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Sample records for bean ricinus communis

  1. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  2. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Zou; Jun Gong; Qixing Huang; Yeyong Mo; Lifu Yang; Guishui Xie

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean gen...

  3. In-vitro regeneration of castor bean (ricinus communis, L) and physic nut (jatropha curcas, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were conducted on in vitro regeneration of physic nut (Jatropha curcas, 1.) and castor bean (Ricinus communis, 1.) using zygotic embryo culture, shoot tip and meristem culture as well as somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryos from different stages of fruit maturity cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and 2-isopentyl (2iP) produced vigorous seedlings with roots. However the optimal concentration of cytokinin for seedling development depended on the type cytokinin as well as the maturity stage of the fruit. Embryos from yellow fruits of Jatropha had the highest germination (100%) on an MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin or 1 mg/L BAP while in Ricinus embryos from black fruits had the highest percentage germination (97%) on an MS medium modified with I mg/L 2iP or 0.5 or I mg/L BAP. Decrease in embryo viability especially in Jatropha as the seed matured may be due to high oil content in matured (black) fruit. Oil content in both Jatropha and Ricinus increased as the fruit matured from green to black and this may have effect on germination of zygotic embryos. In vitro culture response of shoot tip or meristem was significantly influenced by the concentration of growth regulators in the culture medium as well as the plant species. In both plant species, 2iP resulted in highest percentage shoot regeneration. The optimal concentration of 2iP was 0.5 mg/L for Ricinus shoot tip and 1.5 or 2.0 mg/L for Jatropha, indicating genotypic difference between the species. However excessive callus formation and browning in Ricinus led to the loss of all the regenerants. Shoot regeneration from meristem explants was also influenced by growth regulators with 2iP again being the best. Cultures of cotyledon and leaf lobe explants on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D and picloram resulted in callus induction with the exception of cotyledons obtained from black fruits. However transfer of calli onto fresh

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  5. Genome-wide survey and expression profiles of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Li, Fei; Ling, Lizhen; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF transcription factor, one of the largest gene families in plants, plays a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae) is one of most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. The available genome provides a great chance to identify and characterize the global information on AP2/ERF transcription fa...

  6. Proteomic profile of the nucellus of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Soares, Emanoella L; Shah, Mohibullah; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Campos, Francisco A P; Domont, Gilberto B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of nucellus from two developmental stages of Ricinus communis seeds by a GeLC-MS/MS approach, using of a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer, which resulted in the identification of a total of 766 proteins that were grouped into 553 protein ...

  7. Energy flow in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. production systems Fluxos de energia em sistemas de produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

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    Adilson Nunes da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although energy analysis is a way to evaluate the sustainability of production systems, this practice is not often used in the agribusiness. In this context, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L is an agricultural crop not yet well studied despite its great potential in the Brazilian energetic scenario. This article aimed to evaluate the productive potential of the castor bean oil, using an energetic view applied to two management systems: low (System 1 and medium (System 2 technologies. The quantification of the used material fluxes was made converting these factors in energy units. The input energy fluxes were 3,170.6 MJ ha¹ and 10,366.0 MJ ha¹ for Systems 1 and 2, respectively. The energy balance of System 1 was 11,938.2 MJ ha¹ and that of System 2 16,296.5 MJ ha¹. The net energetic gain or the energy gain over the invested energy (EROI of System 1 was 3.8 and of System 2, 2.6. Although presenting a greater energy demand and a lower EROI, System 2 had a greater energy balance, demonstrating a better viability of this cultivation system for the production of castor bean oil.A análise energética é uma forma de se avaliar a sustentabilidade de um sistema produtivo, apesar de ainda pouco utilizada no setor agropecuário. Inserida neste setor encontra-se a produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cultura ainda pouco estudada e que apresenta grande importância para o agronegócio brasileiro. Avaliou-se sob a ótica energética a produção potencial de óleo de mamona em dois sistemas de cultivo: com baixa (Sistema 1 e média (Sistema 2 tecnologias. Foi realizada a quantificação dos fluxos de materiais empregados nos dois sistemas de produção e conversão destes fatores em unidades de energia. Os fluxos de energia de entrada foram de 3.170,6 MJ ha¹ e 10.366 MJ ha¹ para os sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente. O balanço de energia foi de 11.938,2 MJ ha¹ no sistema 1 e 16.296,5 MJ ha¹ no sistema 2. A lucratividade energética, retorno

  8. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jun-Bo; Tian Bo; Yang Chun; Qiu Lijun; Liu Aizhong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20), is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85%) in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular...

  9. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  10. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  11. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs) showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization. PMID:26509832

  12. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  13. Use of acid phosphatase as biomarker during the castor bean seeds germination (ricinus communis

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    Carmen Ferreira Veríssima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main oil crop of prominent social and economic importance is to mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.; with countless application in the industry and agricultural. Broadly it distributed in Brazil; his cultivation can be an alternative of sustainability in the Brazilian northeast. It know the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of the germination they are important for the best utilization of the plant. The objective of this work was use acid phosphatase as biomarker during the germination. In the rough extract occurred the dosage of the activity for pNPP; Tyr-Pi and PPi; determination of protein and inorganic phosphatse. The peak of activity for pNPP was in the seventh day; for PPi and Tyr-Pi in the ninth and for PEP in the fifth. The concentration of protein increased according to the days of germination; with peak of activity in the eighth day; being coincidental with the peaks of the activities for the substrates. The content of inorganic phosphate diminished with the time of germination and after the third day occurred a fall accentuated of its concentration. We concluded that acid phosphatase is important for the germination of the seeds and his paper is related with the mobilization of inorganic phosphate; the main nutrients for the development.

  14. Genotyping and Bioforensics of Ricinus communis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, A C

    2006-11-20

    The castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) is a member of the family Euphorbiaceae. In spite of its common name, the castor plant is not a true bean (i.e., leguminous plants belonging to the family, Fabaceae). Ricinus communis is native to tropical Africa, but because the plant was recognized for its production of oil with many desirable properties, it has been introduced and cultivated in warm temperate regions throughout the world (Armstrong 1999 and Brown 2005). Castor bean plants have also been valued by gardeners as an ornamental plant and, historically, as a natural rodenticide. Today, escaped plants grow like weeds throughout much of the southwestern United States, and castor seeds are even widely available to the public for order through the Internet. In this study, multiple loci of chloroplast noncoding sequence data and a few nuclear noncoding regions were examined to identify DNA polymorphisms present among representatives from a geographically diverse panel of Ricinus communis cultivated varieties. The primary objectives for this research were (1) to successfully cultivate castor plants and extract sufficient yields of high quality DNA from an assortment of castor cultivated varieties, (2) to use PCR and sequencing to screen available universal oligos against a small panel of castor cultivars, (3) to identify DNA polymorphisms within the amplified regions, and (4) to evaluate these DNA polymorphisms as appropriate candidates for assay development (see Figure 1). Additional goals were to design, test and optimize assays targeting any DNA polymorphisms that were discovered and to rapidly screen many castor cultivars to determine the amount of diversity present at that particular locus. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to construct a phylogeographic tree representing the genetic relationships present among Ricinus communis cultivars from diverse geographic regions. These research objectives were designed to test the hypothesis that cultivated varieties

  15. Radiation and water use efficiencies of rainfed castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) in relation to different weather parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments on rainfed castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) were conducted for 4 years (1990–1993) to explain the variability in radiation use efficiency (RUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) in relation to meteorological parameters. In these experiments castor c.v. Aruna was sown on three different dates (treatments) in each year. The results from this study indicate that both RUE and WUE vary from year to year and also were influenced by the planting dates. Variations in RUE and WUE ranged from 0.79–1.19 g MJ−1 and 0.72–1.25 g kg−1, respectively. The variability in RUE and WUE before and after flower initiation were quite contrasting. The variability in RUE and WUE was associated with saturation vapour pressure deficit (SVPD), drought index, temperature and wind velocity. RUE was related positively with SVPD and wind velocity and negatively with drought index and temperature. WUE showed inverse relationships with SVPD and temperature and a direct relation with wind velocity. The study emphasises the need for incorporation of the effect of weather on RUE and WUE in the algorithms for biomass estimation of crop simulation models. (author)

  16. Seed borne mycoflora of castor bean (ricinus communis l.) from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor bean seeds were analyzed by using ISTA (International seed testing association) for the detection of seed borne mycoflora. Thirty one fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 12 samples of castor bean seeds collected from different areas of Pakistan. Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata, Cephaliophora tropica were most predominant fungal species isolated while the saprophytic fungi like A. niger, A. flavus were common in all samples of castor bean seed tested. Blotter method was considered to be better technique which gave maximum number of fungi followed by agar plate and deep freezing methods. (author)

  17. Balanço energético para a produção de biodiesel pela cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. Energy balance for biodiesel production by the castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L.

