bb6>Bb5>Bb4. However, the LC50 values are not significantly different from each other. Green house trials showed that the epizootic of entomopathogenic fungus can regulate the population of mites. The fungal isolates used in the study, although not originally isolated from mites were virulent to T. kanzawai, indicating their wide host range.

  20. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  1. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  2. Compatibility of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae with Commercial Products Under Laboratory Conditions

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    Jennifer Barrera Mojica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum one of the major pests of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions, but, Its mainly controlled with chemical insecticides. However, there are alternative control strategies as entomopathogens fungi and parasitoids (Encarsia formosa. In this study we evaluated the compatibility of commercial product with adults and pupae of E. formosa under laboratory conditions. Eight treatments were evaluated for adults and pupae of the parasitoid, including two concentrations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (5 x 107 and 5 x 109 conidia/ml, commercial doses of four chemical products commonly used to control pests on tomato crops and two controls. These treatments were applied directly on parasitoids, and their mortality rate on adults and pupae were recorded daily. There was no difference in E. formosa pupae among relative with the Bacillus thuringiensis products (p > 0.05, indicating that its compatible with the parasitoid pupae under laboratory conditions. Finally, it was found that products with active ingredients of Tiocyclam hidrogenoxalato and B. thuringiensis are incompatibles with E. formosa adults under laboratory conditions.COMPATIBILIDAD DE Encarsia formosa (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE CON PRODUCTOS COMERCIALES EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, es una de las principales plagas de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero y es controlada principalmente con insecticidas químicos. Sin embargo, existen estrategias alternativas de control como hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana y enemigos naturales como parasitoides (Encarsia formosa. En el presente estudio se evaluó la compatibilidad de productos comerciales con adultos y pupas de E. formosa bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos para pupas y adultos del parasitoide, incluyendo dos concentraciones del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria

  3. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their compatibility with insecticides used in tomato crop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Lauricí M; Marques, Edmilson J; Oliveira, José V de; Alves, Sérgio B

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana towards eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was evaluated. Our data showed that the isolates were pathogenic to both developmental stages tested and the eggs were more susceptible than the 1st instars. The isolates URPE-6 and URPE-19 of M. anisopliae were more pathogenic to eggs and larvae, respectively. The compatibility of these two isolates with the insecticides chlorfenapyr, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, and neem were evaluated. Spinosad and indoxacarb were compatible with the two M. anisopliae isolates in all tested concentrations. At the average recommended concentration, chlorfenapyr was compatible to URPE-6 and abamectin to UFPE-19. The use of entomopathogenic fungi associated with compatible insecticides may be a useful alternative to control T. absoluta. PMID:21271067

  4. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica) Growth, esporulation and viability of entomopathogenic fungi under mediums with differents Nim oil (Azadirachta indica) concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Paro Marques; Antonio Carlos Monteiro; Gener Tadeu Pereira

    2004-01-01

    A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO) sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim,...

  5. Habitat selection of a parasitoid mediated by volatiles informing on host and intraguild predator densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotes, Belén; Rännbäck, Linda Marie; Björkman, Maria; Norli, Hans Ragnar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Rämert, Birgitta; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To locate and evaluate host patches before oviposition, parasitoids of herbivorous insects utilize plant volatiles and host-derived cues, but also evaluate predator-derived infochemicals to reduce predation risks. When foraging in host habitats infested with entomopathogenic fungi that can infect...... both a parasitoid and its host, parasitoids may reduce the risk of intraguild predation (IGP) by avoiding such patches. In this study, we examined whether the presence of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana in soil habitats of a root herbivore, Delia radicum, affects...... the behavior of Trybliographa rapae, a parasitoid of D. radicum. Olfactometer bioassays revealed that T. rapae avoided fungal infested host habitats and that this was dependent on fungal species and density. In particular, the parasitoid avoided habitats with high densities of the more virulent fungus...

  6. New alternatives in the control of plagues and projections of the ICA in the handling of the residuals in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategies are described indicated by the ICA for the control of plagues and of toxic residuals of agro-chemicals in the agricultural products, with emphasis in the implementation of mechanisms like the integrated control of plagues. It stands out the paper of the bio-insecticides as alternative to the agro-chemicals use and enter these stable products they are mentioned with the help of Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Nomuraea rileyi, Metarhizium anisoplidae and Verticilium lecanni. Some implications of the presence of toxic residuals are mentioned in Colombian export fruits and the measures that have been adopted to avoid them, as well as some mechanisms adopted in the international environment with the same end. The effective legislation is indicated as for prohibition and restriction of plaguicides use

  7. Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. Several important nematophagous and entomogenous fungi, including nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora and Drechslerella stenobrocha, nematode endoparasite (Hirsutella minnesotensis, insect pathogens (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium spp. and Chinese medicinal fungi (Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris, have been genome sequenced and extensively analyzed in China. The biology, evolution, and pharmaceutical application of these fungi and their interacting with host nematodes and insects revealed by genomes, comparing genomes coupled with transcriptomes are summarized and reviewed in this paper.

  8. No benefit in diversity? The effect of genetic variation on survival and disease resistance in a polygynous social insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    numbers of queens also benefit from increased genetic diversity.2. We used one of the very few ant species that can be reared across generations, the pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis Linnaeus, to create experimental colonies with two types of enhanced genetic diversity: (i) mixed workers from three...... within-worker variation).3. We found significant differences in worker survival among the three inbred lineages, with exposure to conidiospores of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causing significant mortality to the workers independently of their diversity type. Increased diversity did not improve...... results do not provide evidence for or against a link between increased genetic variation and increased disease resistance in pharaoh ants, but show that colonies differ considerably in general survival. Thus, increasing the genetic diversity of pharaoh ant colonies may not provide survival advantages in...

  9. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  10. 中国虫生真菌应用50年简史%Fifty years of application of entomogenous fungi in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增智

    2007-01-01

    In China, there is a long history over 2300 years of entomogenous fungi used as medicines,but their use against insect pests did not start until mid 1950′s.In 1970,the central government held a workshop to encourage the use of Beauveria bassiana against pine caterpillars,making the year a milestone in Chinese history of microbial pest control.Since then, quite a few fungi have been tried for control of over 60 forest and crop pests.In the past decades,low tech production has been being improved towards commercial production with higher techniques.Until 2006,5 products of fungal insecticides have been registered.Meanwhile,large scale application techniques have been being improved with molecular ecological approach towards a rational application strategy.

  11. Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

    2007-01-01

    The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

  12. Laboratory bioassays of entomopathogenic fungi for control of Delia radicum (L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Denny J; Snelling, Jane E; Dreves, Amy J; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2005-06-01

    Laboratory soil bioassays were performed at economic field rates for in-furrow (3.85 x 10(6)spores/g dry soil) and broadcast (3.85 x 10(5)spores/g dry soil) applications with three isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (F52, ATCC62176, and ARSEF5520) and one isolate of Beauveria bassiana (GHA). All isolates tested were infective to second instar Delia radicum (L.). The conditionally registered M. anisopliae isolate (F52) performed best killing an average of 85 and 72% of D. radicum larvae at the high and low concentration, respectively. The mean LC50 and LC95 of F52 against second instar D. radicum was 2.7 x 10(6) and 1.8 x 10(8)spores/g dry soil, respectively. The use of F52 in an integrated management program is discussed. PMID:16087004

  13. A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh N Pham

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune response to fight invading microbes; by definition, innate immunity lacks adaptive characteristics. However, we show here that priming Drosophila with a sublethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae protects against an otherwise-lethal second challenge of S. pneumoniae. This protective effect exhibits coarse specificity for S. pneumoniae and persists for the life of the fly. Although not all microbial challenges induced this specific primed response, we find that a similar specific protection can be elicited by Beauveria bassiana, a natural fly pathogen. To characterize this primed response, we focused on S. pneumoniae-induced protection. The mechanism underlying this protective effect requires phagocytes and the Toll pathway. However, activation of the Toll pathway is not sufficient for priming-induced protection. This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response.

  14. Sweet pepper seed responses to inoculation with microorganisms and coating with micronutrients, aminoacids and plant growth regulators Tratamento de sementes de pimentão com microrganismos, micronutrientes, aminoácidos e reguladores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Almeida Diniz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Small sized seeds, such as the horticultural species, have limited quantities of reserves that can be balanced by coating then with essential nutrients for their initial development. In addition, inoculation of the seeds with microorganisms may protect the plants against phytopathogens, thus enhancing their growth. The present work had the objective of evaluate the physiological quality and seedling development of sweet pepper seeds and seedlings coated with several kind of films. Seeds were first coated with polymers and then with antagonistic microorganisms (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma polysporhum, Trichoderma stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, mycorrhizas, aminoacids, micronutrients and plant growth regulators. Evaluation was performed for percentage of germination and for seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, number of plants, dry mass of the aerial and root parts and height of the seedlings. Inoculation with Trichoderma viride increased the percentage and rate of the seedlings emergence Inoculation with Trichoderma viride, Metarhizium anisopliae and mycorrhizas promote better seedling development; seed microbiolization with microorganisms Trichoderma viride, T. polysporhum, T. stromaticum, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae. Mycorrhizas mixture negatively affected seeds and seedling quality. Seed covering with plant growht regulator, at a 5 mL kg-1 dose increased the roots dry matter.Em sementes pequenas, como as de espécies hortícolas, as limitadas quantidades de reservas podem ser equilibradas por meio do seu recobrimento com nutrientes essenciais para o seu desenvolvimento inicial. Além disso, a inoculação dessas sementes com microrganismos, além de proteger as plantas contra fitopatógenos, pode promover o seu crescimento. Assim, objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de tipos de revestimentos na qualidade de sementes e mudas de pimentão (Capsicum annum. Para tanto, as

  15. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Boopathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on cassava (Manihot esculenta during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population. The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersusin both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava.

  16. Seasonal abundance and mortality of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in a hibernation refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R S S; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Romanowski, H P; Prando, H F; Antochevis, R C

    2006-05-01

    Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) is an important pest affecting irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It hibernates during the coldest months of the year in refuges such as bamboo litter. This study examined O. poecilus hibernation to determine the causes of mortality during this period. The study was conducted in a 140 m(2) bamboo plantation located in a rice-growing area in Eldorado do Sul County (30 degrees 02 S and 51 degrees 23 W), RS. During June 2000 to April 2002, 63 samples of litter were taken in weekly or fortnightly intervals, and the number of bugs recorded in the laboratory. The arrival at the hibernation site (bamboo litter) began in the first fortnight of March, and was completed in the beginning of May. O. poecilus left this refuge from middle October to the end of December. Parasitism by tachinid flies and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. fungus were the most important mortality factors. PMID:16862299

  17. Development and improvement of biological insecticides for pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. were submitted to UV-light irradiation at doses inducing mutations. Three UV-light-resistant mutants were obtained from strain PL 256 and two from strain PL 196. The wild and mutant strains were tested for viability in 3 different manners: A) by incorporation a suspension into the soil of a field with newly emerged sugar cane; B) by applying the suspension only to the soil surface in a field with newly emerged sugar cane; C) by applying the suspension only to the surface in a field with 6-month old sugar cane. Soil samples were collected in different days after application, Conidia were counted and their viability was tested. Cytological studies were also carried out to determine the morphological traits of the strains. (M.A.C.)

  18. Application of Two-Stage Cultivation for Exploring the Nutritional Requirements for Sporulation of Three Biocontrol Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungicide was an important part in mycopesticides, which play an important role in pest management, while their mass production and commercialization faced problem. We found that the nutrition for mycelia growth and sporulation differences a lot. So, we developed “two-step method” to define the nutrition for sporulation in this paper. The results indicated that the novel method led to a great increase of spore yields for Beauveria bassiana (IBC1201, Lecanicillium lecanii (CA-1-G, and Pochonia chlamydosporia (HSY-12-14, respectively, of about 100, 2, and 16 times and, also reduced the cycle of mass production to 1/3 compared with common time for culturing.

  19. Entomopathogenic fungal (Hyphomycetes collection: assessment of conidial viability Coleção de fungos entomopatogênicos (Hyphomycetes: avaliação da viabilidade conidial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues de Faria

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four strains of the entomopathogenic fungi (Hyphomycetes Beauveria bassiana, Metarrhizium anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumosoroseus and P. lilacinus, maintained in the culture collection of Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen and preserved by lyophilization and in liquid nitrogen, had their conidial viability assessed. Germination rates of 16- to 84-month-old cultures stored in liquid nitrogen decreased, on average, less than 13.3%. For 29- to 49-month-old cultures preserved by lyophilization, the viability loss ranged, on average, from 28.6 to 94.5%. The results demonstrated the efficiency of the tested methods, especially liquid nitrogen, in preserving the viability of entomopathogenic fungi.Vinte e quatro isolados dos fungos entomopatogênicos (Hyphomycetes Beauveria bassiana, Metarrhizium anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumosoroseus e P. lilacinus, mantidos na coleção de culturas da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen e preservados em nitrogênio líquido e liofilização, tiverama viabilidade conidial avaliada. As taxas de germinação de conídios preservados em nitrogênio líquido diminuíram, em média, menos de 13,3% após 16 a 84 meses de armazenamento. A perda de viabilidade de isolados liofilizados, após 29 a 49 meses de armazenamento, variou de 28,6 a 94,5%. Os resultados demonstraram a eficiência dos métodos testados, especialmente nitrogênio líquido, na preservação da viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos.

  20. Microbiology and Geochemistry of Antarctic Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, I. B.; Sheppard, D.

    2000-08-01

    Samples of ancient soils from horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains (Aztec and New Mountain areas of the Antarctic Dry Valleys) were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents. The salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived in part from nearby oceanic and high altitude atmospheric sources. The geochemistry of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of till, derived principally from dolerite and sandstone source rock, in association with airborne-influxed salts. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of chlorine, and farther inland near the Inland Ice Sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, to the order of several million years. Iron, both in total concentration and in the form of various extracts, indicates it can be used as a geochronometer to assess the buildup of goethite plus hematite over time in the paleosols. Trends for ferrihydrite, a partially soluble Fe-hydroxide, shows limited profile translocation that might be related to the movement of salt. Six of the eight selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in three soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between three to eight centimeters yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium spp., indicating some input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic

  1. Morphogenesis of Antarctic Paleosols: Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Newsom, Horton E.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, Iain; Sheppard, D.; Milner, M. W.

    2001-11-01

    Samples of horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains of the Antarctic Dry Valleys (Aztec and New Mountain areas) were analyzed for their physical characteristics, mineralogy, chemical composition, and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents and the presence/absence of microbial populations. Salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived over time, in part from nearby oceanic and high-altitude atmospheric sources. The chemical composition of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of airborne-influxed salts and other materials, as well as the weathering of till derived principally from local dolerite and sandstone outcrops. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of Cl, whereas near the inland ice sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, in the order of several million years. Four of the six selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in two ancient soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between 3 and 8 cm, in two profiles, yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium brevicompactum, indicating very minor input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate, and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds. The cold, dry soils of the Antarctic bear a close resemblance to various present and past martian environments where similar weathering could occur and possible microbial populations

  2. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  3. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  4. Alate susceptibility in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  5. Susceptibility of Cabbage Maggot Larvae (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) to Hypocreales Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrand, V; Buffet, J P; Guertin, C

    2015-02-01

    The pathogenicity of six Metarhizium spp., four Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and four Tolypocladium cylindrosporum Gams (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) fungal pathogens exposed to third-instar Delia radicum L. was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. The presence of intra- and intergeneric variations concerning the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated. Results show that all Metarhizium spp. and T. cylindrosporum isolates caused a noteworthy mortality to the third instar and consequently reduced adult eclosion. The well-known standard, F52 strain (identified as Metarhizium brunneum), resulted in up to 79% reduction in D. radicum eclosion. The other Metarhizium isolates including UAMH 9197 (Metarhizium anisopliae) and UAMH 2801 (M. brunneum), as well as T. cylindrosporum DAOM 167325 and DAOM 183952, produced a mean eclosion reduction of >50%. While the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. and T. cylindrosporum is similar, the B. bassiana isolates are undoubtedly less pathogenic. Based on the results obtained with the selected isolates, no intrageneric differences relative to the pathogenicity of the isolates appeared to be present. Globally, this study deepened the knowledge about D. radicum susceptibility toward Hypocreales entomopathogenic fungi, chiefly T. cylindrosporum. The implications of this study regarding the development of a biological control agent are discussed. PMID:26470101

  6. Serpin-15 from Bombyx mori inhibits prophenoloxidase activation and expression of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongran; Wang, Lei; Yang, Liu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guoqing; Dai, Lishang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2015-07-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) play a key role in physiological responses by controlling protease activities. In this study, we studied the biochemical functions of serpin-15, an SPI, from Bombyx mori (Bmserpin-15). Recombinant Bmserpin-15 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and used to raise rabbit anti-Bmserpin-15 polyclonal antibodies. Bmserpin-15 mRNA and protein expression was detected in all tested tissues, particularly in the fat body and silk gland. After challenge with four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Beauveria bassiana, Micrococcus luteus and B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus), the expressions of Bmserpin-15 mRNA and protein were induced significantly, particularly by B. bassiana and M. luteus. Recombinant Bmserpin-15 inhibited prophenoloxidase activation, but did not affect phenoloxidase activity, in B. mori hemolymph. Injection of recombinant Bmserpin-15 into B. mori larvae reduced significantly the transcript levels of antimicrobial peptides in fat body. Our results suggested that Bmserpin-15 plays an important role in the innate immunity of B. mori. PMID:25720980

  7. Tools for delivering entomopathogenic fungi to malaria mosquitoes: effects of delivery surfaces on fungal efficacy and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi infection on malaria vectors increases daily mortality rates and thus represents a control measure that could be used in integrated programmes alongside insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS. Before entomopathogenic fungi can be integrated into control programmes, an effective delivery system must be developed. Methods The efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 and Beauveria bassiana I93-825 (IMI 391510 (2 × 1010 conidia m-2 applied on mud panels (simulating walls of traditional Tanzanian houses, black cotton cloth and polyester netting was evaluated against adult Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mosquitoes were exposed to the treated surfaces 2, 14 and 28 d after conidia were applied. Survival of mosquitoes was monitored daily. Results All fungal treatments caused a significantly increased mortality in the exposed mosquitoes, descending with time since fungal application. Mosquitoes exposed to M. anisopliae conidia on mud panels had a greater daily risk of dying compared to those exposed to conidia on either netting or cotton cloth (p B. bassiana conidia on mud panels or cotton cloth had similar daily risk of death (p = 0.14, and a higher risk than those exposed to treated polyester netting (p Conclusion Both fungal isolates reduced mosquito survival on immediate exposure and up to 28 d after application. Conidia were more effective when applied on mud panels and cotton cloth compared with polyester netting. Cotton cloth and mud, therefore, represent potential substrates for delivering fungi to mosquitoes in the field.

