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Sample records for bear creek valley

  1. Site-wide remedial alternative development in Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a case study of an environmental restoration project at a major mixed waste site that poses unique challenges to remediation efforts. Bear Creek Valley is located immediately west of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant was built in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, with its original mission being electromagnetic separation of uranium. Since being completed, the Y-12 Plant has also been used for chemical processing of uranium and lithium compounds as well as precision fabrication of components containing these and other materials. Wastes containing radionuclides, metals, chlorinated solvents, oils, coolants, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), and others were disposed of in large quantities at Bear Creek Valley as a result of manufacturing operations at the Y-12 Plant. The Bear Creek Valley feasibility study is using innovative strategies to efficiently and thoroughly consider the information available regarding Bear Creek Valley and process options that could be combined into its remedial alternatives

  2. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste fadities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCIA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RIFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Coffective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the Pre at sign ary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/Sl) Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study (RI/FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCIA into an RI Work Plan for the lint phase of characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 4

  3. Results of a seepage investigation at Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January through September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seepage investigation was conducted of 4,600 acres of Bear Creek Valley southwest of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the period of January through September 1994. The data was collected to help the Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program develop a better understanding of ground-water and surface-water interactions, recharge and discharge relations, and ground-water flow patterns. The project was divided into three phases: a reconnaissance and mapping of seeps, springs, and stream-measurement sites; a high base flow seepage investigation; and a low base flow seepage investigation. This report describes the results of the investigation. It includes a map showing measurement site locations and tables that list the coordinates for each site and measurements of discharge, pH, specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen

  4. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation.

  5. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. In addition to this SAP, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19 ampersand D2) presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation

  6. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G

  8. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells

  9. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  10. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain hot spot removal early action characterization field data summary report, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the field and laboratory efforts as a result of the Bear Creek Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Project Early Action. The purpose of this project was to collect data necessary to assess contaminant levels in the Bear Creek Valley Floodplain and evaluate the risk posed by the sites. This report provides information on the background of the site, characterization of site and field activities, results of field and laboratory data collected, extent and distribution of contamination, and an assessment of the future risk posed by the site.

  13. The geology and hydrogeology of Bear Creek Valley Waste Disposal Areas A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-05-01

    A study was undertaken of the Oil Landfarm and Burial Grounds A and B, which are three disposal sites within the Bear Creek Waste Disposal Area. The area is located west of the Y-12 plant, about 3 miles southwest of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this interim report is to present data collected at the Burial Grounds A and B, and to provide the results of hydrogeologic analyses. The Oil Landfarm geologic and hydrogeologic data and analyses have been submitted in a January 1984 interim report. The overall objectives of the study were to characterize the types and extent of wastes present and to define the occurrence and movement of ground water beneath the sites. The intention of this work is to provide criteria on which a design for containing the waste can be developed. Specific activities performed by Bechtel included: drilling for subsurface geologic data; installing monitoring wells; measuring permeability and ground-water flow directions; and collecting soil, sediment, surface- and ground-water, and liquid-waste samples for chemical analysis. Results are presented on the geology and ground waters.

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Boneyard/Burnyard Accelerated Action Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Bear Creek Valley Watershed Remedial Investigation, the Boneyard/Burnyard was identified as the source of the largest releases of uranium into groundwater and surface water in Bear Creek Valley. The proposed action for remediation of this site is selective excavation and removal of source material and capping of the remainder of the site. The schedule for this action has been accelerated so that this is the first remedial action planned to be implemented in the Bear Creek Valley Record of Decision. Additional data needs to support design of the remedial action were identified at a data quality objectives meeting held for this project. Sampling at the Boneyard/Burnyard will be conducted through the use of a phased approach. Initial or primary samples will be used to make in-the-field decisions about where to locate follow-up or secondary samples. On the basis of the results of surface water, soil, and groundwater analysis, up to six test pits will be dug. The test pits will be used to provide detailed descriptions of source materials and bulk samples. This document sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in this project. This document also contains the health and safety plan, quality assurance project plan, waste management plan, data management plan, implementation plan, and best management practices plan for this project as appendices

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Boneyard/Burnyard Accelerated Action Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the Bear Creek Valley Watershed Remedial Investigation, the Boneyard/Burnyard was identified as the source of the largest releases of uranium into groundwater and surface water in Bear Creek Valley. The proposed action for remediation of this site is selective excavation and removal of source material and capping of the remainder of the site. The schedule for this action has been accelerated so that this is the first remedial action planned to be implemented in the Bear Creek Valley Record of Decision. Additional data needs to support design of the remedial action were identified at a data quality objectives meeting held for this project. Sampling at the Boneyard/Burnyard will be conducted through the use of a phased approach. Initial or primary samples will be used to make in-the-field decisions about where to locate follow-up or secondary samples. On the basis of the results of surface water, soil, and groundwater analysis, up to six test pits will be dug. The test pits will be used to provide detailed descriptions of source materials and bulk samples. This document sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in this project. This document also contains the health and safety plan, quality assurance project plan, waste management plan, data management plan, implementation plan, and best management practices plan for this project as appendices.

  16. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19 ampersand D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19 ampersand D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations

  17. Soil sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Floodplain presents the approach and rationale for characterizing potentially contaminated soils and sediments of the Bear Creek floodplain and the impact of any contaminants on the floodplain ecosystem. It is an addendum to a previously issued document, the Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ES/ER-19&D2), which presents background information pertaining to this floodplain investigation. The strategy presented in the SAP is to divide the investigation into three component parts: a large-scale characterization of the floodplain; a fine-scale characterization of the floodplain beginning with a known contaminated location; and a stream sediment characterization. During the large-scale and the fine-scale characterizations, soil and biota samples (i.e., small mammals, earthworms, and vegetation) will be collected in order to characterize the nature and extent of floodplain soil contamination and the impact of this contamination on floodplain biota. The fine-scale characterization will begin with an investigation of a site corresponding to the location noted in the Remedial Investigation Work Plan (ES/ER-19&D2) as an area where uranium and PCBs are concentrated in discrete strata. During this fine-scale characterization, a 1 m deep soil profile excavation will be dug into the creek berm, and individual soil strata in the excavation will be screened for alpha radiation, PCBs, and VOCs. After the laboratory analysis results are received, biota samples will be collected in the vicinity of those locations.

  18. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV

  19. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6: Appendix G -- Baseline ecological risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix G contains ecological risks for fish, benthic invertebrates, soil invertebrates, plants, small mammals, deer, and predator/scavengers (hawks and fox). This risk assessment identified significant ecological risks from chemicals in water, sediment, soil, and shallow ground water. Metals and PCBs are the primary contaminants of concern.

  20. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV.

  1. FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moline, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Schreiber, M.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-03-01

    The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems.

  2. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 4: Appendix E -- Valley-wide fate and transport report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix E addresses contaminant releases and migration pathways from a valley-wide perspective and provides estimates of changes in contaminant fluxes in BCV.

  3. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 4: Appendix E -- Valley-wide fate and transport report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix E addresses contaminant releases and migration pathways from a valley-wide perspective and provides estimates of changes in contaminant fluxes in BCV

  4. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan

  5. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  6. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  7. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H ampersand S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H ampersand S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H ampersand S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated

  8. Waste management plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Waste Management Plant (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including: continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term denitrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  9. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  10. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  11. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  12. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report

  13. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

  14. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  15. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities

  16. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5: Appendix F -- Baseline human health risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix F documents potential risks and provides information necessary for making remediation decisions. A quantitative analysis of the inorganic, organic, and radiological site-related contaminants found in various media is used to characterize the potential risks to human health associated with exposure to these contaminants.

  17. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5: Appendix F - Baseline human health risk assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix F documents potential risks and provides information necessary for making remediation decisions. A quantitative analysis of the inorganic, organic, and radiological site-related contaminants found in various media is used to characterize the potential risks to human health associated with exposure to these contaminants

  18. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Appendix D -- Nature and extent of contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix D describes the nature and extent of contamination in environmental media and wastes

  19. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Appendix D -- Nature and extent of contamination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix D describes the nature and extent of contamination in environmental media and wastes.

  20. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when the ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the preliminary assessment/site investigation/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. This document incorporates requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA in the form of an RI report for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  1. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  2. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  3. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9

  4. Bear Creek Project. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from nine known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized

  5. Bear Creek Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek Project consists of mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from six known ore bodies will take place over ten years; a 1000 tons ore/day will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The tailings will be stored onsite in an impoundment. The project would convert 2700 acres from grazing use to mining/milling activities for about ten years. Mining would disturb a total of 1600 acres but, because of reclamation, the max acreage disturbed at any one time would be about 1000 acres, the average being about 650 acres. Dose rates were computed for an individual in a ranch house at the nearest ranch. Conditions for the protection of the environment are proposed. Possible environmental impacts evaluated cover air, land, water, soil, vegetation, wildlife, and community. A benefit-cost analysis is made

  6. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A - Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B - Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C - Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV

  7. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A -- Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B -- Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C -- Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV.

  8. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  9. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  10. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 5201). The rulemaking concerned would... proposed rulemaking the bridge owner displayed on the Wise Avenue Bridge signage that stated a 48-hour advance notice was required to open the draw bridge. This signage portrayed improper...

  11. Hydrology of Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts, central Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Baskin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Alkali Creek coal-lease tract includes about 2,150 acres in the Book Cliffs coal field in central Utah, and the Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tract includes about 3,360 acres in the Wasatch Plateau coal field, also in central Utah. Both the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts are near areas where coal is currently (1987) mined by underground methods from the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation. The Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge areas have intermittent streams in which flow after snowmelt runoff is locally sustained into midsummer by springflow. The only perennial stream is South Fork Corner Canyon Creek in the Castle Valley Ridge area. Peak flow in both areas generally is from snowmelt runoff; however, peak flow from thunderstorm runoff in the Alkali Creek area can exceed that from snowmelt runoff. Estimated annual source-area sediment yield was 0.5 acre-ft/sq mi in the Alkali Creek lease tract and it was 0.3 acre-ft/sq mi in the Castle Valley Ridge lease tract. Groundwater in the Alkali Creek area occurs in perched aquifers in the Flagstaff Limestone and in other formations above the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation. The principal source of recharge to the aquifers is snowmelt on outcrops. Faults may be major conduits and control the movement of groundwater. Groundwater discharges at formation contacts, between zones of differing permeability within a formation, near faults and into mines. Water sampled from 13 springs in the Alkali Creek area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 273 to 5,210 mg/L. Water sampled from 17 springs in the Castle Valley Ridge area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 208 to 579 mg/L. The composition of water from a recently abandoned part of an active mine the Wasatch Plateau closely resembles that of water discharging from a nearby mine that has been abandoned for more than 30 years. Mining of the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts likely will

  12. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill 1, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The intent and scope of the work plan are to assemble all data necessary to facilitate selection of remediation alternatives for the sites in Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (BCV OU 1) such that the risk to human health and the environment is reduced to acceptable levels based on agreements with regulators. The ultimate goal is to develop a final Record Of Decision (ROD) for all of the OUs in BCV, including the integrator OU. However, the initial aim of the source OUs is to develop a ROD for interim measures. For source OUs such as BCV OU 1, data acquisition will not be carried out in a single event, but will be carried out in three stages that accommodate the schedule for developing a ROD for interim measures and the final site-wide ROD. The three stages are as follows: Stage 1, Assemble sufficient data to support decisions such as the need for removal actions, whether to continue with the remedial investigation (RI) process, or whether no further action is required. If the decision is made to continue the RI/FS process, then: Stage 2, Assemble sufficient data to allow for a ROD for interim measures that reduce risks to the human health and the environment. Stage 3, Provide input from the source OU that allows a final ROD to be issued for all OUs in the BCV hydrologic regime. One goal of the RI work plan will be to ensure that sampling operations required for the initial stage are not repeated at later stages. The overall goals of this RI are to define the nature and extent of contamination so that the impact of leachate, surface water runoff, and sediment from the OU I sites on the integrator OU can be evaluated, the risk to human health and the environment can be defined, and the general physical characteristics of the subsurface can be determined such that remedial alternatives can be screened.

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill 1, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent and scope of the work plan are to assemble all data necessary to facilitate selection of remediation alternatives for the sites in Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (BCV OU 1) such that the risk to human health and the environment is reduced to acceptable levels based on agreements with regulators. The ultimate goal is to develop a final Record Of Decision (ROD) for all of the OUs in BCV, including the integrator OU. However, the initial aim of the source OUs is to develop a ROD for interim measures. For source OUs such as BCV OU 1, data acquisition will not be carried out in a single event, but will be carried out in three stages that accommodate the schedule for developing a ROD for interim measures and the final site-wide ROD. The three stages are as follows: Stage 1, Assemble sufficient data to support decisions such as the need for removal actions, whether to continue with the remedial investigation (RI) process, or whether no further action is required. If the decision is made to continue the RI/FS process, then: Stage 2, Assemble sufficient data to allow for a ROD for interim measures that reduce risks to the human health and the environment. Stage 3, Provide input from the source OU that allows a final ROD to be issued for all OUs in the BCV hydrologic regime. One goal of the RI work plan will be to ensure that sampling operations required for the initial stage are not repeated at later stages. The overall goals of this RI are to define the nature and extent of contamination so that the impact of leachate, surface water runoff, and sediment from the OU I sites on the integrator OU can be evaluated, the risk to human health and the environment can be defined, and the general physical characteristics of the subsurface can be determined such that remedial alternatives can be screened

  14. Geohydrology and water quality of the stratified-drift aquifers in Upper Buttermilk Creek and Danby Creek Valleys, Town of Danby, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2015-11-20

    In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Danby and the Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the stratified-drift aquifers in the upper Buttermilk Creek and Danby Creek valleys in the Town of Danby, Tompkins County, New York. In the northern part of the north-draining upper Buttermilk Creek valley, there is only one sand and gravel aquifer, a confined basal unit that overlies bedrock. In the southern part of upper Buttermilk Creek valley, there are as many as four sand and gravel aquifers, two are unconfined and two are confined. In the south-draining Danby Creek valley, there is an unconfined aquifer consisting of outwash and kame sand and gravel (deposited by glacial meltwaters during the late Pleistocene Epoch) and alluvial silt, sand, and gravel (deposited by streams during the Holocene Epoch). In addition, throughout the study area, there are several small local unconfined aquifers where large tributaries deposited alluvial fans in the valley.

  15. Evaluation of wells and groundwater conditions at the East Bear Creek unit refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Department of Interior has purchased 4,000 acres of land on the northeast side of the San Joaquin River near its confluence with Bear Creek. Figure 1 is a...

  16. Hydrogeology of the stratified-drift aquifers in the Cayuta Creek and Catatonk Creek valleys in parts of Tompkins, Schuyler, Chemung, and Tioga Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Pitman, Lacey M.

    2012-01-01

    The surficial deposits, areal extent of aquifers, and the water-table configurations of the stratified-drift aquifer systems in the Cayuta Creek and Catatonk Creek valleys and their large tributary valleys in Tompkins, Schuyler, Chemung, and Tioga Counties, New York were mapped in 2009, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Well and test-boring records, surficial deposit maps, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data, soils maps, and horizontal-to-vertical ambient-noise seismic surveys were used to map the extent of the aquifers, construct geologic sections, and determine the depth to bedrock (thickness of valley-fill deposits) at selected locations. Geologic materials in the study area include sedimentary bedrock, unstratified drift (till), stratified drift (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits), and recent alluvium. Stratified drift consisting of glaciofluvial sand and gravel is the major component of the valley fill in this study area. The deposits are present in sufficient amounts in most places to form extensive unconfined aquifers throughout the study area and, in some places, confined aquifers. Stratified drift consisting of glaciolacustrine fine sand, silt, and clay are present locally in valleys underlying the surficial sand and gravel deposits in the southern part of the Catatonk Creek valley. These unconfined and confined aquifers are the source of water for most residents, farms, and businesses in the valleys. A generalized depiction of the water table in the unconfined aquifer was constructed using water-level measurements made from the 1950s through 2010, as well as LIDAR data that were used to determine the altitudes of perennial streams at 10-foot contour intervals and water surfaces of ponds and wetlands that are hydraulically connected to the unconfined aquifer. The configuration of the water-table contours indicate that the general direction of groundwater flow within Cayuta Creek and Catatonk

  17. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the S-3 Ponds, the Oil Landfarm, and the Bear Creek Burial Grounds (units A, C-West, and Walk-in Pits). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Watershed, (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA post-closure corrective action monitoring program during 1996, and (3) update applicable technical procedures with revised versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). With these modifications, the Y-12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2.0 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. The proposed changes to permit language are provided in Section 3.0 (S-3 Ponds), Section 4.0 (Oil Landfarm), and Section 5.0 (Bear Creek Burial Grounds). Sections 6.0 and 7.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the PCP Attachments.

  18. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the S-3 Ponds, the Oil Landfarm, and the Bear Creek Burial Grounds (units A, C-West, and Walk-in Pits). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Watershed, (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA post-closure corrective action monitoring program during 1996, and (3) update applicable technical procedures with revised versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). With these modifications, the Y-12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2.0 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. The proposed changes to permit language are provided in Section 3.0 (S-3 Ponds), Section 4.0 (Oil Landfarm), and Section 5.0 (Bear Creek Burial Grounds). Sections 6.0 and 7.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the PCP Attachments

  19. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Caroline and Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the valley-fill aquifer system in upper Sixmile Creek and headwaters of West Branch Owego Creek valleys in the Town of Caroline, NY. The purpose of the study is to provide geohydrologic data to county and town planners as they develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. The first aquifer reach investigated in this series is in the Town of Caroline and includes the upper Sixmile Creek valley and part of West Branch Owego Creek valley. The portions of the valley-fill aquifer system that are comprised of saturated coarse-grained sediments including medium to coarse sand and sandy gravel form the major aquifers. Confined sand and gravel units form the major aquifers in the western and central portions of the upper Sixmile Creek valley, and an unconfined sand and gravel unit forms the major aquifer in the eastern portion of the upper Sixmile Creek valley and in the headwaters of the West Branch Owego Creek valley. The valley-fill deposits are thinnest near the edges of the valley where they pinch out along the till-mantled bedrock valley walls. The thickness of the valley fill in the deepest part of the valley, at the western end of the study area, is about 100 feet (ft); the thickness is greater than 165 ft on top of the Valley Heads Moraine in the central part of the valley. An estimated 750 people live over and rely on groundwater from the valley-fill aquifers in upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek valleys. Most groundwater withdrawn from the valley-fill aquifers is pumped from wells with open-ended 6-inch diameter casings; the remaining withdrawals are from shallow dug wells or cisterns that collect groundwater that discharges to springs (especially in the Brooktondale area). The valley-fill aquifers are the sources of water for about 200 households, several apartment complexes, two mobile home parks

  20. The Quaternary Silver Creek Fault Beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Williams, Robert A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Graymer, Russell W.; Stephenson, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The northwest-trending Silver Creek Fault is a 40-km-long strike-slip fault in the eastern Santa Clara Valley, California, that has exhibited different behaviors within a changing San Andreas Fault system over the past 10-15 Ma. Quaternary alluvium several hundred meters thick that buries the northern half of the Silver Creek Fault, and that has been sampled by drilling and imaged in a detailed seismic reflection profile, provides a record of the Quaternary history of the fault. We assemble evidence from areal geology, stratigraphy, paleomagnetics, ground-water hydrology, potential-field geophysics, and reflection and earthquake seismology to determine the long history of the fault in order to evaluate its current behavior. The fault formed in the Miocene more than 100 km to the southeast, as the southwestern fault in a 5-km-wide right step to the Hayward Fault, within which the 40-km-long Evergreen pull-apart basin formed. Later, this basin was obliquely cut by the newly recognized Mt. Misery Fault to form a more direct connection to the Hayward Fault, although continued growth of the basin was sufficient to accommodate at least some late Pliocene alluvium. Large offset along the San Andreas-Calaveras-Mt Misery-Hayward Faults carried the basin northwestward almost to its present position when, about 2 Ma, the fault system was reorganized. This led to near abandonment of the faults bounding the pull-apart basin in favor of right slip extending the Calaveras Fault farther north before stepping west to the Hayward Fault, as it does today. Despite these changes, the Silver Creek Fault experienced a further 200 m of dip slip in the early Quaternary, from which we infer an associated 1.6 km or so of right slip, based on the ratio of the 40-km length of the strike-slip fault to a 5-km depth of the Evergreen Basin. This dip slip ends at a mid-Quaternary unconformity, above which the upper 300 m of alluvial cover exhibits a structural sag at the fault that we interpret as

  1. SPRINGS WITH CALCAREOUS TUFA IN THE VALLEY OF THE JAMNE CREEK IN GORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Krause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study gives a detail characteristic of a hard water springs habitat with the communities of Cratoneurion commutati (habitat code of Nature 2000: 7220, localized within Nature 2000 protected area Ostoja Gorczańska PLH120018, in an upper part of the valley of Jamne creek. The plants are described along with the main habitat parameters, namely: altitude, exposition, slope gradient, insolation, type of bedrock, water flow regime and the spring outflow efficiency. The temperature, pH, electrical conductivity were measured in the field, the concentrations of Ca and Mg in spring water were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The investigated headwater areas are small (0.7–80 m2 and highly differentiated by the intensity of calcareous tufa precipitation and the degree of plant cover development.

  2. Final review of the Campbell Creek demonstrations showcased by Tennessee Valley Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Khowailed, Giannate [SRA International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Technology Innovation, Energy Efficiency, Power Delivery and Utilization Office funded and managed a showcase demonstration located in the suburbs of west Knox county, Tennessee. Work started March 2008 with the goal of documenting best practices for retrofitting existing homes and for building new high-efficiency homes. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided technical support. An analytical base was developed for helping homeowners, homebuyers, builders, practitioners and the TVA make informed economic decisions for the materials and incentives necessary to build a new high-efficiency home or retrofit an existing home. New approaches to more efficiently control active energy subsystems and information for selecting or upgrading to Energy Star appliances, changing all lights to 100% CFL s and upgrading windows to low-E gas filled glazing yields a 40% energy savings with neutral cash flow for the homeowner. Passive designs were reviewed and recommendations made for envelope construction that is durable and energy efficient. The Campbell Creek project complements the DOE Building Technologies Program strategic goal. Results of the project created technologies and design approaches that will yield affordable energy efficient homes. The 2010 DOE retrofit goals are to find retrofit packages that attain 30% whole house energy savings as documented by pre and post Home Energy rating scores (HERS). Campbell Creek met these goals.