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    Rodolfo Glauber Chechetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. adquiriu prestígio ao interesse da indústria pela qualidade de seu óleo e, recentemente, pela busca de novas fontes de energias. O experimento que serviu como base para os dados utilizados nesse trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA - UNESP, no município de Botucatu - SP, no ano de 2008. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade energética da cultura através do balanço e da eficiência energética, desde a implantação até a produção de biodiesel, utilizando parâmetros de consumo operacional no manejo para instalação e manutenção da cultura, colheita e processamento de óleo. As operações de manejo de solo, semeadura e colheita consumiramo total de 266,20 MJ ha-1, que juntamente com fertilizantes, agrotóxicos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, mão-de-obra, sementes e processamento industrial totalizaram uma entrada de energia de 56.808,10 MJ ha-1. A produção de energia foi de 72.814,00 MJ ha-1. O setor ainda carece de estudos que contribuiriam para o levantamento de dados e coeficientes energéticos mais específicos. A cultura da mamona foi considerada eficiente, permitindo ganho de 15.983,44 MJ ha-1, equivalente a aproximadamente 415 L de óleo diesel.The castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L. has acquired prestige due to industries interest in the oil quality and recently for new sources of energy demand. The experiment that served as basis for the data used in this study was conducted at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in Botucatu - SP, 2008. This study aimed to avaluate the crop viability through energy balance and energy efficiency since the implantation until biodiesel production using parameters of consumption in operational management for installation and maintenance of culture harvest and oil production. The soil management operations, sow and harvest consumed the total of 266.20 MJ ha-1, gathering with the fertilizers, pesticides, fuels

  18. Semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona (Ricinus communis L. sob plantio direto Seeding of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. hybrid Lyra in no-tillage system

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    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A semeadura mecanizada da mamona (Ricinus communis L. pode reduzir o tempo de operação e os custos associados à mão-de-obra, porém a escassez de informações nesta área tem prejudicado a adoção correta desta tecnologia. Assim, objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar a regularidade da distribuição longitudinal de sementes do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em área de plantio direto e sua relação com rendimento de grãos; bem como a viabilidade da aplicação de cartas de controle para a avaliação do processo de semeadura, nesta cultura. O ensaio foi conduzido em área comercial de produção de grãos de mamona sob plantio direto, sendo avaliadas: distribuição longitudinal, porcentagens de espaçamentos normais, falhos e duplos na linha, número de planta por metro linear, altura de plantas, altura e comprimento do racemo primário e rendimento de grãos. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, a análise de correlações e as cartas de controle para a avaliação dos parâmetros propostos. Há necessidade de refinamento nas regulagens de semeadoras-adubadoras de precisão para a semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em áreas de plantio direto; a distribuição longitudinal de sementes de mamona influencia vários parâmetros fitotécnicos, incluindo o rendimento de grãos; a aplicação da carta de controle é uma ferramenta eficiente para a avaliação do processo de semeadura da mamona.The mechanized sowing of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. can reduce the operation time and the costs associated to labor, however the privation of information in this area have damaged the correct adoption of this technology. Thus, the research had as an aim to verify the regularity of longitudinal distribution of hybrid Lyra castor bean seeds, in a no-tillage system area, and its relationship with yield; and the viability of control charts for evaluation of sowing in this crop. The essay was carded out in a commercial area of grain production in no

  19. Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Recurrent selection efficiency for stature reduction of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. plants

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    Inocencio Junior de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente para a redução da estatura de plantas de mamona da cultivar Guarani (Ricinus communis L., tornando-a com porte adequado para facilitar a colheita manual e/ou mecânica. Foram realizados quatro ciclos de seleção recorrente com a utilização de progênies autofecundadas na cultivar Guarani para redução da estatura das plantas, nas condições edafoclimáticas dos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP. As avaliações de estatura das plantas e de produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1, dos quatro ciclos de seleção e do ciclo original foram realizadas nos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP na safra 2005/2006, sob um delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e parcela útil de 30 m². A análise de variância para as características avaliadas foi feita separadamente para cada local e conjuntamente para os três locais e, posteriormente, realizada a comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram estimados, para as três localidades, por análise de regressão, os ganhos genéticos dos quatros ciclos de seleção para estatura de plantas. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que a seleção recorrente foi eficiente para a redução da estatura de plantas e que a cultivar de mamona Guarani apresenta variabilidade genética para essa característica e que a produtividade não foi influenciada pela redução da estatura de plantas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recurrent selection efficiency for reduction of stature of the castor bean plants of the Guarani cultivar (Ricinus communis L., turning it with appropriate strucuture to facilitate the manual and/or mechanic harvest. Four cycles of recurrent selection were accomplished through the utilization of self-pollinated progenies in the Guarani cultivar for reduction of plants stature, in

  20. High light exposure on seed coat increases lipid accumulation in seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a nongreen oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mulpuri, Sujatha; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-05-01

    Little was known on how sunlight affects the seed metabolism in nongreen seeds. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a typical nongreen oilseed crop and its seed oil is an important feedstock in industry. In this study, photosynthetic activity of seed coat tissues of castor bean in natural conditions was evaluated in comparison to shaded conditions. Our results indicate that exposure to high light enhances photosynthetic activity in seed coats and consequently increases oil accumulation. Consistent results were also reached using cultured seeds. High-throughput RNA-Seq analyses further revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon conversion in both the Calvin-Benson cycle and malate transport were differentially expressed between seeds cultured under light and dark conditions, implying several venues potentially contributing to light-enhanced lipid accumulation such as increased reducing power and CO2 refixation which underlie the overall lipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated the effects of light exposure on oil accumulation in nongreen oilseeds and greatly expands our understanding of the physiological roles that light may play during seed development in nongreen oilseeds. Essentially, our studies suggest that potential exists to enhance castor oil yield through increasing exposure of the inflorescences to sunlight either by genetically changing the plant architecture (smart canopy) or its growing environment. PMID:26589321

  1. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  2. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae. PMID:25296220

  3. Characterization of a pollen-specific and desiccation-associated AP2/ERF type transcription factor gene from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís de Moura Cipriano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available DREB transcription factors (TF belong to the superfamily of AP2/ERF and their involvement in protein-protein interactions and DNA binding has been proposed. AP2/ERF proteins have important functions in the transcriptional regulation of a variety of biological processes related to growth and development, as well as various responses to environmental stimuli, regulating expression of plant biotic and abiotic stress-responsive genes. In this study an AP2/ERF TF gene (named RcDREB1 was isolated from castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and its expression was analyzed in developing seeds, leaves, ovules, stems and petals of plants cultivated under field conditions. Transcripts were only observed in pollen grains, peaking during anthesis. The RcDREB1 deduced amino acid sequence was compared to other AP2/ERF TF proteins and presented 38-78% identity. Phylogenetic analysis classified it as a member of the CBF/DREB subfamily, rooting with the subgroup A-5. The RcDREB1 promoter was fused to the gus reporter gene and used to transform tobacco. Transgenic plants were exposed to various abiotic stress treatments (low and high tempera- tures, drought, salinity and exogenous ABA and no detectable GUS expression was observed, suggesting that the RcDREB1 promoter is not active under tested conditions. In silico analyses revealed the presence of three copies of the regulatory late pollen-specific element (AGAAA in the RcDREB1 5 ́-region. Interestingly, GUS expression was only observed in pollen grains, starting when the flower opened and initiating the senescence process; at this point, desiccated mature pollen grains are released from anthers. In addition, dehydrated developing pollen grains also expressed the gus gene. This is the first study on a DREB gene presenting pollen-specific expression.

  4. Evaluation of Drought Stress and Foliar Chitosan on Biochemical Characterices of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Makarian; Jafar Masoud Sinaki; Hossein Abbaspour; Sara Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Drought is the most significant factor restricting plant production on majority of agricultural fields of the world. In order to study the effects of drought stress and chitosan foliar on antioxidant enzymes and proline content of three castor bean cultivars under field conditions. The results showed that with an increase in the intensity of drought stress on castor bean cultivars there was a increased CAT, POD enzymes activity. That highest CAT activity related to drought stress levels (D2, ...

  5. Antibody interactions with Ricinus communis agglutinins studied by biolayer interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two related agglutinins are present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor): ricin, a dichain ribosome-inactivating protein and Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA-1), a much less toxic hemagglutinin. Because ricin has been used for experimental cancer chemotherapy as well as for intentional poison...

  6. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  7. Development of a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds=Desenvolvimento de um bioensaio para quantificar o teor da toxina ricina em sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

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    Dick Auld

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean seeds. Existing quantification methods do not always reflect actual toxicity of the seeds analyzed, which may present lower ricin content even though they are more toxic than seeds presenting a higher content of ricin. This is because these methods actually measure the addition of ricin RCA, which is a compound less toxic than pure ricin. We decided to use in this study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry. We tested two strains of C. elegans using different methods in 8 experiments. We examined 4 methods of extracting the ricin complex and 3 methods of exposing the nematodes. Among the nematode strains and ricin extraction methods tested, we concluded that the best strain for testing ricin toxicity was the strain called N2 and that the best method for ricin extraction was a rotating bath followed by centrifugation and exposing the nematodes in 24 well plates with a solution of nematodes extracted from the media with destilated waterexposing the nematodes in 24-well plates This method is inexpensive, quick and adequate for the selection of offspring with lower RIP content.Foi desenvolvido um bioensaio para quantificar o teor de ricina nas sementes de mamona. Os métodos de quantificação existentes não refletem a toxidez real das sementes analizadas, que pode mostrar um resultado de menor teor de ricina e ainda assim ser mais toxico do que as sementes que apresentaram teores maiores. Isto ocorre por que estes métodos medem alem da ricina a RCA, que é um composto menos tóxico que a ricina pura. Foi decidido utilizar neste estudo o nematoide Caenorhabditis elegans, que tem sido amplamente utilizado na industria farmacêutica. Foram testadas duas estirpes de C.elegans usadas em diferentes métodos contando com 8 experimentos distintos. nós examinamos 4 métodos de extração de ricina e 3 m

  8. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases

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    Martin Schaer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  9. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

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    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  10. Effect of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) aqueous extracts on the performance of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased concern for environmental and health hazards have called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean's crude extract and its five lower concentrations with water as control. In the in vitro studies, crude castor bean aqueous extract and 10, 20, 30 and 40% different concentrations with 100 root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles in separate Petri dishes showed that all the different concentrations had toxic effects on eggs and juveniles of root-knot nematode. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality increased with increased concentration of the extracts. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. In potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% caused significant improvement in plant growth measures such as height and fresh shoot weight over the water blank control. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field studies. Further work needs to be done before a firm recommendation can be made. (au)

  11. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

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    Chattoo Bharat B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehensive resource on Castor, Castor DB, is required to facilitate research on this important plant. Findings CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein. Conclusion CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners.