  8. Inventario y frecuencia de aparición de enemigos naturales de la chinche de encaje del aguacate Pseudacysta Persea en Matanzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Rijo Camacho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El aguacate, Persea americana Mill., representa una fruta de gran aceptación por la población cubana, ocupa una superficie cultivable de 750 a 800 ha (FAO, 2004. La chinche de encaje Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann constituye una plaga de reciente introducción al país y se estima que ocasiona pérdidas económicas entre un 10 – 90 % de la cosecha, prescindiéndose de esta problemática se añade que más del 71 % de los productores de aguacate utilizan los insecticidas como principal método de control y se informa la detección de insectoresistencia (USDAE, 2000. Durante los años 1999 - 2004 se monitorearon aguacateros ubicados en la localidad del Alvaro Reynoso y en la Finca de Frutales “Los Alonsos” (LAPROSAV, Matanzas. Las investigaciones realizadas muestran infestaciones severas de la plaga durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, se obtiene por primera vez en Matanzas un inventario bioecológico de los enemigos naturales asociados a la plaga, siendo Chrysopa gloreae Alayo, Paracarnus cubanus Bruner y Beauveria bassiana (Bals.Vuill, los de mayor abundancia y frecuencia de aparición, estudios etológicos corroboran la eficacia depredadora de C. gloreae y la efectividad patogénica del aislamiento nativo de B. bassiana, siendo agentes promisorios de control natural.

  9. A response of entomopathogenic fungi to botanical fungicides and synthetic fungicides in vitro

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    Anna Sapieha-Waszkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth colonies' morphology and sporulation of entomopathogenic fungi was estimated on Sabouraud medium containing botanical fungicides (Bioczos liquid and Biosept 33 SL, and synthetic ones (Teldor 500 SC and Sumilex 500 SC. Entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana (Balls. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok, and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown et Smith., were isolated from soil by means of Galleria mellonella larvae as baits. Isolates Bb I, Ma I, Pf I derivered from herbicide fallow from apple orchard and isolates Bb II, Ma II and Pf II from arable field adjacent to orchard. Fungicides were added to Sabouraud medium at the following concentrations: A-recommended dose, B-10-times lower than the recommended, C-100-times lower than the recommended. The growth of colonies their morphological changes and sporulations were estimated after 5 and 20 days. The same parametrs were observed when fungi were transfered from the medium containing fungicides on the medium with out fungicides. From botanical fungicides Bioczos liquid inhibited fungal growth more than Biosept 33 SL. Both of fungicides were most toxic to fungi at concentration A. Both of P. fumosoroseus isolates were the most sensitive to Bioczos liquid and M. anisopliae to Biosept 33 SL. All concentrations of synthetic fungicides (Sumilex 500 SC, Teldor 500 SC restricted growth of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates more from arable soil than from herbicide fallow but opposite reaction was found with respect to P. fumosoroseus.

  10. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  11. The effect of different entomopathogens on white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in an organic hay-producing grassland

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    Laznik Žiga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a field block trial examined the biological control of white grubs of June beetle (Amphimallon solstitialis, margined vine chafer (Anomala dubia and garden chafer (Phyllopertha horticola on a permanent cut grassland in Gotenica (SE Slovenia. The efficacy of Beauveria brongniartii, Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in the form of water suspension and infested grain was tested against a control treatment. The initial number of white grubs (April 12; 39 white grubs/m2 was reduced with all tested entomopathogens up until the third evaluation (May 26; 32 white grubs/m2. However, the studied treatments were not sufficient to reduce the white grub population in the soils below the economical threshold (20 individuals/m2. The average number of white grubs was affected mostly by the treatment where the active ingredient was B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. With one application in April, only the abundance of overwintered white grubs was reduced. To decrease the summer generation of white grubs, an application of biological agents is also required at a later time. The 8% higher dry matter yield at the first cut (June 10 compared to the second cut (September 6 provided evidence for the prior statement.

  12. Lack of phenotypic and evolutionary cross-resistance against parasitoids and pathogens in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Alex R Kraaijeveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When organisms are attacked by multiple natural enemies, the evolution of a resistance mechanism to one natural enemy will be influenced by the degree of cross-resistance to another natural enemy. Cross-resistance can be positive, when a resistance mechanism against one natural enemy also offers resistance to another; or negative, in the form of a trade-off, when an increase in resistance against one natural enemy results in a decrease in resistance against another. Using Drosophila melanogaster, an important model system for the evolution of invertebrate immunity, we test for the existence of cross-resistance against parasites and pathogens, at both a phenotypic and evolutionary level. METHODS: We used a field strain of D. melanogaster to test whether surviving parasitism by the parasitoid Asobara tabida has an effect on the resistance against Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus; and whether infection with the microsporidian Tubulinosema kingi has an effect on the resistance against A. tabida. We used lines selected for increased resistance to A. tabida to test whether increased parasitoid resistance has an effect on resistance against B. bassiana and T. kingi. We used lines selected for increased tolerance against B. bassiana to test whether increased fungal resistance has an effect on resistance against A. tabida. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: We found no positive cross-resistance or trade-offs in the resistance to parasites and pathogens. This is an important finding, given the use of D. melanogaster as a model system for the evolution of invertebrate immunity. The lack of any cross-resistance to parasites and pathogens, at both the phenotypic and the evolutionary level, suggests that evolution of resistance against one class of natural enemies is largely independent of evolution of resistance against the other.

  13. Effect of temperature on efficacy of insecticides to differential grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

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    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Edelson, J V

    2004-10-01

    The effect of temperature on activity of insecticides for controlling grasshoppers in leafy green vegetables was evaluated. Insecticides evaluated had differing modes of action and included diflubenzuron, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana, spinosad, endosulfan, esfenvalerate, and naled. We evaluated these insecticides for efficacy to third instars of differential grasshopper, Melanoplus differentialis (Thomas), at temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. In the laboratory, treatment with esfenvalerate resulted in 100% mortality at temperatures of 10 to 35 degrees C, and efficacy was not temperature dependent. Treatment with spinosad resulted in similar mortality as with esfenvalerate at all temperatures except 10 degrees C. The activity of B. bassiana was greatest at 25 degrees C and was adversely affected by high and low temperatures. Treatment with diflubenzuron resulted in increased mortality at high temperatures, and at 35 degrees C its activity was similar to that of esfenvalerate and spinosad. The activity of azadirachtin ranged from 19 to 31% and was not influenced by temperature. In field studies, spinosad, diflubenzuron, and esfenvalerate provided differing levels of mortality both at application and when nymphs were exposed to 1-h-old residues. However, only spinosad and diflubenzuron provided similar levels of mortality when nymphs were exposed to 24-h-old residues. The residual activity of endosulfan, naled, esfenvalerate, and spinosad decreased with increasing time (0-24 h) after exposure to sunlight and high summer temperatures. Compared with other insecticides, naled had a short residual activity period and activity was dependent upon immediate contact with the nymphs or their substrate. B. bassiana was inactive under high temperatures and intense sunlight as occurs in summer. PMID:15568348

  14. Entomopathogenic fungi isolates to control the borer of yerba mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; CerambycidaeIsolados de fungos entomopatogênicos visando ao controle da broca da erva-mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae

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    André Luis Pereira Fanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is an important crop of southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, with socio-economic and environmental importance. Due the lack of native herbals, yerba mate has become a monoculture, and as a consequence, insects have become pests, and the borer, Hedypathes betulinus, one of the most important. In order to improve biological control in the crop, this work aims to select in laboratory the most virulent, of 32 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and 18 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. Initially, isolates virolence was evaluated by immersing the adults borers in a fungal suspension, containing 1×108 conidia mL-1, and after, those caused highest confirmed mortality were selected for the second step, wherein it was evaluated the virulence, vegetative growth and conidia production in culture medium, rice and borer bodies. Three isolates of B. bassiana (UNIOESTE 4, UNIOESTE 52 and UNIOESTE 64 and one of M. anisopliae (IBCB 352 reached confirmed mortality equal or superior to 90%, these isolates were selected for the second step, together with the standard isolated GC 716 (B. bassiana. The isolated IBCB 352 of M. anisopliae, despite being the only of this species to be selected for the second step, promoted the high confirmed mortality and conidiogenesis in adults borer, indicating a high inoculums production i, being nominated for field evaluations. A erva-mate é uma cultura importante da região sul do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai, tendo grande importância sócio-econômica e ambiental. Com a escassez de ervais nativos, a cultura da erva-mate passou a ser cultivada em sistema de monocultivo e como consequência, alguns insetos tornaram-se pragas, sendo a broca, Hedypathes betulinus, muito importante. A fim de incrementar o controle biológico na cultura, o objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar em laboratório os isolados mais virulentos de 32 isolados do fungo entomopatog

  15. Influence of culture media in viability test of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi Influência de meios de cultura em teste de viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos

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    Edimara Aparecida Francisco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at investigatimg whether the culture medium used in viability tests affects the conidial germination of Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates. The tests were performed on microscope slides containing one of the culture media: agar-water (AW, minimal medium (MM, potato-dextrose agar (PDA, potato-dextrose-1% yeast extract agar (PDAY, Sabouraud-dextrose-yeast extract agar (SDAY, and complete medium (CM. Three areas per slide were delimited and 0.05ml of a 5.5 x 105 conidia ml-1 suspension was applied to each area. One bioassay was performed for each isolate. Germination was determined after 15 hours of incubation at 26±0.5°C. The culture media influenced the germination of the species studied, verifying within and inter specific variations. CM and PDA provided the highest germination of L. lecanii isolates and the lowest was obtained on SDAY and AW. The germination of B. bassiana isolates was favoured by CM, PDA and PDAY media, a fact not observed in AW and MM. P. fumosoroseus isolates showed the highest germination on CM and PDA media and the lowest on SDAY. However, some isolates presented high germination on nutrient-poor media (AW and MM.O presente trabalho objetivou investigar se meios de cultura utilizados em teste de viabilidade afetam a germinação de conídios de cinco isolados de Lecanicillium lecanii, cinco de Beauveria bassiana e quatro de Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Os testes foram realizados em lâminas de microscopia contendo um dos seguintes meios de cultura: Ágar-água (AA, Meio Mínimo (MM, Batata, dextrose e ágar (BDA, Batata, dextrose, ágar e 1% de extrato de levedura (BDAL, Sabouraud, dextrose, ágar e extrato de levedura (SDAL e Meio Completo (MC. Delimitaram-se três áreas por lâmina e em cada uma aplicou-se 0,05mL de uma suspensão com concentração de 5,5 x 105 conídios ml-1. Para cada isolado foi realizado um bioensaio, com seis tratamentos e cinco repeti

  16. Associação de pós inertes com fungo entomopatogênico para o controle do cascudinho (Alphitobius diaperinus Association of inert powders with the entomopathogenic fungi for darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus control

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    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de Beauveria bassiana (Bb, da terra diatomácea (TD e dos pós de rocha Protesyl e Rocksil, isoladamente ou em associações, para o controle de Alphitobius diaperinus. Os agentes de controle foram aplicados na forma sólida misturados à cama de frango. A concentração de conídios de Bb foi de 0,08% e, para os pós inertes, as concentrações foram de 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5%. Testaram-se 20 tratamentos, com cinco repetições de 200 insetos, por 10 dias. Os tratamentos que apresentaram maior eficiência foram TD 1,5% e Bb 0,08% + TD 1,5%, com 60,2 e 57,8% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Protesyl e Rocksil, nas três concentrações, e TD 0,5% não diferiram da testemunha. Na interação entre os agentes de controle, ocorreu efeito aditivo para Bb + TD e Bb + Rocksil, nas três concentrações, e para Bb + Protesyl a 1,5%. A eficiência do fungo foi reduzida na associação com Protesyl, com efeito não aditivo antagônico nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1,0%. A terra diatomácea, isolada ou associada à B. bassiana, apresenta-se como boa alternativa para controle de A. diaperinus. Já os pós de rocha Protesyl e Rocksil não foram eficientes para o controle da praga.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Bb of diatomaceous earth (TD and the dust of rock Protesyl and Rocksil, alone or in combinations, for Alphitobius diaperinus to control. The control agents were applied in dried by mixing with the poultry liter. The concentration of Bb conidia was 0.08% on the weight of the substrate, and for the dust inert were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%. Twenty treatments with five repetitions of 200 insects were tested for 10 days. The treatments with highest efficiency were TD 1.5% and Bb 0.08% + TD 1.5%, with 60.2 and 57.8%, respectively. Protesyl and Rocksil in the three concentrations and TD 0.5% did not differ from control. For the interaction between control agents no advantage

  17. Evaluación del riesgo ambiental de carbofurano en bioensayos con organismos no blanco

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    José Alberto Iannacone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El carbofurano es uno de los plaguicidas más empleado en la agricultura peruana. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el riesgo ambiental del carbofurano en bioensayos de toxicidad, sobre once especies no destinatarias. La siguiente secuencia relativa de mayor a menor cocientes de riesgo (CR del carbofurano para los 19 puntos finales de efecto en once especies fue encontrada: Daphnia magna (mortalidad > Lemna minor (inhibición de formación de las hojas > Paracheirodon innesi (nado extraño = P. innesi (incremento del movimiento opercular > Chironomus calligraphus (mortalidad > L. minor (necrosis > P. innesi (mortalidad > L. minor (clorosis > Tetrapygus niger (inhibición de la fecundación > Coturnix japonica (mortalidad > Oncorhynchus mykiss (incremento de coloración > Ceraeochrysa cincta (no eclosión de huevos > O. mykiss (mortalidad con oxígeno > O. mykiss (mortalidad sin oxígeno > Trichogramma pretiosum (mortalidad > C. cincta (mortalidad > T. pretiosum (no emergencia de adultos > Trichogramma pintoi (mortalidad > Beauveria bassiana (inhibición del crecimiento. Los cocientes de riesgo (CR indicaron en todos los casos un alto riesgo del carbofurano principalmente en el ambiente acuático en comparación con el terrestre.Carbofuran is one of the most employed pesticides in Peruvian agriculture. This research aimed to evaluate the risk assessment in bioassays of carbofuran on eleven non-target species. The following relative sequence in decreasing ecotoxicity order in terms of RQ (Risk quotient to carbofuran to 19 end points on 11 species was found: Daphnia magna (mortality > Lemna minor (inhibition of new fronds > Paracheirodon innesi (strange swim = P. innesi (increase of opercula movement > Chironomus calligraphus (mortality > L. minor (necrosis > P. innesi (mortality > L. minor (chlorosis > Tetrapygus niger (inhibition of fertilization> Coturnix japonica (mortality > Oncorhynchus mykiss (increase of coloration > Ceraeochrysa

  18. Seasonal abundance and mortality of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae in a hibernation refuge Abundância sazonal e mortalidade de Oebalus poecilus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae no refúgio de hibernação

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    R. S. S. Santos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Oebalus poecilus (Dallas is an important pest affecting irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It hibernates during the coldest months of the year in refuges such as bamboo litter. This study examined O. poecilus hibernation to determine the causes of mortality during this period. The study was conducted in a 140 m² bamboo plantation located in a rice-growing area in Eldorado do Sul County (30° 02’ S and 51° 23’ W, RS. During June 2000 to April 2002, 63 samples of litter were taken in weekly or fortnightly intervals, and the number of bugs recorded in the laboratory. The arrival at the hibernation site (bamboo litter began in the first fortnight of March, and was completed in the beginning of May. O. poecilus left this refuge from middle October to the end of December. Parasitism by tachinid flies and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. fungus were the most important mortality factors.Oebalus poecilus (Dallas é praga importante do arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Este inseto hiberna durante os meses mais frios em refúgios como o folhedo de bambu. Este estudo objetivou elucidar a hibernação de O. poecilus e determinar as causas de mortalidade durante este período. O estudo foi realizado em um bambuzal com cerca de 140 m², situado em área orizícola, em Eldorado do Sul (30° 02’ S e 51° 23’ W, RS. De junho/2000 à abril/2002, foram realizadas 63 amostragens de folhedo, em intervalos semanais ou quinzenais e o número de percevejos registrado em laboratório. A entrada no refúgio de hibernação (folhedo de bambu iniciou na primeira semana de março, completando-se no início de maio. O. poecilus abandonou o refúgio da metade de outubro até o final de dezembro. O parasitismo por mosca (taquinídeos e o fungo Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. foram os principais fatores de mortalidade.