  3. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, L.A.; Sloto, R.A.; Reif, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin. West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  4. Coho Salmon Habitat in a Changing Environment-Green Valley Creek, Graton, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M. D.; Kobor, J. S.; Sherwood, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Green Valley Creek (GVC) is a small (101 sq km) aquatic habitat refugium in the Russian River watershed (3,840 sq km) in coastal northern California. Coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch) is endangered per the Federal Endangered Species Act, and GVC is one stream where coho have persisted. Fish surveys in GVC have found high species diversity, growth rates, and over-summer survival. The upper portion of GVC comprises a principal tributary (20 sq km) that provides spawning and rearing habitat for coho. The second principal tributary, Atascadero Creek, is comparable in size, but has few fish. Atascadero Creek and lower GVC have broad, densely vegetated floodplains. A Recovery Plan for the Central Coastal California coho Evolutionarily Significant Unit has been developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which applies to the Russian River and its tributaries. Cooperative research regarding fish populations and habitat, a captive breeding and release program for native coho salmon, and efforts to plan for and restore habitat are ongoing. These regional efforts are particularly active in GVC, and participants include NMFS, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District, the California Coastal Conservancy, the University of California Cooperative Extension, and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, among others. Our research focuses on hydrologic, geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the watershed in relation to aquatic habitat. Natural watershed factors contributing to habitat for coho include proximity to the coastal summer fog belt with cool temperatures, the Wilson Grove Formation aquifer that maintains dry season stream flow, and structural geology favorable for active floodplain morphology. Human impacts include water use and agriculture and rural residential development. Historic human impacts include stream clearing and draining of wetlands and floodplain for agriculture, which likely

  5. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek (Y02-S600) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its response to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the US Department of Energy had agreed to further investigate contamination of Bear Creek and its floodplain resulting from releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from the Y-12 Plant solid waste management units (SWMU) located in the Bear Creek watershed. That proposed RCRA Facility Investigation has been modified to incorporate the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) into a Remedial Investigation (RI) Plan for Bear Creek. This document is the RI Plan for Bear Creek and its flood-of-record floodplain. The following assumptions were made in the preparation of this RI Plan: (1) That source-area groundwater monitoring will be conducted as a part of the comprehensive groundwater monitoring plan for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime; and (2) that postclosure activities associated with each SWMU do not explicitly include a comprehensive assessment of surface water, sediment, and floodplain soil contamination in Bear Creek and its tributaries. The RI Plan is thus intended to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of Bear Creek and its floodplain than that provided by the investigative monitoring and risk assessment activities associated with the ten individual SWMUs. RI activities will be carefully coordinated with other monitoring and assessment activities to avoid redundancy and to maximize the utility of data gathered during the investigation. 121 refs., 61 figs., 46 tabs

  6. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

  7. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Appendixes A ''Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed'' and B ''Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area'' for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites

  8. Santa Clara Valley water district multi-aquifer monitoring-well site, Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom, San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Wentworth, C.M.; Williams, C.F.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), has completed the first of several multiple-aquifer monitoring-well sites in the Santa Clara Valley. This site monitors ground-water levels and chemistry in the one of the major historic subsidence regions south of San Jose, California, at the Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom (CCOC) (fig. 1) and provides additional basic information about the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and subsidence potential of the upper- and lower-aquifer systems that is a major source of public water supply in the Santa Clara Valley. The site also serves as a science education exhibit at the outdoor classroom operated by SCVWD.

  9. Hydrologic and water-quality characteristics for Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, and selected Buffalo River sites, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and compare the hydrologic and water-quality characteristics of Bear Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream from the confluence of Bear Creek, to a site on Calf Creek, a smaller tributary to the Buffalo River, to selected undeveloped sites across the Nation, and to a developed site in Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Bear Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effects on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow at Bear Creek near Silver Hill varied seasonally and annually from January 1999 to March 2004. The mean annual streamflow at Bear Creek for calendar years 1999 to 2003 was 86.0 cubic feet per second. The highest annual mean streamflow occurred in 2002 (158 cubic feet per second) and the lowest annual mean streamflow occurred in 1999 (56.4 cubic feet per second). The mean annual streamflow for calendar years 1999 to 2003 at the Buffalo River near Boxley and Buffalo River near St. Joe was 102 and 881 cubic feet per second, respectively. Concentrations of nitrogen measured for Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Concentrations of phosphorus measured at Bear Creek generally were greater than concentrations measured at the two Buffalo River sites and were similar to concentrations measured at Calf Creek. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations generally were greater at Bear Creek than concentrations measured at the Buffalo River and similar to concentrations at Calf Creek. Bear Creek had significantly greater suspended-sediment concentrations than the Buffalo River near Boxley and the Buffalo River near St. Joe and similar concentrations to Calf Creek. Nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended-sediment loads

  10. Hydraulic Analyses of Sni-A-Bar Creek and Selected Tributaries at Grain Valley, Jackson County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Paul H.; Otero-Benitez, William; Heimann, David C.

    2008-01-01

    A study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Grain Valley, Jackson County, Missouri, to simulate the hydraulic characteristics of Sni-A-Bar Creek and selected tributaries within the corporate limits. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence interval streamflows were simulated to determine potential backwater effects on the Sni-A-Bar Creek main stem and to delineate flood-plain boundaries on the tributaries. The water-surface profiles through the bridge structures within the model area indicated that backwater effects from the constrictions were not substantial. The water-surface profile of Sni-A-Bar Creek generated from the one- and two-dimensional models indicated that the Gateway Western Railroad structure provided the greatest amount of contraction of flow within the modeled area. The results at the location of the upstream face of the railroad structure indicated a change in water-surface elevation from 0.2 to 0.8 foot (corresponding to simulated 10-year and 500-year flood occurrences). Results from all analyses indicated minimal backwater effects as a result of an overall minimal energy grade line slope and velocity head along Sni-A-Bar Creek. The flood plains for the 100-year recurrence interval floods on the Sni-A-Bar tributaries were mapped to show the extent of inundated areas. The updated flooding characteristics will allow city managers to contrast changes in flood risk and zoning as determined through the National Flood Insurance Program.

  11. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  12. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  13. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime's, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives

  14. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives

  15. Bear Creek Project (Converse County, Wyoming). Draft environmental statement. Docket No. 40-8452

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from six known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. The project would convert about 2700 acres from grazing use to mining and milling activities for a period of about ten years. Mining activities would disturb (and remove vegetation from) a total of about 1600 acres but, because of ongoing reclamation efforts, max acreage disturbed at any one time would be about 1000 acres, with the average about 650 acres. An estimated 185 acres of highwalls and water remaining after reclamation would be lost to agricultural production. The milling activities would disturb about 430 acres; 330 of these would be reclaimed after operations cease, but the 100-acre tailings area must be considered unavailable for further productive use. Water will be removed from aquifers at about 1000 gpm (range 600 to 2000 gpm) by mine dewatering and mill operations. Long-term effects on groundwater are expected to be minor. Surface water will not be affected by normal operations. There will be no discharge of liquid or solid effluents from the mill. Discharges to air will be small and the effects negligible. The total dose rate to the bone is 1.1 mrem/y, and the whole-body-dose rate is computed to be 0.04 mrem/y

  16. Geomorphic and sedimentary responses of the Bull Creek Valley (Southern High Plains, USA) to Pleistocene and Holocene environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauza, Hanna M.; Simms, Alexander R.; Bement, Leland C.; Carter, Brian J.; Conley, Travis; Woldergauy, Ammanuel; Johnson, William C.; Jaiswal, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology and stratigraphy often reflect past environmental and climate conditions. This study examines the response of Bull Creek, a small ephemeral creek in the Oklahoma panhandle, to environmental conditions through the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Fluvial terraces were mapped and their stratigraphy and sedimentology documented throughout the course of the main valley. Based on their elevations, terraces were broadly grouped into a late-Pleistocene fill terrace (T3) and two Holocene fill-cut terrace sets (T2 and T1). Terrace systems are marked by similar stratigraphies recording the general environmental conditions of the time. Sedimentary sequences preserved in terrace fills record the transition from a perennial fluvial system during the late glacial period and the Younger Dryas to a semiarid environment dominated by loess accumulation and punctuated by flood events during the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of aeolian accumulation within the valley occurred during the early to middle Holocene. Our data provide significant new information regarding the late-Pleistocene and Holocene environmental history for this region, located between the well-studied Southern and Central High Plains of North America.

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the stratified-drift aquifer in the Pony Hollow Creek Valley, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Miller, Todd S.; Reynolds, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The lithology, areal extent, and the water-table configuration in stratified-drift aquifers in the northern part of the Pony Hollow Creek valley in the Town of Newfield, New York, were mapped as part of an ongoing aquifer mapping program in Tompkins County. Surficial geologic and soil maps, well and test-boring records, light detection and ranging (lidar) data, water-level measurements, and passive-seismic surveys were used to map the aquifer geometry, construct geologic sections, and determine the depth to bedrock at selected locations throughout the valley. Additionally, water-quality samples were collected from selected streams and wells to characterize the quality of surface and groundwater in the study area. Sedimentary bedrock underlies the study area and is overlain by unstratified drift (till), stratified drift (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits), and recent post glacial alluvium. The major type of unconsolidated, water-yielding material in the study area is stratified drift, which consists of glaciofluvial sand and gravel, and is present in sufficient amounts in most places to form an extensive unconfined aquifer throughout the study area, which is the source of water for most residents, farms, and businesses in the valleys. A map of the water table in the unconfined aquifer was constructed by using (1) measurements made between the mid-1960s through 2010, (2) control on the altitudes of perennial streams at 10-foot contour intervals from lidar data collected by Tompkins County, and (3) water surfaces of ponds and wetlands that are hydraulically connected to the unconfined aquifer. Water-table contours indicate that the direction of groundwater flow within the stratified-drift aquifer is predominantly from the valley walls toward the streams and ponds in the central part of the valley where groundwater then flows southwestward (down valley) toward the confluence with the Cayuta Creek valley. Locally, the direction of groundwater flow is radially

  18. Paired Magnetic Susceptibility Cyclostratigraphy and Revised Magnetostratigraphy with Late Cretaceous Euler Pole from Forbes Formation, Sand Creek, Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Raub, T.; Mitchell, R. N.; Ward, P. D.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy in Upper Cretaceous rocks of Sacramento Valley has successfully complemented biostratigraphy for correlating between circum-Pacific basins. Most paleomagnetic measurements were done pre-1990 using alternating field demagnetization only, due to oxidation accompanying thermal demagnetization. We present paleomagnetic data collected via thermal demagnetization in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere from 223 cores collected over a 130m of section of Forbes Formation in Sand Creek, CA spanning upper Dobbins Shale, Forbes Unit 2 and lower Unit 3. These results uniformly indicate Reversed Chron 33R, contra previously published magnetostratigraphy of the area (Ward et al. 1983, Verosub et al. 1989). Additionally, these paleomagnetic results yield a tightly-constrained paleolatitude for Forbes Formation of 31±3°, which varies significantly from previous APWP models ca. 83 Ma (Besse and Courtillot, 2002) suggesting an unaccounted-for deficiency in reconstructions of North America at this time. This discrepancy might indicate an inaccurate cratonic reference pole, underestimated intrabatholithic or distributed plate boundary deformation, and/or true polar wander. As opposed to other units yielding anomalous late Cretaceous paleolatitudes from outboard terranes, Forbes Formation in Sacramento Valley laps unambiguously onto the North American continent. A 25m AW34 core was collected using a Winkie drillrig near the top of Dobbins Shale Mbr. Paleomagnetic measurements on subsamples from the Winkie core, unaffected by surface weathering, combine with the surficial dataset, and we propose a new set of Euler pole solutions potentially quantifying Basin and Range extension and late Cretaceous intra-Sierran shear. Through magnetic susceptibility measurements of the Winkie core, we were able to resolve orbital cycles which, paired with rock magnetic measurements, constrain basin subsidence and sedimentation rate off the Sierran arc at its age of termination. Re

  19. 76 FR 12947 - Bear Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Creek Hydro Associates, LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and... and is available for public inspection: a. Application Type: Declaration of Intention. b. Docket No... lines at Lake Tyee; and (7) appurtenant facilities. When a Declaration of Intention is filed with...

  20. Preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom drill hole, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2003-01-01

    Paleomagnetic samples were obtained from cores taken during the drilling of a research well along Coyote Creek in San Jose, California, in order to use the geomagnetic field behavior recorded in those samples to provide age constraints for the sediment encountered. The well reached a depth of 308 meters and material apparently was deposited largely (entirely?) during the Brunhes Normal Polarity Chron, which lasted from 780 ka to the present time. Three episodes of anomalous magnetic inclinations were recorded in parts of the sedimentary sequence; the uppermost two we correlate to the Mono Lake (~30 ka) geomagnetic excursion and 6 cm lower, tentatively to the Laschamp (~45 ka) excursion. The lowermost anomalous interval occurs at 305 m and consists of less than 10 cm of fully reversed inclinations underlain by 1.5 m of normal polarity sediment. This lower anomalous interval may represent either the Big Lost excursion (~565 ka) or the polarity transition at the end of the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Chron (780 ka). The average rates of deposition for the Pleistocene section in this well, based on these two alternatives, are approximately 52 or 37 cm/kyr, respectively.

  1. Interbasin flow in the Great Basin with special reference to the southern Funeral Mountains and the source of Furnace Creek springs, Death Valley, California, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, W.R.; Bedinger, M.S.; Back, J.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Interbasin flow in the Great Basin has been established by scientific studies during the past century. While not occurring uniformly between all basins, its occurrence is common and is a function of the hydraulic gradient between basins and hydraulic conductivity of the intervening rocks. The Furnace Creek springs in Death Valley, California are an example of large volume springs that are widely accepted as being the discharge points of regional interbasin flow. The flow path has been interpreted historically to be through consolidated Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the southern Funeral Mountains. This work reviews the preponderance of evidence supporting the concept of interbasin flow in the Death Valley region and the Great Basin and addresses the conceptual model of pluvial and recent recharge [Nelson, S.T., Anderson, K., Mayo, A.L., 2004. Testing the interbasin flow hypothesis at Death Valley, California. EOS 85, 349; Anderson, K., Nelson, S., Mayo, A., Tingey, D., 2006. Interbasin flow revisited: the contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, California. Journal of Hydrology 323, 276-302] as the source of the Furnace Creek springs. We find that there is insufficient modern recharge and insufficient storage potential and permeability within the basin-fill units in the Furnace Creek basin for these to serve as a local aquifer. Further, the lack of high sulfate content in the spring waters argues against significant flow through basin-fill sediments and instead suggests flow through underlying consolidated carbonate rocks. The maximum temperature of the spring discharge appears to require deep circulation through consolidated rocks; the Tertiary basin fill is of insufficient thickness to generate such temperatures as a result of local fluid circulation. Finally, the stable isotope data and chemical mass balance modeling actually support the interbasin flow conceptual model rather than the alternative presented in Nelson et al. [Nelson

  2. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  3. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing carbonaceous shale and lignite in the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapel, William J.; Hail, William J.

    1954-01-01

    Thirteen core holes, totaling 2,023 feet, were drilled during the fall of 1953 to explore the grade and extent of uranium-bearing beds of carbonaceous shale and lignite in the east-central part of the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho. The beds tested are interbedded with volcanic ash, bentonite, greenish-gray shale, sandstone, and conglomerate in two fairly well defined zones in the lower part of the Salt Lake formation of lower Pliocene age. Nine holes penetrated carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone, and one hole penetrated carbonaceous shale and lignite beds in zone B, 160 feet stratigraphically below the Barrett zone. The highest concentration of uranium found by drilling is 0.10 percent in the upper part of a 4-foot bed of carbonaceous shale and lignite in zone B. The grade of carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone ranges from 0.044 percent to less than 0.003 percent uranium. Inferred reserves in the district are estimated to be 790,000 tons in beds 1 foot or more thick containing an average of 0.014 percent or 120 tons of uranium.

  4. A study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides at a surface location that could be used to compare with the predictions of mathematical models. The investigation was carried out between August 18 and 30, 1984 by CBCL Limited with the assistance of Golder Associates, SENES Consultants Limited, Environmental Design Group and Monenco Analytical Laboratories. The investigation involved the determination of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the deposit site and collection of soil, water and biological samples. The samples were analyzed for major element chemistry, uranium and its various decay series radionuclides including radium-226 and the ratio of uranium-234 to uranium-238. The uranium mineralization was found to be associated with a peat deposit that has accumulated in post-glacial time. The deposit is situated within a groundwater discharge zone at the toe of a granitic talus pile that extends downward from the Long Range Mountains. The concentration of uranium within the peat deposit was found to vary from 100 to 28000 ppm, however, the activities of the uranium decay series radionuclides were comparatively very low. Radium-226 activities were found to vary from 0.5 Bq/g to 15.0 Bq/g. Little influence from the deposit was noted in the surrounding water bodies, fish samples and vegetation. Based on the results of the study the uranium mineralization within the peat is considered to be the result of precipitation or adsorption from groundwater that had previously leached uranium from the granitic talus which forms the groundwater recharge zone. The major geochemical mechanism for deposition is considered to be associated with the strong reducing conditions encountered within the peat. Being a recent deposit (i.e. less than 10,000-15,000 years old

  5. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  6. Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?

  7. Alumina+Silica+/-Germanium Alteration in Smectite-Bearing Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Van Bommel, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Fox, V. K.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Mars for 12+ years, and is presently investigating the geology of a western rim segment of 22 kilometers diameter, Noachian- aged Endeavour crater. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of a pre-impact lithology, the Matijevic fm., and polymict impact breccias ejected from the crater, the Shoemaker fm. Opportunity is now investigating a region named Marathon Valley that cuts southwest-northeast through the central portion of the rim segment and provides a window into the lower stratigraphic record. (Geographic names used here are informal.) At the head of Marathon Valley, referred to here as Upper Marathon Valley, is a shallow, ovoid depression approximately 25×35 millimeters in size, named Spirit of Saint Louis. Layering inside Spirit of Saint Louis appears continuous with the Upper Marathon Valley rocks outside, indicating they are coeval. Spirit of Saint Louis is partly bounded by approximately 10-20 centimeters wide zone containing reddish altered rocks (red zone). Red zones also form prominent curvilinear features in Marathon Valley. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectra provide evidence for a really extensive Fe-Mg smectite in the Marathon Valley region, indicating distinct styles of aqueous alteration. The CRISM detections of smectites are based on metal-OH absorptions at approximately 2.3 and 2.4 micron that are at least two times the background noise level.

  8. Quantifying the net benefit impacts of the Troy Waste Water Treatment Plant on Steelhead Habitat in the West Fork Little Bear Creek drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.

    2010-12-01

    Discharge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) typically is viewed to result in water quality impairment. However, WWTPs can also be a source of nutrients to enhance the salmonid food web as well as an efficient way to maintain acceptable water temperature regimes and flow conditions during summer. We observed this paradox in West Fork Little Bear Creek (WFLB) in the City of Troy, Idaho. Despite the nutrient load, the WFLB had the highest Steelhead trout density in the watershed, with a mean density of 13.2 fish/100 m2. The objective of this project was to utilize a water quality model, QUAL2kw, and an ecology assessment to examine how the nutrient load from the WWTP affects: a) habitat conditions for steelhead juveniles, and b) physic-chemical parameters. Four monitoring stations were installed from May through November in 2009 and 2010. An undisturbed creek was used as a control site in 2010. Dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity, temperature, and discharge were measured continuously at each monitoring station. Weekly samples were collected at each monitoring station and analyzed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, and orthophosphates. In 2010, Chlorophyll a was analyzed weekly, while bottom algae biomass was determined monthly. Results show that during summer months, the WWTP provides the majority of the flow (0.1 cfs) in the creek. Water samples and DO measurements taken 200 m downstream of the plant during late summer months indicate that nitrification process leads to low DO level well below the state standard of 6 mg/L for cold water biota. However dissolved oxygen levels recover within 1 km downstream. Discharge data suggest that without the flow from the treatment most of the creek would dry during late summer months. Abundance of macroinverbrates, high primary productivity, and sustained flow during summer suggests that the effluent from the WWTP is a net benefit to the Steelhead habitat in the basin

  9. Investigation into seasonal water chemistry variations in the Clayburn Creek watershed, British Columbia: An opportunity for authentic research experience for University of the Fraser Valley undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Janmaat, A.; Faber, A.; Clemence, E.; Yakemchuk, A.; McCabe, M.; Toner, A.; Dhaliwal, H.; Gaultier, M.; Kanda, S.; Leffers, R.; Mahil, G.; Paulson, D.; Puri, K.; Sekhton, J.; Sidhu, B.; Sidhu, D.; Turner, S.; Strangway, A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty and students from the University of the Fraser Valley participate in the time series sampling of the Fraser River and Fraser River tributaries as part of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. Clayburn and Willband Creeks in Abbotsford, British Columbia are part of this project and are being threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) within the watershed. Undergraduate students from the Geography and Biology departments have been instructed in the sampling protocols and the collection of thw water chemistry data. Each student that has been involved in this sampling project will gain a greater understanding of the seasonal variation of the water chemistry of the Clayburn watershed. Through this involvement in this portion of the Global Rivers Observatory our students become more aware of the threats to our streams and the methods utilized to monitor water chemistry.

  10. Grizzly Bear Aware: Conflict Resolution and Habitat Restoration in the Centennial Valley and Southwest Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project will take a three pronged approach to implement conservation actions that prevent or reduce Grizzly Bear human conflicts, enhance habitats and improve...

  11. Physical subdivision and description of the water-bearing sediments of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Jachens, Robert C.; Williams, Robert A.; Tinsley, John C.; Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    A thick Quaternary alluvial section fills a sedimentary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California, located within the San Andreas Fault system at the south end of San Francisco Bay. This section consists of an upper sequence about 1,000 feet thick containing eight sedimentary cycles and a lower fine-grained unit as thick as several hundred feet. Together these constitute the Quaternary Santa Clara Basin. The section overlies an irregular unconformity with more than 1,200 feet of relief cut into the underlying bedrock. This stratigraphy is determined through study of new wells and seismic reflection profiles, together with a sample of the many thousands of water wells in the valley. It represents a major change and improvement in understanding of the basin, particularly with regard to the upper cyclic sequence, which forms a large groundwater system that is an important resource in the San Francisco Bay region.

  12. Addendum to the post-closure permit application for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 plant: Walk-in pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1987, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure/Post-Closure Plan for the Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) located at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee was submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) for review and approval.The Closure Plan has been modified and revised several times. This document is an addendum to the Post-Closure Permit Application submitted to TDEC in June, 1994. This addendum contains information on the Walk-In Pits of the BCBG which is meant to supplement the information provided in the Post-Closure Permit Application submitted for the BCBG. This document is not intended to be a stand-alone document.

  13. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  14. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site

  15. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

  16. Food habits of American black bears as a metric for direct management of humanbear conflict in Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, S.S.; Matthews, S.M.; Wright, R.G.; Beecham, J.J.; Leithead, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The management of human-American black bear (Ursus americanus) conflict has been of significant concern for Yosemite National Park (YNP) personnel since the 1920s. Park managers implemented the YNP Human-Bear Management Plan in 1975 in an effort to reduce human-bear conflicts, especially in the extensively developed Yosemite Valley (YV). We used scat analysis to estimate annual and seasonal food habits of black bears in YV during 2001-02. We assessed the success of efforts to reduce the availability of anthropogenic foods, including garbage, by examining changes in the diet compared to a study from 1974-78 (Graber 1981). We also quantified consumption of non-native fruit to address its possible contribution to human-bear conflicts. The annual percent volume of human-provided food and garbage in black bear scats in YV decreased from 21% to 6% between 1978 and 2002, indicating YNP efforts have been effective. We found high use of non-native apples by bears throughout YV. Non-native food sources could be contributing to habituation and food conditioning, given their proximity to developed areas of YV. We recommend that YNP managers continue to (1) adapt and improve their management tools to address changing circumstances, (2) quantify the success of new management tools, and (3) reduce the availability of non-native food sources. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  17. Updated Subsurface Data Base For Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, And Parts Of Bethel Valley On The U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    This document represents a compilation of location, construction, and hydrologic information relating to boreholes, groundwater monitoring wells, and surface water locations that have been installed/established at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) through August 2013. To date, a total of 1422 boreholes and wells have been installed in and around the Y-12 area. Of those, 835 existing boreholes and wells continue to be utilized for groundwater monitoring programs, research, remedial investigations, plume characterization and delineation studies, and various other hydrogeologic endeavors. In addition, 215 surface water locations, such as rivers, streams, seeps, springs, lakes, ponds, and building sumps are included in this database. General data about boreholes and wells included in the database are survey coordinates, survey system, elevations, alternative names and well status. Surface water location information (Appendix I) includes name, alias, functional area, northing and easting coordinates, survey system, map number and sampling history. Tabulated construction data include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, casing and screen diameters, casing and screen depths, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open-hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized in this document include the aquifer monitored by the completion interval, depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, well sampling history, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. This document (which is the sixth revision to Y/TS–881 and the ninth overall update of a previous compilation) is published on a regular basis by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which serves as custodian of drilling records and well construction data for the network of wells and other groundwater monitoring stations at Y-12. The tabulations in this database are arranged in appendices of like information. An example application of the data compiled in this document would be the evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies. Other uses may include: the siting of hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and hydrogeological review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions or new construction activity. Existing boreholes, wells, and surface water locations are presented on a series of maps (Appendix K). Boreholes and wells that have been plugged and abandoned, destroyed, could not be located, or otherwise are of unknown status/condition appear on a second series of maps of identical coverage (Appendix L).