  12. IMUNIDADE CRUZADA PELAS SEMENTES DE Abrus precatorius E Ricinus communis EM BOVINOS Crossimmunity by the seeds of Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis in cattle

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-01-01

    ão imunizados, demonstrando que a imunidade conferida pela ricina não inibe a ação da ricinina, o principio tóxico das folhas e do pericarpo.Five bovines immunized against the toxicity of the seeds of Abrus precatorius L. (jequiriti bean did not get poisoned or only slightly so when the seeds of Ricinus communis L. (castor bean were given in amounts that in bovines, which never before ingested the seeds of A. precatorius or R. communis, caused moderate to severe poisoning or even death. A sixth bovine, which was not well immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of A. precatorius, was severely poisoned when given a high dose of the seeds of R. communis. On the other side, from five bovines immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of R. communis four were severely poisoned and the fifth one moderately when the seeds of A. precatorius were given in doses that in bovines, which never before ingested seeds of R. communis or A. precatorius, caused slight to severe poisoning. It is concluded that bovines immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of A. precatorius are resistant to the toxic action of the seeds of R. communis, but that the contrary is not the case; this is, bovines immunized against the toxic action of the seeds of R. communis were not protected against the poisoning by A. precatorius. Earlier studies by other authors had shown that the toxalbumins of the seeds of A. precatorius and R. communis, respectively abrin and ricin, are different as to their antigenic properties. A possible explanation for the difference in results can be.that in the present study polygastric animals were used which received the seeds orally, but in the earlier studies monogastric animals received the seeds or toxins by parenteral route. The administration of the fresh leaves or the pericarp of the fruits R. communis to bovines, which had been immunized against the action of the seeds of the plant, had the same toxic effect as to not immunized animals, showing that the

  13. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp

    OpenAIRE

    Gakuru, S.; Buledi, MK.

    1995-01-01

    Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthosceli...

  14. Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Daniela; Cruz, Fernanda P; Espindola, Kauê; Mangeon, Amanda; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Corrêa, Régis L; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress. PMID:27156134

  15. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  16. CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoo Bharat B; Jha Sanjay; Thakur Shalabh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ricinus communis is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although, R. communis genome was assembled in 4X draft by JCVI, and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, the function of most of the genes remains to be elucidated. A large amount of information of different aspects of the biology of R. communis is available, but most of the data are scattered one not easily accessible. Therefore a comprehens...

  17. Influência da concentração de NaCl e pH na extração de ricina em torta de mamona (Ricinus communis L. e sua caracterização por eletroforese Influence of NaCl and pH concentration on the extraction of ricin in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and its characterization by electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Amorim Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é uma oleaginosa de alto valor econômico pelo fato de apresentar um mercado bem definido para o óleo extraído de suas sementes. A torta, que é um resíduo desta extração, se destaca pelo alto teor em proteínas. Dentre as proteínas encontradas na torta destaca-se a ricina, uma citotoxina, que inviabiliza sua utilização como fonte protéica alternativa para alimentação animal. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar um melhor tratamento experimental para a extração de ricina da torta de mamona, visando futuros estudos de perda de integridade da ricina, o que garantiria a inocuidade do produto. Para tanto, buscou-se identificar a solução de maior capacidade de extração de proteínas, empregando a metodologia de superfície de resposta. Um delineamento composto central rotacional foi elaborado a fim de verificar o melhor pH e concentração de NaCl para a extração. Dos cinco diferentes valores de pH (4,0; 4,6; 6,0; 7,4; 8,0 e concentração de NaCl (0,0M; 0,3M; 1,0M; 1,7M; 2,0M utilizados, o tratamento associando fosfato de potássio 0,2M/NaCl 1,7M pH 7,4 foi escolhido como o melhor. A concentração de proteína extraída neste tratamento chegou a valores quatro vezes maiores que o encontrado no de mínima extração de proteína. Pela evidenciação do gel de eletroforese não houve extração preferencial de ricina nos tratamentos testados, entretanto etapas de purificação usando diálise e precipitação com sulfato de amônio, permitiram uma evidenciação melhor das duas cadeias polipeptídicas de ricina.Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed crop of high economic value due to the fact of presenting a clearly defined market for the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor cake, which is a residue of oil extraction, is at the moment receiving special attention because of its high protein content. However, among the proteins found in this cake it is observed the presence of

  18. Expression profile of the genes involved in reserve synthesis in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil derived from the seed of castor (Ricinus communis L.) contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) and has numerous industrial uses. Despite its economic importance, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of detrimental seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergeni...

  19. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties

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    Zarai Zied

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50 were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  20. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of ricinus communis in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, A.; Shankar J.; Premendran John; N. Venkatanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of ricinus communis in wistar rats. Methods: Liver, the key organ of metabolism and excretion, is constantly endowed with the task of detoxification of xenobiotics, environmental pollutants and chemotherapeutic agents. The animals were divided into six groups with six rats in each group. First group were taken as control, and they received 0.9% normal saline 10ml/kg body weight orally. Sec...

  1. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rongfei Wei; Qingjun Guo; Hanjie Wen; Congqiang Liu; Junxing Yang; Marc Peters; Jian Hu; Guangxu Zhu; Hanzhi Zhang; Liyan Tian; Xiaokun Han; Jie Ma; Chuanwei Zhu; Yingxin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively cou...

  2. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabia Naz; Asghari Bano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods:Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results:Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions: The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  3. Survey of the castor bean production (Ricinus communis L. in a collection of producers from five counties of Bahia State. = Levantamento da produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L. em uma amostra de produtores em cinco municípios do Estado da Bahia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paula Queiroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the situation of the culture of castor bean from a collection of producers located in five counties of Bahia state, highlighting the technical conditions of production and commercialization of the product, beyond its social aspects. Twenty-five castor bean producers were interviewed during the 2005 agricultural year by a team of researchers from the Embrapa Cotton. A present questionnaire with 15 variable questions pertaining to agro-economic and social-economic was applied to producers with the objective to diagnose the agricultural social-economic profiles of theproducers of castor bean that are used for the production of berries to be used within the energy market of the Program of Biodiesel and Ricin chemistry. Data analysis concluded that the family farmers of Bahia have the culture of castor oil as, a major source of income, but the cultivation techniques, promising cultivars, and oil content are underutilized. It was shown that a technology gap can be solved by a adopting a differential pricing policy that is based on a feasibility comprehensive recovery program that increases the ricin culture productivity throughout the production chain, reduce costs, and increase the oil content of cultivars.ResumoObjetivou-se com este estudo verificar a situação da cultura da mamona em uma amostra de produtores levantados em cinco municípios localizados no noroeste do estado da Bahia (São Gabriel, Irecê, Lapão, Ibititá e Cafarnaum, destacando-se as condições técnicas de produção e de comercialização do produto, além dos seus aspectos sociais. Um total de 25 produtores de mamona foi entrevistado no ano agrícola de 2005, por uma equipe de pesquisadores da Embrapa Algodão. Um questionário preestabelecido com 15 variáveis agronômicas e socioecononômicas foi aplicado junto aos produtores, visando o diagnóstico do perfil agrossocioeconômico dos produtores de mamona que estão destinando sua

  4. A BATCH REACTOR CONSTRUCTION FOR OBTAINING BIODIESEL FROM OIL Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    Yolimar Fernández; Osmely Floiran; Era Maurelys; Milena Villalobos; América Garcia

    2014-01-01

    A batch reactor was constructed to obtain biodiesel from 5 liters of extracted from the seed of Ricinus communis. The reactor is made of stainless steel, 29cm length, 15.24 cm of inner diameter and a conical base of 20cm long, wall thickness of 0.2 cm, 1000 W tubular resistance and 110 volt motor. It is extracted and compared with the respective norms the physical and chemical properties of crude oil. Preliminary tests catalyzed transesterification of the oil with NaOH to verify the feasibil...

  5. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

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    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  6. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  7. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  8. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. PMID:23084038

  9. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that...... could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work...

  10. In vitro activity of total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis on Leishmania major promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis was tested on Leishmania promastigotes in cell-free culture media. Serial dilutions of the extracts ranging from 500μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml were prepared in triplicate using Schneiders Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum in the absence of antibiotics and the growth of approximately 1x 10 (power 6) parasites monitored every two days for a period of 8 days. Parasite density was estimated every two days using the Neuabeur counting chamber. At the end of the 8-day period cell morphology was observed and photographed. Significant growth inihibitory effect was observed on the promastigotes by the aqueous and ethanol extracts especially at high concentrations. However, there was an enhanced growth effect initially thereafter leading to to a rapid decline in promastigote cell population. Flagellar motility was also greatly affected at high concentration and it appeared that there was a linear relationship between flagellar motilities and the level of concentrations. Parasite morphology was affected severely. Most of the cultures observed appeared to have abnormal round morphology. Rosseting was also evident in the extract treated cultures. The aqueous leaf extract interfered with parasite morphology but this was dose dependent. The importance of R. communis plant as a potential source for chemotypes with antileishmanial activity is discussed. (author)

  11. Standardization parameters and HPTLC fingerprinting of the roots of Ricinus communis Linn

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    Abhilasha Mittal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae, known as castor plant, is widespread throughout tropical regions of India and grows as an annual or perennial soft wooded small tree. A decoction of the root is administered to relieve lumbago, and a root paste is applied to alleviate toothache. The roots contained glycosides, phenolic compounds, steroids and acidic components. The root bark of R. communis furnished 5.74% of the total ash, 2.03% of the acid insoluble ash and 2.98% of the water soluble ash. There was 9.46 % of water content. Successive extraction of the roots (50 g yielded 0.362 g, 0.482 g, 1.243 g and 2.643 g of the extracts in petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. Individual extractions of the roots (15 g with these solvents produced 0.235 g, 0.727 g, 7.425 g and 12.017 g of the extracts, respectively. Fluorescence behavior of powdered root bark of R. communis indicated that the light yellow powder of the bark powder changed to black at max 366 nm. Among the nine elements, calcium (350.45 ppm was present in the maximum amount followed by followed by potassium (330.50 ppm, magnesium (230.68 ppm and cadmium (198.57 ppm. Sodium (56.26 ppm and lead (8.18 ppm were detected in trace amounts. The HPTLC scanning of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of the roots exhibited 5, 4 and 4 major bands, respectively.