  19. Diversity of soil fungi in North 24 Parganas and their antagonistic potential against Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Shoot and fruit borer of brinjal).

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    Pal, Sujoy; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Soil samples were collected from agricultural fields and gardens in North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, and fungi species were isolated from them. Thirty-one fungal species were isolated with 19 found in agricultural soil and 28 in garden soil. Twenty-eight out of 31 were identified using cultural and microscopic characters, and three were unidentified. The diversity of isolated fungi was calculated by Simpson's diversity index. The garden soil possessed more fungal colonies (750) than agricultural soil (477). In agricultural soil, the dominant fungi were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Penicillium expansum, and the dominant fungi of garden soil were A. niger and Fusarium moniliforme. Simpson's diversity index indicated that garden soil had more fungal diversity (0.939) than agricultural soil (0.896). The entomopathogenic capacity of the isolated fungi was tested against the brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen) which is the major insect pest of brinjal. The isolated fungi were screened against larva of L. orbonalis for their entomopathogenic potential. Beauveria bassiana, A. niger, and P. expansum showed appreciable antagonism to L. orbonalis, and their lethal doses with 50 % mortality (LD50s) were 4.0 × 10(7), 9.06 × 10(7), and 1.50 × 10(8) spore/mL, respectively, and their times taken to reach 50 % mortality (LT50s) were 9.77, 10.56, and 10.60 days, respectively. This work suggests the restriction of chemical pesticide application in agricultural fields to increase fungal diversity. The entomopathogenic efficacy of B. bassiana could be used in agricultural fields to increase fugal diversity and protect the brinjal crop. PMID:25213561

  20. Transient endophytic colonizations of plants improve the outcome of foliar applications of mycoinsecticides against chewing insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resquín-Romero, G; Garrido-Jurado, I; Delso, C; Ríos-Moreno, A; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2016-05-01

    The current work reports how spray application of entomopathogenic fungi on alfalfa, tomato and melon plants may cause an additional Spodoptera littoralis larvae mortality due to a temporal colonization of the leaves and subsequent ingestion of those leaves by the larvae. Most entomopathogenic fungi (EF) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) endophytes seem to colonize their host plants in a non-systemic pattern, in which case at least a transient endophytic establishment of the fungus should be expected in treated areas after spray application. In this work, all strains were able to endophytically colonize roots, stems and leaves during the first 96h after inoculation. Whilst the treatment of S. littoralis larvae with a 10(8)ml(-1) conidial suspension resulted in moderate to high mortality rates for the Metarhizium brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su (41.7-50.0%) and Beauveria bassiana EABb 01/33-Su (66.7-76.6%) strains, respectively, an additive effect was detected when these larvae were also fed endophytically colonized alfalfa, tomato, and melon leaves, with mortality rates varying from 25.0% to 46.7% as a function of the host plant and total mortality rates in the combined treatment of 75-80% and 33-60% for B. bassiana and M. brunneum, respectively. Fungal outgrowth was not detected in any of the dead larvae feeding on colonized leaves, whereas traces of destruxin A were detected in 11% of the insects fed tomato discs endophytically colonized by M. brunneum. The combined effects of the fungal spray with the mortality caused by the feeding of insects on transient EF-colonized leaves have to be considered to estimate the real acute impact of field sprays with entomopathogenic fungi on chewing insects. PMID:26945771

  1. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

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    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  2. Introduction of Aureobasidium pullulans to the Phyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries with Focus on Its Establishment and Interactions with the Resident Microbiome

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    Annette Reineke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is little knowledge of the establishment of repeatedly applied biological control agents (BCAs in the phyllosphere of plants and, in particular, their interactions with the resident microbiome. Under field conditions, the BCA Aureobasidium pullulans was applied as a model organism to organically grown strawberries during two subsequent years (2011, 2012, either as single strain treatment or with the co-application of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Fungal and bacterial communities of strawberry leaves were investigated by means of plate counts and 454 pyrosequencing. The establishment of the introduced A. pullulans strains considerably differed between the two years, presumably due to distinct environmental conditions. Short-term and long-term effects of BCA applications on the composition and diversity of fungal communities could be observed as a result of successful establishment of A. pullulans, in 2011, showing, for instance, reduced diversity of fungal communities by competitive displacement shortly after BCA introduction. Due to considerable dynamics in untreated resident microbial communities in the phyllosphere in general, however, we suggest that even the effects caused by the applied BCA preparations in 2011 are negligible under practical conditions.

  3. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

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    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors. PMID:27131323

  4. Foster carers influence brood pathogen resistance in ants.

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    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Social organisms face a high risk of epidemics, and respond to this threat by combining efficient individual and collective defences against pathogens. An intriguing and little studied feature of social animals is that individual pathogen resistance may depend not only on genetic or maternal factors, but also on the social environment during development. Here, we used a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether the pathogen resistance of individual ant workers was shaped by their own colony of origin or by the colony of origin of their carers. The origin of care-giving workers significantly influenced the ability of newly eclosed cross-fostered Formica selysi workers to resist the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana. In particular, carers that were more resistant to the fungal entomopathogen reared more resistant workers. This effect occurred in the absence of post-infection social interactions, such as trophallaxis and allogrooming. The colony of origin of eggs significantly influenced the survival of the resulting individuals in both control and pathogen treatments. There was no significant effect of the social organization (i.e. whether colonies contain a single or multiple queens) of the colony of origin of either carers or eggs. Our experiment reveals that social interactions during development play a central role in moulding the resistance of emerging workers. PMID:25143036

  5. Antagonistic interactions between garden yeasts and microfungal garden pathogens of leaf-cutting ants.

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    Rodrigues, Andre; Cable, Rachel N; Mueller, Ulrich G; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the diversity of yeasts isolated in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta texana. Repeated sampling of gardens from four nests over a 1-year time period showed that gardens contain a diverse assemblage of yeasts. The yeast community in gardens consisted mostly of yeasts associated with plants or soil, but community composition changed between sampling periods. In order to understand the potential disease-suppressing roles of the garden yeasts, we screened isolates for antagonistic effects against known microfungal garden contaminants. In vitro assays revealed that yeasts inhibited the mycelial growth of two strains of Escovopsis (a specialized attine garden parasite), Syncephalastrum racemosum (a fungus often growing in gardens of leafcutter lab nests), and the insect pathogen Beauveria bassiana. These garden yeasts add to the growing list of disease-suppressing microbes in attine nests that may contribute synergistically, together with actinomycetes and Burkholderia bacteria, to protect the gardens and the ants against diseases. Additionally, we suggest that garden immunity against problem fungi may therefore derive not only from the presence of disease-suppressing Pseudonocardia actinomycetes, but from an enrichment of multiple disease-suppressing microorganisms in the garden matrix. PMID:19449210

  6. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  7. Desarrollo de una metodología de crianza en laboratorio del gusano cogollero del maíz Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae como posible hospedante de insectos biocontroladores de interés agrícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlin Chacón Castro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de desarrollar una metodología de crianza en laboratorio que permitala producción masiva de organismos biocontroladores de Spodopterafrugiperda, se colectó ejemplares en estado larval en cultivares de maíz de diferentes localidades de Costa Rica. Dichas larvas fueron transportadas hasta el Laboratorio de Biocontroladores del CIB-ITCR, Cartago.Al inicio del ensayo, las larvas fueron alimentadas con hojas tiernas demaíz por espacio de dos meses. Luego se evaluó la dieta artificial BIO-MIX H-89,modificada para el desarrollo de huevo hasta pupa y durante la fase de adulto,se utilizó una solución de miel de abeja al 10% (v/v como fuente de alimento.Se aplicó un ANOVA para medir las diferencias entre cada etapa del ciclo devida con ambas dietas y se encontró que al implementar la dieta artificial, se redujo elciclo de vida de esta especie a 45,10±1,20 días, y se prolongó el periodo larval a 26,80±1,41 días. Asimismo, se identificó el hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana como controlador biológico de esta especie.

  8. The antimicrobial potential of algicolous marine fungi for counteracting multidrug-resistant bacteria: phylogenetic diversity and chemical profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnavi, Giorgio; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Festa, Carmen; Poli, Anna; Tedesco, Pietro; Fani, Renato; Monti, Maria Chiara; de Pascale, Donatella; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Marine fungi represent an important but still largely unexplored source of novel and potentially bioactive secondary metabolites. The antimicrobial activity of nine sterile mycelia isolated from the green alga Flabellia petiolata collected from the Mediterranean Sea was tested on four antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains using extracellular and intracellular extracts obtained from each fungal strain. The isolated fungi were identified at the molecular level and assigned to one of the Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes or Eurotiomycetes classes. Following assessment of inhibition of bacterial growth (IC50), all crude extracts were subjected to preliminary (1)H NMR and TLC analysis. According to preliminary pharmacologic and spectroscopic/chromatographic results, extracts of fungal strains MUT 4865, classified as Beauveria bassiana, and MUT 4861, classified as Microascacea sp.2, were selected for LC-HRMS analysis. Chemical profiling of antibacterial extracts from MUT 4861 and MUT 4865 by LC HRMS allowed identification of the main components of the crude extracts. Several sphingosine bases were identified, including a compound previously unreported from natural sources, which gave a rationale to the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity exhibited. PMID:27154031

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis: una aplicación de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninfa María Rosas García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decía Louis Pasteur “Il n’y a pas des sciences appliquées…mais il y a des applications de la science” que significa “No hay ciencias aplicadas…sino aplicaciones de la ciencia”. Desde el siglo antepasado el uso de herramientas biológicas para el control de plagas de insectos, empezó a comprenderse como una posibilidad de contrarrestar el efecto nocivo de las plagas en los cultivos, sin embargo fueron necesarios casi dos siglos para que sus ventajas así como su eficiencia y eficacia fueran realmente aprovechadas. Recordando un poco de historia en 1835 Agostino Bassi, científico italiano, descubrió una enfermedad infecciosa en Bombix mori, mejor conocido como el gusano de seda, causada por la muscardina blanca, Beauveria bassiana, lo que le valió una inmensa notoriedad. Varias décadas después Pasteur y Koch redescubrieron sus principios y Eli Metchnikoff en 1878 puso en práctica el uso de la muscardina verde, Metarhizium anisopliae, contra larvas del escarabajo Anisoplia austriaca.

  10. Evidence for transmission of aphid-pathogenic fungi by migratory flight of Myzus persicae alates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The alates of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, were daily trapped from the air from late October through early January and carried to laboratory for determination of fungal infection by individually rearing them for 7 d on detached cabbage leaves in Petri dishes. Among 760 alates trapped, 266 (35%) were found carrying various fungal pathogens, 87.3% of them died due to mycosis during the first 3-day period of rearing and the rest died in the following two days. Most of the deaths of the alates were attributed to entomophthoralean fungi, taking 94.4%, and the rest were the hyphomycetous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Among the Entomophthorales-killed alates, P. neoaphidis took a proportion of 66.1%, Z. anhuiensis 22.6%, E. planchoniana 9.7%, and N. fresenii 1.6%, respectively. Two alates were found suffering from cross infection of two fungal species, i.e. P. neoaphidis with Z. anhuiensis and N. fresenii, respectively. The results represent the first report on transmission of aphid-pathogenic fungi by M. persicae alates through migratory flight.

  11. Plant Tissue Preparation for the Detection of an Endophytic Fungus In Planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Aimee C

    2016-01-01

    The identification of fungal endophytes often relies on culturing isolates from surface-sterilized plant tissue. However, molecular techniques have enabled the rapid detection and identification of targeted endophyte species, and next-generation sequencing technology provides an opportunity to obtain comprehensive information on endophytic communities, directly from plant tissue. In order to achieve accurate detection from internal tissues, surface microbes and associated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) must be eliminated, with particular consideration for the type of plant tissue and the efficacy of the surface sterilization procedure used. The methodology described later was developed specifically for detection of DNA from the entomopathogenic fungal endophyte Beauveria bassiana (Vuillemin) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) in various tissues of Zea mays (L.). However, the protocol may be easily applied to other fungi and bacterial endophytes. Included is a stringent sodium hypochlorite-based surface sterilization protocol for plant material in preparation for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect target DNA within plant tissue. Included are a treatment for dealing with surface DNA contamination and a novel procedure for assessing the efficacy of surface sterilization using PCR. PMID:27565499

  12. Examining the "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis in response to parasites and pathogens in the invasive paper wasp Polistes dominula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Fabio; Grozinger, Christina M.; Beani, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Successful invaders often become established in new ranges by outcompeting native species. The "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis predicts that invasive species are subjected to less predation and parasitization than sympatric native species, and thus can allocate resources from defence and immunity to growth and fecundity, thereby achieving higher fitness. In this study, we examined whether American invasive Polistes dominula paper wasps have reduced immunocompetence. To explore this scenario, we tested their susceptibility towards parasites and pathogens at both the individual (immune defence) and colony levels, i.e. hygienic behaviour (removal of diseased individuals by nestmates). First, we examined the response to the specific coevolved parasite Xenos vesparum (lost after invasion) in terms of individual host susceptibility and hygienic behaviour. Second, we explored the response against general pathogens by quantifying the bacterial clearance in individual wasps after a challenge with Escherichia coli and hygienic behaviour after a challenge with the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Our results show that American invasive P. dominula have a higher response against X. vesparum at the colony level, but at the individual level their susceptibility is not significantly different from conspecifics of the native range. On the other hand, invasive P. dominula display lower response after a challenge with general pathogens at both the individual and colony levels. While supporting the hypothesis of a reduction of immunocompetence towards general pathogens in invasive species, these findings also suggest that the response against coevolved parasites might follow different evolutionary pathways which are not always easily predictable.

  13. Selectivity of Organic Products to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J T; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A F; Neves, P M O J

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the Working Group on "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms" of the IOBC. The evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). Most of the studied entomopathogens (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Trichoderma harzianum) had no effects on biological parameters and were classified as harmless to T. pretiosum. Emergence of parasitoids (progeny viability) was reduced, but remained above 90%, when host eggs were sprayed with Baculovirus anticarsia prior to parasitism in the free-choice test, and B. anticarsia was therefore considered harmless. Chlorpyrifos (positive control) caused high adult parasitoid mortality in all bioassays. While T. pretiosum and the tested entomopathogens may be used simultaneously in integrated pest management programs, the use of chlorpyrifos should be avoided. PMID:26267248

  14. Entomopathogenic fungi disturbed the larval growth and feeding performance of Ocinara varians (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Hussain; Ming-Yi Tian; Yu-Rong He; Sohail Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Feeding experiments using three strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea were conducted with newly moulted 3rd-5th instar Ocinara varians Walker larvae in the laboratory. The mortality of larvae immersed individually in spore suspension (1×10~7 spores/mL) of all the strains was > 80% except 5th instar larvae treated with M. anisopliae which transformed into pupae, but did not result in adult emergence. The growth (total body mass), consumption, relative consumption rate and relative growth rate, were reduced at all three larval stages, while developmental time was extended in infected larvae with concurrent significant increase in approximate digestibility in infected larvae. Conversion of digested food (ECD) and ingested food (ECI) values declined in infected larvae as compared to the healthy larvae (control). The 5th instar larvae treated with M. anisopliae showed higher ECD and ECI values than control. Based on mortality and growth inhibition it can be suggested that all the studied fungal strains have a high potential for biocontrol and could be developed into biocontrol agents against O. varians.