  18. Subsurface data base for Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, and parts of Bethel Valley on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction data and available hydrogeological data for 582 boreholes and wells at the Y-12 Plant and in the surrounding vicinity have been assembled and tabulated in a data base. General data about boreholes and wells included in the data base are survey coordinates, elevations, and alternative names. Construction data tabulated include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized includes depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. The tabulations provide a means of determining the amount and quality of data available for a particular borehole or well. Applications of the data tabulations include evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies, site hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and geohydrologic review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions. 8 refs., 1 fig

  19. Updated subsurface data base for Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, and parts of Bethel Valley on the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction and hydrogeological data for 1,173 boreholes and wells installed through May 1995 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and in the surrounding vicinity are summarized in this document. This document represents the third revision to Y/TS-881 and is the sixth update of a previous compilation. General data about boreholes and wells included in the data base are survey coordinates, elevations, alternative names and well status. Construction data tabulated include total depth, completion method, borehole diameter, casing and screen materials, filter pack depths, open-hole intervals, and open hole diameters. Hydrogeological data summarized include depth to weathered and fresh bedrock, formations penetrated, sampling history, and whether rock core and geophysical logs were obtained. The tabulations provide a means of determining the amount and quality of data available for a particular borehole or well. Applications of the data include evaluation of the suitability of wells for continued use in groundwater investigations and monitoring studies, site hydrogeological characterization activities, background evaluations of sites prior to initiation of new drilling activities, and hydrogeological review of selected sites prior to the initiation of remedial actions

  20. Integrating Interdisciplinary Studies Across a Range of Spatiotemporal Scales for the Design of Effective Flood Mitigation and Habitat Restoration Strategies, Green Valley Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobor, J. S.; O'Connor, M. D.; Sherwood, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    Green Valley Creek provides some of the most critical habitat for endangered coho salmon in the Russian River Watershed. Extensive changes in land-use over the past century have resulted in a dynamic system characterized by ongoing incision in the upper watershed and deposition and increased flood risk in the lower watershed. Effective management requires a watershed-scale understanding of the underlying controls on sediment erosion and transport as well as site-specific studies to understand local habitat conditions and flood dynamics. Here we combine an evaluation of historical changes in watershed conditions with a regional sediment source assessment and detailed numerical hydraulic and sediment transport models to find a sustainable solution to a chronic flooding problem at the Green Valley Road bridge crossing. Ongoing bank erosion in the upper watershed has been identified as the primary source of coarse sediment being deposited in the rapidly aggrading flood-prone reach upstream of the bridge. Efforts at bank stabilization are part of the overall strategy, however elevated sediment loads can be expected to continue in the near-term. The cessation of historical vegetation removal and maintenance dredging has resulted in a substantial increase in channel roughness as riparian cover has expanded. A positive feedback loop has been developed whereby increased vegetation roughness reduces sediment transport capacity, inducing additional deposition, and providing fresh sediment for continued vegetation recruitment. Our analysis revealed that traditional engineering approaches are ineffective. Dredging is not viable owning to the habitat impacts and short timeframes over which the dredged channel would be maintained. Roadway elevation results in a strong backwater effect increasing flood risk upstream. Initial efforts at designing a bypass channel also proved ineffective due to backwater effects below the bridge. The only viable solution involved reducing the

  1. Addendum to the post-closure permit application for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: Walk-in pits. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised Closure Plan was initially intended to apply to A Area, C-West, B Area, and the Walk-In Pits (WIPs) of the Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). However, a strategy was developed to include the B Area [a solid waste management unit (SWMU)] with the WIPs so that both areas would be closed under one cap. The plan was presented to the State of Tennessee on March 8, 1990, and the Department of Energy was requested to review other unique alternatives to close the site. Therefore, in November 1992, the Closure Plan for B Area and the WIPs was prepared separately from that of the other sites associated with the BCBG and was presented in a RCRA Closure Plan. The Closure Plan revision issued April 1993 was intended to reflect the placement of the Kerr Hollow Quarry debris at the WIPs, revise the closure data, and acknowledge that the disposition of a monitoring well within the closure site could not be verified. A Post-Closure Permit Application (PCPA) was to include the WIPs; however, at the time of submittal, closure of the WIPs had not been certified. This addendum contains information on the WIPs to accompany the BCBG PCPA. The purpose of this document is to supplement the information provided in the BCBG PCPA. This document is not intended to be a stand-alone document. Only additional information regarding the WIPs is included in the sections of this document, which correspond to sections of the PCPA submitted in June 1994

  2. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

  3. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  4. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  5. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater and surface water quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains groundwater and surface-water quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater and surface water report for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater and surface-water quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater and surface-water quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  6. Geohydrology, water quality, and simulation of groundwater flow in the stratified-drift aquifer system in Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys, Town of Dryden, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Planning Department and the Town of Dryden, New York, began a study of the stratified-drift aquifer system in the Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys in the Town of Dryden, Tompkins County. The study provided geohydrologic data needed by the town and county to develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. In this study area, three extensive confined sand and gravel aquifers (the upper, middle, and lower confined aquifers) compose the stratified-drift aquifer system. The Dryden Lake Valley is a glaciated valley oriented parallel to the direction of ice movement. Erosion by ice extensively widened and deepened the valley, truncated bedrock hillsides, and formed a nearly straight, U-shaped bedrock trough. The maximum thickness of the valley fill in the central part of the valley is about 400 feet (ft). The Virgil Creek Valley in the east part of the study area underwent less severe erosion by ice than the Dryden Lake Valley, and hence, it has a bedrock floor that is several hundred feet higher in altitude than that in the Dryden Lake Valley. The sources and amounts of recharge were difficult to identify in most areas because the confined aquifers are overlain by confining units. However, in the vicinity of the Virgil Creek Dam, the upper confined aquifer crops out at land surface in the floodplain of a gorge eroded by Virgil Creek, and this is where the aquifer receives large amounts of recharge from precipitation that directly falls over the aquifer and from seepage losses from Virgil Creek. The results of streamflow measurements made in Virgil Creek where it flows through the gorge indicated that the stream lost 1.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or 0.78 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water in the reach extending from 220 ft downstream from the dam to 1,200 ft upstream from the dam. In the southern part of the study area, large amounts of recharge also replenish the

  7. Ti Mobility in Quartzite from the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek Pluton (EJB) Aureole in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Student, J. J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    The EJB pluton intruded into Paleozoic sandstone during the Jurassic leaving a well-exposed aureole. Quartzite was collected from the contact outward to investigate the response of Ti in sedimentary quartz to varying grades of metamorphism using EPMA and CL imaging. TitaniQ and Zr in rutile thermobarometers were applied to rutile bearing quartzite at 225, 500, and 1540 meters from the contact. Comparison CL images, including those of Harkless sandstone collected 15 km away and Harkless quartzite in the aureole reveal significant Ti mobility and a general smoothing of the Ti distribution in the quartzite. The CL images also reveal that the redistribution of Ti in the quartzite was incomplete. Discounting this, TitaniQ was applied using a Ti activity of 1.0 and a pressure of 2.75 kbars based on previous studies. In an effort to establish possible peak conditions, Ti was measured in the brightest CL quartz grain interiors, and the Zr was measured in surrounding rutile grains. The temperature calculations are inconsistent. At 225 meters, the Zr in rutile resulted in a temperature range from 662-762 °C (n=31) compared to a maximum temperature of 595 °C based on Ti in quartz. At 500 meters, rutile resulted in a range from 635-720 °C (n=44) compared to quartz at 525 °C. At 1540 meters, the rutile ranged from 650-710 °C (n=55) compared to quartz at 547 °C. The thermometric results may suggest that the aureole was extensively heated to above 500 °C even at 1.5 km from the pluton contact. This is supported by previous studies using other thermometers, thermal modeling, quartz deformation fabrics, and evidence of partial melting-type textures. In all likelihood though, the thermometric results in this study reflect components of inheritance of the original grains, lack of complete Ti re-equilibration due to sluggish diffusion of Ti during metamorphism, and the varying effects of water availability as related to the formation of distinct deformation textures.

  8. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program) that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas where contaminants from Y-12 operations are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) are presented in Appendix A. Brief data summary tables referenced in each section are contained within the sections. Supplemental information and extensive data tables are provided in Appendix B

  10. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with

  11. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  12. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  13. Development and maintenance of a telescoping debris flow fan in response to human-induced fan surface channelization, Chalk Creek Valley Natural Debris Flow Laboratory, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T.; Scheinert, C.

    2016-01-01

    Channel change has been a constant theme throughout William L. Graf's research career. Graf's work has examined channel changes in the context of natural environmental fluctuations, but more often has focused on quantifying channel change in the context of anthropogenic modifications. Here, we consider how channelization of a debris flows along a bajada has perpetuated and sustained the development of 'telescoping' alluvial fan. Two-dimensional debris-flow modeling shows the importance of the deeply entrenched channelized flow in the development of a telescoping alluvial fan. GIS analyses of repeat (five different debris flows), high-resolution (5 cm) digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data elucidate sediment and topographic dynamics of the new telescoping portion of the alluvial fan (the embryonic fan). Flow constriction from channelization helps to perpetuate debris-flow runout and to maintain the embryonic fan and telescoping nature of the alluvial fan complex. Embryonic fan development, in response to five debris flows, proceeds with a major portion of the flows depositing on the southern portion of the embryonic fan. The third through the fifth debris flows also begin to shift some deposition to the northern portion of the embryonic. The transfer of sediment from a higher portion of the embryonic fan to a lower portion continues currently on the embryonic fan. While channelized flow has been shown to be critical to the maintenance of the telescoping fan, the flow constriction has led to higher than background levels of sediment deposition in Chalk Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas River. A majority of the sediment from each debris flow is incorporated into Chalk Creek as opposed to being stored on the embryonic fan.

  14. Groundwater quality and simulation of sources of water to wells in the Marsh Creek valley at the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory, Tioga County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.; Breen, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a November 2010 snapshot of groundwater quality and an analysis of the sources of water to wells at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory (NARL) near Wellsboro, Pennsylvania. The laboratory, which conducts fisheries research, currently (2011) withdraws 1,000 gallons per minute of high-quality groundwater from three wells completed in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer beneath the Marsh Creek valley; a fourth well that taps the same aquifer provides the potable supply for the facility. The study was conducted to document the source areas and quality of the water supply for this Department of Interior facility, which is surrounded by the ongoing development of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale. Groundwater samples were collected from the four wells used by the NARL and from two nearby domestic-supply wells. The domestic-supply wells withdraw groundwater from bedrock of the Catskill Formation. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radiochemicals, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water and carbon in dissolved carbonate to document groundwater quality. Organic constituents (other than hydrocarbon gases) associated with hydraulic fracturing and other human activities were not analyzed as part of this assessment. Results show low concentrations of all constituents. Only radon, which ranged from 980 to 1,310 picocuries per liter, was somewhat elevated. These findings are consistent with the pristine nature of the aquifer in the Marsh Creek valley, which is the reason the laboratory was sited at this location. The sources of water and areas contributing recharge to wells were identified by the use of a previously documented MODFLOW groundwater-flow model for the following conditions: (1) withdrawals of 1,000 to 3,000 gallons per minute from the NARL wells, (2) average or dry hydrologic conditions, and (3) withdrawals of 1,000 gallons per minute from a new

  15. St. Catherine Creek NWR Bird Point Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data collected during bird point counts at St. Catherine Creek NWR using the Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture protocol for forest dwelling birds.

  16. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  17. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  18. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  19. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  20. Onset of Grain Boundary Migration and Drastic Weakening of Quartzite during increasing grade of Metamorphism in the Contact Aureole surrounding the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek pluton, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S. S.; Student, J. J.; Jakeway, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton in eastern California is surrounded by a ~1.3 km wide intensely deformed concordant aureole of metasedimentary rocks. South of the pluton, the Harkless Quartzite can be mapped from where it is located outside the aureole, with its regional strike through the transition into the aureole and concordancy with the pluton. The transition into concordancy, which is fairly abrupt, occurs over a distance of less than 100 m. Across this transition the bedding rotates close to 90° to become subvertical. Here the metasedimentary formations in the aureole have undergone 65% shortening. A suite of Harkless Quartzite samples was collected starting at 2.3 km south of the pluton, across the transition into concordancy at 1.3 km, and to within 450m from the pluton contact. Microstructurally, the transition is defined by changes in the dominant recrystallization mechanisms. At 2.3 km from the pluton, subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR) plus grain boundary migration (GBM) operate together and many sedimentary grains (rounded grain boundaries) exist. As the pluton is approached, SGR decreases, GBM increases, and rounded grain boundaries slowly disappear. The abrupt transition into concordancy is marked by the final disappearance of SGR and rounded grain boundaries and extensive GBM. The transition is not completely smooth, and other variables such as pinning and amount of fluid inclusions seem to have a strong local affect on the dominant recrystallization mechanism. We suspect that the onset of extensive GBM allows for the diffusion of water into the crystal lattice which results in the drastic weakening and rotation of metasedimentary formations into concordancy.

  1. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  2. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  4. Cooperative Recovery Initiative (2016) Grizzly Bear Aware: Conflict Resolution and Habitat Restoration in the Centennial Valley and Southwest Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project will take a three pronged approach to implement conservation actions that prevent or reduce Grizzly Bear human conflicts, enhance habitats and improve...

  5. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  6. Studies Related to Nutrients Entering Groundwater From the Heber Valley Sewer Farm and Daries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppson, Roland W.; McLean, Joan; Clyde, Calvin G.; Korom, Scott

    1991-01-01

    Foreword: This report includes the results from a two year study in the Heber Valley to determine amounts of nutrients that are entering the groundwaters of the Heber Valley, and might ultimately enter Deer Creek Reservoir. Since Deer Creek Reservoir in Heber Valley, Utah supplies approximately 65 percent of the water distributed to Salt Lake County, the maintenance of its quality is of considerable importance. To...

  7. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The East Fork Regime encompasses several confirmed and suspected sources of groundwater contamination within industrialized areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Groundwater and surface water monitoring in the East Fork Regime are performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the East Fork Regime issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on August 30, 1996. The post-closure permit addresses post-closure monitoring requirements for two closed RCRA-regulated surface impoundments: the S-3 Ponds and New Hope Pond.

  8. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation Wd Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the PCP defines the RCRA post-closure corrective action monitoring requirements for the portion of the groundwater contaminant plume that has migrated into the East Fork Regime ftom the S-3 Ponds, a closed RCW-regulated former surface impoundment located in Bear Creek Valley near the west end of the Y-12 Plant. In addition to the RCIL4 post-closure corrective action monitoring results, this report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 to fulfill requirements of DOE Order 5400.1.

  9. Pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss in the Kali Gandaki valley (Central Nepal): Investigation of Late Eocene-Early Oligocene melting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Langone, Antonio; Visonà, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss of the lower Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Kali Gandaki transect (Central Himalaya) was investigated. In spite of the intense shearing, it was still possible to obtain many fundamental information for understanding the processes active during orogenesis. Using a multidisciplinary approach, including careful meso- and microstructural observations, pseudosection modelling (with PERPLE_X), trace element thermobarometry and in situ monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology, we constrained the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of the studied rock, located in a structural key position. The migmatitic gneiss has experienced protracted prograde metamorphism after the India-Asia collision (50-55 Ma) from ~ 43 Ma to 28 Ma. During the late phase (36-28 Ma) of this metamorphism, the gneiss underwent high-pressure melting at "near peak" conditions (710-720 °C/1.0-1.1 GPa) leading to kyanite-bearing leucosome formation. In the time span of 25-18 Ma, the rock experienced decompression and cooling associated with pervasive shearing reaching P-T conditions of 650-670 °C and 0.7-0.8 GPa, near the sillimanite-kyanite transition. This time span is somewhat older than previously reported for this event in the study area. During this stage, additional, but very little melt was produced. Taking the migmatitic gneiss as representative of the GHS, these data demonstrate that this unit underwent crustal melting at about 1 GPa in the Eocene-Early Oligocene, well before the widely accepted Miocene decompressional melting related to its extrusion. In general, kyanite-bearing migmatite, as reported here, could be linked to the production of the high-Ca granitic melts found along the Himalayan belt.

  10. Geochemical correlation and 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Kern River ash bed and related tephra layers: Implications for the stratigraphy of petroleum-bearing formations in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, D.; Negrini, R.M.; Golob, E.M.; Miller, D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Fleck, R.J.; Hacker, B.; Erendi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Kern River ash (KRA) bed is a prominent tephra layer separating the K and G sands in the upper part of the Kern River Formation, a major petroleum-bearing formation in the southern San Joaquin Valley (SSJV) of California. The minimum age of the Kern River Formation was based on the tentative major-element correlation with the Bishop Tuff, a 0.759??0.002 Ma volcanic tephra layer erupted from the Long Valley Caldera. We report a 6.12??0.05 Ma 40Ar/39Ar date for the KRA, updated major-element correlations, trace-element correlations of the KRA and geochemically similar tephra, and a 6.0??0.2 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age for a tephra layer from the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak eruptive center in Nevada. Both major and trace-element correlations show that despite the similarity to the Bishop Tuff, the KRA correlates most closely with tephra from the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak eruptive center. This geochemical correlation is supported by the radiometric dates which are consistent with a correlation of the KRA to the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak center but not to the Bishop Tuff. The 6.12??0.05 Ma age for the KRA and the 6.0??0.2 Ma age for the tephra layer from the Volcano Hills/Silver Peak eruptive center suggest that the upper age of the Kern River Formation is over 5 Ma older than previously thought. Re-interpreted stratigraphy of the SSJV based on the new, significantly older age for the Kern River Formation opens up new opportunities for petroleum exploration in the SSJV and places better constraints on the tectonostratigraphic development of the SSJV. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  11. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  12. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along...

  13. Cache Creek mercury investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cache Creek watershed is located in the California Coastal range approximately 100 miles north of San Francisco in Lake, Colusa and Yolo Counties. Wildlife...

  14. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  15. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1

  16. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. The potential for release of contamination to receptors through the various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to determine the extent of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Proposed activities include walkover radiation surveys at all sites, soil borings at SY-200, piezometer installation and water table sampling at SA-1 and SY-200, and surface water and sediment runoff sampling at all three sites. Data from the site characterization activities will be combined with data from ongoing site-wide monitoring programs (i.e., groundwater, surface water, and biological monitoring) to provide input for a screening-level risk assessment and evaluation of altemative remedial actions

  17. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  18. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  19. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e. Name of Project: Rio Hydroelectric... President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle...

  20. Analysis of historic agricultural irrigation data from the Natural Resources Conservation Service monitoring and evaluation for Grand Valley, Lower Gunnison Basin, and McElmo Creek Basin, western Colorado, 1985 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service Monitoring and Evaluation for three salinity control units in western Colorado—Grand Valley, Lower Gunnison, and McElmo Creek—from 1985 to 2003 was a response to the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act, Public Law 93–320, July 24, 1974, and its amendments. The Natural Resources Conservation Service evaluated the effects on seasonal irrigation efficiency and deep percolation of irrigation water of various on-farm irrigation system improvements in the three salinity control units, and reported the results in a series of internal Natural Resources Conservation Service annual reports. Because of the large amount of effort and expense that went into the Natural Resources Conservation Service Monitoring and Evaluation and the importance of the data to help quantify the changes to deep percolation, the Natural Resources Conservation Service has determined that having the evaluation results made public through a characterization and analysis of the results by the U.S. Geological Survey could be of use to a wider audience of water managers and the general public.

  1. The Pliocene-Quaternary Buffalo Valley volcanic field, Nevada: Post-extension, intraplate magmatism in the north-central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Brian; Wetmore, Stacey; Henry, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo Valley volcanic field consists of Pliocene through Quaternary lava flows and spatter cones located south of Battle Mountain and adjacent to the Fish Creek Mountains, north-central Nevada. The volcanic rocks are split into two groups by age and geochemistry. The Pliocene sequence (4.02 to 2.75 Ma) consists of olivine- and plagioclase-bearing alkali basaltic lava flows with minor pyroclastic deposits, found primarily along the south flank of Battle Mountain and also at the north end of the Fish Creek Mountains and within the Fish Creek Mountains caldera. The Quaternary series (1.99 to 1.14 Ma) includes nearly a dozen trachybasaltic spatter cones with short lava flows erupted along the northwest flank of the Fish Creek Mountains. Normalized rare earth element and incompatible element plots for both groups are light rare earth and Nb-Ta enriched, resembling alkali basalts from ocean islands, but the Quaternary lavas are more light rare earth element-enriched and cross the Pliocene basalt patterns at Eu. Radiogenic and stable isotope ratios are consistent with an asthenospheric mantle source, and the rare earth element patterns indicate a shift from melting in the spinel to garnet peridotite field with time. Basaltic rocks from other intraplate fields in the Great Basin, including the Lunar Crater and Cima fields, only include lavas that originated at depth in the garnet peridotite field. Buffalo Valley is located at the margin of a proposed lithospheric drip (delamination) and within a zone of lithospheric thinning that extends across northern Nevada, both of which may control where melting in the asthenosphere may occur. The proximity to the edge of Precambrian-Phanerozoic lithosphere boundary may also be a factor in melt generation.

  2. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  3. 77 FR 27769 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2012, the Greybull Valley Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit... feet of net head; (3) a tailrace channel discharging from the powerhouse to Sunshine Creek; (4) a...

  4. Swift Creek Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation, Swift Creek Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to re-evaluate and update the original environmental analysis of the Swift Crook Hydroelectric Project rehabilitation. That analysis and the decision to allow the proponent toproceed with the project as described in the EA alternatives 3, 4, and 5 was completed an May 8, 1981. Since that decision, no action has been taken and no special-use permit has ever been issued. The Bridger-Trton National Forest completed a Forest Plan in March of 1990 which sets current direction for all lands within the Forest and new and significant issues pertaining to the amount of water to be bypassed have been raised by the public in response to this proposed project. The original proponent, Lower Valley Power and Light, sold the project and existing facilities to Swift Crack Power Company Inc. in 1984. Swift Crock Power Company has submitted a proposal to rehabilitate the existing power generation facility in Swift Creek Canyon, which will involve some significant construction and alteration of the river corridor. Theyhave also submitted an application for relicense to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission who has asked for the Forest Service to comment on the application and to submit recommended conditions for approval (4e requirements). The proposed rehabilitation of existing facilities includes replacement of the existing damaged penstock (pipe) with a new, larger one; dredging two existing reservoirs and removal, refurbishment, and reinstallation of the turbines and generators in the two powerhouses with relocation and reconstruction of the lower powerhouse that is located on privately owned land below the Forest boundary

  5. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  6. Grizzly bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  7. Bear-salmon study, 1952, Brown's River, Uyak Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A relatively small number of unspawned salmon are taken by bear. Although the figures are not as exact as those of the Sulua Creek study, the number represents...