  12. An experimental evaluation of in vitro immunomodulatory activity of isolated compound of Ricinus communis on human neutrophils

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    Arvind Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the in vitro immunomodulatory activity of Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae was determined on human neutrophils. The isolated compound (tannin of R. communis leaves was screened for its possible immunomodulatory activity by carrying out nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans, neutrophil locomotion and chemotaxis. The isolated compound was tested at concentrations, viz. 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml. The isolated compound of R. communis showed predominantly significant activity on human neutrophils in all the parameters tested, which was comparable to the standard and control at different concentrations, indicating the possible immunostimulating effect.

  13. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed. PMID:23786062

  14. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS ASOCIADOS A RESIDUOS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis

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    Teresa Cabra Cendales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo fue aislar e identificar los microorganismos presentes en los residuos de fruto y torta de higuerilla (Ricinus communis. Se utilizaron medios de cultivo selectivos para la caracterización morfológica y bioquímica y para la identificación molecular se usó la técnica de PCR con oligonucleótidos universales RM y RB del gen 16S para bacterias y secuencias intergénicas ITS1 e ITS4 para hongos y levaduras. Las secuencias fueron analizadas identificándose nueve especies de hongos, siendo Penicillium brevicompactum predominante; 12 especies de bacterias, donde el género más recurrente fue Bacillus sp. y dos especies de levaduras, Rhodosporidium paludigenum y Pichia burtonni. La identificación de la microbiota nativa presente en los residuos de higuerilla es muy promisoria, aportando un amplio conocimiento sobre la versatilidad metabólica de cada una de las cepas aisladas. El mayor número de aislamientos se obtuvieron de la torta probablemente debido al alto contenido de nutrientes presentes en este residuo.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and oil contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a rigorous study and characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and its respective extracted oil. Several physical–chemical properties were measured in order to know moisture, total lipid content, fiber content, starch presence, morphology, acidity, free fatty acid profile, ricinoleic acid content, viscosity and crude oil density. Three different methodologies were implemented for the oil extraction in each variety (extraction with chemical solvents and mechanical compression heated and non-heated). The yield percentage of the oil extraction was evaluated as well as the extraction method influence over the oil's nature. -- Highlights: ► We characterized seven different Castor seeds and oils from semi deserted region. ► We evaluate the performance of three different methods to obtain Castor Oils. ► It was found that the density and fatty acid profile depend on the method of extraction. ► According to x-ray diffraction experiments no crystalline compounds were found in the defatted mass. ► The viscosity of the Castor Oils was strongly influence by the extractive method

  16. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots. PMID:19968824

  17. Eficiencia del extracto de Ricinus communis para el control del mosquito Culex

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    Diego Tomás Corradine Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto de Ricinus communis sobre larvas de mosquitos Culex. A las 24 h la mortalidad es de 8.33 % con dosis de 1 mL del extracto en una concentración de 500 ppm; 35 % en dosis de 1 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 65 % en dosis de 5 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 98.33 % con 10 mL en concentración de 1000 ppm; testigos 3.3 %. Cuando se evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto aplicado por aspersión en concentraciones de 500, 750 y 1000 ppm, se consiguieron mortalidades de 18.33, 36.66 y 48.32 %, respectivamente. Ninguna de las concentraciones evaluadas alcanzó el cien por ciento de letalidad. En la prueba de semicampo, solo se logró una mortalidad de 9 %. Se evidenció que el extracto tiene un mejor efecto insecticida para el control de ejemplares inmaduros en estado larvario que sobre los adultos.

  18. The Effect of Experimental Denture Cleanser Solution Ricinus communis on Acrylic Resin Properties

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    Marina Xavier Pisani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated heat-polymerized (HPR and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins (MPR, after immersion in water, 1% hypochlorite and Ricinus communis solution (RC. Knoop hardness, color alteration, roughness and flexural strength tests were performed after obtaining the specimens and after time intervals of 15 (T15 and 183 (T183 days. Variations in data (Δ were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (P = 0.05. For ΔT15 HPR there was greater variation in hardness when immersed in water (P = 0.00 and for MPR, after immersion in RC (P = 0.00. RC caused the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.015. Color alteration was not significant (P = 24.46. Hypochlorite caused a decrease in flexural strength (P = 0.37. After ΔT183, hypochlorite and RC caused a decrease in HPR hardness value (P = 0.00. MPR showed the greatest variation in roughness (P = 0.01. HPR presented the most color alteration after immersion in RC (P = 0.214. Hypochlorite and RC caused the lowest flexural strength values for MPR (P = 0.89. RC caused alterations in resin properties, and was not shown to be superior to hypochlorite.

  19. Isolamento do alcalóide ricinina das folhas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae através de cromatografias em contracorrente Isolation of the alkaloid ricinine from the leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae through counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Leite

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet counter-current chromatography, rotation locular counter-current chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to the preparative separation of the alkaloid ricinine from the dichloromethane extracts of Ricinus communis leaves. The solvent system used was composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (93:35:72 v/v/v and all techniques led to the isolation of large amounts of the alkaloid. The best result was obtained through HSCCC, since the ricinine yield was respectively 50% and 30% higher than when using RLCCC or DCCC.

  20. Evaluation for yield and quality of oil from seven Ricinus communis varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Rivera-Brenes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield and quality of oil from seven Ricinus communis varieties. The morphological properties (height of plant, productive branches, length of clusters, yield of seed, and oil quality. The evaluation was conducted at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Experimental Station of the University of Costa Rica, Alajuela, Costa Rica, from September 2013 to April 2014. A randomized complete block design with a density of 5000 plants/ha was used for the evaluation. The varieties evaluated were ColBio RH 171,09, ColBio HR 205, ColBio HR 268, ColBioHR 157, 401, and NIC. The parameters evaluated showed significant difference (a<0.05. The seven varieties constituted all medium-sized plants. The average was four productive branches for all varieties. ColBio HR 268, ColBio HR 205, and ColBio HR 171 obtained the longer cluster. Stem diameter showed an average between 3 and 4 cm for the seven treatments. In relation toseed yield, variety NIC had the lowest value (860 kg/ha, while ColBio HR 171, 09, ColBio HR 205, and 268 had the highest yield with an average of 2377kg/ha. Oil content was higher for treatments 401 (88% and ColBio HR 171 (87%. The array 09 showed the highest content of ricinoleic acid (80%, followed by ColBio HR 268 (69% placing both also among the varieties with higer seed yield, but with lower oil content.

  1. Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Ahmed Kolade Oloyo; Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed (RCE) on male rats reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were gavaged with 0.2 mL of 2.5 % tween 80 (RCE vehicle; control) or 20 mg/(kg.d) and 40 mg/(kg.d) of RCE, respectively, for 30 days, and group 4 was also gavaged with 40 mg/(kg·d) of RCE, but was allowed a recovery periold of 30 days.Five untreated female rats were cohabited with male rats in each group from day 25 of RCE treatment for 5 days,except group 4, where cohabitation began on day 25 of the recovery period. All male rats were sacrificed 24 h after the experiments. The female rats were laparatomized on day 19 of pregnancy and the number and weight of litters were recorded. Results: There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of the reproductive organs,sperm functions and serum levels of testosterone in RCE treated rats. There was disorganization in the cytoarchitecture of the testes, disruption of the seminiferous tubules and erosion of the germinal epithelium. The number and weight of litters of rats in groups 2 and 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but no changes were observed in group 3. RCE caused no changes in liver, kidney, heart or body weights in male rats. Conclusion: RCE has a reversible negative impact on male reproductive functions, which appears to be mediated via gonadal disruption in testosterone secretion.

  2. Effect of the organic garbage and castor oil plant pie on of crop growth characteristics of mamoneira (ricinus communis l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Maria Bezerra Guimarães; Edivan Silva Nunes Júnior; Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima; Napoleão Esberard de Macedo Beltrão; Fabiana Xavier Costa; Francisco Ademilton Vieira Damaceno

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the growth and development of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) submitted to the organic manuring, with castor oil plant pie and composed of organic garbage. The experiment was led at greenhouse, from October 2005 to March 2006, at Embrapa Algodão, state of Paraiba. The treatments were constituted from the addition of castor oil plant pie to the soil in the levels of 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 t ha-1 and organic garbage in the levels of 11.2; 22....