  15. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  16. Miro GTPase controls mitochondrial behavior affecting stress tolerance and virulence of a fungal insect pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yi; Wang, Ding-Yi; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Miro homologues are small mitochondrial Rho GTPases belonging to the Ras superfamily across organisms and are generally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we identified a Miro orthologue (bMiro) in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen as a classic biological control agent of insect pests. This orthologue was proven to anchor on mitochondrial outer membrane in a manner depending completely upon a short C-terminal transmembrane domain. As a result of bmiro deletion, mitochondria in hyphal cells were largely aggregated, and their mass and mobility were reduced, accompanied with a remarkable decrease in ATP content but little change in mitochondrial morphology. The deletion mutant became 42%, 37%, 19% and 10% more tolerant to Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) than wild-type, respectively, during cultivation in a minimal medium under normal conditions. The deletion mutant also showed mild defects in conidial germination, vegetative growth, thermotolerance, UV-B resistance and virulence despite null response to oxidative and osmotic stresses. All these phenotypic changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Our results indicate that bMiro can control mitochondrial distribution and movement required for the transport of ATP-form energy and metal ions and contributes significantly to the fungal potential against insect pests through the control. PMID:27241960

  17. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-12-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  18. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  19. S-(−-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwa Baek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME, an insect juvenile hormone. To address whether dhFAME inhibits melanin synthesis, we first measured the size of the melanin biosynthesis inhibition zone caused by dhFAME. dhFAME also showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase in Melan-a cells. Intracellular, dose-dependent tyrosinase inhibition activity was also confirmed by zymography. In addition, we showed that dhFAME strongly inhibits melanin synthesis in Melan-a cells. Furthermore, we compared levels of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, MITF, and MC1R mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and showed that treatment of Melan-a cells with 35 μM dhFAME led to an 11-fold decrease in TYR expression, a 6-fold decrease in TRP-2 expression, and a 5-fold decrease in MITF expression. Together, these results indicate that dhFAME is a potent inhibitor of melanin synthesis that can potentially be used for cosmetic biomaterial(s.

  20. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  1. Βιολογικός έλεγχος του λεπιδοπτέρου Sesamia nonagrioides L. σε καλλιέργεια γλυκού σόργου (Sorghum bicolor L.). Εργαστηριακή μελέτη της εντομοπαθογόνου δράσης τριών μυκήτων της τάξης Hypocreales καθώς και μελέτη της ενδοφυτικής και εντομοπαθογόνου συμπεριφοράς τους σε συνθήκες πεδίου

    OpenAIRE

    Μαντζούκας, Σπυρίδων

    2013-01-01

    Σκοπός της παρούσας εργασίας ήταν να μελετηθεί η επίδραση των εντομοπαθογόνων μυκήτων Beauveria bassiana Balsamo (Vuillemin) (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium robertsii (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) και Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) Brown & Smith (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), πουαπομονώθηκαν από ελληνικά εδάφη, επί του κυριότερου και πιο επιβλαβούς εχθρού της καλλιέργειας του γλυκού σόργου, του λεπιδόπτερου Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae...

  2. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  3. Biotransformation of sclareolide by filamentous fungi: cytotoxic evaluations of the derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza; Ramirez-Apan, Maria Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo, E-mail: delgado@unam.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Sclareolide (1) was incubated with eight different species of filamentous fungi conventionally used for bio-oxidations. Compound 1 was metabolized with Aspergillus niger in medium A to yield 3-ketosclareolide (2) and 3b-hydroxysclareolide (4), while in medium B (containing major number of nutrients with respect to medium A), compounds 2, 4, 3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide (16), 1-ketosclareolide (17), 3-keto-15-hydroxysclareolide (18) and 3{beta},15-dihydroxysclareolide (19) were obtained. The biotransformation products 16-19 were found to be new substances. Fermentation of 1 with Cunninghamella blackesleeana using medium A afforded 2 and 4, while using medium B yielded 2, 4, 16 and 17. Compounds 2, 4 and 17 were also obtained with Curvularia lunata. Biotransformation of 1 with Beauveria bassiana yielded 4 in satisfactory yield, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Mucor miehei afforded 2 and 4, while with R. nigricans and Fusarium moliniforme yielded 2, 4 and 16. Cytotoxic evaluation of 1 and the obtained products against selected human cancer cell lines (U251, PC-3, K562, HCT-15, MCF-7 and SKUL-1) indicated that 16 (3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide) displayed moderate cytotoxic (IC{sub 50} < 100 {mu}M) against U251, PC-3, HCT-15 and MCF-7. (author)

  4. Sensibilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos a agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Alves Botelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os agroquímicos empregados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar podem afetar a ação de fungos entomopatogênicos usados no controle biológico de pragas da cultura. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar se os inseticidas, herbicidas e maturadores utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar têm efeito tóxico sobre os fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram utilizados os inseticidas thiametoxan, aldicarbe e fipronil, os herbicidas imazapir, diuron, metribuzin, hexazinone+diuron, clomazone+ametrina, 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético e glifosato, e os maturadores etil-trinexapac, sulfometurom-metílico e glifosato também. Os fungos foram cultivados em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar contendo os agroquímicos. Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial, a produção e viabilidade dos conídios, e fez-se a avaliação da toxicidade dos agroquímicos. O inseticida à base de thiametoxan foi considerado compatível, pois não afetou o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos dois fungos. O inseticida formulado com fipronil se mostrou parcialmente tóxico para os fungos, sendo considerado moderadamente compatível, enquanto o aldicarbe foi considerado tóxico. Os herbicidas avaliados afetaram o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos entomopatógenos e foram classificados como tóxicos, mas aqueles formulados com imazapir, glifosato e metribuzim foram considerados compatíveis. Entre os agroquímicos usados como maturadores apenas o glifosato foi classificado como compatível. Os agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar, e que foram testados neste estudo, têm majoritariamente efeito tóxico sobre B. bassiana e M. anisopliae podendo comprometer sua ação como bioagentes de controle de pragas da cultura.

  5. Developing fungal bands for control of Asian longhorned beetle,Anoplophora glabripennis,in the U.S.%在美国使用无纺布菌条防治光肩星天牛的前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安· 哈耶克; Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; Michael Smith; Leah Bauer

    2007-01-01

    An invasive long-horned beetle,Anoplophora glabripennis,was first reported in the northeastern and midwestern United States and eastern Canada between 1996 and 2004 and has been given the common name Asian longhorned beetle (ALB). This beetle has also been found in several countries in Europe.ALB is difficult to control because larvae are found within the wood of living trees and the long-lived adults often occur high in tree canopies.This species is native to China and Korea and,because it has been a major tree killer in China,government agencies in the U.S.and Canada are working to eradicate ALB from North America.Our laboratory has been developing a microbial control approach targeting ALB adults,based on the Japanese product Biolisa Kamikiri which is used to control cerambycids in orchards.Entomopathogenic fungi are grown within non-woven fiber bands (= fungal bands) and placed around tree trunks and branches where ALB adults become inoculated when walking across bands. We have conducted bioassays with Beauveria brongniartii,Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against ALB larvae and adults to identify effective isolates and now focus our efforts on M.anisopliae F52 (ARSEF 7711). Caged field trials conducted in China to compare fungal sprays with fungal bands (2000, 2001) demonstrated decreased ALB longevity and fitness for both application methods but longer activity of fungi in cages treated with fungal bands compared with sprays.Uncaged field trials (2001, 2002) yielded faster ALB adult mortality in fungal-treated plots and decreased fitness. Studies in New York City testing the longevity of activity of fungal bands in the field have documented that bands retain>1×107 conidia·cm-2 (the threshold for activity of Biolisa Kamikiri) for over 3 months.In contrast, studies with unformulated conidia sprayed onto tree trunks in New York documented conidial survival of only a few days.Sublethal effects of exposure of adult female ALB to fungal bands have

  6. Patogenicidade de isolados de três fungos entomopatogênicos a soldados de Atta sexdens sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera : Formicidae Pathogenicity of isolates of three entomopathogenic fungi against soldiers of Atta sexdens sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera : Formicidae

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    Elisângela de Souza Loureiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As formigas cortadeiras atacam diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e os reflorestamentos, atuando sobre muitas espécies vegetais. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade dos fungos Beauveria bassiana (isolados AM 9 e JAB 06, Metarhizium anisopliae (isolados E 9 e AL e Paecilomyces farinosus (isolados CG 189 e CG 195 a soldados de Atta sexdens sexdens, em condições de laboratório. Após a coleta em formigueiro isento de produtos fitossanitários, exemplares de soldados foram cuidadosamente separados em grupos de oito indivíduos e, a seguir, banhados em suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6, 1,0 x 10(7, 1,0 x 10(8 e 1,0 x 10(9 conídios/mL de cada isolado. Em seguida, cada grupo de formigas foi transferido para unidades de câmara úmida e mantido, sem alimentação, a 27 ± 1 ºC. A mortalidade foi verificada diariamente. Os três fungos se mostraram eficientes patógenos, pois provocaram alta mortalidade, matando mais que 80% dos soldados nos quatro primeiros dias após a inoculação. Os melhores isolados foram JAB 06 e AL, na concentração de 1,0 x 10(9 con./mL. Os isolados JAB 06, AL, CG 195 apresentaram maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres das formigas e os tempos letais decresceram com o aumento da concentração de conídios usada.Leaf-cutting ants attack several crops, pastures and the planted forests, acting on numerous vegetable species. The present work aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of the fungi Beauveria bassiana (isolates AM 9 and JAB 06, Metarhizium anisopliae (isolates E 9 and Al and Paecilomyces farinosus (isolates CG 189 and CG 195 against soldiers of Atta sexdens sexdens, in laboratory conditions. These fungi were inoculated on soldiers after collection in nests without pesticides application. Specimens of soldiers were separated in groups of eight insects, which were bathed in suspensions containing 1.0 x 10(6, 1.0 x 10(7, 1.0 x 10(8 and 1.0 x 10(9 conidia/ml. Following the bath, each

  7. Determination of the median lethal concentration (LC50 of mycoinsecticides for the control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae Determinación de la concentración letal media (CL50 de micoinsecticidas para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    FLÁVIA QUEIROZ DE OLIVEIRA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50 of the commercial products Boveril WP® (Beauveria bassiana and Metarril WP® (Metarhizium anisopliae on the larvae and pupae of the fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Insects used in this study came from a laboratory colony. The evaluated product concentrations were 10.00, 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00 g/L of water, which correspond, respectively, to 5.00x10(9, 7.50x10(9, 10.00x10(9 and 12.50x10(9 viable conidia/L of water for the two products, and in the control only water was applied. Third instar larvae and pupae of C. capitata were used in this study. Results showed an overall mortality of larvae with all conidial concentrations of M. anisopliae. The LC50 values for larvae were 2.99 and 2.97 g/L for Boveril® and Metarril®, respectively, while for pupae they were 3.12 and 4.74 g/L for Boveril® and Metarril®, respectively. The high pathogenicity demonstrated by lower conidial concentrations of the tested products may mean greater efficiency from both economic and environmental points of view.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la concentración letal media (CL50 de los productos comerciales Boveril WP® (Beauveria bassiana y Metarril WP® (Metarhizium anisopliae para el control de larvas y pupas de la mosca mediterránea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata. Los insectos utilizados en el experimento provinieron de una cría de laboratorio. Las concentraciones de los productos evaluados fueron: 10,00; 15,00; 20,00 y 25,00 g/L de agua, lo que corresponde, respectivamente, a 5,00x10(9; 7,50x10(9; 10,00x10(9; 12,50x10(9 conidias viables/L de agua para los dos productos; en el control sólo se aplicó agua. Se usaron larvas de tercer estadio y pupas de C. capitata. Se registró la mortalidad general de las larvas de tercer instar en todas las concentraciones de conidios de M. anisopliae. Los valores de CL50 para las larvas fueron 2,99 y 2,97 g/L para Boveril® y Metarril

  8. Efectividad de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos Sobre Larvas de Polilla del Tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Effectivity of Entomopathogenic Fungus Strains on Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Larvae

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    Marta Rodríguez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, es una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum L. en Chile. Estudios de laboratorio fueron realizados para evaluar la virulencia y efectividad de Qu-M558 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y Qu-B912 de Beauveria bassiana. La primera evaluación fue realizada aplicando concentraciones de 0 a 10(8 conidia mL-1 directamente sobre larvas de tercer estadio mediante el sistema de pulverización torre Potter. Las comparaciones fueron realizadas calculando el área bajo la curva del progreso de la mortalidad a través del tiempo. No se observaron diferencias en las áreas entre aislamientos (P = 0,384. La CL50 y CL90 para Qu-B912 fue de 10(4,4 y 10(7,6 conidias mL-1, y para Qu-M558 de 10(5,4 y 10(9,1 conidias mL-1,respectivamente. Un segundo estudio fue realizado aplicando sobre hojas de tomate suspensiones de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 del aislamiento Qu-B912, a través de la torre de pulverización Potter. Larvas del tercer estadio de T. absoluta fueron alimentadas con estas hojas infectadas. Trece días después de la inoculación los porcentajes de mortalidad alcanzaron un 68% a la máxima concentración de inóculo.The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is a serious pest on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. crops in Chile. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the virulence and effectiveness of the isolates Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate Qu-M558 and Beauveria bassiana isolate Qu-B912, on third instar of T. absoluta larvae. The first evaluation was carried out spraying directly on third instar larvae, spore suspensions (0 to 10(8 conidia mL-1 of each isolate through a Potter tower. Comparisons were made by calculating the area under a mortality progress curve. Differences were not observed in the areas between isolates (P = 0.384. The LC50 and LC90 for Qu-B912 were 10(4.4 and 10(7.6 conidia mL-1, and for Qu-M558 were 10(5.4 and 10(9.1 conidia mL-1

  9. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of Two Biopesticides Against Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Dejan Marčić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycopesticide Naturalis (based on Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 andbotanical pesticide Kingbo (based on oxymatrine, an alkaloid from Sophora flavescens, a traditionalChinese herb were tested against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticaeon greenhouse vegetables and the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi on apples. Thesebiopesticide products were applied twice at 5-day interval and concentrations of 0.1% and0.2%, and their effectiveness was compared to abamectin-based products and the syntheticacaricides acrinathrin and spirodiclofen, applied once at their recommended rates.The mycopesticide Naturalis, applied at 0.1% concentration against T. urticae on cucumber,reduced mite population density by 85-86%, achieving 91-93% efficacy. In a trial on tomato,efficacy reached some 96%, while population density was reduced by 93%. In a field trialon apple, Naturalis demonstrated an increasing and long-lasting effectiveness against thesummer population of P. ulmi of nearly 100%, and population reduction was achieved inassessments 30 days after the first treatment. Naturalis applied at a double rate achieved asomewhat better effect but only in the first trial. The botanical pesticide Kingbo, applied at0.1% concentration, demonstrated very high control efficacy (≥98% and population densityreduction (≥96% of T. urticae in both trials. A high and long-lasting effectiveness of thisbioacaricide was also achieved in a trial on P. ulmi. Its concentration of 0.2% achieved similareffect. The results in these trials indicate that applications of the mycopesticide Naturalisand the botanical pesticide Kingbo can provide effective control of T. urticae on cucumberand tomato grown in greenhouses, as well as P. ulmi on apple.

  10. Antifungal, antiradical and cytotoxic activities of extractives obtained from Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae), a potential acaricide plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Flávio A S; Queiroz-Fernandes, Geisiany M; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Freitas, Jolindo A; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2016-06-01

    Tagetes patula L. shows a complex chemical composition, ranging from glycosylated flavonoids and thiophenes in extracts until terpenoids in the essential oil. In the present study, due to this rich flavonoidic constitution, its antioxidant potential was determined, having shown values of antiradical percentage superior to reference compounds, mainly the extracts prepared with flowers. Previous studies performed emphasized the acaricide potential of T. patula and thus, the present study aimed to verify the action of extractives obtained from aerial parts on growth of entomopathogenic fungi related to biological control of brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the action against pathogenic fungi closely associated with pets. None of the samples inhibited the growth of strains of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae, enabling feasible future studies of synergism on acaricide activity of formulations containing fungi and extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of flowers (FlEtOH70%) against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum was significant (193.3 μg/mL and 253.9 μg/mL, respectively), as well as ethanolic extract from aerial parts (APEtOH70%) against T. rubrum (312.5 μg/mL). In order to ensure the safety of a topical formulation containing the extractives of T. patula, the cytotoxic potential of these samples were tested in murine macrophages cells. At higher concentrations all extracts were quite lethal, with IC50 ranging from 210.96 μg/mL to 468.75 μg/mL for APEtOH70% and FlEtOH70%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of a product containing T. patula extractives in the control of ticks could be used, at principle, only on the environment. PMID:26945559

  11. Biorational insecticides for control of mosquitoes and black flies in Sinaloa

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    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa Mexico the presence of mosquitoes is a important health problem, and each spring-summer season appear several species which include: Aedes aegypti (Linneus, Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and black flies of the Simulidae family. The control of larvae and adults of these insects are usually performed with chemical insecticides, so the use of biorational insecticides for control of these insects is novel, due to that have low environment impact. The objective of this work is to give known to the different biorational insecticides and their biological effects (inhibitor, insect repellent, larvicide, adulticide, that can be used to combat to different development stages of these insects. As well as show the progress of a study on the effectiveness of neem extracts, garlic, cinnamon, albahaca and cypermethrin at low doses (0.25,0.5 and 1ml/L, for control of larvae and adults of black flies in the unicipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa. By the mode of action, the biorational that can doing use for the control of theseinsects were: Spinosad, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner var. israeliensis for larvae control, Spinosad and Beauveria bassiana (Vuill. for adults; as well as extracts of neem, garlic, cinnamon and albahaca for both stages. The preliminary results of the study showed that the effectiveness application in tourist sites, through aerial spraying of cypermethrin at low doses and the plants extracts, allow low the index of larvae and infestation of mosquitoes and blackflies, decreasing the discomfort caused by these insects in the place of study.