  8. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  9. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  10. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  11. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Geology and ground water in Napa and Sonoma Valleys, Napa and Sonoma Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Fred; Upson, Joseph Edwin

    1960-01-01

    Napa and Sonoma Valleys are adjacent alluvium-filled valleys about 40 miles northeast of San Francisco. They occupy alined and structurally controlled depressions in the northern Coast Ranges physiographic province and drain south into San Pablo Bay. The valleys are surrounded and underlain by unconsolidated marine and continental sediments and volcanic rocks of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, which are water bearing in large part and together make up relatively extensive ground-water basins. Napa Valley, the eastern valley, is the larger and has a valley-floor area of about 85 square miles. Sonoma Valley has a valley-floor area of about 35 square miles; in addition, about 10 square miles is unreclaimed tidal marsh. The rock units of Napa and Sonoma Valleys are divided into four classes on the basis of their distribution and relative capacity to yield water: (a) Consolidated virtually non-water-bearing chiefly sedimentary (some metamorphic) rocks that range in age from Jurassic ( ?) to Pliocene; (b) marine shale and sand of the Petaluma formation (Pliocene) and the Merced formation (Pliocene and Pleistocene) that do not crop out within Napa or Sonoma Valleys but perhaps are penetrated by some deep wells drilled in Sonoma Valley; (c) Sonoma volcanics of Pliocene age, parts of which are non-water-bearing and parts of which locally yield large quantities of water; and (d) unconsolidated alluvial deposits mainly of Quaternary age. The deposits of classes (c) and (d) contain the most important aquifers in the area. Most of the water used in these valleys is pumped from wells in the younger and older alluvium in the Huichica and Glen Ellen formations. and in the Sonoma volcanics. The principal aquifers are the younger and older alluvium. but appreciable quantities of water are pumped locally from the Sonoma volcanics. The Huichica and Glen Ellen formations yield water in small quantities and at most places supply water only for limited domestic uses. The younger alluvium

  13. Foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  14. Timing and extent of early marine oxygen isotope stage 2 alpine glaciation in Skagit Valley, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Jon L.; Clague, John J.; Ward, Brent C.

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-two new radiocarbon ages from Skagit valley provide a detailed chronology of alpine glaciation during the Evans Creek stade of the Fraser Glaciation (early marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2) in the Cascade Range, Washington State. Sediments at sites near Concrete, Washington, record two advances of the Baker valley glacier between ca. 30.3 and 19.5 cal ka BP, with an intervening period of glacier recession about 24.9 cal ka BP. The Baker valley glacier dammed lower Skagit valley, creating glacial Lake Concrete, which discharged around the ice dam along Finney Creek, or south into the Sauk valley. Sediments along the shores of Ross Lake in upper Skagit valley accumulated in glacial Lake Skymo after ca. 28.7 cal ka BP behind a glacier flowing out of Big Beaver valley. Horizontally laminated silt and bedded sand and gravel up to 20 m thick record as much as 8000 yr of deposition in these glacially dammed lakes. The data indicate that alpine glaciers in Skagit valley were far less extensive than previously thought. Alpine glaciers remained in advanced positions for much of the Evans Creek stade, which may have ended as early as 20.8 cal ka BP.

  15. Water resources of the Clarion River and Redbank Creek basins, northwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Dodge, C.H.; Schiner, G.R.; Koester, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The Clarion River and Redbank Creek basin occupy 1,280 and 545 square miles, respectively, in northwatern Pennsylvania. The area is mostly in Clerion, Elk, and Jefferson Counties and is approximately 70 miles long and 30 miles wide. All drainage is to the Allegheny River. Sedimentary rocks of Late Devionian Early Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age underlie the area. Rocks of Late Devonian age underlie the entire area and crop out in the deep stream valleys in the north. Lower Mississippian rocks generally crop out in strips along major stream valleys; the strips are narrow in the south and broaden northward. Pennsylvanian rocks cover most of the interfluvial areas between major streams. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian rocks are composed mostly of alternating sandstone and shale. Sandstone may intertongue laterally with shale. The Pennsylvanian rocks are most heterogeneous and contain many commercial coal beds. The major mineral resources are bituminous coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Narly all coal production is from strip mining in Clarion, Elk, and Jefferson Counties. Total coal production exceeded 8 million short tons in 1976. The basins are south and east of the major oil-producing regions in Pennsylvania, but more than 50,000 barrels of crude oil were produced here in 1975. Commercial quantities of natural gas are also obtained. Thirty-three public water-supply systems furnish about two-thirds of the water for domestic use. Surface water is the source of about 90 percent of public-supply water. The remainder is from wells and springs. In an average year, 64 percent of the precipitation in the Clarion River basin and 60 percent in the Redbank Creek basin leave the area as streamflow. The percentage of annuual discharge from each basin that is base runoff averaged 53 and 51 percent, respectively, during 1972-75. Only 4 of 10 stream-gaging stations recorded an average 10-year, 7-consecutive day low flow of at least 0.15 cubic feet per second per

  16. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  17. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration...

  18. Wonder Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, William

    2013-01-01

    You might have passed through here, maybe. Thought you'd stick to the blue roads, hit the casinos of Vegas by the back way. As you blew through this nowhere corner of the Mojave Desert you might have noticed the rat-trap shacks rotting into the sparse hardscrabble of greasewood scrub. And you'd have thought, "What the hell is this place?" Wonder Valley. Out here, thousands of dilapidated cabins crumble into the desert, each one 12 by 20, an outhouse out back. They sit on a grid of five acre p...

  19. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  20. Rattlesnake Creek management program proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Partnership has concentrated its efforts on a voluntary approach for lowering the total water use in the Rattlesnake Creek subbasin. This will occur through the...

  1. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  2. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  3. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  4. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  5. Post-closure permit application for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant: New Hope Pond and Eastern S-3 ponds plume. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of this Post-Closure, Permit Application (PCPA) is to satisfy the post-closure permitting requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-11. This application is for the entire Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV). This PCPA has been prepared to include the entire East Fork Regime because, although there are numerous contaminant sources within the regime, the contaminant plumes throughout the East Fork Regime have coalesced and can no longer be distinguished as separate plumes. This PCPA focuses on two recognized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units: New Hope Pond (NHP) and the eastern S-3 Ponds plume. This PCPA presents data from groundwater assessment monitoring throughout the regime, performed since 1986. Using this data, this PCPA demonstrates that NHP is not a statistically discernible source of groundwater contaminants and that sites upgradient of NHP are the likely sources of groundwater contamination seen in the NHP vicinity. As such, this PCPA proposes a detection monitoring program to replace the current assessment monitoring program for NHP

  6. Post-closure permit application for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime at the Y-12 Plant: New Hope Pond and Eastern S-3 ponds plume. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The intent of this Post-Closure, Permit Application (PCPA) is to satisfy the post-closure permitting requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-11. This application is for the entire Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV). This PCPA has been prepared to include the entire East Fork Regime because, although there are numerous contaminant sources within the regime, the contaminant plumes throughout the East Fork Regime have coalesced and can no longer be distinguished as separate plumes. This PCPA focuses on two recognized Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units: New Hope Pond (NHP) and the eastern S-3 Ponds plume. This PCPA presents data from groundwater assessment monitoring throughout the regime, performed since 1986. Using this data, this PCPA demonstrates that NHP is not a statistically discernible source of groundwater contaminants and that sites upgradient of NHP are the likely sources of groundwater contamination seen in the NHP vicinity. As such, this PCPA proposes a detection monitoring program to replace the current assessment monitoring program for NHP.

  7. Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

  8. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations and paleomagnetic results bearing on the tectonic and magmatic history of the northern Madison Range and Madison Valley region, southwestern Montana, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, K.S.; Harlan, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating and paleomagnetic analysis of dacite porphyry sills and dikes that intrude Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the northern Madison Range in southwestern Montana show that Laramide shortening was essentially complete by ???69 Ma. A negative paleomagnetic fold test indicates that Laramide folding occurred before cooling of the dacite sills and dikes at ???69 Ma. Laramide deformation began synchronous with deposition of the Livingston Formation rocks at ???79 Ma. These results are consistent with previous observations in the region that show the onset of Laramide deformation in the northern Rocky Mountains becoming progressively younger toward the east. 40Ar/39Ar dating of additional igneous rocks in the northern Madison Valley and around Norris, Montana better define post-Laramide tectonomagmatic events in the region, including Eocene-Oligocene volcanism and Basin and Range crustal extension. Dates from three rhyolitic intrusions near Red Mountain are between 48.71 ?? 0.18 Ma and 49.42 ?? 0.18 Ma, similar to the dates from basal silicic flows of the Virginia City volcanic field (part of the southwest Montana volcanic province), suggesting that the Red Mountain intrusions may have been the sources for some of the early extrusive rocks. Magmatism in the Virginia City volcanic field became generally more mafic with time, and a ???30-Ma basalt flow near Norris is considered a late, outlying member of the volcanic field. A tuff along the east side of the Madison Valley half graben yielded a early middle Miocene date (16.2 ?? 0.19 Ma), suggesting that accelerated crustal extension and associated rapid basin sedimentation probably began in the early Miocene, slightly earlier than previous estimates.

  9. Saline Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2 These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Bioassessment of Black Creek, Holmes County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at four stations on Black Creek and one station on Harland Creek (reference site), Holmes County, Mississippi were...

  11. Campbell Creek TVA 2010 First Year Performance Report July 1, 2009 August 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    This research project was initiated by TVA in March 2008 and encompasses three houses that are of similar size, design and located within the same community - Campbell Creek, Farragut TN with simulated occupancy. This report covers the performance period from July 1, 2009 to August 31, 2010. It is the intent of TVA that this Valley Data will inform electric utilities future residential retrofit incentive program.

  12. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  13. Arsenic loads in Spearfish Creek, western South Dakota, water years 1989-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    1995-01-01

    Creek (type 2), which has the highest measured arsenic concentra- tions in the Spearfish Creek drainage, contributed about 15 percent of the arsenic load in about 2 percent of the discharge of the upstream reach. Squaw Creek, which drains another mineralized area, but has only moderate in-stream concentrations (type 3), contributed 4 percent of the arsenic load in 5 percent of the discharge. Ungaged inflows to the reach contributed the remaining 65 percent of the arsenic load in 30 percent of the discharge. The calculated loads from ungaged inflows include all arsenic contributed by surface- and ground-water sources, as well as any additions of arsenic from dissolution of arsenic-bearing solid phases, or from desorption of arsenic from solid surfaces, within the streambed of the upstream reach. Mass-balance calculations indicate that dissolved arsenic concentrations of the ungaged inflows in the upstream reach averaged about 9 mg/L. In-stream arsenic concentrations of ungaged inflows from the unmineralized western flank of Spearfish Creek probably are generally low (type 1). Thus, in-stream arsenic concentrations for ungaged inflows draining the mineralized eastern flank of Spearfish probably average almost twice that level, or about 18 mg/L. Some ungaged, eastern-flank inflows probably are derived from type 3 drainages, with only moderate arsenic concentrations. If so, other ungaged, eastern-flank inflows could have in-stream arsenic concentrations similar to those of Annie Creek. No significant arsenic sources were apparent in the downstream reach of Spearfish Creek. Over the course of the downstream reach, arsenic concentrations decreased somewhat, probably resulting from dilution, as well as from possible chemical adsorption to sediment surfaces or arsenic-phase precipitation. A decrease in arsenic loads resulted from various diversions from the creek and from the potential chemical removal processes. Because of a large margin of error associated with calculation o

  14. Characterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate volume loss of soil over time from this site, provide parameterizations on erodibility of ice rich permafrost and serve as a baseline for future landscape evolution simulations. Located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the interior region of Alaska (USA) is home to a large quantity of warm, unstable permafrost that is both high in ice content and has soil temperatures near the freezing point. Much of this permafrost maintains a frozen state despite the general warming air temperature trend in the region due to the presence of a thick insulating organic mat and a dense root network in the upper sub-surface of the soil column. At a rapidly evolving thermo-erosion site, located within the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (part of the Bonanza Creek LTER) near Chatanika, Alaska (N65.140, W147.570), the protective organic layer and associated plants were disturbed by an adjacent traditional use trail and the shifting of a groundwater spring. These triggers have led to rapid geomorphological change on the landscape as the soil thaws and sediment is transported into the creek at the valley bottom. Since 2006 (approximately the time of initiation), the thermal erosion has grown to 170 meters length, 3 meters max depth, and 15 meters maximum width. This research combines several data sets: DGPS survey, imagery from an extremely low altitude pole-based remote sensing (3 to 5 meters above ground level), and imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) at about 60m altitude.

  15. The effect of snowmelt on the water quality of Filson Creek and Omaday Lake, northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D.I.

    1981-01-01

    Sulfate concentration and pH were determined in surface water, groundwater, and precipitation samples collected in the Filson Creek watershed to evaluate the sources of sulfate in Filson Creek. During and immediately after snowmelt, sulfate concentrations in Filson Creek increased from about 2 to 14 mg/l. Concurrently, H+ ion activity increased from an average of 10−6.6 to 10−5.5. These changes suggest that sulfate acidity is concentrated in the snowpack at snowmelt, which is similar to changes reported in Scandinavia in areas subject to acid precipitation. Mass balance calculations indicate that the sulfate contribution from groundwater during snowmelt was minimal in comparison to that from snow. During base flow, sulfate did not appreciably increase from the headwaters of Filson Creek to the mouth, even though sulfate was as high as 58 mg/l in groundwater discharging to the creek from surficial materials overlying a sulfide-bearing mineralized zone in the lower third of the watershed. Approximately 10.6 kg of sulfate per hectare per year was retained in 1977.

  16. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  17. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  18. Long-term and seasonal ground deformation in the Santa Clara Valley, California, revealed by multi decadal InSAR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Burgmann, R.; Shirzaei, M.; Baker, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Santa Clara Valley, California, is a shallow basin located between the San Andreas and Hayward-Calaveras fault zones. The Valley is known to experience land subsidence and uplift related to groundwater extraction and recharge. We use Small Baseline (SB) Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series to precisely map time-dependent ground deformation at the scale of the basin, relying on data sets from 4 satellites (ERS1, ERS2, Envisat, and ALOS1) to cover a twenty-year time period (1992-2012). The ground deformation map produced provides constraints on the lateral distribution of water-bearing units in the valley, information that is critical to effectively manage groundwater resources, and on the areas more likely to experience subsidence related ground deformation or flooding. Multi-year and seasonal time-series reveal different ground deformation patterns. Long-term uplift at few millimeters per year dominates east of the Silver Creek fault (SCF) and likely relates to the poroelastic response of the confined aquifer to recovery of groundwater levels since the 1960s. In contrast seasonal uplift and subsidence in winter and summer, respectively, dominate west of the SCF, near San Jose. We compare the InSAR derived deformation to precipitation and well data to explain this seasonal variability. The differential subsidence across the SCF indicates that the fault partitions the shallow confined aquifer and was likely active since the deposition of these Holocene sediments. Relying on the multiple viewing geometries from the different spacecraft we isolate a narrow band of horizontal deformation in the immediate vicinity of the SCF. This zone of high extensional strain is due to the localized differential subsidence and is likely to experience fissuring.

  19. Maintenance Free Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Muzakkir & Harish Hirani

    2015-01-01

    In the present research work the need of a Maintenance Free Bearings (MFB) is established. The paper presents preliminary friction calculations to highlight the ways to achieve maintenance free bearings. The existing technologies of well established maintenance free bearings are described. The hybridization of bearing technologies to achieve low cost maintenance free bearings has been exemplified. Finally a combination of passive magnetic repulsion and hydrodynamics ha...

  20. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  1. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  2. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  3. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695...

  4. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  5. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  6. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  7. Silicon Valley Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is unlikely that any industrial region of the world has received as much scrutiny and study as Silicon Valley. Despite the recent crash of Internet and telecommunications stocks,Silicon Valley remains the world's engine of growth for numerous high-technology sectors.

  8. Feasibility and potential effects of the proposed Amargosa Creek Recharge Project, Palmdale, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Allen H.; Siade, Adam J.; Martin, Peter; Langenheim, V.E.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Burgess, Matthew K.

    2015-09-17

    Historically, the city of Palmdale and vicinity have relied on groundwater as the primary source of water, owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Despite recent importing of surface water, groundwater withdrawal for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use has resulted in groundwater-level declines near the city of Palmdale in excess of 200 feet since the early 1900s. To meet the growing water demand in the area, the city of Palmdale has proposed the Amargosa Creek Recharge Project (ACRP), which has a footprint of about 150 acres along the Amargosa Creek 2 miles west of Palmdale, California. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of recharging the Antelope Valley aquifer system by using infiltration of imported surface water from the California State Water Project in percolation basins at the ACRP.

  9. Asotin Creek model watershed plan: Asotin County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ''Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ''four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ''Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity

  10. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  11. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  12. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  13. Exploration for uranium deposits in the Spring Creek Mesa area, Montrose County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Carl Houston

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey explored the Spring Creek Mesa area from July 11, 1951, to August 14, 1953. During that period, 280 diamond-drill holes were completed for a total of 180,287 feet. Sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic age are exposed in and adjacent to the Spring Creek Mesa area. These rocks consist of, from oldest to youngest: the Upper Jurassic Morrison formation, the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon formation, and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota formation. The Morrison formation consists of two members in the Spring Creek Mesa area: the lower is the Salt Wash member and the upper is the Brusby Basin member. All of the large uranium-bearing deposits discovered by the Geological Survey drilling in the Spring Creek Mesa area are in a series of coalescing sandstone lenses in the uppermost part of the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation. Most of the ore deposits are believed to be irregular tabular or lens-shaped masses and probably lie parallel to the bedding, although in detail, they may crosscut the bedding. Also, ore deposits that take the form of narrow elongate concretionary-like structures, locally called “rolls”, may be present in the Spring Creek Mesa area. The mineralized material consists mostly of sandstone which has been selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Also, rich concentrations of uranium and vanadium are commonly associated with thin mudstone seams, beds of mudstone pebbles, and carbonaceous material of various types. Two suites of ore minerals are present in the ore deposits - - an oxidized suite of secondary uranium and vanadium minerals and a relatively unoxidized suite of “primary” uranium and vanadium minerals. The following geologic criteria are useful as guides to ore in the Spring Creek Mesa area:

  14. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  15. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  16. WATER QUALITY MODELING OF SUZHOU CREEK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality models are important tools for improving river environment. In this paper, the project "Water Quality Modeling of the Suzhou Creek" was briefly described, including the choice and the principle of the model, the model study and methods, the calibration and verification of the stream model. A set of parameters about water environmental characteristic of the Suzhou Creek were put forward in the period of the third water dispatch experiment in 1999. It is necessary to point out that these parameters will change with the rehabilitation and construction of the Suzhou Creek.

  17. Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2008-01-01

    Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

  18. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a...

  19. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...

  20. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.240 Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek... shore of Mattawoman Creek to the pilings remaining from the footbridge connecting the left bank of the... Mattawoman Creek from the pilings remaining from the footbridge to the mouth of the creek; thence in...

  1. Stratigraphy and petroleum potential of Trout Creek and Twentymile sandstones (Upper Cretaceous), Sand Wash Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepman, B.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Trout Creek and Twentymile Sandstones (Mesaverde Group) in Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado, are thick, upward-coarsening sequences that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior basin during Campanian time. These units trend northeast-southwest and undergo a facies change to coal-bearing strata on the northwest. Surface data collected along the southeastern rim of the Sand Wash basin were combined with well-log data from approximately 100 drill holes that have penetrated the Trout Creek or Twentymile in the subsurface. The sandstones exhibit distinctive vertical profiles with regard to grain size, sedimentary structures, and biogenic structures. A depositional model that incorporates the key elements of the modern Nile River (northeast Africa) and Nayarit (west-central Mexico) coastal systems is proposed for the Trout Creek and Twentymile sandstones and associated strata. The model depicts a wave-dominated deltaic, strand-plain, and barrier-island system. Depositional cycles are asymmetrical in cross section as they are largely progradational and lack significant transgressive deposits. Source rock-reservoir rock relationships are ideal as marine shales underlie, and coal-bearing strata overlie sheetlike reservoir sandstones. Humic coal, the dominant source of Mesaverde gas, generates major quantities of methane upon reaching thermal maturity. Existing Mesaverde gas fields are largely structural traps, but stratigraphic and combination traps may prove to be equally important. The sparsely drilled deeper part of the basin warrants testing as large, overpressured-gas accumulations in tight-sandstone reservoirs are likely to be found.

  2. Blitzen Valley Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 64,000 acre Blitzen Valley unit of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is not producing enough wildlife to meet the refuge's migratory bird objectives. The area...

  3. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  4. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  5. Rattlesnake Creek Management Program 12-year review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rattlesnake Creek Partnership (Partnership) was formed over 18 years ago to cooperatively develop and implement solutions to water resource problems within the...

  6. Land Cover Classification for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  7. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge. 1963. [Crane Creek].

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This aerial photograph shows the mouth of Crane Creek, facing east. Parts of Lake Erie, Willow Point, Searle, Dewey, and B T Inc. are also shown in this photo.

  8. Sign Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  9. Stream Centerline for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  10. Solid sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  11. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  14. Bioassessment of Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at five stations on Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi were evaluated using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols...

  15. Structure of the Hat Creek graben region: Implications for the structure of the Hat Creek graben and transfer of right-lateral shear from the Walker Lane north of Lassen Peak, northern California, from gravity and magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria; Jachens, Robert C.; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of magnetic and new gravity data provides constraints on the geometry of the Hat Creek Fault, the amount of right-lateral offset in the area between Mt. Shasta and Lassen Peak, and confirmation of the influence of pre-existing structure on Quaternary faulting. Neogene volcanic rocks coincide with short-wavelength magnetic anomalies of both normal and reversed polarity, whereas a markedly smoother magnetic field occurs over the Klamath Mountains and its Paleogene cover. Although the magnetic field over the Neogene volcanic rocks is complex, the Hat Creek Fault, which is one of the most prominent normal faults in the region and forms the eastern margin of the Hat Creek Valley, is marked by the eastern edge of a north-trending magnetic and gravity high 20-30 km long. Modeling of these anomalies indicates that the fault is a steeply dipping (~75-85°) structure. The spatial relationship of the fault as modeled by the potential-field data, the youngest strand of the fault, and relocated seismicity suggests that deformation continues to step westward across the valley, consistent with a component of right-lateral slip in an extensional environment. Filtered aeromagnetic data highlight a concealed magnetic body of Mesozoic or older age north of Hat Creek Valley. The body’s northwest margin strikes northeast and is linear over a distance of ~40 km. Within the resolution of the aeromagnetic data (1-2 km), we discern no right-lateral offset of this body. Furthermore, Quaternary faults change strike or appear to end, as if to avoid this concealed magnetic body and to pass along its southeast edge, suggesting that pre-existing crustal structure influenced younger faulting, as previously proposed based on gravity data.

  16. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project

  17. A Hydrologic monitoring program to detect potential impacts of geothermal development in Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Long Valley caldera is a tectonically active area in east-central California that contains a high-temperature geothermal system currently being explored and developed for electric power production. Concerns expressed by public agencies and private citizens over the potential impacts of geothermal development on thermal springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek gorge have resulted in the establishment of a Hydrologic Advisory Committee. The committee includes representatives from development projects and regulatory agencies. Its role is to formulate and oversee a hydrologic monitoring program capable of detecting such impacts before they become significant. The advisory committee and the monitoring program provide effective mechanisms with which to proceed with geothermal development in areas such as Long Valley, where the level of environmental risk cannot be determined a-priori because the relevant geo-hydrologic parameters are not adequately delineated.

  18. Addendum to the remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 ponds, boneyard/burnyard, oil landfarm, sanitary landfill I, and the burial grounds, including oil retention ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The BCV OU 1 location poses two problems that Data Quality Objectives will address: (1) whether the wastes and soil contamination pose a risk to human health or the environment now or in the future and (2) if the wastes and contamination do pose a risk, what feasible alternatives exist for reducing the risk to acceptable levels?

  19. Addendum to the remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 ponds, boneyard/burnyard, oil landfarm, sanitary landfill I, and the burial grounds, including oil retention ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BCV OU 1 location poses two problems that Data Quality Objectives will address: (1) whether the wastes and soil contamination pose a risk to human health or the environment now or in the future and (2) if the wastes and contamination do pose a risk, what feasible alternatives exist for reducing the risk to acceptable levels?