  3. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemudzivhadi, Vhutshilo; Masoko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical molecules using ABTS(+) assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS(+)) scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%). Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS(+) free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS(+) radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines. PMID:25477994

  4. In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhutshilo Nemudzivhadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis has been utilized traditionally as medicine to treat inflammatory related diseases including wounds, sores, and boils. The leaves of R. communis were sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction method. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts was quantitatively measured against 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid free radical molecules using ABTS+ assay. Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of R. communis leaves extracts were evaluated on Human Caucasian skin fibroblast and Raw 264.7 macrophage cell lines, respectively. Methanol extract had the highest percentage free radical (ABTS+ scavenging activity of 95% at 2.50 mg/mL, acetone 91%, dichloromethane 62%, and hexane the least (50%. Percentage scavenging activity of ABTS+ free radical molecules increases with increase in concentrations of the plant extracts. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more than 90% cell viability at 100 µg/mL after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Methanol extract had LC50 of 784 µg/mL after 24-hour exposure, hexane had 629.3 µg/mL and dichloromethane 573.6 µg/mL, and 544.6 µg/mL was the lowest with acetone extract. The study present the first report on the scavenging activity of R. communis leaf extracts against ABTS+ radicals and cytotoxic effects on human Caucasian skin fibroblast cell lines.

  5. Evaluación del rendimiento y calidad del aceite de siete variedades de Ricinus communis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Rivera-Brenes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en evaluar el rendimiento y calidad del aceite en siete variedades de Ricinus communis. Se evaluaron las características morfológicas (altura de la planta, ramas productivas, longitud de racimos, rendimiento de la semilla y la calidad del aceite. La evaluación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Fabio Baudrit Moreno de la Universidad de Costa Rica, Alajuela, Costa Rica, durante los meses de setiembre de 2013 a abril de 2014. Se estableció un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con una densidad de 5000 plantas/ha. Las variedades evaluadas fueron ColBio HR 171, 09, ColBio HR 205, ColBio HR 268, ColBio HR 157, 401 y NIC. Los parámetros evaluados mostraron diferencia significativa (a<0,05. Las siete variedades mostraron todas las plantas de porte medio. El promedio de ramas productivas fue de cuatro para todas las variedades. La mayor longitud de racimo la obtuvieron las variedades ColBio HR 268, ColBio HR 205 y ColBio HR 171. El grosor del tallo mostró una media entre los 3 y 4 cm para los siete tratamientos. En cuanto a rendimiento de la semilla, la variedad NIC presentó el menor (860 kg/ha, mientras que ColBio HR 171, 09, ColBio HR 205 y ColBio 268 presentaron el mayor rendimiento con un promedio de 2377 kg/ha. El contenido de aceite fue mayor para los tratamientos 401 (88% y ColBio HR 171 (87%. La variedad 09 presentó el mayor contenido de ácido ricinoleico con 80%, seguido por ColBio HR 268 con 69% colocándose ambas también entre las variedades con mejor rendimiento de semilla, pero con los menores contenidos de aceite. 

  6. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in t

  7. Amino acid profile of raw and locally processed seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis: potential antidotes to protein malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi U. Igwe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing incidence of malnutrition occasioned by high incidence of hunger,worsening food situation in the world, insufficient availability and high cost of animal protein sources, has necessitated extensive research into and use of alternative plant protein sources especially underexploited leguminous seeds.Methods: Flours from raw, boiled and fermented seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis were evaluated for crude protein and amino acid (AA profiles, and their protein qualities determined. Results: Fermentation improved the protein contents of raw seeds of P. africana and R. communis by 18.70% and 3.95% respectively. In the raw and fermented P. africana seeds, glutamate at 132.60 ± 1.30 and 182.70 ± 3.02 mg/g crude protein (mg/gcp was the most abundant amino acid (AA, while leucine (62.80 ± 0.60 and 79.50 ± 2.01 mg/gcp was the most concentrated essential amino acid (EAA. Aspartate (151.90 ± 2.01 and 170.10 ± 2.00 mg/gcp and arginine (72.80 ± 2.01 and 78.60 ± 2.00 mg/gcp were the most concentrated and abundant non-essential amino acid (NEAA and EAA in the raw and fermented samples of R. communisrespectively. The total AA concentrations (mg/gcp of raw and fermented P. africana were 733.00 and 962.60 respectively, while those of R. communis were 823.50 and 894.10 respectively. The total EAA contents (mg/gcp for P. africana were 311.00 (raw and 404.50 (fermented, and for R. communis; 401.10 (raw and 430.30 (fermented. Threonine was the limiting EAA in raw and fermented P. africana, whereas lysine was the limiting EAA in R. communis raw sample. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05 increased the individual AA compositions of P. africana and R. communis by 94% and 53% respectively, while boiling reduced these parameters significantly (p<0.05 by 47% and 82% respectively. Conclusion: P. africana and R. communis seeds are potentially important plant sources of protein and essential amino acids, and so could be of great

  8. Bis(β-lactosyl-[60]fullerene as novel class of glycolipids useful for the detection and the decontamination of biological toxins of the Ricinus communis family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Dohi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycosyl-[60]fullerenes were first used as decontaminants against ricin, a lactose recognition proteotoxin in the Ricinus communis family. A fullerene glycoconjugate carrying two lactose units was synthesized by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between C60 and the azide group in 6-azidohexyl β-lactoside per-O-acetate. A colloidal aqueous solution with brown color was prepared from deprotected bis(lactosyl-C60 and was found stable for more than 6 months keeping its red color. Upon mixing with an aqueous solution of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120, the colloidal solution soon caused precipitations, while becoming colorless and transparent. In contrast, a solution of concanavalin A (Con A caused no apparent change, indicating that the precipitation was caused specifically by carbohydrate–protein interactions. This notable phenomenon was quantified by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and the results were discussed in terms of detection and decontamination of the deadly biological toxin in the Ricinus communis family.

  9. Inibição do desenvolvimento de fungos fitopatogênicos por detergente derivado de óleo da mamona (Ricinus communis The castor oil plant detergent (Ricinus communis inhibits the asexual development of phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Hitomi Takano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo avaliou-se o efeito fungitóxico do detergente derivado do óleo da mamona (Ricinus communis sobre o desenvolvimento dos fitopatógenos: Pyricularia grisea, Fusarium graminearum e Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Seis concentrações do detergente (12,5mL L-1 a 300mL L-1 foram, individualmente, incorporadas ao Meio Basal; a seguir, após inoculação fúngica, o crescimento radial dos micélios foi avaliado. A inibição total do desenvolvimento de C. lindemuthianum e P. grisea foi observada entre as concentrações de 50mL L-1 e 200mL L-1, respectivamente. Com base no crescimento miceliano das colônias de F. graminearum, a atividade antifúngica do detergente do óleo da mamona (DOM determinou inibição variável entre 79,4 e 91% para a raça F2 e entre 80,7 e 90,7% para a raça F4. O detergente, nas concentrações de 100 a 300mL L-1, inibiu em 100% a germinação de conídios de F. graminearum (raças F-4 e F-2. Os resultados demonstram nítida atividade antifúngica do detergente derivado do óleo da mamona sobre fitopatógenos.In the present study the fungitoxic effect of the castor oil plant detergent (Ricinus communis on the development of the phytopathogens Pyricularia grisea, Fusarium graminearum and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum was evaluated. Six concentrations of the detergent (12.5mL L-1 to 300mL L-1 had been, individually, incorporated to the Basal Medium. After fungi inoculations, the radial growth of mycelia were evaluated. Detergent at 50mL L-1 and 200mL L-1 inhibited completely the development of P. grisea and C. lindemuthianum, respectively. On the basis of the mycelial growth of F. graminearum, the fungitoxic activity of the castor oil plant detergent (DOM determined inhibition in the range of 79.4 and 91% for the F2 race and 80.7 and 90.7% for the F4 race. Detergent at the concentrations of 100mL L-1 to 300mL L-1 inhibited in 100% the F. graminearum germination conidia (races F-4 and F-2. Results

  10. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. PMID:24446756

  11. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  12. Light and electron microscopic observations in connection with the developing pistil and seed-appendix (caruncle of Ricinus communis L.

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    Katherine Liszt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the particularly organized stigma and obturator, their fine structure, their function as well as the histological differentiation and the role of the seed-appendix i.e. the caruncle of Ricinus communis L. have been investigated in several developmental phases from the so called "gynoecial primordium" state to the ripe state, 'using the terminology introduced by S a t t 1 e r (1974. The stigma cells are characterized by dens cytoplasm, numerous vesicles mostly of ER origin, ribosomes and negatively stained mitochondria. Dilatation of ER, the appearance of electron opaque substances in it and between the plasmamembran and cell wall are frequent. The degenerating process of some stigma cells will start before the pollination because of autolysis. In the cells of the obturator and young caruncle however dictyosomes can be found more frequently than in stigma cells and the starch content of the ;plastids is remarkable. The thickening of the cell wall is connected with the function of these tissues.