  12. Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.

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    Nina Gouba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp. species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta. Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda are used as medicinal plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health.

  13. Control of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) using the area-wide approach in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Management of codling moth (CM) is being conducted in southern Chile using an area-wide approach and integrating different tools such us Geographic Information System (GIS), classical biological control, inundative biological control and mating disruption. The total area covers 6,000 ha, and extends from the foothills of the Andes mountains and is bordered in the south and north by rivers. Vegetation cover is predominantly pastures, pine forests and berries, including six commercial apple orchards. Codling moth control in the commercial orchards is based on chemical insecticides, mating disruption or organic practices. Many alternative hosts for CM grow in this area, mainly as ornamentals, in abandoned orchards and in gardens for self-consumption. The most important species are noncommercial apple, pear, quince, walnut and apricot. Satellite images were obtained and every alternate host tree was georeferenced and drawn on these images. Pheromone traps are being used to identify main migrant sources and to quantify migration from sources to commercial orchards. Classical biological control includes importation and release of an egg/larval parasitoid (Ascogaster quadridentata) from USA to Chile. CM is reared on artificial diet and eggs are used to increase the A. quadridentata colony and allow field releases in the 2004-2005 growing season, especially in isolated and abandoned trees. Related to inundative biological control, several strains of entomopathogenic organisms have been collected and evaluated against CM, including the fungus (Beauveria bassiana) and nematodes. In addition, a Chilean species of trichogrammatid wasps, Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma caccociae, have been used under an inundative approach, especially in abandoned orchards. The Chilean species T. nerudai has shown similar or better preference and laboratory performance than introduced species such as T. bactrae, T. caccociae, T. dendrolimi and T. platneri. (author)

  14. Diet Drives the Collective Migrations and Affects the Immunity of Mormon Crickets and Locusts: A Comparison of These Potential Superspreaders of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B

    2016-08-01

    Differential transmission of disease among individuals within a population or among species in a community can result in superspreaders, relatively rare individuals responsible for a large proportion of transmission events. Migrating Mormon crickets and nymphal locusts readily engage in cannibalistic attacks and necrophagy. Typically multiple individuals consume a cadaver, which fosters the spread of disease. Cannibalistic attacks result in aligned, coordinated movement of individuals in massive bands that march daily for weeks at a time. Coordinated movement reduces contact frequency, which not only reduces cannibalism but the risk of disease transmission. When crowded, Mormon crickets and locusts elevate their constitutive immunity, which further reduces the risk of disease transmission. Bands of Mormon crickets show a variety of macronutrient dietary deficiencies that determine whether they will be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria or fungi. In some migratory bands, Mormon crickets seek carbohydrates and have less anti-bacterial activity. A lipid transport protein that functions in both fuelling migration and anti-bacterial activity may cause a trade-off between the two activities when carbohydrates are limited. In other migratory bands, Mormon crickets prefer protein over carbohydrates, indicating protein-deficiency. In these bands, the generalized immunity of Mormon crickets, measured as phenoloxidase, is compromised, and the insects are more susceptible to Beauveria bassiana fungal infection. In locusts, a high protein diet resulted in greater susceptibility to another entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum, whereas in Mormon crickets, both phenoloxidase titers and immunity to M acridum increased with adult age. Color changes associated with death by either of these fungi diminishes cannibalism, but bands may cull infected or encounter cadavers too quickly to effectively reduce fungal transmission. As long as the insects show no signs of infection

  15. Control biológico en el cultivo del arroz en Cuba. (Resultados 1970 – 2005.

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    Rafael Meneses

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del arroz en Cuba está afectado por diversas plagas, fundamentalmente: Tagosodes orizicolus, Lissorhoptrus brevirostris, Oebalus insularis y Spodoptera frugiperda. A partir de 1970 se iniciaron los estudios sobre los principales controles biológicos de estas plagas. Para T. orizicolus se ha determinado que Paranagrus perforator y Tytthus parviceps son los principales enemigos naturales de esta plaga. El porcentaje de huevos de T. orizicolus parasitados por P. perforator ha llegado al 50.7% en la etapa de germinación a ahijamiento activo de la planta de arroz. Además, a esta plaga se le ha detectado control por los parasitoides Elenchus sp. y Gonatopus sp. L. brevirostris ha sido manejado en los arrozales con los hongos Metarhizium anisopliae y Beauveria bassiana, obteniendo muy buenos resultados, tanto en el control como en las afectaciones ocasionadas por este insecto. La aplicación de M. anisopliae cepa Niña Bonita resulta satisfactorio para el control de O. insularis. Se ha determinado diversos depredadores, parasitoides y hongos que en determinadas épocas del año ejercer buen control de S. frugiperda, destacándose dentro de ellos: Coleomegilla cubensis, Chelonus texanus y Telenomus spp. C. texanus ha presentado un nivel de parasitismo superior al 80.0 % y Telenomus sp. de 93 %, en condiciones de producción arrocera. Con la presencia de arañas en los arrozales se logra disminuir considerablemente las poblaciones de insectos plagas.

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel 2-ketoisovalerate reductase from the beauvericin producer Fusarium proliferatum LF061

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    Zhang Tao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ketoisovalerate reductase (EC 1.2.7.7 is required for the formation of beauvericin via the nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic pathway. It catalyzes the NADPH-specific reduction of ketoisovaleric acid to hydroxyisovalerate. However, little is known about the bioinformatics’ data about the 2-Kiv reductase in Fusarium. To date, heterologous production of the gene KivRFp from Fusarium has not been achieved. Results The KivRFp gene was subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pET expression system. The gene KivRFp contained a 1,359 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a polypeptide of 452 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that it showed 61% and 52% amino acid identities to ketoisovalerate reductase from Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 (ACI30654 and Metarhizium acridum CQMa 102 (EFY89891, respectively; and several conserved regions were identified, including the putative nucleotide-binding signature site, GXGXXG, a catalytic triad (Glu405, Asn184, and Lys285. The KivRFp exhibited the highest activity at 35°C and pH 7.5 respectively, by reduction of ketoisovalerate. It also exhibited the high level of stability over wide temperature and pH spectra and in the presence of metal ions or detergents. Conclusions A new ketoisovalerate reductase KivRFp was identified and characterized from the depsipeptide-producing fungus F. proliferatum. KivRFp has been shown to have useful properties, such as moderate thermal stability and broad pH optima, and may serve as the starting points for future protein engineering and directed evolution, towards the goal of developing efficient enzyme for downstream biotechnological applications.

  17. Evaluación biológica del manejo de picudos y nematodos fitopatógenos en plátano (Musa AAB

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    Aristizábal Loaiza Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la granja Montelindo, municipio de Palestina (Caldas a 5° 05' N y 75° 40' O, a 1010 m.s.n.m., 23.5 °C, precipitación anual de 2100 mm y humedad relativa de 76%, con el fin de generar información sobre el manejo de picudos y nematodos fitoparásitos del plátano. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos por bloque, tres repeticiones y 24 plantas por repetición. Para el manejo de los picudos se hicieron aplicaciones de Carbofurán, Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae en trampas tipo columna. Para el control de nematodos se hicieron aplicaciones en el suelo de Carbofurán y dos cepas comerciales de Paecilomyces lilacinus. Se evaluaron el número de adultos de picudos en trampas, la infección de estos por los hongos empleados y la población de nematodos en suelo y raíces. Se encontró que las trampas tratadas con Carbofurán fueron significativamente más efectivas para la captura de insectos. En laboratorio se estableció que M. anisopliae tuvo una mejor capacidad para infectar adultos del insecto en el campo. La población de nematodos fue menor en suelo y raíces de las plantas tratadas con Carbofurán. Paecilomyces lilacinus no fue efectivo para reducir las poblaciones de nematodos. Los géneros de nematodos predominantes fueron Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne y Helicotylenchus.

  18. Evaluación biológica del manejo de picudos y nematodos fitopatógenos en plátano (Musa AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina González Cardona

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la granja Montelindo, municipio de Palestina (Caldas a 5° 05' N y 75° 40' O, a 1010 m.s.n.m., 23.5 °C, precipitación anual de 2100 mm y humedad relativa de 76%, con el fin de generar información sobre el manejo de picudos y nematodos fitoparásitos del plátano. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos por bloque, tres repeticiones y 24 plantas por repetición. Para el manejo de los picudos se hicieron aplicaciones de Carbofurán, Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae en trampas tipo columna. Para el control de nematodos se hicieron aplicaciones en el suelo de Carbofurán y dos cepas comerciales de Paecilomyces lilacinus. Se evaluaron el número de adultos de picudos en trampas, la infección de estos por los hongos empleados y la población de nematodos en suelo y raíces. Se encontró que las trampas tratadas con Carbofurán fueron significativamente más efectivas para la captura de insectos. En laboratorio se estableció que M. anisopliae tuvo una mejor capacidad para infectar adultos del insecto en el campo. La población de nematodos fue menor en suelo y raíces de las plantas tratadas con Carbofurán. Paecilomyces lilacinus no fue efectivo para reducir las poblaciones de nematodos. Los géneros de nematodos predominantes fueron Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne y Helicotylenchus.

  19. 高大冷杉温室Strophosoma象甲的微生物防治%Microbial control of Strophosoma spp. larvae (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in Abies procera greenery plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏洛蒂· 尼尔森; Susanne Vestergaard; Susanne Harding; Jφrgen Eilenberg

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, the weevils Strophosoma melanogrammum and S.capitatum cause economic damage in Noble fir due to the adult stage feeding on the needles.No chemical treatments of these weevils are allowed in Denmark,so biological control is an attractive solution.We evaluated the potential for microbial control of larvae of Strophosoma spp.based on laboratory bioassays and field applications,taking effect on both target and non-target into consideration,as well as persistence of the applied fungus.In the laboratory Beauveria bassiana,Paecilomyces farinosus and Metarhizium anisopliae were able to infect and cause mycosis in Strophosoma larvae.Among the tested isolates the most virulent isolate was M.anisopliae BIPESCO 5,which resulted in 80 % mortality.In the field experiment M.anisopliae,isolate BIPESCO 5,was applied to the soil as a conidial suspension against larvae of Strophosoma spp.The effect of the fungus on the target population was monitored at a weekly basis by counts of emerging adult weevils during their activity periods.The population of Strophosoma spp.was reduced by up to 60% in treated plots compared to control plots.The non-target effects of M.anisopliae were studied by sampling insects and ticks from both treated and control plots.Seven days after treatment,two sampled insect orders (Hemiptera and Coleoptera) and ticks were found with prevalences of M.anisopliae above 50%,compared to no infection in the insects collected from control plots.Infections in coccinellids were found as long as 277 days after treatment.However,the effect on population level of non-target is still unexplored.The persistence of the fungus was documented by plating a soil suspension onto agar.We documented that conidia of M.anisopliae could persist in the greenery plantation for at least 418 days after application.

  20. 亚洲柑橘木虱2株高致病力病原真菌菌株的筛选%Screening two entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against Asia citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晓彦; 李翌菡; 许炜明; 沈祖乐; 黄振; 吴建辉; 任顺祥; 邱宝利

    2016-01-01

    【目的】筛选对亚洲柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri Kuwayama具有高致病力的真菌菌株,为其微生物农药的研发奠定基础。【方法】测定5株球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana(菌株A~E)和5株玫烟色棒束孢菌Isaria fumosorosea菌株(菌株A~E)的生长速率、产孢量以及对木虱若虫的侵染致死率等,并进行比较分析。【结果】5株球孢白僵菌培养10 d后产孢量存在较大差异,A菌株的产孢量最少(7.96×107 mL-1),E菌株的产孢量最多(3.78×108 mL-1),两者差异显著;在喷施球孢白僵菌孢子1×106 mL-17 d后,对柑橘木虱低龄若虫的致死率与对照差异不显著,以A菌株的致死率最高(78.0%), E 菌株次之(77.0%)。5株玫烟色棒束孢菌株培养10 d 后, B 菌株产孢量最多(6.04×108 mL-1),E菌株的最少(6.28×107 mL-1),两者差异显著;在喷施玫烟色棒束孢孢子1×106 mL-17 d后,除D菌株外,其他制剂对亚洲柑橘木虱低龄若虫的致死率均显著大于对照, B菌株的致死率最高(81.0%)。【结论】综合考虑产孢量及致病力等指标,球孢白僵菌E菌株和玫烟色棒束孢B菌株是具有良好研发前景的柑橘木虱生物防治高致病力优良菌株。%[Objective] To screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against Asia citrus psyllid ( ACP) , Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and to provide a basis for development of microbial pesticide against ACP. [Method]The growth and sporulation rates of five Beauveria bassiana strains numbered A to E and five Isaria fumosorosea strains numbered A to E, and the mortality rates of ACP after infected by these ten fungal strains were investigated. [Result] The spores quantity of five B. bassiana strains were significantly different after cultured for 10 days, strain E had the largest spores quantity ( 3. 78 × 108 mL-1 ) and strain A had the least spores quantity(7. 96 × 107 mL-1 ). There was significant difference of spores quantity between strain E and

  1. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  2. Ineraction between some saprophytic and entomopathogenis fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-01-01

    The studies on interactions between selected entomopathogenic fungi: Beaweria bassiana, Conidiobolus thromboides (= Entomophthora virulenta), Paecilomyces farinosus, Verticillium lecanii and four species of saprophytic fungi were carried out.