  20. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill I, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document refers to data concerning the Environmental Restoration Program implemented at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant. Topics discussed include: Remediation plans for the burial grounds, sanitary landfill I, oil retention ponds, S-3 ponds, and the boneyard/burnyard at Y-12. This document also contains information about the environmental policies regulating the remediation

  1. Campbell Creek Research Homes FY 2012 Annual Performance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Khowailed, Gannate A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The Campbell Creek project is funded and managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Technology Innovation, Energy Efficiency, Power Delivery & and Utilization Office. Technical support is provided under contract by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Electric Power Research Institute.The project was designed to determine the relative energy efficiency of typical new home construction, energy efficiency retrofitting of existing homes, and high -performance new homes built from the ground up for energy efficiency. This project will compare three houses that represented the current construction practice as a base case (Builder House CC1); a modified house that could represent a major energy- efficient retrofit (Retrofit House CC2); and a house constructed from the ground up to be a high- performance home (High Performance House CC3). In order tTo enablehave a valid comparison, it was necessary to simulate occupancy in all three houses and heavily monitor the structural components and the energy usage by component. All three houses are two story, slab on grade, framed construction. CC1 and CC2 are approximately 2,400 square feet2. CC3 has a pantry option, that is primarily used as a mechanical equipment room, that adds approximately 100 square feet2. All three houses are all-electric (with the exception of a gas log fireplace that is not used during the testing), and use air-source heat pumps for heating and cooling. The three homes are located in Knoxville in the Campbell Creek Subdivision. CC1 and CC2 are next door to each other and CC3 is across the street and a couple of houses down. The energy data collected will be used to determine the benefits of retrofit packages and high -performance new home packages. There are over 300 channels of continuous energy performance and thermal comfort data collection in the houses (100 for each house). The data will also be used to evaluate the impact of energy -efficient upgrades ton the envelope, mechanical

  2. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  3. Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, N. A. M.; Seybold, H.; Baram, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Andrade, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with asymmetrically weighted couplings. Accordingly, these networks can exhibit optimal synchronization properties through fine tuning of the local interaction strength as a function of node degree [Motter, Zhou, and Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016116 (2005)]. We show that, in analogy...

  4. Bear Spray Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  5. Valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in photonic valley crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Valley, as a degree of freedom, has been exploited to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials. On the other hand, orbital angular momentum of light with helical phase distribution has attracted great attention for its unprecedented opportunity to optical communicagtions, atom trapping, and even nontrivial topology engineering. Here, we reveal valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in all-dielectric photonic valley crystals. Selective excitation of valley chiral bulk states is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Valley dependent edge states, predictable by nonzero valley Chern number, enable to suppress the inter-valley scattering along zigzag boundary, leading to broadband robust transmission in Z-shape bend without corner morphological optimization. Our work may open up a new door towards the discovery of novel quantum states and the manipulation of spin-orbit interaction of light in nanophotonics.

  6. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  7. A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager. At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of 29 Olive (Olea europaea L. Cultivars for Production and Alternate Bearing, in the Huasco Valley, Northern Chile Evaluación Preliminar de la Produción y Añerismo en 29 Variedades de Olivo (Olea europaea L. en el Valle del Huasco, Norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tapia C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the development of intensively managed olive orchards (Olea europaea L. in northern Chile. The selection of specific varieties that perform well on a particular site is considered crucial to maximizing productivity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the productive performance of 29 varieties of olive in the Huasco Valley (28°34' S, 70°47' W, Northern Chile.The traits evaluated were: mean olive production per tree considering a longitudinal (PML analysis over a period of five years, 2003 to 2007, total olive production in the same period (PA03-07 and alternate bearing index (ABI. The effect of variety was highly significant (p En el norte de Chile existe un creciente interés en el desarrollo de huertos de olivo (Olea europaea L. manejados intensivamente. La selección de variedades específicas que han respondido bien en un sitio en particular es considerada clave para la maximización de la productividad. El presente estudio fue realizado para evaluar el desempeño de algunas características agronómicas en 29 variedades de olivo, en el Valle del Huasco (28°34' S, 70°47' O, norte de Chile. Las características analizadas correspondieron a producción de frutos promedio por árbol (PML en un análisis longitudinal durante un período de 5 años, 2003 a 2007, producción acumulada del mismo período (PA03-07 y el índice de alternancia de producción (ABI. El efecto debido a la variedad fue altamente significativo (p < 0,01 para las tres características. El ABI fue moderado (0,52, con una PML de 37,37 kg árbol-1 y PA03-07 de 186 kg árbol-1. Correlaciones de Spearman entre los ranking de cada característica fueron positivas y significativamente diferentes de cero (p < 0,05. ‘Leccino’ tuvo la mejor respuesta considerando únicamente la producción de frutos. ‘Arbequina’, ‘Picholine’, ‘Manzanilla Racimo’, ‘Picual’, ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’, ‘Frantoio’ y

  9. An Early Pleistocene Till, Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Roed, M.; Smith, S.; Sanborn, P.; Greenough, J.; Layer, P. W.; Huscroft, C.; Mathewes, R.; Benowitz, J.; Tessler, D.

    2011-12-01

    During construction of a road cut related to the Westside Road Interchange Project in West Kelowna, British Columbia, a till was encountered below one of the Lambly Creek valley basalts. The basalts are composed of a number of flows, ranging in age from 0.97 +- 0.05 Ma to 1.62 +-0.25 Ma based on new and available 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt ground mass. Paleomagnetic data from all major units at the study site fall within one of the normal subchrons of the late Matuyama Reversed Chron and are in general agreement with the radiometric dates. Chemical signatures of the basalt are nearly identical to similar flows belonging to the Chilcotin Group of plateau lavas. This newly identified Chilcotin flow, combined with coeval flows at other locations imply that Chilcotin volcanism was more active during the Quaternary than previously thought. The underlying till is up to four metres thick and is mantled by a minimal Ah horizon in a paleosol. The till overlies laminated and cross bedded fluvial silty sand up to five metres thick that displays injection features and minor faulting. A layer of stratified gravel underlain by gray banded clay of unknown thickness underlies the sand. The till represents the earliest evidence of glaciation in the Okanagan Valley. Till fabric analysis indicates a southeasterly flow of this glacier. The present study site has yielded radiometric ages and polarities similar to those described by Mathews and Rouse for the Dog Creek locality, 320 km to the northwest in south-central British Columbia, where basalts occur below and above glacial deposits. The newly identified glacial till, here referred to as the Westbank First Nations till, is discussed in relation to other Early Pleistocene glaciations in the Cordillera and to the global paleoclimate record. Key Words: Early Pleistocene glaciations, Cordilleran glaciations in western Canada, magnetostratigraphy of glacial sediments, Lambly Creek basalt, Chilcotin Group, Ar/Ar ages of basalts

  10. Ore-Bearing Formations of the Precambrian in South China and Their Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jurui; WANG Aiguo; RUI Xingjian; LI Chunhai

    2004-01-01

    In the Precambrian System of the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates six ore-bearing formations can be identified: the Cu-Pb-Zn-bearing formations in volcanic rocks of marine facies of the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, CuAu-bearing formations and Pb-Zn-bearing formations in volcanic rocks of marine facies of the Mesoproterozoic, Pb-Znbearing formations in volcaniclastic rock and carbonate rock of the Neoproterozoic, Fe-Mn-bearing formations in the volcaniclastic rock of the Neoproterozoic, and Ni-Cr-serpentine-bearing formations in ophiolite and ultrabasic rock of the Meso- and Neoproterozoic. They were mostly formed in the marginal rift valleys of the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates,where occur stratabound and stratiform ore deposits, thermal deposits and porphyry polymetallic deposits. The six regions with ore-bearing formations have good prospects for ore deposits.

  11. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  12. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  13. Bearing fatigue investigation 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

  14. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setti...

  15. Geology of the Quartz Creek Pegmatite District, Gunnison County Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer H.; Trites, A.F.

    1952-01-01

    The Quartz Creek pegmatite district includes an area about 29 square miles in the vicinity of Quartz Creek in Gunnison County,. Colo. This area contains 1,803 pegmatites that are intruded into pre-Cambrian rocks.

  16. Preliminary Biotic Survey of Cane Creek, Calhoun County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biotic survey of Cane Creek (Calhoun County, AL) was completed in the Fall (1992) and Winter (1993) at six sites within Cane Creek to determine the effects of...

  17. Land Use Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines the various land uses at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. The Land Use Plan for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge provides a description...

  18. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge contaminant survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of a baseline contaminant survey of all National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) in Missouri, fish were collected at the Squaw Creek NWR from Davis and Squaw creeks...

  19. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  20. Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    rich plankton community. However, recent industrial development along the banks of creek may pose the problem due to waste disposal into this creek system. Losses of marine life diversity are largely the results of conflicting uses, in particular...

  1. Arcturus and the Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    2009-08-01

    Arcturus is the brightest star in Bootes. The ancient Greek name Arktouros means Bear Guard. The star, however, is not close to Ursa Maior (Big She-Bear) and Ursa Minor (Little She-Bear), as the name would suggest. This curious discrepancy could be explained by the star proper motion, assuming the name Bear Guard is a remote cultural heritage. The proper motion analysis could allow us to get an insight also into an ancient myth regarding Ursa Maior. Though we cannot explain scientifically such a myth, some interesting suggestions can be obtained about its possible origin, in the context of the present knowledge of the importance of the cult of the bear both during the Palaeolithic times and for several primitive populations of modern times, as shown by the ethnological studies.

  2. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  3. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  4. Silicon Valley Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Silicon Valley is home to the most dynamic industries in the California economy. These industries--the high-tech sector--are driven by innovation, and each new wave of innovation is usually led by creative entrepreneurs starting new firms.

  5. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  6. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet...

  7. 76 FR 9225 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 50707). The temporary deviation... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore... changing the drawbridge operation regulations of the Pennington Avenue Bridge, across Curtis Creek, mile...

  8. 75 FR 1705 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek... operation of the I695 Bridge across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. The deviation is necessary to... section of Curtis Creek and the bridge will not be able to open in the event of an emergency. Coast...

  9. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... continued livestock grazing ] within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area. The analysis will... conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area towards desired conditions. The project...

  10. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  11. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before...

  12. 78 FR 20146 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... and soils; water resources; ecological resources; visual and scenic resources; noise; historic and... COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming... in-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium at the Lost Creek Project in Sweetwater County, Wyoming....

  13. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  14. How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

    2013-01-01

    The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood…

  15. Outline of the water resources of the Status Creek basin, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dee

    1976-01-01

    On the Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington, only about 5 percent of the Satus Creek basin--in the relatively flat eastern lowland adjacent to and including part of the Yakima River lowland--is agriculturally developed, mostly through irrigation. Because the basin 's streams do not contain adequate water for irrigation, most irrigation is by canal diversion from the adjoining Toppenish Creek basin. Irrigation application of as much as 9.25 acre-feet per acre per year, combined with the presence of poorly drained silt and clay layers in this area, and the natural upward discharge of ground water from deeper aquifers (water-bearing layers), has contributed to a waterlogging problem, which has affected about 10,500 acres, or about 25 percent of the irrigated area. In the upland of the basin, a large average annual base flow of about 30 cubic feet per second in Logy Creek indicates the presence of a potentially highly productive aquifer in young (shallow) basalt lavas underlying the higher western parts of the upland. This aquifer may provide a reservoir from which streamflow may be augmented by ground-water pumping or, alternatively, it may be used as a source of ground water for irrigation of upland areas directly. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Management recommendations: Bear River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  17. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  18. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  19. My Little Teddy Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱佳楠

    2005-01-01

    @@ As Valentine's Day came closer,every shop was full of colourful gifts such as cookies in the shape of heart, chocolates,Teddy Bears and so on.When I step into a shop on February 14th,I felt most lonely as I was alone.With mv eves fixed on a lovely Teddy Bear, I wished that someone could send me this stuffed toy.

  20. Revitalizing the Mahoning Valley

    OpenAIRE

    T F Buss; Vaughan, R J

    1987-01-01

    For nearly a decade, since the closing of its steel mills, the Mahoning Valley in northeast Ohio has pursued a traditional development strategy, based upon large capital subsidies, to attract new or support existing businesses. These policies have failed. As a result, local business leaders have questioned the foundations of traditional policy and have developed an alternative strategy that involves a far broader set of state and local programs in the development process. The new strategy aim...

  1. Physical model of a floating trash boom to control aquatic weeds at the TVA Widows Creek Fossil Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Widows Creek Fossil plant seasonally encounters adverse accumulations of aquatic weeds at the intakes of the condenser cooling water pumps. To reduce the accumulations, a floating trash boom has been proposed for the intakes. To evaluate the hydraulic feasibility of a boom, a physical model of the intakes has been built at the TVA Engineering Laboratory. The model was used to determine the boom alignment and depth of skimming needed to successfully deflect weeds away from the intakes and provide self-cleaning

  2. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  3. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M.; Maher, Barbara A.;

    2011-01-01

    artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating...

  4. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the thick regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system of Indian Creek basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Smith, Douglas G.; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    1997-01-01

    The Indian Creek Basin in the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina is one of five type areas studied as part of the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System analysis. Detailed studies of selected type areas were used to quantify ground-water flow characteristics in various conceptual hydrogeologic terranes. The conceptual hydrogeologic terranes are considered representative of ground-water conditions beneath large areas of the three physiographic provinces--Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont--that compose the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis area. The Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study area extends over approximately 142,000 square miles in 11 states and the District of Columbia in the Appalachian highlands of the Eastern United States. The Indian Creek type area is typical of ground-water conditions in a single hydrogeologic terrane that underlies perhaps as much as 40 percent of the Piedmont physiographic province. The hydrogeologic terrane of the Indian Creek model area is one of massive and foliated crystalline rocks mantled by thick regolith. The area lies almost entirely within the Inner Piedmont geologic belt. Five hydrogeologic units occupy major portions of the model area, but statistical tests on well yields, specific capacities, and other hydrologic characteristics show that the five hydrogeologic units can be treated as one unit for purposes of modeling ground-water flow. The 146-square-mile Indian Creek model area includes the Indian Creek Basin, which has a surface drainage area of about 69 square miles. The Indian Creek Basin lies in parts of Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties, North Carolina. The larger model area is based on boundary conditions established for digital simulation of ground-water flow within the smaller Indian Creek Basin. The ground-water flow model of the Indian Creek Basin is based on the U.S. Geological Survey?s modular finite

  5. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.

  6. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  7. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  8. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  9. Blood Pump Bearing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  10. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Volcanology and Seismology, the new lake appears to be stable and draining gradually through the earthen dam, alleviating fears of a catastrophic flood. Should the new lake drain enough, many of the inundated geysers may restart. Initial reports from the Volcanology and Seismology Institute state this has already happened for some geysers. Geysers outside of the slide region, including the Velikan (Giant) Geyser and a major section of the geyser field known as Vitrazh (Stained Glass) appear to have escaped damage. In addition to destroying a number of geysers, the landslide may have damaged habitats in the Valley of the Geysers. The thermal waters and heated steam jets made this valley warmer than the surrounding landscape, and the warmth supported a unique ecosystem. The loss of a large part of its heat source may alter the ecosystem, but it is not clear what additional longer-term changes might occur. For example, salmon that spawn in the Geyser River will be confined to the lower reaches of the river, and bears, which depended on salmon, will need to shift feeding grounds correspondingly. Thanks to Sergey Chernomorets and Boris Yurchak for information and translation. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  12. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  13. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  14. The Little Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林战峰; 乐伟国

    2007-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A little bear has a magic stick.It can make his wishes come true. One day,the little bear is walking in the forest.He sees a bird.It is flying in the sky.It has two beautiful wings."I want two beautiful wings.I wish I can fly like a bird,"he says to the magic stick.Two beautiful wings come out from his back and he can fly like a bird now.He is very happy.

  15. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-03-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26-0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76-77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  16. Soil conservation and the reduction of erosion and sedimentation in the Coon Creek basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S.W.; Lund, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Coon Creek basin, in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin, has been strikingly transformed by soil conservation measures since the 1930's. Comparison of sheet and rill erosion by use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation, shows 1975 erosion rates on upland fields to be about one-fourth those of 1934. Average annual sedimentation accumulation in small reservoirs declined from about 5,000 megagrams per square kilometer in 1936-45 to about 50 megagrams per square kilometer in 1962-75. Analysis of deposition in tributary valleys suggests that annual rates declined from about 3,700 megagrams per square kilometer in the 1930 's to about 35-70 megagrams per square kilometer in recent years. These reductions in erosion and sedimentation are due principally to improvements in land management and, to a lesser degree, to changes in land use. (USGS)

  17. Steel creek macroinvertebrates: L Lake/steel creek biological monitoring program January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hop, J.R.; Lauritsen, D.; Magoulik, D.

    1988-04-01

    The macroinvertebrate community in Steel Creek was monitored at 13 sampling stations from January 1986 to December 1987 to assess the effects of L-Lake impoundment on the biological community downstream from the dam. The benthic macroinvertebrate communities were sampled monthly at 13 stations in Steel Creek using artificial substrates. Macroinvertebrates suspended in the water column were collected monthly at seven stations using drift nets. Emerging aquatic insects were sampled monthly at seven stations with floating emergence traps. Invertebrates on natural substrates (bottom sediments, snags, and macrophytes) were collected at seven stations in May and September in both 1986 and 1987. Macroinvertebrates were collected in February and August of 1986 and 1987 at 13 stations in Steel Creek using dip nets. 61 refs., 79 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  19. Phytoplankton Community of Elechi Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria-A Nutrient-Polluted Tropical Creek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Davies

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Elechi Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta contributes to the Rivers State Fish resources. It is a sink receiving organic anthropogenic wastes from Diobu, Eagle Island and waterfront dwellers of Diobu areas. Fishing, car washing, bathing, swimming and other human activities are constantly going on within and around this creek. Based on these activities, there is urgent need to study the phytoplankton community that supports its fisheries. Approach: The study investigated the phytoplankton composition, diversity, abundance and distribution as well as surface water physico-chemical parameters. Phytoplankton and surface water samples were collected bi-monthly from October 2007-March 2008 at high tide from five stations according to APHA methods. These were analyzed for temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, salinity, alkalinity, chloride and nutrients. Phytoplankton was identified microscopically. Species diversity was calculated using standard indices. Results: A total of 169 species of phytoplankton, based on cell counts, was dominated by diatoms, 33255 counts mL-1 (36% and blue-green algae, 32909 counts mL-1 (35.7% were identified. The abundance of phytoplankton decreased downstream of this creek (1>2>3>4 except in station 5 with the highest phytoplankton abundance (23938 counts mL-1. There was slight fluctuation in the measured physico-chemical parameters. The results of this study indicated the characteristic species and distribution of phytoplankton in Elechi Creek during the dry months. Conclusion/Recommendation: The high level of phosphate above the permissive limit showed that this creek is hypereutrophic and organic polluted. The high nutrients status favors the high abundance of phytoplankton. The municipal effluents (especially raw human and animal faces discharges must be discontinued. Detergents with low concentration of phosphate are recommended for manufacturing and use. Municipal wastes must

  20. Proeftuin Food Valley : duurzame voedselketens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agricola, H.J.; Vijn, M.P.; Groot Nibbelink, M.

    2012-01-01

    De regio FoodValley heeft veel intensieve veehouderij en secundaire bedrijven die aan deze sector zijn gerelateerd. De uitdaging voor verduurzaming van de agrofoodketen in de regio FoodValley is om bij betrokken partijen veranderingen tot stand te brengen op basis van een win-win situatie. Ofwel inn

  1. Silver Bear for Screenplay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese director Wang Quan'an won the Silver Bear Prize at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival that lasted during February 11 to 21 tor the best screenplay for his movie Apart Together.The film also opened the festival.

  2. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  3. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 3. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, R.M.; Walters, W.H.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-08-01

    A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during April 1979 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Bed sediment, suspended sediment and water samples were collected during unsteady flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, Cs-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. This field sampling effort was the last of a three phase program to collect hydrologic and radiologic data at different flow conditions.

  4. Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.

  5. Hunting Plan : Gardner Division and Bear Creek Unit Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Mark Twain...

  6. Contaminants Survey: Bear Creek Well Number 1: Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1988, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) funded a contaminants project with the following objectives : 1) conduct a reconnaissance-level field...

  7. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    conditions at some time or in some location(s) in most aquifers. Frequent detections of zinc in the alluvium aquifer may represent anthropogenic influences such as mining. Along the mesas in the upper San Mateo Creek Basin, springs that form various creeks, including El Rito and San Mateo Creeks, discharge from the basalt-cap layer and the upper Cretaceous sedimentary layers. Streamflow in El Rito and San Mateo Creeks flows down steep gradients near the mesas sustained by groundwater discharges, and this streamflow transitions to shallow groundwater contained within the valley alluvium through infiltration where the subsequent groundwater is restricted from downward migration by the shaly Menefee Formation. This shallow groundwater reemerges at seeps where the land surface has been eroded below the groundwater level. Spring- and creek-water samples contained small amounts of dissolved solutes, and seep water contained substantially larger amounts of dissolved solutes. The pH of water within the creeks was neutral to alkaline, and all locations exhibited well-oxygenated conditions, although typically at substantially less than saturated levels. Changes in the stable-isotope ratios of water between spring and summer samples indicate differences in source-water inputs that likely pertain to seasonal recharge sources. Results of the water-isotope analysis and geochemical modeling indicate little evaporation and chemical weathering at the spring and creek sites but stronger evaporation and chemical weathering by the time the water reaches the seep locations in the center of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin.

  8. Magnetic bearings grow more attractive

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Advances in materials and electronics have enabled designers to devise simpler, smaller magnetic bearings. As a result, costs have dropped, widening the applications for these very-low-friction devices. Avcon (Advanced Controls Technology) has patented a permanent-magnet bias actively controlled bearing. Here high-energy rare earth permanent-magnet materials supply the basic bearing load levitation, while servo-driven electromagnets generate stabilization and centering forces for motion contol. Previous heavy-duty magnetic bearings used electromagnets entirely for suspension and control, which led to large bearings and control systems with higher power requirements. Avcon has developed several types of permanent-magnet bias bearings. The simplest is the radial repulsion bearing. Avcon's homopolar permanent-magnet bias active bearing is the most versatile of the company's designs.

  9. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of

  10. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  11. New Results on the Palaeobiology of Bears on the Swabian Alb (Chronology, Isotopic Geochemistry and Palaeogenetics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzel, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Paleogenetic investigations at three geographically close caves in the Ach Valley near Blaubeuren have revealed two different cave bear haplogroups. These two haplogroups correspond to Ursus spelaeus (haplogroup 1) and Ursus ingressus (haplogroup 4) (Rabeder & Hofreiter 2004, Die Höhle 55, 58-77). This genetic variability was first attested for Geißenklösterle and Sirgenstein cave, but the new genetic data attest them also for Hohle Fels. In all three caves Ursus ingressus replaced Ursus spelaeus around 28 000 B.P. The carbon and nitrogen isotopes of the two genetic types do not vary significantly, meaning that there is no dietary difference between them and Ursus spelaeus were in dietary competition with Ursus ingressus in the Ach valley. The radiocarbon dates suggested a sudden replacement (Hofreiter et al. 2007, Current Biology 17(4): R1-R3), which must have been accompanied by local extinction of the older cave bear, according to the dietary competition with the younger bear. The possible reasons for this replacement are not clear yet. Climatic changes are unlikely, since the faunal composition remains the same and the environmental data do not differ significantly. But we cannot exclude human impact on the cave bear population, since a cave bear vertebra with an embedded fragment of a flint projectile was recovered in the Gravettian layer AH IIcf dated to 27 830+150-140 B.P. and gives indisputable proof of the hunting of cave bears. Numerous cut marks proof an ongoing exploitation of this species. In this context, new radiocarbon dates and isotopic results on cave bears and coeval brown bears will help us to refine the possible scenarios of this complex evolutionary and ecological process. These results will be used to test hypotheses of competitive exclusion between the different bear species. This study will exemplify how combining evidence from different approaches can provide invaluable clues about palaeobiology of late Pleistocene large mammals such as

  12. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley, located about 30 miles north of San Francisco, is one of several basins in Sonoma County that use a combination of ground water and water delivered from the Russian River for supply. Over the past 30 years, Sonoma Valley has experienced rapid population growth and land-use changes. In particular, there has been a significant increase in irrigated agriculture, predominantly vineyards. To provide a better understanding of the ground-water/surface-water system in Sonoma Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled and evaluated existing data, collected and analyzed new data, and developed a ground-water flow model to better understand and manage the ground-water system. The new data collected include subsurface lithology, gravity measurements, groundwater levels, streamflow gains and losses, temperature, water chemistry, and stable isotopes. Sonoma Valley is drained by Sonoma Creek, which discharges into San Pablo Bay. The long-term average annual volume of precipitation in the watershed is estimated to be 269,000 acre-feet. Recharge to the ground-water system is primarily from direct precipitation and Sonoma Creek. Discharge from the ground-water system is predominantly outflow to Sonoma Creek, pumpage, and outflow to marshlands and to San Pablo Bay. Geologic units of most importance for groundwater supply are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, the Huichica Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. In this report, the ground-water system is divided into three depth-based geohydrologic units: upper (less than 200 feet below land surface), middle (between 200 and 500 feet), and lower (greater than 500 feet). Synoptic streamflow measurements were made along Sonoma Creek and indicate those reaches with statistically significant gains or losses. Changes in ground-water levels in wells were analyzed by comparing historical contour maps with the contour map for 2003. In addition, individual hydrographs were evaluated to assess temporal

  13. Fossil proboscidea and edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, James Williams

    1926-01-01

    A preliminary report on the fossil vertebrates of the San Pedro Valley, Ariz., collected by Kirk Bryan and me in the winter of 1920 and 1921 was published in 1922. This report includes a brief statement regarding the geology of the locality and a preliminary list of fossil vertebrates obtained by the expedition of 1921, with descriptions of the rodents and rabbits. Two additional papers on this interesting fauna have also appeared, one on the turtles by C.W. Gilmore and one on the birds by Alexander Wetmore. The present contribution deals with the proboscideans and edentates and gives a somewhat fuller discussion of the geology of the fossil-bearing beds.