  13. Rat sperm immobilisation effects of a protein from Ricinus communis (Linn.): an in vitro comparative study with nonoxynol-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

    2012-12-01

    Previous study conducted in our department showed that 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis possess reversible antifertility effect and a 62-kDa protein (Rp) from this extract is responsible for the antifertility effects. In this study, we compared the spermicidal effect of this Rp with nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in vitro. The sperm immobilisation studies showed that 100 μg ml(-1) of Rp was able to immobilise the sperms completely within 30 s. Sperm revival test revealed that the spermicidal effect was irreversible. There was also a significant reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling in Rp and N-9 treated groups in comparison with the control. In Rp and N-9 treated groups, the number of acrosome-reacted cells was found to be high and also caused agglutination of the spermatozoa, indicating the loss of intactness of the plasma membrane, which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5'-nucleotidase, acrosomal acrosin. In short, the protein Rp possesses spermicidal activity in vitro and its effects are similar to that of nonoxynol 9. PMID:22486240

  14. Dynamics and control of phloem loading of indole-3-acetic acid in seedling cotyledons of Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Imre A; Davies, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    During seed germination, sugars and auxin are produced from stored precursors or conjugates respectively, and transported to the seedling axis. To elucidate the mode of travel of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the phloem, a solution of [(3)H]IAA, together with [(14)C]sucrose, was injected into the endosperm cavity harboring the cotyledons of germinating seedlings of Ricinus communis Phloem exudate from the cut hypocotyl was collected and the radioactivity recorded. Sucrose loading into the phloem was inhibited at higher IAA levels, and the rate of filling of the transient pool(s) was reduced by IAA. IAA was detected within 10min, with the concentration increasing over 30min and reaching a steady-state by 60min. The kinetics indicated that phloem loading of IAA involving both an active, carrier-based, and a passive, diffusion-based component, with IAA traveling along a pathway containing an intermediary pool, possibly the protoplasts of mesophyll cells. Phloem loading of IAA was altered by sucrose, K(+), and a range of non-specific and IAA-specific analogs and inhibitors in a manner that showed that IAA moves into the phloem from the extra cotyledonary solution by multiple pathways, with a carrier-mediated pathway playing a principal role. PMID:27371947

  15. Synthesis of amides and sulfonamides of β-D- galactopyranosylamine and β-lactosylamine and evaluation of their interactions with the lectins from Erythrina cristagalli and Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report herein the synthesis of some β-D-galactopyranosylamine and β-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides. The interactions of these compounds with lectins from the seeds of Erythrina cristagalli (LEC) and Ricinus communis (RCA120) were evaluated in a hemagglutination inhibitory activity assay. D-Galactose and lactose were used as reference compounds. The β-lactosylamine amides and sulfonamides were nearly as active as lactose in inhibiting LEC mediated hemagglutination and were less active against RCA120 agglutinin. The β-D-galactopyranosylamine amides and sulfonamides were, with one exception, considerably less active than D-galactose in the assay with both lectins. (author)

  16. Comportamiento ecofisiológico de variedades de higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) para la producción sostenible de aceite y biodiesel en diferentes agroecosistemas colombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba Gaona, Oscar de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) es una especie cultivada en todas las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo, y ha sido recomendada para altitudes no mayores a los 1.500 msnm, ya que se ha pensado que, ambientes fríos afectan el desempeño de la especie, al alterar el crecimiento y desarrollo del vegetal, y al reducir la cantidad y calidad final de aceite. Por lo anterior, a través de la presente investigación, se determinó el comportamiento fisiológico de la higuerilla en dif...

  17. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

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    César Luis Siqueira Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v concentration of essential oil. The studies with the fresh fruits treated with 5% (v/v castor oil in aqueous emulsions resulted in effective reduction of pathogen spread in these fruits. No lesion was found in the fruits treated with oil, when compared to the control fruits. Castor oil showed no effect against the P. caricapapayae when tested in vitro. These results suggested the potential use of the castor bean essential oil and its fatty acids constituents for the control of anthracnose in papaya fruits.

  18. Growth and carbon assimilation limitations in Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae under soil water stress conditions Crescimento e limitações à assimilação de carbono em Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae sob condições de estresse hídrico do solo

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    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water availability may influence plant carbon gain and growth, with large impacts on plant yield. Ricinus communis (L., a drought resistant species, is a crop with increasing economic importance in Brazil, due to its use in chemical industry and for the production of biofuels. Some of the mechanisms involved in this drought resistance were analyzed in this study by imposing progressive water stress to pot-grown plants under glasshouse conditions. Water withholding for 53 days decreased soil water gravimetric content and the leaf water potential. Plant growth was negatively and significantly reduced by increasing soil water deficits. With irrigation suspension, carbon assimilation and transpiration were reduced and remained mostly constant throughout the day. Analysis of A/Ci curves showed increased stomatal limitation, indicating that limitation imposed by stomatal closure is the main factor responsible for photosynthesis reduction. Carboxylation efficiency and electron transport rate were not affected by water stress up to 15 days after withholding water. Drought resistance of castor bean seems to be related to a pronounced, early growth response, an efficient stomatal control and the capacity to keep high net CO2 fixation rates under water stress conditions.A disponibilidade hídrica pode influenciar o ganho de carbono e o crescimento, com grande impacto na produtividade das plantas. Ricinus communis (L., uma espécie resistente à seca, é uma cultura de grande importância econômica no Brasil, devido ao seu uso na indústria química e para a produção de biocombustíveis. Alguns dos mecanismos envolvidos na resistência à seca desta espécie foram analisados através de um progressivo estresse hídrico em plantas cultivadas em vasos sob condições de casa de vegetação. A suspensão da irrigação por 53 dias decresceu o conteúdo gravimétrico de água no solo e o potencial hídrico das folhas. O crescimento das plantas foi

  19. Exploration of larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activities of Ricinus communis seed extract against three potential mosquito vectors in Kolkata, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activities of castor (Ricinus communis) seed extract against three potential mosquito vectorsAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) andAedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) in India.Methods: TheR. communis seed extract was tested, employingWHO procedure, against fourth larval instars of the three mosquito species for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (2-64 μg/mL); the 24 hLC50 values of theR. communis seed extract were determined following Probit analysis. The larval killing, antipupation and adult emergence inhibition rates of the test extract, using a single concentration of2μLC50, were studied at different time periods (24-72 h); the extract toxicity was tested against a fish,Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus).Results: TheR. communis seed extract exhibited larvicidal effects with 100 % killing activities at concentrations32-64 μg/mL, and withLC50values 7.10, 11.64 and 16.84μg/mL forCx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensiand Ae. albopictuslarvae, respectively. When the larvae were treated with the extract at a single concentration of2×LC50, significant differences were observed, compared to control groups, in rate of pupation (P<0.001) as well as in adult formation (P<0.001).Conclusions: The present findings suggest that theR. communis seed extract provided an excellent potential for controllingAn. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. albopictus mosquito vectors.

  20. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Kristine M Jones; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae geno...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to

  2. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. PMID:27247300

  3. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. Surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. The polyurethane derived from castor beans (Ricinus communis has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. Nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (Ricinus communis assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. AIM: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the Ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. STUDY DESING: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used four Cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. The animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. We also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. CONCLUSION: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.Lesões do tecido ósseo podem ser causadas por fatores congênitos e adquiridos e resultar em deformidade nasal com repercussão estética e funcional. O tratamento cirúrgico desses casos requer reconstruções complexas e frequentemente o uso de biomateriais. O poliuretano derivado do óleo da mamona apresenta uma fórmula com aspectos favoráveis de processabilidade, flexibilidade de formulação, ausência de emissão de vapores tóxicos e baixo custo. Entretanto, a despeito dos resultados favoráveis, estudos referentes ao uso do polímero de mamona, avaliando a reação tecidual no dorso nasal, ainda não foram

  4. Estudio Químico, Micrográfico y Morfológico del Ricinus communis L., y su Aplicación en Pulpa Blanqueable

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    Teófilo Escoto García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available México posee una gran gama de especies vegetales no maderables o arbustivos, de los cuales se sabe muy poco, y para el caso del Ricinus communis L., existen trabajos sobre el uso de la semilla en biocombustibles y en la obtención de celulosa a partir del tallo. Con estos antecedentes se recolectó un espécimen de Ricinus communis , se descortezó y astilló para llevar a cabo los análisis de composición química, micrográfico y morfológico del tejido leñoso; aplicando además un proceso químico a la sosa para la obtención de celulosa blanqueable mediante secuencia OD/OP/D, evaluando las propiedades de resistencia fisicomecánica y viscosidad, así como blancura y opacidad. La composición química indica que el contenido en holocelulosa (85.0 % y alfa celulosa (66.3 % se encuentra dentro de los parámetros para papel. El análisis micrográfico reportó la relación de Runkel con un grado II y el análisis morfológico reportó que las fibras tienen una longitud promedio de 1.057 mm y pared de 4.4 m de espesor; con gran posibilidad de producir papel de buena calidad. Las condiciones para la obtención de pulpa se dan en 25 % reactivo, 160 °C, 120 minutos de cocción y 26 minutos de refinación. El tratamiento de blanqueo reportó un grado de blancura de 86.8 % y una viscosidad de 10.7 cp. Concluyendo que de acuerdo a sus componentes químicos, características micrográficas y morfológicas el Ricinus communis L ., técnicamente es viable para su aplicación en pulpa blanqueable.

  5. Secondary seed dispersal of Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae) by ants in secondary growth vegetation in Minas Gerais Dispersão secundária de sementes de Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae) por formigas em vegetação secundária em Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, I tested the efficacy of ants as secondary seed dispersers of Ricinus communis in southeastern Brazil. In a natural population of 143 individuals, I determined the ballistic dispersal distance for 62 seeds and 100 additional seeds were experimentally offered to ants in groups of ten seeds along a transect of 50 m. Fifty-three seeds were removed by ants, mainly by the leafcutter Atta sexdens (90.4%). The dispersal distance by ants was high, compared to the global average (4.38 m...