  3. Scenario of Entomological Research in Legume Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Neupane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper highlights scenario of entomological research in grain legumes in Nepal into headings of the monitoring, survey and surveillance, insect pest management, existing problem and future strategies. A survey study on yield loss assessment of chickpea due to Helicoverpa pod borer under field condition has been recorded up to 75% in the year 1996-1998 at Banke and Bardiya district. While monitored Helicoverpa armigera through pheromone trap, during the 2nd week of March, peak catches of 91 male moths were recorded at Rampur, while it was the maximum (42 male moths during the 3rd week of March. Synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and cypermethrin used at 0.01% concentration (a.i., were effective in controlling the chickpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Genotypes NCH-18, NCH -31, NCH-138 and ICC 3075 WR were found resistant. Ripcord 10%@0.05% was found to be superior and effective chemical insecticides to control stem fly and soybean hairy caterpillar. The late sowing date December, 10 showed significantly higher percentage of chickpea pod borer damage with lower grain yield. Inter crops combinations of Chickpea +wheat (2:1 ratio was found effective against Helicoverpa armigera damage (1.2% followed by chickpea+barley (2.36% and Chickpea+linseed (2:1 ratio (3.7%. Bakaino (Melia azederach L. was identified as the best indigenous pesticides to check the normal growth of hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia casigneta kollar under laboratory condition. Metarhizium anisopliae was found effective for the management of Helicoverpa armigera that caused maximum mortality (94.67%, infection (45.33% within 7.49 days (LT50. Similarly, Beauveria bassiana caused maximum mortality (98.67%, infection (80.00% with the least LT50 value (5 days. Crop sprayed with HaNPV had the lowest pod damage (0.3% and the highest in Racer (2.2%. This review work provided a lot of information to conduct entomological research activity conducted in grain

  4. Mould routine identification in the clinical laboratory by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cassagne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF MS recently emerged as a valuable identification tool for bacteria and yeasts and revolutionized the daily clinical laboratory routine. But it has not been established for routine mould identification. This study aimed to validate a standardized procedure for MALDI-TOF MS-based mould identification in clinical laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, pre-extraction and extraction procedures were optimized. With this standardized procedure, a 143 mould strains reference spectra library was built. Then, the mould isolates cultured from sequential clinical samples were prospectively subjected to this MALDI-TOF MS based-identification assay. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was considered correct if it was concordant with the phenotypic identification; otherwise, the gold standard was DNA sequence comparison-based identification. RESULTS: The optimized procedure comprised a culture on sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar followed by a chemical extraction of the fungal colonies with formic acid and acetonitril. The identification was done using a reference database built with references from at least four culture replicates. For five months, 197 clinical isolates were analyzed; 20 were excluded because they were not identified at the species level. MALDI-TOF MS-based approach correctly identified 87% (154/177 of the isolates analyzed in a routine clinical laboratory activity. It failed in 12% (21/177, whose species were not represented in the reference library. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was correct in 154 out of the remaining 156 isolates. One Beauveria bassiana was not identified and one Rhizopus oryzae was misidentified as Mucor circinelloides. CONCLUSIONS: This work's seminal finding is that a standardized procedure can also be used for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of a wide array of clinically relevant mould species. It thus makes it possible to identify moulds in the routine clinical laboratory setting

  5. Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murigu, Mercy M; Nana, Paulin; Waruiru, Robert M; Nga'nga', Chege J; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus decoloratus causes serious economic losses in cattle industry every year in East Africa. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi is seen as a promising alternative to chemical acaricides being used for their control. The pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and of Beauveria bassiana isolates was tested in the laboratory against amitraz-resistant and amitraz-susceptible strains of R. decoloratus. Unfed larvae were sprayed with conidial suspensions of 1×10(9) conidia ml(-1). Fungal isolates were pathogenic to R. decoloratus larvae, causing mortality of between 10.0 and 100% and between 12.1 and 100% of amitraz-susceptible and amitraz-resistant strains, respectively. The LT50 values of selected fungal isolates varied between 2.6-4.2days in amitraz-susceptible strain and between 2.8-3.9days in amitraz-resistant strain. The LC50 values varied between 0.4±0.1 and 200.0±60×10(3) conidia ml(-1) and between 0.1±0.1 and 200.0±31.0×10(3) conidia ml(-1) in amitraz-susceptible and amitraz-resistant strains, respectively. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 7 outperformed the other isolates and was selected for compatibility study with amitraz and field trial. ICIPE 7 was compatible with amitraz. In the field, four treatments including control, ICIPE 7 alone, amitraz alone and ICIPE 7/amitraz were applied on cattle. All the treatments significantly reduced the number of ticks on all the sampling dates: day 7 (F3,8=3.917; P=0.0284), day 14 (F3,8=9.090; P=0.0275), day 21 (F3,8=37.971; P=0.0001) and day 28 (F3,8=8.170; P=0.0016) compared to the control. Results of the present study indicate that ICIPE 7 can be used for the management of amitraz-resistant strain of R. decoloratus. PMID:27369570

  6. Metarhizium brunneum Blastospore Pathogenesis in Aedes aegypti Larvae: Attack on Several Fronts Accelerates Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M Alkhaibari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the vector of a wide range of diseases (e.g. yellow fever, dengue, Chikungunya and Zika which impact on over half the world's population. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have been found to be highly efficacious in killing mosquito larvae but only now are the underlying mechanisms for pathogenesis being elucidated. Recently it was shown that conidia of M. anisopliae caused stress induced mortality in Ae. aegypti larvae, a different mode of pathogenicity to that normally seen in terrestrial hosts. Blastospores constitute a different form of inoculum produced by this fungus when cultured in liquid media and although blastospores are generally considered to be more virulent than conidia no evidence has been presented to explain why. In our study, using a range of biochemical, molecular and microscopy methods, the infection process of Metarhizium brunneum (formerly M. anisopliae ARSEF 4556 blastospores was investigated. It appears that the blastospores, unlike conidia, readily adhere to and penetrate mosquito larval cuticle. The blastospores are readily ingested by the larvae but unlike the conidia are able infect the insect through the gut and rapidly invade the haemocoel. The fact that pathogenicity related genes were upregulated in blastospores exposed to larvae prior to invasion, suggests the fungus was detecting host derived cues. Similarly, immune and defence genes were upregulated in the host prior to infection suggesting mosquitoes were also able to detect pathogen-derived cues. The hydrophilic blastospores produce copious mucilage, which probably facilitates adhesion to the host but do not appear to depend on production of Pr1, a cuticle degrading subtilisin protease, for penetration since protease inhibitors did not significantly alter blastospore virulence. The fact the blastospores have multiple routes of entry (cuticle and gut may explain why this form of the inoculum killed

  7. Immune and metabolic responses of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae to an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaghparast, Seyyedeh Kimia; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Hoda, Hassan; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Efficient control of Chilo suppressalis Walker is always controversial due to highly economic damage, resistance to insecticides and environmental pollutions. So, combination of safe pest controls e.g. biocontrol agents and insect growth regulators seems to be promising via integrated pest management program. Bioassay of hexaflumuron on 4th larval instars revealed concentrations of 44.34, 179.74 and 474.94µg/ml as LC10-50 values. Numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes as well as phenoloxidase activity increased in the different time intervals following treatment by hexaflumuron. Combined effects of hexaflumuron and Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin also increased hemocyte numbers and phenoloxidase activity at different time intervals using all concentrations. Activities of general esterases assayed by α- and β-naphtyl acetate and glutathione S-transferase using CDNB and DCNB increased 1-12h post-treatment. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase and aldolase increased in the larvae treated by hexaflumuron. However enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase was only obtained by treating 180 and 470µg/ml concentrations of hexaflumuron. Activities of ACP and ALP were found to be higher than control for all time intervals even 1-12h post-treatment. The amounts of HDL and LDL increased in the highest concentrations of hexaflumuron after 12-24h of post-treatment. Amount of triglyceride was higher than that of control after 1 and 3h but it was lower in other time intervals. Amounts of glycogen and protein were lower than those of control for all time intervals except for 6 and 12h of post-treatment in case of protein. Results of the current study revealed negative effects of hexaflumuron on intermediary metabolism of Chilo suppressalis but it increased the number of hemocytes and activity of phenoloxidase which are responsible for spore removal from hemolymph. It can be concluded that hexaflumuron is

  8. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    attention by scientists for their potential for biological control of pests. Some insect pathogenic fungi have restricted host ranges while other fungal species have a wide host range for example, Beauveria bassiana ,Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Many researchers have focused on the selection of virulent strains for target pests and their development as biological control agents.

  9. Advances in Biological Control of Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri, a Vector Insect of Citrus Huanglongbing Disease%黄龙病媒介昆虫柑橘木虱生物防治新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代晓彦; 任素丽; 周雅婷; 任顺祥; 邱宝利

    2014-01-01

    The citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing disease, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which has the huge potential threats to the development of citrus industry in China. Based on the comprehensive understanding of D. citri control technologies, we reviewed the latest advances in biological control of D. citri and forecasted its future prospects. The main biological control resources of citrus psyllid currently are natural enemy insects and entomopathogenic fungi, among which predatory ladybeetles, lacewings, spiders and hover flies are the dominant species of predator, while Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis are the two dominant parasitoids in China. Several representative entomopathogenic fungi include Lecanicillium lecanii, Isaria fumosorosea, Beauveria bassiana and Hirsutella citriformis have been reported with high virulence to citrus psyllid. This current review is expected to provide technical support and theoretical reference for efficient and sustainable control of citrus psyllid in the future.%柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri Kuwayama是柑橘黄龙病的重要媒介昆虫,对我国柑橘产业的健康发展潜在着巨大的威胁。本文在综合国内柑橘木虱防控技术的基础上,对近年来柑橘木虱生物防治的最新研究进展进行了综述,并且对其生物防治的发展前景给予了展望。目前应用于柑橘木虱生物防治的天敌资源主要是天敌昆虫及昆虫病原真菌,其中捕食性天敌主要包括瓢虫、食蚜蝇、草蛉和蜘蛛,寄生性天敌昆虫主要包括啮小蜂和跳小峰;昆虫病原真菌主要包括蜡蚧轮枝菌、拟青霉、白僵菌、桔形被毛孢等。期望通过对柑橘木虱生物防治工作的综述,为我国今后柑橘木虱的科学、高效防控及其可持续治理提供参考,不断推动我国柑橘产业的健康发展。

  10. Research on Biological Characteristics and Control Methods of Phobaecticuo Sihuanensis Cai%蜀刺腿的生物学特性及防治方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡良成; 任凭; 李中祥; 曾林

    2012-01-01

    The biological characteristics and control methods of Phobaecticuo sihuanensis Cai were conducted.The results showed that the insect repr-oduces one generation in one year and two years exist together in the east of Chongqing.The insect distributes mainly in the cypress woods and oak woods in the altitude between 300 meters and 1 200 meters in Three Gorges area and Hunan,Guizhou,Wuling Mountain Area of Hubei Province.Its body and appetite are big.Its harm time could last more than 200 days in one year.Planting mixed forest and protecting natural enemies were the basic measures to control its harm.In the big density location where the insects gather,it could use chemistry agricultural chemicals such as 20% fenvalerale EC.Before winter,making use of the beauveria bassiana produced by the froze Phobaecticuo sihuanensis Cai to control the insect,the effect could reach above 70%.%进行蜀刺腿的生物学特性及防治方法的研究,结果表明:该虫在渝东地区1年发生1代和2年完成1代同时存在;主要分布于三峡库区以及湘、黔、鄂武陵山区海拔300~1 200 m的柏树林、栎林内;其个体大,食性杂、食量大,危害期逾200 d;营造混交林,保护天敌是抑制该虫成灾的根本措施;在虫口密度较大的虫源地,用20%氰戊菊酯乳油等化学农药防治。在越冬前,喷施从蜀刺腿僵虫上分离生产的白僵菌,防效可达70%以上。

  11. Metarhizium brunneum Blastospore Pathogenesis in Aedes aegypti Larvae: Attack on Several Fronts Accelerates Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaibari, Abeer M; Carolino, Aline T; Yavasoglu, Sare I; Maffeis, Thierry; Mattoso, Thalles C; Bull, James C; Samuels, Richard I; Butt, Tariq M

    2016-07-01

    Aedes aegypti is the vector of a wide range of diseases (e.g. yellow fever, dengue, Chikungunya and Zika) which impact on over half the world's population. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have been found to be highly efficacious in killing mosquito larvae but only now are the underlying mechanisms for pathogenesis being elucidated. Recently it was shown that conidia of M. anisopliae caused stress induced mortality in Ae. aegypti larvae, a different mode of pathogenicity to that normally seen in terrestrial hosts. Blastospores constitute a different form of inoculum produced by this fungus when cultured in liquid media and although blastospores are generally considered to be more virulent than conidia no evidence has been presented to explain why. In our study, using a range of biochemical, molecular and microscopy methods, the infection process of Metarhizium brunneum (formerly M. anisopliae) ARSEF 4556 blastospores was investigated. It appears that the blastospores, unlike conidia, readily adhere to and penetrate mosquito larval cuticle. The blastospores are readily ingested by the larvae but unlike the conidia are able infect the insect through the gut and rapidly invade the haemocoel. The fact that pathogenicity related genes were upregulated in blastospores exposed to larvae prior to invasion, suggests the fungus was detecting host derived cues. Similarly, immune and defence genes were upregulated in the host prior to infection suggesting mosquitoes were also able to detect pathogen-derived cues. The hydrophilic blastospores produce copious mucilage, which probably facilitates adhesion to the host but do not appear to depend on production of Pr1, a cuticle degrading subtilisin protease, for penetration since protease inhibitors did not significantly alter blastospore virulence. The fact the blastospores have multiple routes of entry (cuticle and gut) may explain why this form of the inoculum killed Ae. aegypti larvae

  12. Effect of biochars and microorganisms on cadmium accumulation in rice grains grown in Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksabye, Parinda; Pimthong, Apinya; Dhurakit, Prapai; Mekvichitsaeng, Phenjun; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contaminated in rice grains is a serious problem because most Asians consume rice on a daily basis. Rice grown in Cd-contaminated soil normally did not have high concentration of Cd. However, soil samples used in this study had high concentrations of Cd. The purpose of this study was to clearly see the effects of biochar and microorganism addition in rice growing in Cd-contaminated soil. The initial Cd concentration in Cd-contaminated soil used in this study was about 650 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentration in rice plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of 1% (w/w) different biochars such as sawdust fly ash (SDFA), bagasse fly ash (BGFA), and rice husk ash (RHA) was investigated. The results showed that SDFA was the best biochar in terms of reducing cadmium accumulation in rice grains when compared to BGFA and RHA under the same conditions. In addition, rice plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of various nonpathogenic microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Beauveria bassiana were also studied. The results showed that the addition of 2% (v/v) microorganisms can reduce Cd accumulation in grains. It was found that grains obtained from Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of P. aeruginosa had the lowest cadmium concentration compared to the ones from soil amended with other strains. This was due to the fact that P. aeruginosa adsorbed more Cd itself into its cells than other strains. The rice plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of biochars and microorganisms were also compared. The results showed that adding 2% (v/v) microorganisms seemed to reduce Cd accumulation in rice grains better than adding 1% (w/w) biochars. In addition, the amounts of calcium and magnesium in rice grains and the dry weight of plant in Cd-contaminated soil amended with P. aeruginosa were the highest in comparison to other microorganisms, biochars, and the soil without any amendments (Cd

  13. Indigenous mycoparasite-based mycoinsecticides in the management of pests of rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Of various biological control agents including pathogenic organisms of crop pests, fungi are highly suitable to the rice field ecosystem owing to prevailing high level of humidity and other favourable microclimatic conditions. Based on recent experiences with mycoinsecticides made available for certain pests, it was planned to synthesise mycoinsecticides from field collected fungi pathogenic to certain key pests of rice such as brown planthopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens (Stal)), green leafhopper (GLH) (Nephotettix virescens Distant), leaf folder (LF) (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis - Guanee). Intensive visits were made to various rice deltaic regions in Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry and parts of Karnataka to gather various forms of fungal pathogens from the cadavers of pests like BPH, GLH, LF, and minor pests like cutworm, skipper, grasshopper, white leafhopper (WLH), zig-zag leafhopper (ZLH), black bug, etc. Nearly thirty groups of fungi were thus gathered and seventeen of them were identified. BPH, one of the dreadful pests in Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India got mycosed more than any other pests. The fungi identified in this regard were: Pandora delphacis, Mucor hiemalis, Rhizopus oryzae, Metarrhizium flavoviride var. minus, and Beauveria bassiana. Of these, P. delphacis was found more virulent in both laboratory and field conditions and distributed widely throughout Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry, another regional pocket adjacent to Tamil Nadu. It was also found highly infective against GLH. In extreme cold weather (November to January) 100% infection of all nymphal instars of the BPH was witnessed at a number of locations. Green leafhoppers were infected more with P. delphacis than M. flavoviride var. minus, Entomophthora aulicae, B. bassiana and Fusarium sp. recorded on the hopper. Similarly, leaf folder caterpillars died due to Zoophthora radicans up to 84% under field conditions. Typically, the infected larvae had a tendency to move to the leaf tips before

  14. Evaluación de la actividad entomopatogénica de hongos obtenidos del Páramo de Guerrero (Finca Puente de Tierra Zipaquirá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Nieves Jimena

    2006-06-01

    insectos plaga. En condiciones naturales, los hongos satisfacen ciertos requerimientos nutricionales mediante la digestión enzimática de sus hospederos, los cuales igualmente pueden ser suplementados en cantidades adecuadas en medios de cultivo que favorezcan su crecimiento. La actividad de los microorganismos se encuentra estrechamente vinculada a condiciones locales y microambientales (principalmente humedad y temperatura. El mecanismo de acción de los hongos entomopatógenos es esencialmente por contacto, mediante la penetración de hifas e invación del insecto provocando su muerte. La mayoría de estos producen sustancias líticas y toxinas involucradas en la penetración del insecto e inhibición de sus mecanismos de defensa. Aún cuando muchas de estas toxinas se producen solo en el interior del insecto, se ha demostrado que muchas especies de hongos pueden producir durante su reproducción metabolitos bioactivos con efecto insecticida, lo que potencializa su acción. Tecia solanivora (Povolny es uno de los insectos plaga más
    importantes del cultivo de papa, debido al daño que causa la larva en los tubérculos. Los registros de enemigos naturales de este insecto son escasos, encontrando que algunos entomopatógenos como Bacillus thuringiensis y Baculovirus phthorimaea empleados contra P. operculella se han evaluado para T. solanivora (Povolny; se ha probado en campo el control ejercido por Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, Paecylomyces lilacinus,
    B. thuringiensis y B. phthorimaea, encontrando mayor actividad para los dos últimos; se ha evaluado la actividad
    entomocida de cepas nativas de B. thuringiensis sobre larvas y observaron que aislamientos nativos de M.
    anisopliae y B. bassiana, registraron una baja capacidad entomopatogénica sobre huevos y larvas del insecto.