  14. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  15. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  16. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  17. Magnetic bearing and motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  18. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing. 19 claims, 3 figures

  19. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Elman E.

    1977-01-01

    A bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing.

  20. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58... Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  1. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  2. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  3. Torrential floods: A potential hazard at the Aburra valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrential foods are a type of mass movement generally moving through the channels of the creeks, leading to transport large volumes of sediment and debris, unsafe speeds for the people and infrastructure located in areas of accumulation of mountain watersheds susceptible to this phenomenon. Although there is no adequate historical record of such events to the valley of Aburra, if there are some experiences that validate the growing concern about this threat in the region. The geomorphologic and climatic conditions in the valley allow us to call attention to this problem, especially when we consider that the basins have been practically occupied in low or accumulation areas are being subjected to strong constructive pressure, without concern in the negative impact that the inappropriate intervention, can have in the lowlands. It requires interdisciplinary research programs of these phenomena in order to have the scientific information needed to advance threat assessments appropriated to our conditions. It is also important that the authorities and people understand that, in part, the protection of the settlements of the lowland areas of accumulation, depending on management given to the upper reaches of the escarpment and transportation areas.

  4. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    1999-12-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  5. 77 FR 12476 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore..., across Curtis Creek, mile 1.0, at Baltimore, MD. This deviation allows the bridge to operate on...

  6. 75 FR 54069 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... (75 FR 30747-30750). The rulemaking concerned eliminating the need for a bridge tender by allowing the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625--AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek... Avenue Bridge, at mile 0.9, across Curtis Creek at Baltimore, MD. The requested change would have...

  7. 75 FR 50707 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore... operation of the Pennington Avenue Bridge, across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. This deviation... vessels bound for the Coast Guard Yard at Curtis Bay, as well as a significant amount of commercial...

  8. 76 FR 71936 - Upper Deckers Creek Watershed, Preston County, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Upper Deckers Creek Watershed, Preston County, WV AGENCY: Natural... notice that an environmental impact statement is being prepared for the Upper Deckers Creek Watershed... Domestic Assistance under No. 10.904--Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention--and is subject to...

  9. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Basin Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    1999-07-01

    coordination with the U.S. Forest Service, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, LaGrande Ranger District (USFS) on the Forest Road 2137 (McIntyre Road) Relocation and Obliteration Project and the McCoy Creek crossing. The USFS completed engineering designs under the cooperative effort for the McCoy Creek crossing. Project activities accomplished on the Upper Mainstem Large Wood Addition Project included placement of approximately 120 whole trees to enhance instream structural diversity, pool habitat quality, streambank stability, and improved floodplain morphology. Project activities accomplished on the Mainstem Grande Ronde Habitat Enhancement Project included coordination with landowners (Shauna Musgrove of Cuhna Ranches, Dean Stone, and the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, LaGrande Ranger District) to develop a habitat enhancement/restoration project opportunity along a 3 mile section of the mainstem Grande Ronde River and major tributaries including the lower reaches of Bear Creek and Jordan Creek. Upon securing an agreement with the landowners, project partners including the CTUIR, ODFW, NRCS, and USFS initiated development of project objectives and site-specific designs. By June 1998, project designs were completed and preparations nearly complete to initiate onsite project construction.

  10. CRIA Sians A areement with Rubber Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The signing ceremony of establishing strategic partnership between China Rubber Industry Association and Rubber Valley Co., Ltd. was held in Rubber Valley on September 13. Leaders such as Xu Wenying, Deputy Secretary-General of CRIA, repre-senting CRIA, and Zhang Yan, Deputy Director of Rubber Valley Management Committee and General Manager of Rubber Valley Co., Ltd., representing Rubber Valley, signed on the cooperation agreement. Fan Rende, President of CRIA, Cai Quanji,

  11. The History of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Just as Manchester was once the center for indus trial progress, the microelectronics industry also has a heartland. Silicon Valley is located in a thirty by ten miles strip between San Francisco and San Jose,California.

  12. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  13. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  14. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  15. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; Leu

    2006-01-01

      Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.……

  16. Respirators, internal dose, and Oyster Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article looks at the experience of Oyster Creek in relaxing the requirements for the use of respirators in all facets of plant maintenance, on the overall dose received by plant maintenance personnel. For Roger Shaw, director of radiological controls for three years at GPU Nuclear Corporation's Oyster Creek nuclear plant the correct dose balance is determined on a job-by-job basis: Does the job require a respirator, which is an effective means of decreasing worker inhalation of airborne radioactive particles? Will wearing a respirator slow down a worker, consequently increasing whole body radiation exposure by prolonging the time spent in fields of high external radiation? How does respiratory protection affect worker safety and to what degree? While changes to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR20 have updated the radiation protection requirements for the nuclear industry, certain of the revisions have been directed specifically at reducing worker dose, Shaw said. open-quotes It basically delineates that dose is dose,close quotes Shaw said, open-quotes regardless of whether it is acquired externally or internally.close quotes The revision of Part 20 changed the industry's attitude toward internal dose, which had always been viewed negatively. open-quotes Internal dose was always seen as preventable by wearing respirators and by using engineering techniques such as ventilation control and decontamination,close quotes Shaw said, open-quotes whereas external dose, although reduced where practical, was seen as a fact of the job.close quotes

  17. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 5. Geochemistry and geologic setting of the thermal waters of the northern Cache Valley area, Franklin County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1976-07-01

    The thermal waters of the north-south trending graben structure known as northern Cache Valley in southeastern Idaho were sampled during the summer and fall of 1973. Geologic and gravity data for the area indicate fault control for nearly all thermal water occurrences. Thermal-water discharges are generally restricted to the course of the Bear River with few known in areas away from the river. Spring deposits in the form of travertine may not be indications of low temperature thermal waters because abundant limestone and dolomite make up the geologic framework. Much gas, believed to consist mostly of carbon dioxide, is being evolved from many of the springs. The hottest water is found near Battle Creek and Squaw hot springs approximately 4 kilometers northwest of the town of Preston. Metoric waters descend along fault planes, fractures, and fissures to depths at which they are heated by increasing rock temperatures (geothermal gradient of 5/sup 0/C per 100 meters). Due to decreased density, the heated waters rise along the same or adjacent fault planes to the surface. The quartz equilibrium geochemical thermometer applied to the thermal water discharges indicates temperatures approaching 150/sup 0/C may be encountered by deep drilling. Mixing models, based on quartz solubility, indicate higher aquifer temperatures than the quartz equilibrium thermometer, but chloride concentration vs. temperature plots are not linear. The sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometer indicates higher temperatures than quartz equilibrium and mixing models. The thermal waters are higher in total dissolved solids (12,000 to 13,000 milligrams per liter) than are known elsewhere in Idaho and represent potential pollution hazards should large scale withdrawal be attempted.

  18. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Nanticoke Creek stratified-drift aquifer, near Endicott, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitinger, Elizabeth A.; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Village of Endicott, New York, is seeking an alternate source of public drinking water with the potential to supplement their current supply, which requires treatment due to legacy contamination. The southerly-draining Nanticoke Creek valley, located north of the village, was identified as a potential water source and the local stratified-drift (valley fill) aquifer was investigated to determine its hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics. Nanticoke Creek and its aquifer extend from the hamlet of Glen Aubrey, N.Y., to the village of Endicott, a distance of about 15 miles, where it joins the Susquehanna River and its aquifer. The glacial sediments that comprise the stratified-drift aquifer vary in thickness and are generally underlain by glacial till over Devonian-aged shale and siltstone. Groundwater is more plentiful in the northern part of the aquifer where sand and gravel deposits are generally more permeable than in the southern part of the aquifer where less-permeable unconsolidated deposits are found. Generally there is enough groundwater to supply most homeowner wells and in some cases, supply small public-water systems such as schools, mobile-home parks, and small commercial/industrial facilities. The aquifer is recharged by precipitation, runoff, and tributary streams. Most tributary streams flowing across alluvial deposits lose water to the aquifer as they flow off of their bedrock-lined channels and into the more permeable alluvial deposits at the edges of the valley. The quality of both surface water and groundwater is generally good. Some water wells do have water-quality issues related to natural constituents (manganese and iron) and several homeowners noted either the smell and (or) taste of hydrogen sulfide in their drinking water. Dissolved methane concentrations from five drinking-water wells were well below the potentially explosive value of 28 milligrams per liter. Samples from surface and groundwater met nearly all State and Federal

  19. Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Pragenau, George L.

    1994-01-01

    Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

  20. VEGETATION INVENTORY OF BALABANDERE VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Ulvi Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Balabandere Valley where Belgrad forest and Bosphorus meet in the easterly orientation of the forest has a very important ecological wealth within the greater Istanbul manucipality. The area, in which this study was conducted, has a potantial to become an outdoor recreation laboratory in and around Istanbul city. Balabandere valley and its vicinity can as well be described as a conservation zone with its cultural and ecological landscaoe history. It harbors a very crucial watershed for the ci...

  1. Stable isotopic evidence for fluid flow and fluid/rock interaction during thrust faulting in Pumpkin Valley shale and Rome Formation, east Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.K.; Haase, C.S. (E. C. Jordan Co., Portland, ME (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Pumpkin Valley Shale and the underlying Rome Formation form the lower portions of the Copper Creek and White Oak Mountain thrust sheets in east Tennessee. The Pumpkin Valley Shale consists of shale and mudstone with subordinate amounts of interbedded siltstone. The Rome Formation is composed predominantly of sandstone with interbedded shale and siltstone toward the base of the formation. The percentage of illite increases from 20% to over 80% of the bulk clay mineralogy toward the base of the section. Porosity is occluded by quartz, phyllosilicate, and calcite cements. Both formations contain calcite-filled and, less commonly, quartz-filled Alleghenian fractures and joints.

  2. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Tim; Thom, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based solvents, such as CFC-113 and 1,1,1, trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanism bearings. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change requiring the use of ODC-free cleaners for precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises; what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life? The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0 x 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90 C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing, the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition, the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  3. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  4. Geological and geothermal investigation of the lower Wind River valley, southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berri, D.A.; Korosec, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley is presented with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource. The lower Wind River drainage consists primarily of the Ohanapecosh Formation, an Oligocene unit that is recognized across the entire southern Washington Cascade Range. The formation is at least 300 m thick in the Wind River valley area. It consists largely of volcaniclastic sediments, with minor massive pyroclastic flows, volcanic breccias and lava flows. Low grade zeolite facies metamorphism during the Miocene led to formation of hydrothermal minerals in Ohanapecosh strata. Metamorphism probably occurred at less than 180{sup 0}C.

  5. Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T. E. C.; Thompson, J. M.; Hutchinson, R. A.; White, L. D.

    1992-02-01

    Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8°C in early summer and from 15 to 17°C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation.

  6. Bearings only naval tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, M.J.

    1984-11-01

    Two commonly used Extended Kalman Filter tracking algorithms utilize the Relative Cartesian and Modified Polar coordinate systems. This report compares the two algorithms by exercising a destroyer-Submarine (DD/SS) computer simulation. A simple engagement geometry is employed which encompasses the major DD/SS options available. Error statistics are developed by Monte Carlo methods. Results are presented which show that the circular error depends upon the diagonal values of the error covariance matrix. The results also support (but do not establish) that the optimum DD manuevuer is that which minimizes the range while maximizing the bearing rate. 4 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  8. Impacts of mine subsidence on the strata and hydrology of river valleys/management guidelines for undermining cliffs gorges and river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur Waddington

    2002-06-01

    Prior to commencement of this project, there had been considerable concern about the impacts of mining on creeks and rivers in the Hunter Valley, water storage reservoirs in the Southern Coalfield, escarpments and cliffs in the Southern and Western Coalfields and the Cataract River Gorge, at Tower Colliery. Numerous longwall extractions have already been completed and many more longwalls are planned beneath creeks, river valleys, gorges and clifflines in the NSW Coalfields. Indeed, the topography makes it virtually impossible to avoid such features. All of the current coal mining operations in the Southern Coalfield, and most of those that are planned in future, are taking place in areas of steep topography and are likely to have some impact on creeks, river valleys, gorges, clifflines and associated infrastructure. The research work was undertaken by a multi-disciplinary team included surveys and monitoring of ground movements, geological investigations and hydrological studies, rock classification and testing and in situ stress measurements; numerical modelling and development of numerically based predictive methods; design and construction of a physical scaled model that can be used to illustrate the underlying mechanisms of strata movements for a range of different mining scenarios. This report includes a literature review and comprehensive discussion on the findings that have arisen from the empirical studies, the numerical modelling work and the physical modelling facility. The research work has provided new insights into the mechanisms involved as creeks, river valleys, gorges and clifflines are undermined and has resulted in new methods for the prediction and assessment of subsidence impacts. The final output from the research project will be a management information handbook, to assist coal mining companies that are planning to mine in areas of steep topography.

  9. +2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

    2012-12-01

    Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

  10. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  11. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  12. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  13. Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory Data Management Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Fey, Jeri; Anderson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This Data Management Plan (DMP) was created using the DMPTool. It describes all data collected as part of the the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) project, which focuses on research in the Boulder Creek watershed. The project is hosted at the Institute or Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), University of Colorado at Boulder, USA.The goal for the Boulder Creek CZO is to create and collect meaningful and interesting research of the Earth’s critical zone by making this diverse dat...

  14. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  15. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  16. Simulation of Plain Bearings in Turbo-Generators Using the Stand ISO7902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Elena García Toll

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of plain bearings is fundamental in guaranteeing the full running and maintenance of machines. Due to the fluctuations in working conditions, the simulation of plain bearing in turbines and generators has become increasingly necessary. The procedure used to obtain data is based on ISO Standards 7902:1998 which involves the calculation of the load capacity of plain bearings under hydrodynamic lubricant conditions. This method can be used to determine if the plain bearing under load and working conditions will be able to form and maintain a film of lubricant which is important to separate completely the shaft and bearing sliding surfaces in order to prevent friction between these two. Also, with this method it is possible to determine the ideal working conditions and limiting factors in the functioning of plain bearing. Some of these factors are: relative bearing clearance, shaft velocity, lubricant viscosity, diameter and width of bearing, average peak-to-valley height of sliding surfaces and nominal radial. Additionally, a calculation sample is presented

  17. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  18. The geology and tectonic significance of the Big Creek Gneiss, Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    The Big Creek Gneiss, southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is a heterogeneous suite of upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks intruded by post-metamorphic pegmatitic granite. The metamorphic rocks consist of three individual protolith suites: (1) pre- to syn-1780-Ma supracrustal rocks including clastic metasedimentary rocks, calc-silicate paragneiss, and metavolcanic rocks; (2) a bimodal intrusive suite composed of metagabbro and granodiorite-tonalite gneiss; and (3) a younger bimodal suite composed of garnet-bearing metagabbronorite and coarse-grained granitic gneiss. Zircons U-Pb ages from the Big Creek Gneiss demonstrate that: (1) the average age of detrital zircons in the supracrustal rocks is ~1805 Ma, requiring a significant source of 1805-Ma (or older) detritus during deposition, possibly representing an older phase of arc magmatism; (2) the older bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1780 Ma, correlative with arc-derived rocks of the Green Mountain Formation; (3) the younger bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1763 Ma, coeval with the extensional(?) Horse Creek anorthosite complex in the Laramie Mountains and Sierra Madre Granite batholith in the southwestern Sierra Madre; (4) Big Creek Gneiss rocks were tectonically buried, metamorphosed, and partially melted at ~1750 Ma, coeval with the accretion of the Green Mountain arc to the Wyoming province along the Cheyenne belt; (5) the posttectonic granite and pegmatite bodies throughout the Big Creek Gneiss crystallized at ~1630 Ma and are correlative with the 'white quartz monzonite' of the south-central Sierra Madre. Geochemical analysis of the ~1780-Ma bimodal plutonic suite demonstrates a clear arc-affinity for the mafic rocks, consistent with a subduction environment origin. The granodioritic rocks of this suite were not derived by fractional crystallization from coeval mafic magmas, but are instead interpreted as melts of lower-crustal mafic material. This combination of mantle

  19. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  20. Dynamic Analysis of Engine Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hirani

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple methodology to evaluate the stiffness and damping coefficients of an engine bearing over a load cycle. A rapid technique is used to determine the shaft ‘limit cycle’ under engine dynamic loads. The proposed theoretical model is based on short and long bearing approximations. The results obtained by present approximation are compared with those obtained by numerical method. The influence of thermal effects on the stiffness and damping coefficients is predicted by using a simplified thermal analysis. In order to illustrate the application of the proposed scheme, one engine main bearing and a connecting rod bearing are analysed.

  1. Fish of Bear Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Patsy; Luecke, Chris; Robinson, Justin

    2007-01-01

    There are 13 species of fish found in the waters of Bear Lake. Of those 13, 4 are endemic (found only in Bear Lake). The 4 endemics species are Bonneville cisco, Bonneville whitefish, Bear Lake whitefish, and Bear Lake sculpin. Five of the remaining 9 fish species are native to the region, and 4 are exotic introductions. These native fishes are the Bonneville cutthroat trout, Utah sucker, redside shiner, speckled dace and Utah chub. The exotic fishes are lake trout, common carp, yellow p...

  2. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  3. Autosizing Control Panel for Needle Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.A.R.Wadhekar,; Ms Jyoti R. Rajput

    2016-01-01

    A needle roller bearing is a bearing which uses small cylindrical rollers. Bearings are used to reduce friction of any rotating surface. Needle bearings have a large surface in contact with the bearing outer surfaces as compared to ball bearings. There is less added clearance(Diameter of the shaft and the diameter of the bearing are different) so they are much compact. The structure consists of a needle cage which contains the needle rollersthemselves and an outer race (The housin...

  4. Sediment storage and transport in Pancho Rico Valley during and after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, Coast Ranges of central California (Monterey County)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Factors influencing sediment transport and storage within the 156??6 km2 drainage basin of Pancho Rico Creek (PRC), and sediment transport from the PRC drainage basin to its c. 11000 km2 mainstem drainage (Salinas River) are investigated. Numeric age estimates are determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on quartz grains from three sediment samples collected from a 'quaternary terrace a (Qta)' PRC terrace/PRC-tributary fan sequence, which consists dominantly of debris flow deposits overlying fluvial sediments. OSL dating results, morphometric analyses of topography, and field results indicate that the stormy climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition caused intense debris-flow erosion of PRC- tributary valleys. However, during that time, the PRC channel was backfilled by Qta sediment, which indicates that there was insufficient discharge in PRC to transport the sediment load produced by tributary-valley denudation. Locally, Salinas Valley alluvial stratigraphy lacks any record of hillslope erosion occurring during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, in that the alluvial fan formed where PRC enters the Salinas Valley lacks lobes correlative to Qta. This indicates that sediment stripped from PRC tributaries was mostly trapped in Pancho Rico Valley despite the relatively moist climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Incision into Qta did not occur until PRC enlarged its drainage basin by c. 50% through capture of the upper part of San Lorenzo Creek, which occurred some time after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. During the relatively dry Holocene, PRC incision through Qta and into bedrock, as well as delivery of sediment to the San Ardo Fan, were facilitated by the discharge increase associated with stream-capture. The influence of multiple mechanisms on sediment storage and transport in the Pancho Rico Valley-Salinas Valley system exemplifies the complexity that (in some instances) must be recognized in order to correctly

  5. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    discrete groundwater inflow supports streamflow during low-flow conditions along the entire 18-kilometer stream reach. Concentrations of dissolved selenium within all subreaches of Toll Gate Creek exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter in 2007. Concentrations of selenium in the upper portion of the Toll Gate Headwaters subreach (TGH) remained close to the aquatic-life standard at about 5 micrograms per liter. Downstream from a concrete-lined channel section, inflows with selenium concentrations greater than the stream contribute selenium load to surface water. However, stream selenium concentrations were less than 20 micrograms per liter all along Toll Gate Creek. Concentrations of selenium in groundwater were in general substantially greater than the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter and at some locations were greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard for selenium of 50 micrograms per liter. The distribution of selenium concentrations in groundwater, springs, and the 11 inflows with the greatest selenium concentrations indicates that shallow groundwater in surficial materials and the Denver Formation bedrock is a source of selenium loading to Toll Gate Creek and that selenium loading is distributed along the entire length of the study reach downstream from the concrete-lined channel. Water-quality and solids-sampling results from this study indicate weathering processes release water-soluble selenium from the underlying Denver Formation claystone bedrock with subsequent cycling of selenium in the aquatic environment of Toll Gate Creek. Exposure of the Denver Formation selenium-bearing bedrock to oxidizing atmospheric conditions, surface water, and groundwater, oxidizes selenide, held as a trace element in pyrite or in complexes with organic matter, to selenite and selenate. Secondary weathering products including iron oxides and selenium-bearing salts have accumulated in

  6. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1996/1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1996-1997 fiscal year annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The report...

  7. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  8. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban...

  9. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  10. Cross Creeks National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Cross Creeks National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  11. Williams Creek National Fish Hatchery [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts lands owned andor administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Alchesaywilliams Creek National Fish Hatchery Complex.

  12. 1966 Narrative report: Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  13. 1965 Narrative report: Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by...

  14. 1964 Narrative report: Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins by...

  15. Survey of breeding birds, Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of the third annual survey of breeding birds of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge conducted in 1996. Information on...

  16. Sediment contaminant assessment for Shoal Creek, Lawrence County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment samples were collected from ten locations along Shoal Creek and analyzed for l9 metals and 20 organochlorine compounds. For the organic analyses,...

  17. [Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September - December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  19. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  20. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  1. Fish Creek Federally Endangered Freshwater Mussel Impact Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment toxicity was evaluated for one site upstream and three sites downstream of a diesel fuel spill that occurred in Fish Creek (OH and IN) in September 1993...

  2. Erosion and deposition for Fanno Creek, Oregon 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began investigating the sources and sinks of organic matter in Fanno Creek, a tributary of the Tualatin River, Oregon....

  3. Zooplankton composition in Dharamtar creek adjoining Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    bedoti was the true inhabitant. In general zooplankton production indicated 1.5 fold increase towards the upper reaches of the creek where salinity variations were drastic. A more diversified faunal assemblage of oceanic and neritic species characterised...