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Zehneria scabra and Ricinus communis against Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bereket Abew; Samuel Sahile; Feleke Moges

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activities of the crude leaves extracts of Zehneria scabra (Z. scabra) and Ricinus communis (R. communis) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcusaureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistance S. aureus. Methods: The crude powdered leaves of Z. scabra and R. communis were extracted successively by organic solvents in increasing polarity [benzene, chloroform:acetone (1:1), 70% alcohol and distilled water]. The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude leaves extracts of were tested against standard strains of E. coli (ATCC 25922) and S. aureus (ATCC 2923) and clinical isolates of E. coli, S.aureus and methicillin resistance S. aureus using agar well diffusion method. Results: In Z. scabra and R. communis leaf extracts, the most sensitive standard strain was S. aureus with an inhibition zone of (14.00±1.20) mm and (15.90±2.13) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Z. scabra extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 3 in clinical and standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 and 4 in clinical and standard strains of E. coli. The MIC values of R. communis extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 2 and 3 standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 in clinical isolate of E. coli. Most of the minimum bactericidal concentration and MIC values of plant extracts were almost similar particularly in R. communis, or minimum bactericidal concentration equal to one dilution factor less than MIC value of the extracts mainly in Z. scabra. Conclusions: The potency of plant extracts against test organisms were depend on different organic solvents used. Clinical isolate of bacterial pathogens showed less zones of diameter compared to the standard strains. Gram-positive had wide inhibition zones than Gram-negative bacteria. Further studies should be carried out to isolate the pure compounds and standardization of the methods

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Zehneria scabra and Ricinus communis against Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bereket; Abew; Samuel; Sahile; Feleke; Moges

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activities of the crude leaves extracts of Zehneria scabra(Z.scabra) and Ricinus communis(R.communis) against Escherichia coli(E.coli).Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus) and methicillin resistance 5.aureus.Methods:The crude powdered leaves of Z.scabra and R.communis were extracted successively by organic solvents in increasing polarity[benzene,chloroform:acetone(1:1),70%alcohol and distilled water].The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude leaves extracts of were tested against standard strains of E.coli(ATCC 25922) and S.aureus(ATCC 2923) and clinical isolates of E.coli,S.aureus and methicillin resistance 5.aureus using agar well diffusion method.Results:In Z.scabra and R.communis leaf extracts,the most sensitive standard strain was S.aureus with an inhibition zone of(14.00±1.20) mm and(15.90±2.13) mm,respectively.The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) values of Z.scabra extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95mg/mL for extract 3 in clinical and standard strains of 5.aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 and 4in clinical and standard strains of E.coli.The MIC values of R.communis extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 2 and 3 standard strains of S.aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 in clinical isolate of E.coli.Most of the minimum bactericidal concentration and MIC values of plant extracts were almost similar particularly in R.communis,or minimum bactericidal concentration equal to one dilution factor less than MIC value of the extracts mainly in Z.scabra.Conclusions:The potency of plant extracts against test organisms were depend on different organic solvents used.Clinical isolate of bacterial pathogens showed less zones of diameter compared to the standard strains.Gram-positive had wide inhibition zones than Gram-negative bacteria.Further studies should be carried out to isolate the pure compounds and standardization of the methods of plant extracts for an in vitro testing.

  8. Optimization of Preparation of Activated Carbon from Ricinus communis Leaves by Microwave-Assisted Zinc Chloride Chemical Activation: Competitive Adsorption of Ni2+ Ions from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Makeswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of activated carbon (AC from Ricinus communis leaves was investigated in this paper. Orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the preparation of AC using microwave assisted zinc chloride. Optimized parameters were radiation power of 100 W, radiation time of 8 min, concentration of zinc chloride of 30% by volume, and impregnation time of 24 h, respectively. The surface characteristics of the AC prepared under optimized conditions were examined by pHZPC, SEM-EDAX, XRD, and FTIR. Competitive adsorption of Ni2+ ions on Ricinus communis leaves by microwave assisted zinc chloride chemical activation (ZLRC present in binary and ternary mixture was compared with the single metal solution. The effects of the presence of one metal ion on the adsorption of the other metal ion were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the uptake capacity of one metal ion was reduced by the presence of the other metal ion. The extent of adsorption capacity of the binary and ternary metal ions tested on ZLRC was low (48–69% as compared to single metal ions. Comparisons with the biosorption of Ni2+ ions by the biomass of ZLRC in the binary (48.98–68.41%-~Ni-Cu and 69.76–66.29%-~Ni-Cr and ternary solution (67.32–57.07%-~Ni–Cu and Cr could lead to the conclusion that biosorption of Ni2+ ions was reduced by the influence of Cu2+ and Cr3+ ions. The equilibrium data of the adsorption was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  9. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values AAT genes, RcLHT6, RcANT15, RcProT2, and RcCAT2, were induced by the GlyF treatment in R. communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional characterization of candidate AAT genes in future studies. PMID:27092815

  10. Toxicity of ricin present in castor bean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanna Brunna da Silva Fonseca; Benito Soto-Blanco

    2014-01-01

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a bush from Euphorbiacea family cultivated for obtaining oil from the seeds. This oil has broad industrial employment, particularly for biodiesel. However, castor bean seeds exhibit a potent toxin, ricin. It is a glycoprotein with highly toxic action of inactivating ribosomes. The toxic action of ricin is due to inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, causing cell death. Only one molecule of ricin that enters the cytosol is able to inactivate...

  11. Implantes de resina de poliuretana vegetal (Ricinus communis na tração linear, fixação e fusão vertebral no cão: estudo experimental Implants of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin in distraction, fixation and vertebral fusion in dogs: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Laranjeira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Placa e espaçador de polímero derivado do óleo de mamona (PDOM (Ricinus communis foram avaliados clínica, radiográfica e histologicamente na tração linear, fixação e fusão vertebral cervical em 20 cães adultos, sem raça definida, pesando entre 17 e 22kg. Foram sacrificados quatro animais aos 10, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de pós-operatório. Após exposição da coluna cervical, por acesso ventral, o disco intervertebral de C4-C5 foi fenestrado e a abordagem ao canal medular foi feita por meio de fenda óssea. Um espaçador de PDOM foi colocado preenchendo o defeito ósseo. Os corpos vertebrais C4-C5 foram fixados com placa do mesmo material, utilizando-se dois parafusos corticais em cada corpo vertebral. Apenas um animal apresentou déficit neurológico no pós-operatório imediato. Radiograficamente as vértebras mostravam-se normais e alinhadas, sem colapso do espaço intervertebral, porém não houve neoformação óssea entre as vértebras. Ao exame mielográfico, não houve compressão da medula espinhal. Os implantes foram efetivos em manter a tração linear e fixação das vértebras cervicais e não ocorreu a fusão vertebral.Clinical, radiographic and histological evaluation of plate and biomechanical spacer of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin were performed in distraction, fixation and vertebral cervical fusion in 20 adult dogs, weighting between 17 and 22kg. Four animals were euthanized at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after surgery. After ventral exposition of cervical spine, cervical disk fenestration was performed on intervertebral spaces C4-C5 and a slot was created. A biomechanical spacer of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin was placed to fill bone defect. C4-C5 spinous processes were fixed with plate of the same material, utilizing two cortical screws in each spinal process. Only one animal had neurological signs immediately after surgery. Radiographic examination indicated that vertebrae were normal and aligned

  12. Estudo da atividade mutagênica das plantas, Euphorbia milii Des Moulins e Ricinus communis L através do teste de Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli A. da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a mutagenicidade e o grau de toxicidade de duas plantas tóxicas, a "mamona" (Ricinus communis e a "coroa-de-cristo" (Euphorbia milii, utilizando infusões das sementes de mamona e o látex da coroa-de-cristo, em células meristemáticas de Allium cepa. Foram analisados: o índice mitótico (IM, as anomalias do ciclo mitótico (ACM, anomalias interfásicas, (AI e o total de anomalias (TA. As soluções testes foram preparadas em três concentrações: MT1 - 0,5 g/l, MT2 - 1,0 g/l, MT3 - 2,0 g/l, e MT4 como controle. Da coroa-de-cristo extraiu-se o látex e dissolveu-se em água destilada nas concentrações CT1 -0,5 ml/l, CT2 - 1,0 ml/l, CT3 - 2,0 ml/l, e CT4 controle. Os resultados constataram que somente a mamona aumentou a freqüência de anomalias do ciclo mitótico, assim como, as anomalias interfásicas, demonstrando, dessa forma, uma ação tóxica para o material genético, através do teste de Allium cepa.

  13. Preliminary clinical investigation of the contraceptive efficacy and chemical pathological effects of RICOM-1013-J of Ricinus communis var minor on women volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isichei, C O; Das, S C; Ogunkeye, O O; Okwuasaba, F K; Uguru, V E; Onoruvwe, O; Olayinka, A O; Dafur, S J; Ekwere, E O; Parry, O

    2000-02-01

    The seeds of Ricinus communis Linn, RICOM-1013-J, administered as a single oral dose of 2.3-2.5 g once per 12 months protected against pregnancy in 50 women volunteers for a period of one year. The antifertility and contraceptive efficacy of the seed was demonstrated in this study. Clinical observation revealed very minimal side effects. Some of the side effects investigated included headache, nausea, vomiting, weight gain, loss of appetite, raised blood pressure and dysmenorrhoea. Furthermore, both the renal and liver functions were not affected as revealed by urea, electrolyte and creatinine values as well as total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, serum albumin, total protein and transaminases values when compared with control values. In addition cholesterol and phospholipids were not significantly altered. When all these results are considered together, it seems unlikely that the antifertility and contraceptive efficacy of RICOM-1013-J is due to hormonal mechanisms alone since side effects, renal and liver function, and cholesterol effects attributable to oestrogen and/or progesterone were minimal in the volunteers. PMID:10641046