  15. 寄生红火蚁虫生真菌高致病力菌株的筛选%Screening of High Pathogenicity Strains of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Red Imported Fire Ant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕利华; 刘晓燕; 谢梅琼; 何余容

    2011-01-01

    Red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta Buren, was one of the most dangerous and devastating invasive pests in the world. The previous studies showed that the biological control agents were the effective ways to control RIFA. In this paper, six strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Paecilomy-ces lilacinus P104 isolated from RIFA, Beauveria bassiana BbOl, BbO2, BbO3 and Bb04 and Metahizium anisopliae Ma01 originally isolated from other different insects were used in bioassays against RIFA workers by spraying serial dilution concentrations (1 × 104 - 1 × 108 mL-1) on RIFA workers. The results showed that the accumulative mortalities of RIFA workers induced by the highest conidia concentration (1 × 108 mL-1) of P104, MaOl, Bb01, Bb02, Bb03 and Bb04 at 15 d were 69.84%, 95.06%, 87.00% , 100% , 92. 16% and 100% , respectively; their median lethal concentrations (LC50) to RIFA workers were 2. 23 × 106, 4. 46 × 105, 4. 07 × 104, 1. 77 × 104, 4. 80 × 104 and 3.71 × 104 mL-1, respectively ; the median lethal times ( LT50 ) were 8. 75 , 3. 04, 4. 73 , 2. 84, 4. 05 and 2. 55 d respectively. The LC50 values of strain BbO4 originally derived from Bactrocera dorsalis were the shortest, while the LC50 values of strain BbO2 originally derived from Ostrinia furnacalis were the lowest. It was considered that the strain Bb04 and Bb02 would be the most suitable candidates against RIFA for further study.%红火蚁Solenopsis invicta是我国的新入侵物种,生物防治是控制红火蚁扩散的有效途径.本文在室内条件下测定6株不同来源的昆虫病原真菌对红火蚁的致病能力.试验采用喷雾法,供试孢子浓度为1×104、1 ×105、1×106、1×107、1×108 mL-1.结果表明,在1×108 mL-1孢子浓度下,淡紫拟青霉Paecilomyces lilacinus菌株P104、绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae菌株Ma01、球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana菌株Bb01、Bb02、Bb03、Bb04处理后红火蚁工蚁第15天的累计死亡率分别为69.84%、95.06

  16. Monitoring of fungal spores in the indoor air of preschool institution facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milana S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores can cause a range of health problems in humans such as respiratory diseases and mycotoxicoses. Since children are the most vulnerable, the presence of fungal spores in the facilities of preschool and school institutions should be investigated readily. In order to estimate air contamination by fungal spores, air sampling was conducted in eight facilities of the preschool institution in Novi Sad during February and March, 2007. Sedimentation plate method was used for the detection of viable fungal spores, mostly being members of subdv. Deuteromycota (Fungi imperfecti. In 32 samples a total of 148 colonies were developed, among which five genera were identified: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium while non-sporulating fungal colonies were labeled as sterile mycelia. Most frequently recorded genera were Penicillium with 46 colonies and Cladosporium with 44 colonies. The genera Aspergillus and Alternaria were represented with 3 colonies each and Acremonium with only 1 colony. The greatest number of colonies emerged in the samples from the day care facilities “Vendi” (58 colonies and “Panda” (49 colonies. Most diverse samples were obtained from the day care center “Zvončica”, with presence of all identified genera. These results showed notable presence of fungal spores in the indoor air of Preschool institution facilities and indicated the need for further, more complete seasonal research. Obtained information is considered useful for the evaluation of potential mycofactors that endanger health of children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002

  17. Improving efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi by gamma irradiation versus the Mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of wild and irradiated biocontrol fungi, Beauvaria Bassiana (Blsamo) and Trichoderma Harzianum (Rafai) on the Mediterranean Fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) was investigated. Applying wild B. bassiana and T. harzianum using spores suspension at different concentrations (108, 106 and 104 colony-forming units), on the pupation medium (sand) or in drinking water, resulted in a significant reduction in adult emergence of pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival of produced adults. Meanwhile, the introduction of some isolates irradiated at 150 and 300 Gy significantly reduced adult emergence from pupae (1-2 day-old) and survival was greatly increased by isolates irradiated at 150 Gy of B. bassiana and at Gy in case of T. harzianum. Applying irradiated isolates as culture filtrate with the concentrations of 10, 50 and 100% to the pupation medium or in drinking water, resulted in a reduction of adult emergence and survival. The results revealed that bioagents B. bassiana and T. harzianum can be applied in the field to suppress the population of the mediterranean fruit fly ceratitis capitata and considered as entomopathogenic for controlling this pest

  18. Diversity and genetic population structure of fungal pathogens infecting white grub larvae in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Benítez, María G; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Alatorre-Rosas, Raquel; Enríquez-Vara, Jhony N

    2013-02-01

    White grub larvae are important soil-dwelling pests in many regions of Mexico as they attack many important crops such as maize. The use of synthetic chemicals is currently the main control strategy, but they are not always effective; thus, other alternatives are needed. Microbial control using entomopathogenic fungi represents an important alternative strategy, and species within the genera Beauveria and Metarhizium are considered amongst the most promising candidates. Seventeen Beauveria spp. and two Metarhizium spp. isolates were obtained in surveys of white grub larvae from different regions of Guanajuato, Mexico. All isolates were capable of infecting healthy larvae of the white grub Phyllophaga polyphilla in laboratory assays, but mortality never exceeded 50 %. Isolates were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Based on elongation factor1-α and ITS partial gene sequence data, all Beauveria isolates were identified as Beauveria pseudobassiana. Elongation factor1-α and β-tubulin sequence data identified the Metarhizium isolates to be Metarhizium pingshaense. In contrast, three additional Metarhizium isolates obtained the previous year in the same region were identified as M. pingshaense, Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium robertsii. Microsatellite genotyping showed that all B. pseudobassiana isolates were the same haplotype. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus fingerprinting information confirmed no significant variation amongst the B. pseudobassiana isolates. The ecological role of these isolates and their impact on white grub larvae populations are discussed. PMID:22965804

  19. Three promising fungal strains pathogenic to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, T.; Praveena, R.; Babu, Kavitha; Naseema, A.; Anitha, N. [College of Agriculture, Kerala (India)

    2006-07-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, isolated from Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Aspergillus candidus, isolated from B. dorsalis, was tested. Cross infectivity of P. lilacinus on B. dorsalis and A. candidus on B. cucurbitae and cross infectivity of a local isolate of B. bassiana from bhindi leaf roller (Sylepta derogata) on fruit flies (B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis ) were also studied. These fungi were new records in these hosts. P. lilacinus at 109 spores / ml caused 96.67% and 100 % cumulative mortality in fruit flies on the second and on the third days. LC50 values of P. lilacinus on B. cucurbitae were 5.0 x 106, 8.0 x 105, 7.0 x 105 spores/ ml on second, third and fourth day, respectively. The fungus was found to cross infect B. dorsalis. LC50 values of A. candidus on B. cucurbitae were 1.29 x 108, 1.22 x 107, 2.27 x 106 spores / ml on third, fourth and fifth day, respectively. The fungus was found to be cross infective to B. cucurbitae. B. bassiana at 109 spores/ ml on B. dorsalis was found to cause 70%, 80% and 90% mortality on fourth, fifth and sixth day. LC50 values of B. bassiana on B. dorsalis were 7.0 x 108, 2.0 x 107, 5.0 x 106 spores/ ml on third, fourth and fifth day ,respectively . Formulation of P. lilacinus as wettable powder and granules and B. bassiana as wettable powder, were also prepared and their efficacy was tested on hosts. (author)

  20. Hotter nests produce smarter young lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua J Amiel; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A hatchling reptile's sex, body size and shape, and locomotor performance can be influenced not only by its genes, but also by the temperature that it experiences during incubation. Can incubation temperature also affect a hatchling's cognitive skills? In the scincid lizard Bassiana duperreyi, higher incubation temperatures enhanced the resultant hatchling's learning performance. Hence, factors such as maternal nest-site selection and climate change affect not only the size, shape and athleti...

  1. Ovicidal activity of two fungal pathogens (Hyphomycetes) against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acarina:Tetranichidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Weibin; FENG Mingguang

    2004-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, is an economically important pest that devastates varieties of crops worldwide and develops significant resistance to common chemical pesticides, most of which lack ovicidal activity. In the present study, two isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Beuaveria bassiana SG8702 and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pfr153, were bioassayed against T. cinnabarinus eggs at 25℃ under a photophase of 12∶12 (L∶D). Infected eggs on Vicia faba var. minor leaves failed to hatch due to distortion and shrinkage and had fungal outgrowths when maintained under moist conditions. Sprays of B. bassiana conidia to T. cinnabarinus eggs (on leaves) at the concentrations of 58, 298 and 1306 conidia/mm2 (3 replicates per concentration and 35-65 fresh mite eggs per replicate) resulted in corrected egg mortalities of 20.4±4.2%, 36.0±7.6% and 64.6(12.5% (F=43.14, P <0.01), respectively; sprays of P. fumosoroseus at 129, 402 and 2328 conidia/mm2 caused egg mortalities of 16.1±11.1%, 44.2±13.3%, and 63.4±11.7% (F= 15.37, P=0.01), respectively. In contrast, natural egg mortalities in blank controls were 7.8% and 10.3% only. Based on probit analysis, the estimates of LC50 with 95% confidential limits were 548 (393-858) conidia/mm2 for B. bassiana and 914 (625-1550) for P. fumosoroseus, respectively. Apparently, both fungal species were capable of infecting T. cinnabarinus eggs, but the ovicidal activity of the B. bassiana isolate was greater than that of the P. fumosoroseus isolate. This represents the first report on the ovicidal activity of the two entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes against T. cinnabarinus.

  2. Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Zhang; Xiaoli Cheng; Xingzhong Liu; Meichun Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. Several important nematophagous and entomogenous fungi, including nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora and Drechslerella stenobrocha), nematode endoparasite (Hirsutella minnesotensis), insect pathogens (Beauveria bas...

  3. The Use of Fungal Endophytes Against Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) Oncobasidium theobromae on Seedling of Cocoa Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; Muslim, Salam; Asman; Ryan,, Tony; Danial, Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are Fungus that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. A host plant and fungal endophytes living on it have a mutulistic relathionship. The host provides substrate and space for the endophytes to grow while the fungal endophytes promote plant growth and protect the plant hosts from pests and diseases. The research aimed to investigate of fungal endopohytes e.g Aspergillus sp, Beauveria sp, Culvularia sp, and Trichoderma sp isolated from healthy branch...

  4. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m-2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Disease Dynamics in Ants: A Critical Review of the Ecological Relevance of Using Generalist Fungi to Study Infections in Insect Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, R G; Hughes, D P

    2016-01-01

    It is assumed that social life can lead to the rapid spread of infectious diseases and outbreaks. In ants, disease outbreaks are rare and the expression of collective behaviors is invoked to explain the absence of epidemics in natural populations. Here, we address the ecological approach employed by many studies that have notably focused (89% of the studies) on two genera of generalist fungal parasites (Beauveria and Metarhizium). We ask whether these are the most representative models to study the evolutionary ecology of ant-fungal parasite interactions. To assess this, we critically examine the literature on ants and their interactions with fungal parasites from the past 114years (1900-2014). We discuss how current evolutionary ecology approaches emerged from studies focused on the biological control of pest ants. We also analyzed the ecological relevance of the laboratory protocols used in evolutionary ecology studies employing generalist parasites, as well as the rare natural occurrence of these parasites on ants. After a detailed consideration of all the publications, we suggest that using generalist pathogens such as Beauveria and Metarhizium is not an optimal approach if the goal is to study the evolutionary ecology of disease in ants. We conclude by advocating for approaches that incorporate greater realism. PMID:27131328

  6. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation

  7. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Metabolomics reveals the heterogeneous secretome of two entomopathogenic fungi to ex vivo cultured insect tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charissa de Bekker

    Full Text Available Fungal entomopathogens rely on cellular heterogeneity during the different stages of insect host infection. Their pathogenicity is exhibited through the secretion of secondary metabolites, which implies that the infection life history of this group of environmentally important fungi can be revealed using metabolomics. Here metabolomic analysis in combination with ex vivo insect tissue culturing shows that two generalist isolates of the genus Metarhizium and Beauveria, commonly used as biological pesticides, employ significantly different arrays of secondary metabolites during infectious and saprophytic growth. It also reveals that both fungi exhibit tissue specific strategies by a distinguishable metabolite secretion on the insect tissues tested in this study. In addition to showing the important heterogeneous nature of these two entomopathogens, this study also resulted in the discovery of several novel destruxins and beauverolides that have not been described before, most likely because previous surveys did not use insect tissues as a culturing system. While Beauveria secreted these cyclic depsipeptides when encountering live insect tissues, Metarhizium employed them primarily on dead tissue. This implies that, while these fungi employ comparable strategies when it comes to entomopathogenesis, there are most certainly significant differences at the molecular level that deserve to be studied.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15223-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ps bassiana isolate Bb147 m... 49 8e-05 AY194439_1( AY194439 |pid:none) Amazona ochrocephala nattereri iso...... 49 1e-04 AY194448_1( AY194448 |pid:none) Amazona ochrocephala oratrix isola... ...49 1e-04 AY194460_1( AY194460 |pid:none) Amazona ochrocephala ochrocephala ... 49 1e-04 DQ650544_1( DQ650544... |pid:none) Odorrana cf. chloronota FMNH 26594... 49 1e-04 AY194462_1( AY194462 |pid:none) Amazona ochroceph...e) Blastocystis sp. DMP/02-328 mitoc... 49 1e-04 AY194463_1( AY194463 |pid:none) Amazona ochrocephala paname

  10. ISOLATION OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TWO COMMON EDIBLE AQUATIC INSECTS, HYDROPHILUS PICEUS AND DYTISCUS MARGINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Gur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Insects are widely used for their potential source of protein, lipids, carbohydrates and certain vitamins in many parts of the world. As in terrestial ones, aquatic insects can also carry fungal structures. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated microfungal flora of internal and external surface of Hydrophilus piceus and Dytiscus marginalis collected from their natural habitats in Erzurum (Turkey. We isolated total 19 different species of fungi belonging to Penicillium, Alternaria, Beauveria, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Acremonium, Paecilomyces genera. The relationship between these fungi and edible insects was discussed further in the light of the existing literature. Among the isolated fungi, species that were recognized as pathogenic or toxigenic, and ones having biotechnological importance were found.

  11. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control are...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know their...

  12. Test de produits alternatifs sur Drosophila suzukii en culture de fraise biologique

    OpenAIRE

    Lambion, Jérôme; Klink, Morgane

    2014-01-01

    L’essai réalisé sous abri froid en fin de culture de fraise précoce a permis de mettre en évidence l’intérêt de certains produits pour limiter les attaques de D. suzukii. L’efficacité du Success4 (Spinosad) a été confirmée ; ce produit doit être utilisé avec précaution car il est toxique pour les auxiliaires et les pollinisateurs, et son DAR est de 3 jours. Pyrévert et surtout PréVam ont montré une efficacité nettement insuffisante. Les deux produits microbiologiques Naturalis (Beauveria bass...

  13. Patterns of host adaptation in fly infecting Entomophthora species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Insect pathogenic fungi (IPF) differ widely in their capability to infect different hosts. Some are generalists and will, given a sufficient number of infectious spores are present, infect almost any species of insect (e.g. Hypocrealean Metarhizium and Beauveria). Members of a different main IPF...... phylum Entomophthoromycota generally have more narrow host-ranges where some species for example only infect aphids or only locusts. Certain species (or strains) are even more host specific and are only known to infect a single or very few taxonomically related insect species under natural conditions (e...... fungal order are largely unknown and leave many unanswered questions. For example are the number of virulence factors increasing, or decreasing when fungal pathogens adapt to a narrow range of potential hosts? And, are host specialization based on many genetic changes with small effect or few with large...

  14. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. PMID:27131327

  15. 安徽的虫草及其相关真菌Ⅱ%The genus Cordyceps and its allies from Anhui Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇飞; 张琪; 李春如; Spatafora Joey; 樊美珍; 李增智

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, 20 species of Cordyceps and its allies from some nature preserves in Anhui Province were reported as follows: Cordyceps brongniartii and its anamorph Beauveria brongniartii, C. cylindrica and its anamorph Nomuraea atypicola, Metacordyceps guniujiangensis and its anamorph Metarhizium aff. cylindro-sporum, Ophiocordyceps heteropoda var. langyashanensis and its anamorph Hirsutella heteropoda, O. mel-olonthae, O. odonatae, O. gryllotalpae, C, kusanagiensis and so on. Among them, O. melolonthae is a new record to China mainland and a minor error in original description of O. odonatae was revised. Specimens examined are deposited in Research Center on Entomogenous Fungi, Anhui Agricultural University (RCEFAAU).%对安徽省分布的布氏虫草Cordyceps brongniartii及其无性型布氏白僵菌Beauveria brongniartii、柱形虫草Cordyceps cylindrica及其无性型紫色野村菌Nomuraea atypicola、牯牛降异虫草Metacordyceps guniujiangensis及其无性型柱孢绿僵菌近似种Metarhizium aff.cylindrosporum、根足线虫草琅琊山变种Ophiocordyceps heteropoda var.langyashanensis及其无性型根足被毛孢Hirsutella heteropoda、腮金龟线虫草O.melolonthae、蜻蜓线虫草O.odonatae、蝼蛄线虫草(朝鲜虫草)O.gryllotalpae和草剃虫草Cordyceps kusanagiensis等20个虫草及其相关真菌种类重新整理发表,其中腮金龟虫草为中国大陆首次报道;同时,纠正了蜻蜓线虫草原始描述中的错误.鉴定标本保存在安徽农业大学虫生真菌研究中心(RCEFAAU).