  4. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Management Plan (CMP) for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) was prepared to guide management direction of the Refuge over the next 15...

  5. [Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: January - April, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1944. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Compatibility determination [for Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This compatibility report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge determines that the 1992 interim hunting plan is...

  7. Fishery management assessment Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an assessment for fishery management on Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. The assessment concluded that existing Refuge waters are...

  8. Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge Water Infrastructure Assessment Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a visit to Bitter Creek NWR on October 15th-18th, 2012, to locate and GPS water structures, springs, and other water sources. This report...

  9. Autumn floral inventory : Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an autumn floral inventory conducted on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge in 1991.

  10. Welcome to the Walnut Creek Nonbreeding Bird Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of the bird monitoring project at Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge is divided into 28...

  11. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during calendar year 2000. The report begins with an...

  12. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: September - December 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  13. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Interim hunting plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim hunting plan for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) outlines hunting guidelines for the Refuge....

  14. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during calendar year 1998. The report begins with an...

  15. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during calendar year 1999. The report begins with an...

  16. Cross Creeks National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cross Creeks NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  17. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  18. Snake Creek Wetlands Narrative report: January - December, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Snake Creek Wetlands Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by...

  19. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  20. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  1. Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pond Creek NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. [Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: September - December, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by...

  3. ADP Security Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses policies and procedures to protect the integrity of computer based resources at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge.

  4. St. Catherine Creek NWR Deer Hunt Harvest Data Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data summaries from deer hunts that occur on St. Catherine Creek NWR. Reports include summarized deer harvest data and basic analysis of these data.

  5. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: January - April, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Fish Creek Watershed Lake Classification; NPRA, Alaska, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This study focuses on the development of a 20 attribute lake cover classification scheme for the Fish Creek Watershed (FCW), which is located in the National...

  7. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  8. Wildlife Inventory Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines wildlife monitoring guidelines for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this plan are; 1 to standardize inventory...

  9. Water chemistry - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  10. Aquatic Invertebrates - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  11. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  12. Recreational Fishing Plan : Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Recreational Fishing Plan for Cypress Creek NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory...

  13. Habitat Management Plan for Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a longterm vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  14. 1984 Cropland Management Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations...

  15. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  16. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during fiscal year 1997. The report begins with an introduction...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Pendills Creek NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Pendills Creek National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. Land Acquisition Priority Plan for Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses land acquisition priorities for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The proposed alternatives...

  19. A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasant Shinde; Willis, Rick J

    2014-01-01

    A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC), discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described. The plates are significantly larger and more robust than those comprising the corpus of known copper plates or tablets, and most significantly differ in being inscribed with mirrored characters. One of the plates bears 34 characters, which is the longest known single Indus script inscription. Examination of the plates with x...

  20. Hydrogeochemical characterization of an evaporite karst area affected by sinkholes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Acero, P.; F. Gutiérrez; Galve, J.P.; Auqué, L.F.; Carbonel, D.; Gimeno, M. J.; Gómez, J. B.; Asta, M.P.; Yechieli, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The main processes controlling the hydrochemistry of an alluvium-covered evaporite karst area with high sinkhole risk (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) are examined by means of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis), ion correlations and geochemical speciation-solubility calculations. The hydrogeochemistry of the studied system seems to be governed by the interaction between the groundwater from the salt-bearing evaporitic karst aquifer and from the overl...

  1. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  2. Forensic Analysis of the May 2014 West Salt Creek Rock Avalanche in Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J. A.; Baum, R. L.; Allstadt, K.; Kochevar, B. F.; Schmitt, R. G.; Morgan, M. L.; White, J. L.; Stratton, B. T.; Hayashi, T. A.; Kean, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The rain-on-snow induced West Salt Creek rock avalanche occurred on May 25, 2014 on the northern flank of Grand Mesa. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous U.S. because of its large size (59 M m3) and high mobility (Length/Height=7.2). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) imagery as a base for our field mapping and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances <656 km) and one short-period network. We inverted broadband data to derive a time series of forces that the avalanche exerted on the earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with a landslide/debris flow that started about 10 hours before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted just over 3 minutes and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich, strike-slip bound core continued to move slowly. Following movement of the core, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls created new structures and modified topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core were likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two layers: a liquefied basal layer; and a thicker and stronger overriding layer.

  3. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels.

  4. High-Performance Ball Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.

    1995-01-01

    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  5. What about the Javan Bear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1898-01-01

    The other day I read in a dutch popular periodical a paper dealing with the different species of Bears and their geographical distribution. To my great surprise the Malayan Bear was mentioned from Java: the locality Java being quite new to me I wrote to the author of that paper and asked him some in

  6. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  7. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.

    1999-01-01

    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  8. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  9. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a...

  10. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a...

  11. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation...

  12. Puente Willow Creek en Monterrey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the 10 awards given every year by the Prestressed Concrete Institute for the most outstanding prestressed concrete projects, two have been awarded in California this year, one of them to the Willow Creek bridge, near Monterrey. The prestressed, double T girders of this bridge were made at a workshop, a great distance from the bridge site. These are 24 m long, 1.35 m high, and are stabilized by transversal diaphragms, 20 cm in thickness. The table deck is of reinforced concrete, being 8.85 m wide and 20 cm thick. The structure is straightforward, slender, and adapts itself pleasantly to the background. It has seven spans and crosses over a secondary road, in addition to bridging the Willow stream. The supporting piles are hollow, of rectangular cross section, and over them a cross beam carries the five girders and the deck itself. The end abutments consist of vertical reinforced concrete walls, and supporting, soil filled, structures. The above information was supplied by the California Road Department.De los diez premios que anualmente concede el Prestressed Concrete Institute para las obras de hormigón pretensado más notables, dos han correspondido a California y uno de ellos al puente de Willow Creek, situado en la región de Monterrey. Las vigas de hormigón pretensado, con sección en forma de doble T, se prefabricaron en un taller situado a gran distancia del puente. Tienen 24 m de longitud y 1,35 m de canto, estando arriostradas con diafragmas transversales de 20 cm de espesor. La losa del tablero, de hormigón armado, tiene 8,85 m de anchura y 20 cm de espesor. La estructura es sencilla, esbelta y armoniza perfectamente con el paisaje que la circunda. Tiene siete tramos y salva un paso inferior secundario y el arroyo Willow. Los soportes, se apoyan sobre pilotes, algunos de gran altura; son huecos, de sección rectangular y terminan en una cruceta que sirve de sostén a las cinco vigas que soportan la losa del tablero. Los estribos

  13. Sequential Sediment Budgets in an Ungauged Watershed: Redwood Creek, Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, P. W.; Stallman, J.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment budgets provide an organizing framework in fluvial geomorphology and have enormous potential in environmental management. A sediment budget approach assisted in developing strategies for restoring Big Lagoon, the wetland ecosystem at the terminus of the 22.7 km2 Redwood Creek watershed in Marin County, California. Persistence of a restored lagoon largely depends on the current sediment yield relative to the reference yield prior to European settlement. Process-based, distributed sediment budgets were constructed for several historical time periods to account for accelerated sediment production from contemporary land management practices and legacy factors stemming from past resource exploitation. Sediment production, storage, and transfer were investigated using digital terrain modeling, field reconnaissance to ascertain and validate hillslope processes, mainstem channel surveys and dendrochronology to assess trends in alluvial sediment storage, application of published process rate estimates, use of short-term and prorated stream gauging records, and sediment transport modeling to validate sediment yields into Big Lagoon. Evidence suggests that the Redwood Creek valley bottom aggraded from at least 3,500 B.P., with floodplain wetlands acting as sediment sinks (average annual sediment yield of 34 t km2 yr-1). Channel incision rapidly followed European settlement and intensive hillslope disturbances beginning around 1840 (peak yield 1921-1982 of 324 t km2 yr-1). Mainstem and large tributary valley bottoms became major sediment sources during this time and remain sources despite progressive retirement of most agricultural land use (yield 1981-2000 of 198 t km2 yr-1). Numerous issues related to data availability and resolution limited quantification of some sediment sources and resulted in potential uncertainties in estimates of yield to Big Lagoon. Historical sediment budgets, however, require more than adequate data sources, they require accurate conceptual

  14. The Cenozoic evolution of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartow, J. Alan

    1991-01-01

    homocline, the western limb of the valley syncline between the Stockton arch and Panoche Creek, consists of a locally faulted homocline with northeast dips. Deformation is mostly late Cenozoic, is complex in its history, and has included up-to-the-southwest reverse faulting. The west-side fold belt, the southwestern part of the valley syncline between Panoche Creek and Elk Hills and including the southern Diablo and Temblor Ranges, is characterized by a series of folds and faults trending slightly oblique to the San Andreas fault. Paleogene folding took place in the northern part of the belt; however, most folding took place in Neogene time, during which the intensity of deformation increased southeastward along the belt and southwestward toward the San Andreas fault. The Maricopa-Tejon subbasin and the south-margin deformed belt are structurally distinct, but genetically related, regions bounded by the Bakersfield arch on the north, the San Emigdio Mountains on the south, the Tehachapi Mountains on the east, and the southeast end of the fold belt on the west. This combined region, which is the most deformed part of the basin, has undergone significant late Cenozoic shortening through north-directed thrust faulting at the south margin, as well as extreme Neogene basin subsidence north of the thrust belt. The sedimentary history of the San Joaquin basin, recorded in terms of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences, has been controlled principally by tectonism, but it has also been controlled by eustatic sea-level changes and, to a lesser degree, by climate. Plate tectonic events that had an influence on the basin include (1) subduction during the early Tertiary that changed from oblique to normal convergence in the later part of the Eocene, (2) the mid-Oligocene encounter of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge with the trench, and the consequent establishment of the San Andreas transform, (3) the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction that in

  15. Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Balkrishna; Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    The atmosphere of Kathmandu Valley has been investigated by using Sunphotometer and Nephelometer during the pre-monsoon period of 1999. The atmospheric turbidity parameters (extinction coefficient for 500 nm wavelength τAG and Angstrom coefficient β) are found high in the morning and show decreasing trends from morning to late afternoon on average. Vertical dispersion of pollutants and increasing pollutant flushing rate by increasing wind speed from morning to late afternoon is the cause for this decreasing trend of turbidity over the valley. Being surrounded by high hills all around the valley, horizontal exit of pollutants without vertical dispersion is not possible. The scattering coefficient bscat of aerosols in ground level troposphere is also found high in the morning, which decreases and becomes minimum during afternoon. During late afternoon, bscat again shows a slightly increasing trend. The reason is the increasing vehicular emission during late afternoon rush period. The average values of Angstrom exponent α, β, τAG and bscat are found to be 0.624±0.023, 0.299±0.009, 0.602±0.022 and 0.353±0.014 km -1, respectively. About 76.8% of the observed values of β lie above 0.2 indicating heavy particulate pollution in the valley. A comparison of observed values of turbidity parameters with other major cities of the world shows that Kathmandu is as polluted as cities like Jakarta, Kansas, Beijing, Vienna, etc.

  16. The Future of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ By the end of 1984, Silicon Valley was going through the down cycle fol lowing the PC boom. A hundred PC companies wanted just 10 percent of the market, wanting to strike it rich, as rich as the Apple IPO (Initial Public Of fering) -the Google celebrity IPO of its day.

  17. Mercury Geochemistry of Gold Placer Tailings, Sediments, Bedrock, and Waters in the Lower Clear Creek Area, Shasta County, California - Report of Investigations, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Roger P.; Rytuba, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Clear Creek, one of the major tributaries of the upper Sacramento River, drains the eastern Trinity Mountains. Alluvial plain and terrace gravels of lower Clear Creek, at the northwest edge of the Sacramento Valley, contain placer gold that has been mined since the Gold Rush by various methods including hydraulic mining and dredging. In addition, from the 1950s to the 1980s aggregate-mining operations removed gravel from the lower Clear Creek flood plain. Since Clear Creek is an important stream for salmon production, a habitat restoration program is underway to repair damage from mining and improve conditions for spawning. This program includes moving dredge tailings to increase the area of spawning gravel and to fill gravel pits in the flood plain, raising the concern that mercury lost to these tailings in the gold recovery process may be released and become available to biota. The purposes of our study are to identify sources, transport, and dispersal of mercury in the lower Clear Creek area and identify environments in which bioavailable methylmercury is produced. Analytical data acquired include total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in sediments, tailings, and water. Mercury concentrations in bedrock and unmined gravels in and around the mined area are low and are taken to represent background concentrations. Bulk mercury values in placer mining tailings range from near-background in coarse dry materials to more than 40 times background in sands and silts exposed to mercury in sluices. Tailings are entrained in flood-plain sediments and active stream sediments; consequently, mercury concentrations in these materials range from background to about two to three times background. Mercury in sediments and tailings is associated with fine size fractions. The source of most of this mercury is historical gold mining in the Clear Creek watershed. Although methylmercury levels are low in most of these tailings and sediments, flood-plain sediment in shallow

  18. Remediation of Mudboil Discharges in the Tully Valley of Central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Mudboils have been documented in the Tully Valley in Onondaga County, in central New York State, since the late 1890s and have continuously discharged sediment-laden (turbid) water into nearby Onondaga Creek since the 1950s. The discharge of sediment causes gradual land-surface subsidence that, in the past, necessitated rerouting a major petroleum pipeline and a buried telephone cable, and caused two road bridges to collapse. The turbid water discharged from mudboils can be either fresh or brackish (salty). Mudboil activity was first reported in the Syracuse, NY, Post Standard in a short article dated October 19, 1899: 'Tully Valley - A Miniature Volcano Few people are aware of the existence of a volcano in this town. It is a small one, to be sure, but very interesting. In the 20-rod gorge where the crossroad leads by the Tully Valley grist mill the hard highway bed has been rising foot after foot till the apex of a cone which has been booming has broken open and quicksand and water flow down the miniature mountain sides. It is an ever increasing cone obliterating wagon tracks as soon as crossed. The nearby bluff is slowly sinking. Probably the highway must sometime be changed on account of the sand and water volcano, unless it ceases its eruption.' This newspaper article accurately describes mudboil activity and presages the collapse of the Otisco Road bridge, 92 years later in 1991. The article indicates that land subsidence occurred nearby, but gives no indication that Onondaga Creek was turbid; this was either an oversight by the reporter or was not a concern at that time.

  19. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  20. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  1. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, J.; Stirling, I.; Kistler, L.; Salamzade, R.; Ersmark, E.; Fulton, T.; Stiller, M.; Green, R.; Shapiro, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear...

  2. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L; Wang, B G; Xing, D Y

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  3. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  4. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  5. Columbia River wildlife mitigation habitat evaluation procedures report: Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County pygmy rabbit projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites

  6. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  7. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  8. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  9. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  10. Bear study, Karluk Lake, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Based on observations, 117 bears were estimated to live in the Karluk Lake area. The estimate was lower than estimates from 1952, and 1954-1955. Annual loss to...

  11. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  13. Failure analysis of superconducting bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of superconductor bearings in a cryogenic failure scenario have been analyzed. As the superconductor warms up, the rotor goes through multiple resonance frequencies, begins to slow down and finally touches down when the superconductor goes through its transition temperature. The bearing can be modelled as a system of springs with axial, radial and cross stiffness. These springs go through various resonant modes as the temperature of the superconductor begins to rise. We have presented possible explanations for such behaviour

  14. Nonlinear Control of Magnetic Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khac Duc Do; Dang Hoe Nguyen; Thanh Binh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, recent results controling nonlinear systems with output tracking error constraints are applied to the design of new tracking controllers for magnetic bearings. The proposed controllers can force the rotor to track a bounded and sufficiently smooth refer-ence trajectory asymptotically and guarantee non-contactedness be-tween the rotor and the stator of the magnetic bearings. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed con-trollers.

  15. Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Jim [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-03

    The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

  16. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. Ground-water inflow occurs as natural recharge in the form of streamflow infiltration and areal infiltration of precipitation along stream channels, artificial recharge from infiltration of imported water at recharge ponds and along selected stream channels, and leakage along selected transmission pipelines. Ground-water outflow occurs as evapotranspiration, stream base flow, discharge through pumpage from wells, and subsurface flow to the San Francisco Bay. The geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system was represented as six model layers. The hydraulic properties were redefined on the basis of cell-based lithologic properties that were delineated in terms of aggregate thicknesses of coarse-grained, fine-grained, and mixed textural categories. The regional aquifer systems also are dissected by several laterally extensive faults that may form at least partial barriers to the lateral flow of ground water. The spatial extent of the ground-water flow model was extended and refined to cover the entire Santa Clara Valley, including the Evergreen subregion. The temporal discretization was refined and the period of simulation was extended to 197099. The model was upgraded to MODFLOW-2000 (MF2K) and was calibrated to fit historical ground-water levels, streamflow, and land subsidence for the period 197099. The revised model slightly overestimates measured water levels with an root-mean-square error of -7.34 feet. The streamflow generally shows a good match on gaged creeks and rivers for flows greater than 1.2 cubic feet per second. The revised model also fits the measured deformation at the borehole extensometer site located near San Jose within 16 to 27 percent and the extensometer site near Sunnyvale within 3 percent of the maximum measured seasonal deformation for the deepest extensometers. The total ground-water inflow and outflow of about 225,500 acre-feet per

  17. Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood

  18. Predicted liquefaction in the greater Oakland area and northern Santa Clara Valley during a repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by young Holocene levee deposits along major drainages where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M R; Castor, S B; Robins, J W

    1982-04-01

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures.

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures

  2. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  3. Zhongguan Village, China's Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1999,driven by the dream of using technology to change people's lives,Li Yanhong,returned to Zhongguancun(Zhongguan Village in Chinese),Beijing from Silicon Valley in the U.S.to create Baidu.com.Over the years,Baidu has become the most frequently hitted website in China as well as the largest Chinesc search engine and Chinese language website in the world.

  4. Magic nuclei in superheavy valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive theoretical search for the proton magic number in the superheavy valley beyond $Z=$82 and corresponding neutron magic number after $N=$126 is carried out. For this we scanned a wide range of elements $Z=112-130$ and their isotopes. The well established non-relativistic Skryme-Hartree-Fock and Relativistic Mean Field formalisms with various force parameters are used. Based on the calculated systematics of pairing gap, two neutron separation energy and the shell correction energy f...

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konizeski, Richard L.; McMurtrey, R.G.; Brietkrietz, Alex

    1968-01-01

    The Deer Lodge Valley is a basin trending north-south within Powell, Deer Lodge, and Silver Bow Counties in west-central Montana, near the center of the Northern Rocky Mountains physiographic province. It trends northward between a group of relatively low, rounded mountains to the east and the higher, more rugged Flint Creek Range to the west. The Clark Fork and its tributaries drain the valley in a northerly direction. The climate is semiarid and is characterized by long cold winters and short cool summers. Agriculture and ore refining are the principal industries. Both are dependent on large amounts of water. The principal topographic features are a broad lowland, the Clark Fork flood plain, bordered by low fringing terraces that are in turn bordered by broad, high terraces, which slope gently upward to the mountains. The high terraces have been mostly obscured in the south end of the valley by erosion and by recent deposition of great coalescent fans radiating outward frown the mouths of various tributary canyons. The mountains east of the Deer Lodge Valley are formed mostly of Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks and a great core of Upper Cretaceous to lower Tertiary granitic rocks; those west of the valley are formed of Precambrian to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and a core of lower Tertiary granitic rocks. Field relationships, gravimetric data, and seismic data indicate that the valley is a deep graben, which formed in early Tertiary time after emplacement of the Boulder and Philipsburg batholiths. During the Tertiary Period the valley was partly filled to a maximum depth of more than 5,500 feet with erosional detritus that came from the surrounding mountains and was interbedded with minor amounts of volcanic ejecta. This material accumulated in a great variety of local environments. Consequently the resultant deposits are of extremely variable lithology in lateral and vertical sequence. The deposits grade from unconsolidated to well-cemented and from

  6. Hydrogeology and steady-state numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin (Lost Creek basin) is an important alluvial aquifer for irrigation, public supply, and domestic water uses in northeastern Colorado. Beginning in 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydrologic data and constructed a steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Lost Creek basin. The model builds upon the work of previous investigators to provide an updated tool for simulating the potential effects of various hydrologic stresses on groundwater flow and evaluating possible aquifer-management strategies. As part of model development, the thickness and extent of regolith sediments in the basin were mapped, and data were collected concerning aquifer recharge beneath native grassland, nonirrigated agricultural fields, irrigated agricultural fields, and ephemeral stream channels. The thickness and extent of regolith in the Lost Creek basin indicate the presence of a 2- to 7-mile-wide buried paleovalley that extends along the Lost Creek basin from south to north, where it joins the alluvial valley of the South Platte River valley. Regolith that fills the paleovalley is as much as about 190 ft thick. Average annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on native grassland and nonirrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using the chloride mass-balance method to range from 0.1 to 0.6 inch, which represents about 1-4 percent of long-term average precipitation. Average annual recharge from infiltration of ephemeral streamflow was estimated by using apparent downward velocities of chloride peaks to range from 5.7 to 8.2 inches. Average annual recharge beneath irrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using passive-wick lysimeters and a water-balance approach to range from 0 to 11.3 inches, depending on irrigation method, soil type, crop type, and the net quantity of irrigation water applied

  7. Hydrology of Northern Utah Valley, Utah County, Utah, 1975-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Jay R.; Gardner, Philip M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Water samples from all 36 wells were analyzed for dissolved-gas concentration including noble gases and tritium/helium-3. Within the basin fill, dissolved-solids concentration generally increases with distance along flowpaths from recharge areas, and shallower flowpaths tend to have higher concentrations than deeper flowpaths. Nitrate concentrations generally are at or below natural background levels. Dissolved-gas recharge temperature data support the conceptual model of the basin-fill aquifers and highlight complexities of recharge patterns in different parts of the valley. Dissolved-gas data indicate that the highest elevation recharge sources for the basin-fill aquifer are subsurface inflow derived from recharge in the adjacent mountain block between the mouths of American Fork and Provo Canyons. Apparent ground-water ages in the basin-fill aquifer, as calculated using tritium/helium-3 data, range from 2 to more than 50 years. The youngest waters in the valley occur near the mountain fronts with apparent ages generally increasing near the valley lowlands and discharge area around Utah Lake. Flowpaths are controlled by aquifer properties and the location of the predominant recharge sources, including subsurface inflow and recharge along the mountain front. Subsurface inflow is distributed over a larger area across the interface of the subsurface mountain block and basin-fill deposits. Subsurface inflow occurs at a depth deeper than that at which mountain-front recharge occurs. Recharge along the mountain front is often localized and focused over areas where streams and creeks enter the valley, and recharge is enhanced by the associated irrigation canals.

  8. Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Mhalsekar, N.M.; Naik, A.N.

    surveys in Manori creek forlaying HDPE pipeline. NIO technical report, submitted to Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay, India. 15pp. 2. Anon. (2000). Rapid marine EIA for drinking water pipeline across Manori creek. NIO technical report...

  9. Water‐Data Report 413723083123801 Crane Creek at Ottawa NWR-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek. Water-Data Report 2013 413723083123801 Crane Creek Mouth at Ottawa NWR LOCATION: Lat. 41°37'23"N,...

  10. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Fish Creek`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-08

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix purpurea named `Fish Creek`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 30% more woody biomass than either of its parents (`94001` and `94006`) and 20% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Fish Creek` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Fish Creek` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by beetles or sawflies.