  16. 虫草属EST-SSR标记系统的建立研究%Study of EST-SSR marker system of Cordyceps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管俊娇; 虞泓; 解云峰; 左世梅; 马荣锋; 曾文波

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the EST-SSR marker system for Cordyceps by using ESTs of C. Bassiana and C. mUitaris. Method; The ESTs of Cordyceps were downloaded from the public database of NCBI, and the redundant ESTs with low quality were removed. The EST-SSR primers were designed by Sequece Seiner 1.2. And the primers were screened through PAGE-Electrophoresis. Result; The 4 556 non-redundant ESTs which from C. Bassiana with total length of 2 953 173 bp were selected. 718 EST-SSRs distributed in 616 ESTs were totally screened out, accounting for 15. 8%of the non-redundant ESTs. It was discovered that the average distance of EST-SSSR was 1/4 0% bp in EST-SSRs distribution of C. Bassiana. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant types with 419 repeated sequences. Regarding to C. Militaris, totally 1 363 non-redundant ESTs were acquired, from which 1 117 EST-SSRs were screened, and rate of SSR sites in ESTs was 81. 95%. The leading motif of SSR was nucleotide A. The 50 pairs of EST-SSR primers were designed according to the ESTs of C. Bassiana,and preliminary test showed the 34 pairs of primers amplified clear fragments,accounting for 68% of all primers. Furthermore, the 39 of the 40 pairs of primers from the ESTs of C. Militaris were found to be amplified as the clear fragments, accounting for 97. 5%. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different anamorph of Cordyceps spieces were divided into four branches. Conclusion: The EST-SSR of Cordyceps had comparably higher utility value. The EST-SSR markers developed from ESTs of C. Bassiana and C. Militaris had well transferability in Cordyceps. And it was suggested that the EST-SSR markers should be an easy and effective way to assay molecular genetic structure of Cordyceps.%目的:通过球孢虫草、蛹虫草EST设计EST-SSR引物,建立虫草属EST-SSR标记系统.方法:从NCBI公共数据库下载获得虫草EST,利用Sequece Seiners 1.2软件去除冗余序列并设计引物,进行PAGE电泳.结果:通过去

  17. Fungi associated to Platypus cylindrus Fab. (Coleoptera: Platypodidae in cork oak Fungos associados ao insecto Platypus cylindrus Fab. (Coleoptera: Platypodidae em sobreiro

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    Joana Henriques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Platypus cylindrus is a pest that since the 80’s of the last century has been considered a cork oak mortality agent in Portugal. It is an ambrosia beetle that establishes complex symbioses with fungi whose role in the insect-fungus-host interaction has not been completely clarified. In order to characterize P. cylindrus associated micoflora in Portugal, fungi were isolated from different beetle organs and from its galleries in cork oak trees. Fungi of the genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Nodulisporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Raffaelea, Scytalidium, Trichoderma and of the order Mucorales were identified. An actinomycete of the genus Streptomyces was also identified. Some of these genera were related for the first time to this interaction. In the present work the isolated fungi are characterized and their contribution for beetle population establishment and tree weakness is discussed.Platypus cylindrus é uma praga que desde os anos 80 do século passado tem sido referida como agente de mortalidade do sobreiro em Portugal. É um insecto ambrósia que estabelece simbioses complexas com fungos cujo papel não está completamente esclarecido na interacção insecto-fungo-sobreiro. Com o objectivo de caracterizar a micoflora associada a P. cylindrus em Portugal foram efectuados isolamentos a partir de diferentes órgãos do insecto e suas galerias em sobreiro. Identificaram-se fungos dos géneros Acremonium, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Nodulisporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Raffaelea, Scytalidium, Trichoderma e da ordem Mucorales. Foi igualmente identificado um actinomiceta do género Streptomyces. Alguns destes géneros são referidos pela primeira vez nesta interacção. No presente trabalho caracterizam-se os fungos isolados e discute-se a sua contribuição para o estabelecimento das populações do insecto e

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Paecilomyces hepiali (Ascomycota, Eurotiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linping; Xu, Jiayue; Li, Huchen; Song, Lipu; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali, belonging to the Eurotiales order Ascomycota, is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis anamorph stage. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of P. hepiali for the first time. The genome is 24,245 bp in length, encoding 15 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 25 tRNA genes and 3 homing endonucleases. The overall AT composition is 73.37% and the average AT content of PCG, rRNA, tRNA and non-coding region are 74.21%, 66.07%, 62.83% and 75.96%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis with eight Ascomycota species and thirteen Basidiomycota species revealed that P. hepiali is was more closely related to Cordyceps bassiana, Cordycep smilitaris and Cordyceps brongniartii. It is confirmed that P. hepiali is a derivative of Cordyceps sinensis. This study provided valuable information on the gene contents of the mitochondrial genome and would facilitate the study of function and evolution of P. hepiali. PMID:24963769

  19. 4-(Tert-butyl)-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol induces pro-apoptotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Yunmi; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we found that KTH-13 isolated from the butanol fraction of Cordyceps bassiana (Cb-BF) displayed anti-cancer activity. To improve its antiproliferative activity and production yield, we employed a total synthetic approach and derivatized KTH-13 to obtain chemical analogs. In this study, one KTH-13 derivative, 4-(tert-butyl)-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol (KTH-13-t-Bu), was selected to test its anti-cancer activity. KTH-13-t-Bu diminished the proliferation of C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, LoVo, and HCT-15 cells. KTH-13-t-Bu induced morphological changes in C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. KTH-13-t-Bu also increased the level of early apoptotic cells stained with annexin V-FITC. Furthermore, KTH-13-t-Bu increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and -9. In contrast, KTH-13-t-Bu upregulated the levels of pro- and cleaved forms of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and Bcl-2. Phospho-STAT3, phospho-Src, and phospho-AKT levels were also diminished by KTH13-t-Bu treatment. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that KTH-13-t-Bu can be considered a novel anti-cancer drug displaying pro-apoptotic activity. PMID:27162479

  20. Improved mortality of the Formosan subterranean termite by fungi, when amended with cuticle-degrading enzymes or eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Maureen S; Lax, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Formosan subterranean termites (FST) were exposed to strains of Beauveria pseudobassiana (Bpb) and Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) to determine virulence of the fungi. Once lethality was determined, sublethal doses of Bpb were combined with enzymes capable of degrading the insect cuticle to measure the potential to enhance fungal infection. Bpb applied to FST in combination with proteinases and a chitinase caused increased mortality over the fungus alone. Mortality was enhanced when Ifr was applied to FST in combination with a chitinase isolated from Serratia marcesans. A lipase isolated from Pseudomonas cepacia, when combined with Ifr, also resulted in greater mortality than all control treatments. FST were also exposed to the eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) dexamethasone (DEX), ibuprofen (IBU), and ibuprofen sodium salt (IBUNA), in combination with Ifr. Combining Ifr with IBUNA caused significantly increased mortality on days 6, 7, and 9. Cuticle-degrading enzymes and EBIs may have potential to enhance the pathogenic effect of a fungal control agent against the Formosan subterranean termite. PMID:26122366

  1. The Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

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    Fitzgerald L. Fabelico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenicfungi (EPF are potential biocontrol agents against agricultural pests and insects. These fungi are also known to be a source of secondary metabolites and could be a potential source of antibiotic drugs in the future. This study aims to determine the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of EPF isolated from different host insects and their larvae in the province of Nueva Vizcaya.The method employed in this study includes the collection of EPF from dead insects and their larvae, isolation and mass production of the fungi, identification of the different fungi, extraction of secondary metabolites from the fungi, phytochemical screening, and antimicrobial assay. The results revealed that the antimicrobial properties of the different EPF could be explained by their phytochemical properties.When compared to the positive control, the significantly high antifungal activities of the Pandora neoaphidis(EPF 1 against the Candida albicans can be due to the presence of sterols. Conversely, the significantly high antibacterial activities of Beauveria alba (EPF 5 against Bacillus subtiliscould be due to the presence ofsteroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, and fatty acids.These findings indicate that entomopathogenic fungi could be a potential source of antibiotic drugs against pathogenic microorganism in the near future. To realize this, future research is highly recommended for the isolation, elucidation, and evaluation of the safety of the bioactive compounds of entomopathogenic fungi responsible for the antimicrobial activities, prior to their use in humans.

  2. Microfungi in cultivated fields in Eskişehir provience (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Rasime; Ilhan, Semra; Asan, Ahmet; Kinaci, Engin; Oner, Setenay

    2005-01-01

    The soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of Eskişehir (Turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of Karacahöyük, Bahçecik, OGU I, and OGU II. A total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including Absidia, Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botryoderma, Chaetomium, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Eupenicillium, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Gonytrichum, Metarrhizium, Mucor, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Plectosphaerella, Rhizoctania, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Septonema, Stachybotrys, Trichocladium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and Wardomyces. Twenty five species were more frequent (all locations) while twenty seven species were rare (only one sample). Mainly, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terricola var. americanus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Gliocladium roseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. implicatum, P. restrictum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most common and abundant microfungi in all locations. Five species Aspergillus subsessilis, A. terreus var. africanus, Eupenicillium egyptiacum, Paecilomyces ramosus, and Penicillium novae-zeelandiae are likely to be newly recorded for Turkey. The microfungi number in Eskişehir soils was between 25,000-234,000 CFU/g (mean value at 126,375 CFU/g). PMID:16028200

  3. Anti-Proliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Activities of 4-Methyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Nak Yoon; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Gihyeon; Lee, Yunmi; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Ji Hye; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Mi Seon; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-07-01

    It has been found that 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol (KTH-13), a novel compound isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, is able to suppress tumor cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. To mass-produce this compound, we established a total synthesis method. Using those conditions, we further synthesized various analogs with structural similarity to KTH-13. In this study, we aimed to test their anti-cancer activity by measuring anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Of 8 compounds tested, 4-methyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol (KTH-13-Me) exhibited the strongest anti-proliferative activity toward MDA-MB 231 cells. KTH-13-Me also similarly suppressed the survival of various cancer cell lines, including C6 glioma, HCT-15, and LoVo cells. Treatment of KTH-13-Me induced several apoptotic signs in C6 glioma cells, such as morphological changes, induction of apoptotic bodies, and nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Concordantly, early-apoptotic cells were also identified by staining with FITC-Annexin V/PI. Moreover, KTH-13-Me highly enhanced the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased the protein level of Bcl-2. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of Src and STAT3 were diminished in KTH-13-Me-treated C6 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that KTH-13-Me can be developed as a novel anti-cancer drug capable of blocking proliferation, inducing apoptosis, and blocking cell survival signaling in cancer cells. PMID:27068261

  4. Amplification of microsatellite repeat motifs is associated with the evolutionary differentiation and heterochromatinization of sex chromosomes in Sauropsida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kazumi; O'Meally, Denis; Azad, Bhumika; Georges, Arthur; Sarre, Stephen D; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Matsuda, Yoichi; Ezaz, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    The sex chromosomes in Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) have evolved independently many times. They show astonishing diversity in morphology ranging from cryptic to highly differentiated sex chromosomes with male (XX/XY) and female heterogamety (ZZ/ZW). Comparing such diverse sex chromosome systems thus provides unparalleled opportunities to capture evolution of morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes in action. Here, we describe chromosomal mapping of 18 microsatellite repeat motifs in eight species of Sauropsida. More than two microsatellite repeat motifs were amplified on the sex-specific chromosome, W or Y, in five species (Bassiana duperreyi, Aprasia parapulchella, Notechis scutatus, Chelodina longicollis, and Gallus gallus) of which the sex-specific chromosomes were heteromorphic and heterochromatic. Motifs (AAGG)n and (ATCC)n were amplified on the W chromosome of Pogona vitticeps and the Y chromosome of Emydura macquarii, respectively. By contrast, no motifs were amplified on the W chromosome of Christinus marmoratus, which is not much differentiated from the Z chromosome. Taken together with previously published studies, our results suggest that the amplification of microsatellite repeats is tightly associated with the differentiation and heterochromatinization of sex-specific chromosomes in sauropsids as well as in other taxa. Although some motifs were common between the sex-specific chromosomes of multiple species, no correlation was observed between this commonality and the species phylogeny. Furthermore, comparative analysis of sex chromosome homology and chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats between two closely related chelid turtles, C. longicollis and E. macquarii, identified different ancestry and differentiation history. These suggest multiple evolutions of sex chromosomes in the Sauropsida. PMID:26194100

  5. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of serine proteases and homologs in the silkworm Bombyx mori

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    Xu Ping-Zhen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine proteases (SPs and serine proteases homologs (SPHs are a large group of proteolytic enzymes, with important roles in a variety of physiological processes, such as cell signalling, defense and development. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of serine proteases and their homologs in the silkworm might provide valuable information about their biological functions. Results In this study, 51 SP genes and 92 SPH genes were systematically identified in the genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that six gene families have been amplified species-specifically in the silkworm, and the members of them showed chromosomal distribution of tandem repeats. Microarray analysis suggests that many silkworm-specific genes, such as members of SP_fam12, 13, 14 and 15, show expression patterns that are specific to tissues or developmental stages. The roles of SPs and SPHs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Batrytis bassiana and B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus, respectively. Microarray experiment and real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that 18 SP or SPH genes were significantly up-regulated after pathogen induction, suggesting that SP and SPH genes might participate in pathogenic microorganism resistance in B. mori. Conclusion Silkworm SP and SPH genes were identified. Comparative genomics showed that SP and SPH genes belong to a large family, whose members are generated mainly by tandem repeat evolution. We found that silkworm has species-specific SP and SPH genes. Phylogenetic and microarray analyses provide an overview of the silkworm SP and SPHs, and facilitate future functional studies on these enzymes.

  6. Evolution of the α-Subunit of Na/K-ATPase from Paramecium to Homo sapiens: Invariance of Transmembrane Helix Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Liu, Lijun; Gupta, Raj K; Askari, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Na/K-ATPase is a key plasma membrane enzyme involved in cell signaling, volume regulation, and maintenance of electrochemical gradients. The α-subunit, central to these functions, belongs to a large family of P-type ATPases. Differences in transmembrane (TM) helix topology, sequence homology, helix-helix contacts, cell signaling, and protein domains of Na/K-ATPase α-subunit were compared in fungi (Beauveria), unicellular organisms (Paramecia), primitive multicellular organisms (Hydra), and vertebrates (Xenopus, Homo sapiens), and correlated with evolution of physiological functions in the α-subunit. All α-subunits are of similar length, with groupings of four and six helices in the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. Minimal homology was seen for protein domain patterns in Paramecium and Hydra, with high correlation between Hydra and vertebrates. Paramecium α-subunits display extensive disorder, with minimal helix contacts. Increases in helix contacts in Hydra approached vertebrates. Protein motifs known to be associated with membrane lipid rafts and cell signaling reveal significant positional shifts between Paramecium and Hydra vulgaris, indicating that regional membrane fluidity changes occur during evolution. Putative steroid binding sites overlapping TM-3 occurred in all species. Sites associated with G-protein-receptor stimulation occur both in vertebrates and amphibia but not in Hydra or Paramecia. The C-terminus moiety "KETYY," necessary for the Na(+) activation of pump phosphorylation, is not present in unicellular species indicating the absence of classical Na(+)/K(+)-pumps. The basic protein topology evolved earliest, followed by increases in protein domains and ordered helical arrays, correlated with appearance of α-subunit regions known to involve cell signaling, membrane recycling, and ion channel formation. PMID:26961431

  7. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    degrees of stability when subjected to the action of herbicides. Pesticides containing trace quantities of isotopes with short half-lives can be used as a means of judging the merits of various spraying systems for treating seeds and agricultural crops with pesticides; this method also provides information about the optimum doses. Experiments have shown that ionizing radiations can be used to increase the virulence of insect nosophytes (Beauveria vassiana Unill.) and thus improve the efficiency of microbiological insect-pest-control methods. The sterilizing and lethal effects of ionizing radiations are also useful in combatting insect pests. Gamma-ray experiments have made it possible to establish sterilizing doses for a number of insect pests which attack crops and stored products (Calandra granaria L., Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, Pectinophora malvella Hb., Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say, Chloridea obsoleta F.). The data obtained in these investigations will be used to develop and improve the methods of insect-pest control used in agriculture. (author)