  11. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  12. Evaluation of Operations Scenarios for Managing the Big Creek Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian; Rahman, Masihur; Wychreschuk, Jeremy; Lebedyk, Dan; Bolisetti, Tirupati

    2013-04-01

    Wetland management in changing climate is important for maintaining sustainable ecosystem as well as for reducing the impact of climate change on the environment as wetlands act as natural carbon sinks. The Big Creek Marsh within the Essex County is a Provincially Significant Wetland (PSW) in Ontario, Canada. The marsh is approximately 900 hectares in area and is primarily fed by streamflow from the Big Creek Watershed. The water level of this wetland has been managed by the stakeholders using a system of pumps, dykes and a controlled outlet to the Lake Erie. In order to adequately manage the Big Creek Marsh and conserve diverse aquatic plant species, Essex Region Conservation Authority (ERCA), Ontario has embarked on developing an Operations Plan to maintain desire water depths during different marsh phases, viz., Open water, Hemi and Overgrown marsh phases. The objective of the study is to evaluate the alternatives for managing water level of the Big Creek Marsh in different marsh phases. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a continuous simulation model was used to simulate streamflow entering into the marsh from the Big Creek watershed. A Water Budget (WB) model was developed for the Big Creek Marsh to facilitate in operational management of the marsh. The WB model was applied to simulate the marsh level based on operations schedules, and available weather and hydrologic data aiming to attain the target water depths for the marsh phases. This paper presents the results of simulated and target water levels, streamflow entering into the marsh, water releasing from the marsh, and water pumping into and out of the marsh under different hydrologic conditions.

  13. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited....

  15. Draft environmental statement related to construction of Yellow Creek Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. STN 50-566 and STN 50-567)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Tennessee Valley Authority for the construction of the Yellow Creek Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2. The 470-hectare site is predominantly wooded. Construction-related activities on the site would disturb about 59 hectares. The portion of this land not to be used for plant facilities, parking lots, roads, etc., will be restored by seeding and landscaping. The temporary removal of vegetation will tend to promote erosion. Increased siltation and turbidity can be expected in the Yellow Creek embayment during construction, but measures will be taken to minimize these effects. A maximum of 237.6 m3/min of make-up water will be withdrawn from the Yellow Creek embayment, of which 106 m3/min will be returned to Pickwick Lake via a pipeline with the dissolved solids concentration increased by a factor of about two. About 106 m3/min will be evaporated to the atmosphere by the cooling towers. The volume of thermal discharge (106 m3/min) is small compared with the flow in Pickwick Lake (minimum daily average flow of 7812 m3/min) and the effect on the Pickwick Lake ecosystem is not expected to be significant. During periods of average flow the plant could use about 24% of the flow through Yellow Creek embayment. Chemical discharges (with the possible exception of copper) from the plant will be diluted to concentrations below those which might adversely affect aquatic biota. The risk associated with accidental radiation exposure will be very low. 42 figs., 100 tabs

  16. Estimating grizzly and black bear population abundance and trend in Banff National Park using noninvasive genetic sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Sawaya

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of two noninvasive genetic sampling methods, hair traps and bear rub surveys, to estimate population abundance and trend of grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bear (U. americanus populations in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Using Huggins closed population mark-recapture models, we obtained the first precise abundance estimates for grizzly bears (N= 73.5, 95% CI = 64-94 in 2006; N= 50.4, 95% CI = 49-59 in 2008 and black bears (N= 62.6, 95% CI = 51-89 in 2006; N= 81.8, 95% CI = 72-102 in 2008 in the Bow Valley. Hair traps had high detection rates for female grizzlies, and male and female black bears, but extremely low detection rates for male grizzlies. Conversely, bear rubs had high detection rates for male and female grizzlies, but low rates for black bears. We estimated realized population growth rates, lambda, for grizzly bear males (λ= 0.93, 95% CI = 0.74-1.17 and females (λ= 0.90, 95% CI = 0.67-1.20 using Pradel open population models with three years of bear rub data. Lambda estimates are supported by abundance estimates from combined hair trap/bear rub closed population models and are consistent with a system that is likely driven by high levels of human-caused mortality. Our results suggest that bear rub surveys would provide an efficient and powerful means to inventory and monitor grizzly bear populations in the Central Canadian Rocky Mountains.

  17. Estimating grizzly and black bear population abundance and trend in Banff National Park using noninvasive genetic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Michael A; Stetz, Jeffrey B; Clevenger, Anthony P; Gibeau, Michael L; Kalinowski, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of two noninvasive genetic sampling methods, hair traps and bear rub surveys, to estimate population abundance and trend of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bear (U. americanus) populations in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Using Huggins closed population mark-recapture models, we obtained the first precise abundance estimates for grizzly bears (N= 73.5, 95% CI = 64-94 in 2006; N= 50.4, 95% CI = 49-59 in 2008) and black bears (N= 62.6, 95% CI = 51-89 in 2006; N= 81.8, 95% CI = 72-102 in 2008) in the Bow Valley. Hair traps had high detection rates for female grizzlies, and male and female black bears, but extremely low detection rates for male grizzlies. Conversely, bear rubs had high detection rates for male and female grizzlies, but low rates for black bears. We estimated realized population growth rates, lambda, for grizzly bear males (λ= 0.93, 95% CI = 0.74-1.17) and females (λ= 0.90, 95% CI = 0.67-1.20) using Pradel open population models with three years of bear rub data. Lambda estimates are supported by abundance estimates from combined hair trap/bear rub closed population models and are consistent with a system that is likely driven by high levels of human-caused mortality. Our results suggest that bear rub surveys would provide an efficient and powerful means to inventory and monitor grizzly bear populations in the Central Canadian Rocky Mountains.

  18. Modeling and validation of a 3D velocity structure for the Santa Clara Valley, California, for seismic-wave simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  19. Definition of a mobilizing volume of sediment in a valley interested by volcanic eruption: Rio Blanco valley (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroumé, Andrés; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic explosive activity can strongly affect the riverine environments. Deposition of tephra, pyroclastic and hyperconcentrated flows along both the valley bottom and hillslopes can radically change the environmental morphology. Accumulation and transport of pyroclastic material can increase hazards and risks for anthropic activities. The aims of this research are to evaluate and quantify the amount of erodible sediment that can be transported along a gravel bed river affected by a volcanic eruption. The Rio Blanco valley (Chile) was upset by the plinian-type eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The great amount of tephra released in the initial phase and the subsequent pyroclastic flows, accumulated up to 8 m of sediment over a great portion of the Rio Blanco valley. Using aerial photographs was possible to define the extension of vegetated zones affected by the eruption. The area was interested by a high mortality of vegetation, as confirmed by field surveys. Dendrometric measurements permitted to quantify the volume of wood and observe that renewal and herbal layer are almost absent, determining low soil cohesion and easier erosion by superficial and river erosion processes. Analysis of sediment accumulation allowed quantifying the volume of sediment that can be transported downstream. The analyses were carried out considering 7 km-long a reach, from the river mouth to the confluence between Caldera creek and Rio Blanco. After the eruption, was possible to define as a total area of about 2.19 km2 was affected by tephra deposition, the 40% (0,87 km2) was eroded by flows, while 60% (1,32 km2) is still present and composed by tephra, buried large wood (LW) and dead standing trees. Considering an average high of 5 m, the potential erodible sediment is around 6,5 x 106 m3, moreover there is a potential amount of about 7,3 x 104 m3 of LW that can be transported towards mouth. These analyses can be useful to better define the management plan for the river delta. In

  20. Resonant valley filtering of massive Dirac electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Moldovan, D.; Masir, M. Ramezani; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrons in graphene, in addition to their spin, have two pseudospin degrees of freedom: sublattice and valley pseudospin. Valleytronics uses the valley degree of freedom as a carrier of information similar to the way spintronics uses electron spin. We show how a double barrier structure consisting of electric and vector potentials can be used to filter massive Dirac electrons based on their valley index. We study the resonant transmission through a finite number of barriers and we obtain th...

  1. 75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the...

  2. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  3. 75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the...

  4. 76 FR 13344 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project in the Federal Register (75 FR... Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR... Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National...

  5. Changes in tundra vascular plant biomass over thirty years at Imnavait Creek, Alaska, and current ecosystem C and N dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret-Harte, M. S.; Shaver, G. R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Huebner, D. C.; Drew, J. W.; Cherry, J. E.; Edgar, C.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the magnitude of, and controls over, carbon fluxes in arctic ecosystems is essential for accurate assessment and prediction of their responses to climate change. In 2013, we harvested vegetation and soils in the most common plant community types in source areas for fluxes measured by eddy covariance towers located in three representative Alaska tundra ecosystems along a toposequence (a ridge site of heath tundra and moist non-acidic tundra, a mid-slope site of moist acidic tussock tundra, and a valley bottom site of wet sedge tundra and moist acidic tussock tundra) at Imnavait Creek, Alaska. This harvest sought to relate biomass, production, composition, and C and N stocks in soil and vegetation, to estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange obtained by micrometeorological methods. Soil C and N stocks in the seasonally unfrozen soil layer were greatest in the wet sedge community, and least in the heath community. In contrast, moist acidic tussock tundra at the valley bottom site had the highest C and N stocks in vascular plant biomass, while nearby wet sedge tundra had the lowest. Overall, soil C:N ratio was highest in moist acidic tussock tundra at the mid-slope site. Aboveground biomass of vascular plants in moist acidic tundra at the mid-slope site was nearly three times higher than that measured thirty years earlier in vegetation harvests of nearby areas at Imnavait Creek. Other harvests from sites near Toolik Field Station suggest that vascular plant biomass in moist acidic tundra has increased in multiple sites over this time period. Increased biomass in the mid-1990s corresponds with a switch from mostly negative to mostly positive spatially-averaged air temperature anomalies in the climate record. All our sites have been annual net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere over nine years of measurement, but in the last two years, the valley bottom site has been a particularly strong source, due to CO2 losses in fall and winter that correspond with a

  6. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  7. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS–FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  8. Climate Change, Glacier Retreat and Sediment Waves: Evidences from Fans in the Fox Glacial valley (New Zealand) and Analogical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C. A.; Purdie, H.

    2015-12-01

    As global climate continues warm, mountain environments are changing, and rates of glacial retreat are unprecedented. The hydrologic implications of this rapid ice retreat and changing climate conditions have been the focus of numerous studies, but the consequent effects on the sediment cascade in valleys and tributaries has received considerably less attention. In the present study, we investigated the role of glacial recession on sediment mobilization and deposition in a mountain valley catchment at Fox Glacier, New Zealand. In particular, we analyze the role of glacier recession on the formation of sediment fans in the main valley. Emphasis was put on the role of sediment, impounded by the glacier in side tributaries, becoming rapidly available for remobilization as the glacier retreats. The method is based on field observations, and measurements using high resolution GNSS (Trimble R8 survey grade differential GNSS) and photogrammetric methods using Structure from Motion based on ground-, helicopter- and UAV- photographs. Field observations were conducted in the period 2014 - 2015, and have been complimented with analogic modeling in the laboratory, in order to comprehend the processes driving rapid fan formation. The analogic model reproduced the retreat of the glacier and the response of a tributary, with simulations for both glaciated and de-glaciated conditions. For similar hydrologic and slope parameters, the fans created after glacial retreat have shown an acceleration in their formation of up to 12 times compared to fanes created without glacial influence. Field observations within the period 2013 - 2015 of Straight Creek Fan (Fox Valley, New Zealand) have confirmed laboratory simulations, with the fan growing to a radius superior to 200 m and a valley-long width superior to 450 m. As glaciers continue to retreat, it can be expected that sediment surges will occur in affected valleys, without the requirements of other forcing like earthquake or extreme

  9. Future Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom...

  10. Autosizing Control Panel for Needle Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.A.R.Wadhekar,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A needle roller bearing is a bearing which uses small cylindrical rollers. Bearings are used to reduce friction of any rotating surface. Needle bearings have a large surface in contact with the bearing outer surfaces as compared to ball bearings. There is less added clearance(Diameter of the shaft and the diameter of the bearing are different so they are much compact. The structure consists of a needle cage which contains the needle rollersthemselves and an outer race (The housing itself. Radial bearings are cylindrical and they use rollers parallel to the axis of the shaft. Radial pattern of needle are being used by thrust needles. Complement bearings have solid inner as well as outer rings and rib-guided cylindrical rollers. The bearings have the largest number of rolling elements and also have extremely high radial load carrying capacity and are suitable for compact designs.Needle roller bearings have relatively small diameter cylindrical rolling elements whose length is much larger than their diameter. As compared to other types of rolling bearings, needle roller bearings possess a small cross-sectional height and significant load-bearing capacity and rigidity relative to their volume. Also, because the inertial force acting on them is limited, needle bearings are an ideal choice for applications with oscillating motion. These bearings also work well in compact and lightweight machine designs and they serve as a ready replacement for sliding bearings. Needle bearings features are great rigidity, smaller cross-section, higher loadcarrying capacity, and has lower inertia forces that facilitate to size and weight reductions in machinery. Needle bearings are designed to stand in oscillation, performwell under any conditions, and interchange with the sliding of bearings.

  11. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  12. Streamflow, groundwater hydrology, and water quality in the upper Coleto Creek watershed in southeast Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Goliad County Groundwater Conservation District, Victoria County Groundwater Conservation District, Pecan Valley Groundwater Conservation District, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, and San Antonio River Authority, did a study to examine the hydrology and stream-aquifer interactions in the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Findings of the study will enhance the scientific understanding of the study-area hydrology and be used to support water-management decisions to help ensure protection of the Evangeline aquifer and surface-water resources in the study area. This report describes the results of streamflow measurements, groundwater-level measurements, and water quality (from both surface-water and groundwater sites) collected from three sampling events (July–August 2009, January 2010, and June 2010) designed to characterize groundwater (from the Evangeline aquifer) and surface water, and the interaction between them, in the upper Coleto Creek watershed upstream from Coleto Creek Reservoir in southeast Texas. This report also provides a baseline level of water quality for the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Three surface-water gain-loss surveys—July 29–30, 2009, January 11–13, 2010, and June 21–22, 2010—were done under differing hydrologic conditions to determine the locations and amounts of streamflow recharging or discharging from the Evangeline aquifer. During periods when flow in the reaches of the upper Coleto Creek watershed was common (such as June 2010, when 12 of 25 reaches were flowing) or probable (such as January 2010, when 22 of 25 reaches were flowing), most of the reaches appeared to be gaining (86 percent in January 2010 and 92 percent in June 2010); however, during drought conditions (July 2009), streamflow was negligible in the entire upper Coleto Creek watershed; streamflow was observed in only two reaches during this period, one that receives inflow directly from Audilet Spring and

  13. Flood-plain delineation for Occoquan River, Wolf Run, Sandy Run, Elk Horn Run, Giles Run, Kanes Creek, Racoon Creek, and Thompson Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Occoquan River and its tributaries within Fairfax County and those streams on Mason Neck within Fairfax County tributary to the Potomac River. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  15. Stream seepage and groundwater levels, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stream discharge and water levels in wells were measured at multiple sites in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, in August 2012, October 2012, and March 2013, as a component of data collection for a groundwater-flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This model is a cooperative and collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources. Stream-discharge measurements for determination of seepage were made during several days on three occasions: August 27–28, 2012, October 22–24, 2012, and March 27–28, 2013. Discharge measurements were made at 49 sites in August and October, and 51 sites in March, on the Big Wood River, Silver Creek, their tributaries, and nearby canals. The Big Wood River generally gains flow between the Big Wood River near Ketchum streamgage (13135500) and the Big Wood River at Hailey streamgage (13139510), and loses flow between the Hailey streamgage and the Big Wood River at Stanton Crossing near Bellevue streamgage (13140800). Shorter reaches within these segments may differ in the direction or magnitude of seepage or may be indeterminate because of measurement uncertainty. Additional reaches were measured on Silver Creek, the North Fork Big Wood River, Warm Springs Creek, Trail Creek, and the East Fork Big Wood River. Discharge measurements also were made on the Hiawatha, Cove, District 45, Glendale, and Bypass Canals, and smaller tributaries to the Big Wood River and Silver Creek. Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2006. Maps of the October 2012 water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer have similar topology to those on maps of October 2006 conditions. Between October 2006 and October 2012, water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer rose by

  16. Development of bushings and bearings for use in hot-brine pumps. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, March 1-June 1, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    The nature of the problems associated with premature failures of downhole line shaft bearings, especially those tested in the Imperial Valley, was studied. Problem Definition is complete. Phase II, 100-hour Screening Tests, is 80 percent completed with promising results. Significant testing procedure modifications have been made and are presented.

  17. Variable Transport of Fluorescent Tracers to Springs of Mantled Karst in the Great Valley of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, T. M.; Brookhart, A.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.; Feeney, T. P.

    2006-05-01

    Karst springs of south-central Pennsylvania support productive wild fisheries, trout hatcheries, and water supplies, and typically exhibit characteristics of diffuse flow systems. Dye traces are not documented for the region, resulting in uncertainty in both groundwater flow and in potential for runoff contamination. Surface drainages in this part of the Great Valley include the Yellow Breeches and Conodoguinet creeks, each flowing east and north to the Susquehanna. Big Spring, the focus of this study, flows at an average of 868 l/s and northward across the Great Valley to the Conodoguinet. Temperature is relatively constant at 10-11 degrees C, with turbidity typically released fluorescein (FL) into a losing reach of the Yellow Breeches, 5.2 km to the south, and sulphorhodamine-B (SRB) to a sinkhole in a failing detention basin 8.9 km to the west of Big Spring. SRB traveled to Big Spring within 3.5 days, parallel with geologic strike. West and East source springs of Big Spring responded differently, with a clear SRB peak in the west spring (316 ppt), and less distinct SRB peak occurring in the smaller east spring. Fl did not cross the valley from the Yellow Breeches watershed, but rather was weakly detected one month later 9.5 km to the east at springs of Huntsdale state fish hatchery. Neither dye was detected in springs bracketing Big Spring to the west and east, including a second contributing east spring that serves as water supply. Major springs are fed by separate, regional flow systems along strike, and may receive rapid, regional transport of surface runoff from sinkholes where the colluvial mantle thins. Background fluorescence of spring and well waters is also being analyzed, with particular focus on organic acids from forested source waters and human or animal waste from valley sources.

  18. The Bear That Isn't a Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Koalas aren't bears.They belong to the same family as kangaroos.Animals of this family are called pouch animals.That's because the mother carries her baby around in a pouch in the front of her stomach.lt's like a built-in papoose basket, only it's in the front instead of the back.

  19. Using water chemistry, isotopes and microbiology to evaluate groundwater sources, flow paths and geochemical reactions in the Death Valley flow system, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springs of Ash Meadows and Furnace Creek (near or in Death Valley, CA) have nearly constant flow, temperature, chemistry, and similar δ2H and δ18O signatures. These factors indicate shared water sources and/or analogous geochemical reactions along similar flow paths. DNA-based (16S rRNA gene) microbial diversity assessments further illuminate these relationships. Whereas, all Ash Meadows springs share related archaea populations, variations in carbon-14 (Crystal Spring) and strontium isotopes, Na+, SO42-, and methane concentrations (Big Spring), correspond with microbial differences within and between the two discharge areas. Similar geochemical signatures linking Ash Meadows and Furnace Creek springs appear to support a distinct end member at Big Spring in Ash Meadows, which is also supported by coincident enrichment in microbial methanogens and methanotrophs. Conversely, DNA libraries from a deep carbonate well (878 m) located between Ash Meadows and Furnace Creek (BLM-1), indicate no shared microbial diversity between Ash Meadows or Furnace Creek springs. (authors)

  20. Using water chemistry, isotopes and microbiology to evaluate groundwater sources, flow paths and geochemical reactions in the Death Valley flow system, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, James M.; Hershey, Ronald L. [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Pwky, Reno, NV, USA 89512 (United States); Moser, Duane P.; Fisher, Jenny C.; Reihle, Jessica; Wheatley, Alexandra [Desert Research Institute, 755 E. Flamingo Rd, Las Vegas, NV, USA 89130 (United States); Baldino, Cristi; Weissenfluh, Darrick [US Fish and Wildlife Service, Ash Meadows NWR, Amargosa Valley, NV, USA 89020 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Springs of Ash Meadows and Furnace Creek (near or in Death Valley, CA) have nearly constant flow, temperature, chemistry, and similar δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O signatures. These factors indicate shared water sources and/or analogous geochemical reactions along similar flow paths. DNA-based (16S rRNA gene) microbial diversity assessments further illuminate these relationships. Whereas, all Ash Meadows springs share related archaea populations, variations in carbon-14 (Crystal Spring) and strontium isotopes, Na{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and methane concentrations (Big Spring), correspond with microbial differences within and between the two discharge areas. Similar geochemical signatures linking Ash Meadows and Furnace Creek springs appear to support a distinct end member at Big Spring in Ash Meadows, which is also supported by coincident enrichment in microbial methanogens and methanotrophs. Conversely, DNA libraries from a deep carbonate well (878 m) located between Ash Meadows and Furnace Creek (BLM-1), indicate no shared microbial diversity between Ash Meadows or Furnace Creek springs. (authors)

  1. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  2. Work through the valley: plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans.

  3. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2000-10-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments in Kandla creek (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.

    Petroleum hydrocarbons in the surface sediments were determined gravimetrically and spectroscopically to evaluate petroleum oil pollution in the Kandla creek. They ranged from 9.6 — 140.5 and 6.5 — 23.3 μg g-1 (wet wt.) respectively. Gas...

  5. 75 FR 30747 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore... to change the regulations that govern the operation of the Pennington Avenue Bridge across...

  6. 76 FR 13524 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio...

  7. The Induced Self-Purification of Creeks and Rivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailovskii, V

    2000-01-01

    The clean-up of several Creeks and Rivers by induction of a self-purification process was provided. The process took place at all the sites studied with the up to 100% resulted removal of polluting agents depending on the site and nature of the contaminant. The self-purification mechanism could be used for drinking and technical water preparation.

  8. Short notes and reviews The fossil fauna of Mazon Creek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    1998-01-01

    Review of: Richardson’s Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek, edited by Charles W. Shabica & Andrew A. Hay. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois, 1997: XVIII + 308 pp., 385 figs., 4 tables, 1 faunal list; $75.00 (hard cover) ISBN 0-925065-21-8. Since the last century, the area aro

  9. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric... electric power in the eastern portion of Basin Electric's service area. Basin Electric's eastern...

  10. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western... proposed Project is to serve increased load demand for electric power in the eastern portion of...

  11. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.

  12. BUCKS LAKE AND CHIPS CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Linne, J. Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bucks Lake and Chips Creek Roadless Areas, California indicate several areas with mineral-resource potential. The presence or absence of these potentially auriferous deposits can best be determined by drilling through the relatively thin cover of volcanic rocks.

  13. Enhanced oil and gas recovery in Michigan: Beaver Creek Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, R.J.; Layton, F.L.; Lorenz, J.S.; Matzkanin, A.D.; Wilson, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Beaver Creek Field produces from an anticlinal structure being waterflooded in the Richfield interval. It produces from one lensic rock unit whose permeability and porosity are relatively uniform throughout the field. Orderly development and prudent operating procedures have allowed the field to surpass its original primary production estimates by over 3,000,000 barrels of oil. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  15. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring

  16. The impact of organic pollution on the macrobenthic fauna of Dubai Creek (UAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James E; Al Zahed, Khalid Mohammed; Paterson, David M

    2007-11-01

    Dubai Creek is a tidal marine intrusion bisecting Dubai within the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The creek extends 14km inland from its opening into the Arabian Gulf, with a narrow lower creek channel leading to a lagoon section in the upper creek. The creek contains numerous sources of organic pollution including sewage outlet flows and boat waste. A survey of the creek was performed, assessing organic pollution, water properties, and the benthic macrofaunal community. The upper creek was heavily polluted with macrofauna communities commonly associated with organic pollution and eutrophication, while the lower creek contained low pollution and relatively healthy macrofauna communities. There is little net tidal flow of water within the creek and residence time in the lagoon is high, which may account for the high organic pollution levels. However, some evidence of the pollution effect moving into the lower creek was found. The results are considered in light of current and historic organic loading within the creek and future developments in the area.

  17. 77 FR 62500 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Intent To File License...: Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC. e. Name of Project: Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Trout Creek, 15 miles southwest of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The project occupies 4.3...

  18. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  19. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  20. The correct "ball bearings" data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, C

    2002-12-01

    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.