  14. Effect of the extract of Ricinus communis L. on the osmotic fragility, labeling of red blood cells with Technetium-99m and morphology of the cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiana Cerqueira Mousinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the proteic extract of R. communis on the cell physiology by the osmotic fragility, labeling of the blood elements with the 99mTc and cell morphology. To evaluate the osmotic fragility, the blood samples of the Wistar rats were incubated with the concentrations of R. communis and with the solutions of NaCl (0.4; 0.7; 0.9%. In the labeling of the blood elements procedure, the rat blood was treated with a solution of Tc-99m and TCA at 5%, determining the rate of radioactivity (%ATI in the plasma (P and in the red blood cells (RBC. The soluble and insoluble fractions of the plasma were also evaluated. The cells morphology submitted to the extract was evaluated by the optical microscopy (x40. The results indicated that the rate of the hemolysis increased in the presence of 0.125 mg/mL of the extract. There was a decay of 49.69% in the rate of ATI in the insoluble fraction of the cells, with the morphological alterations in the red blood cells. These results suggested that the extract changed the capability of binding of the red blood cells due to the stannous ion oxidation, modifying the cells structure.Produtos naturais são usados freqüentemente por muitas pessoas no tratamento do câncer. O Ricinus communis L é uma Euforbiaceae que apresenta propriedades laxativas, purgativas e antitumorais. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar a influência da fração protéica do extrato hidroalcoólico de R. communis L. na fisiologia celular através da fragilidade osmótica, da marcação de elementos sanguíneo com 99mTc e da morfologia celular. Para avaliar a fragilidade osmótica, amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com concentrações de R. communis e com soluções de NaCl (0,4; 0,7; 0,9%. No procedimento de marcação de elementos sanguíneos, as amostras de sangue foram tratadas com solução de Tc-99m e TCA à 5%, determinando o percentual de radioatividade (%ATI no plasma (P e

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. ECOTYPES THROUGH MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION IN THE SELECTED REGIONS OF THE WESTERN GHATS OF KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KG Manjunath and B Sannappa*

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Castor (Ricinus communis L. being a perennial crop widely grown for oil seed production in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.  Nevertheless, the leaf of castor serves as a primary food for the eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Boisduval. Eri silkworm being a polyvoltine requires leaf throughout the year for its survival and cocoon production. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to identify (through molecular characterization the best castor ecotype(s found in different regions of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India for leaf production. The ecotypes were processed through DNA sequencing using ITS4 and ITS5 primers. The sequence results were authenticated through National Centre for Biotechnology Information by way of obtaining accession numbers (phylogenetic tree. Further, leaf samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE to know the variations existed among the ecotypes in protein profile. The results revealed that, ecotypes of different regions exhibits close relation among them and some marginal variations were evident in phylogenetic tree as well as in dendrogram. However, phylogenetic relationship of ecotypes in the major clade II and cluster III showed similar in both phylogeny and dendrogram for eight among 12 ecotypes representing different agro-ecological regions of Western Ghats of Karnataka.  Further, five ecotypes showed close relationship in both phylogenetic as well as in cluster dendrogram, but in clades I and III, bootstrap values showed minor variation among the ecotypes representing different regions of the Western Ghats. Whereas, in protein profile clusters I and II showed similarities between the ecotypes having genetic distance of 0.57. The maximum of 18 protein bands were found in KJ130046 ecotype, accordingly, minimum bands (10 were noticed in both KJ000404 and KJ000405 ecotypes.

  16. Chemical, pathological and toxicological studies of the effects of RICOM-1013-J of Ricinus communis var minor on women volunteers and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S C; Isichei, C O; Okwuasaba, F K; Uguru, V E; Onoruvwe, O; Olayinka, A O; Ekwere, E O; Dafur, S J; Parry, O

    2000-02-01

    RICOM-1013-J (Ricinus communis var minor) administered orally once to each of 12 women volunteers at a dose of 2.5-2.7 g per 8 months, protected against pregnancy over a period of 7-8 months of study. A study of the effect of a contraceptive dose (20 mg/kg) on metabolic parameters in rat (food and water in-take, urine and faecal output and body weight) over a period of 4 months showed a slight decrease in all the parameters in the first 1-8 weeks. This effect was reversible attaining pretreatment levels from week 16. The LD(50) in an acute toxicity test in mice was 63.1 +/- 16.0 g/kg s.c. Determination of blood urea, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO$_¿3¿ ¿-¿$)as a measure of renal function and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), transaminases (GPT and GOT) and transpeptidases (GGT) as a measure of liver function showed that liver function profiles in pretreated rats were not significantly different from control (p 0.05) compared with the control. There were no significant changes in renal function profiles in pretreated rats (p < 0.05) compared with the control. The results of the liver and renal function profiles in women volunteers showed that there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in renal functions on day 206 following RICOM-1013-J administration. However, serum levels of ALP and GGT showed a slight rise in about 70% of volunteers, whereas bilirubin and transaminases levels were normal. The present results indicate a very high efficacy and margin of safety of RICOM-1013-J in women volunteers. The increase in ALP and GGT in both animal and women volunteers suggest mild intrahepatic cholestatic changes which may be attributed to an oestrogenic effect of RICOM-1013-J. PMID:10641041

  17. Determinación de las condiciones óptimas para la producción de biodiesel a partir de aceite de Higuerilla (Ricinus Communis) y aceite de Palma Mil Pesos (Oenocarpus Bataua)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Muñoz, Natalia; Uribe Morón, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Se desarrolla un diseño de experimentos de tres factores y dos niveles con una sola réplica para la producción de Biodiesel a escala de laboratorio a partir de dos fuentes de triglicéridos: Aceite de Higuerilla (Ricinus Communis) y aceite de Palma mil pesos (Oenocarpus bataua). La producción de Biodiesel se lleva a cabo a partir de la reacción de transesterificación alcalina usando como catalizador hidróxido de sodio con metanol para obtener finalmente el biodiesel y la glicerina como subprod...

  18. Secondary seed dispersal of Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae by ants in secondary growth vegetation in Minas Gerais Dispersão secundária de sementes de Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae por formigas em vegetação secundária em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I tested the efficacy of ants as secondary seed dispersers of Ricinus communis in southeastern Brazil. In a natural population of 143 individuals, I determined the ballistic dispersal distance for 62 seeds and 100 additional seeds were experimentally offered to ants in groups of ten seeds along a transect of 50 m. Fifty-three seeds were removed by ants, mainly by the leafcutter Atta sexdens (90.4%. The dispersal distance by ants was high, compared to the global average (4.38 m ± 0.74 m vs. 0.96 m, but was lower than the ballistic distance (7.27 m ± 0.13 m. Ants increased the total dispersal distance (8.66 m ± 0.60 m, but the main benefit for the plant was the directed dispersal, with seed deposition on the enriched soil of ant nests.Este estudo testou a eficiência de formigas como dispersores secundários de Ricinus communis no Brasil. Em uma população natural de 143 indivíduos, a distância de dispersão balística foi determinada para 62 sementes. Além disso, 100 sementes adicionais foram oferecidas a formigas em grupos de 10, ao longo de um transecto de 50 m. Cinqüenta e três sementes foram removidas por formigas, principalmente pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens (90,4%. A distância de dispersão por formigas foi alta se comparada à média global (4,38m ± 0,74 m vs. 0,96 m, porém menor que a distância de dispersão balística (7,27 m ± 0,13 m. As formigas aumentaram a distância de dispersão total (8,66 m ± 0,60 m, mas o principal benefício para a planta foi a dispersão direcionada, com a deposição das sementes no solo enriquecido encontrado nos ninhos das formigas.

  19. Insight into the sialome of the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Anderson, J. M.; Mu, J.; Jochim, R. C.; Valenzuela, J. G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 233 (2008), s. 1-21. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA524/05/0811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * cDNA libraries * bioinformatics * tick feeding Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008

  20. Insight into the sialome of the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Jesus G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there have been several sialome projects revealing transcripts expressed in the salivary glands of ticks, which are important vectors of several human diseases. Here, we focused on the sialome of the European vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes ricinus. Results In the attempt to describe expressed genes and their dynamics throughout the feeding period, we constructed cDNA libraries from four different feeding stages of Ixodes ricinus females: unfed, 24 hours after attachment, four (partially fed and seven days (fully engorged after attachment. Approximately 600 randomly selected clones from each cDNA library were sequenced and analyzed. From a total 2304 sequenced clones, 1881 sequences forming 1274 clusters underwent subsequent functional analysis using customized bioinformatics software. Clusters were sorted according to their predicted function and quantitative comparison among the four libraries was made. We found several groups of over-expressed genes associated with feeding that posses a secretion signal and may be involved in tick attachment, feeding or evading the host immune system. Many transcripts clustered into families of related genes with stage-specific expression. Comparison to Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus transcripts was made. Conclusion In addition to a large number of homologues of the known transcripts, we obtained several novel predicted protein sequences. Our work contributes to the growing list of proteins associated with tick feeding and sheds more light on the dynamics of the gene expression during tick feeding. Additionally, our results corroborate previous evidence of gene duplication in the evolution of ticks.

  1. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yang; Mulpuri Sujatha; Liu Aizhong

    2015-01-01

    This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine) of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination), oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium). [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effe...

  2. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability. PMID:26150062

  3. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Uk Kim; Su-Jin Jung; Kyeong-Ryeol Lee; Eun Ha Kim; Sang-Min Lee; Kyung Hee Roh; Jong-Bum Kim

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but dif...

  4. Diseño Factorial de un Proceso Alcalino para Obtener Celulosa de Higuerilla (Ricinus communis l. y su Aplicación en Cartón Ondulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Escoto García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la obtención de celulosa y su aplicación en papel corrugado a partir del tallo de higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.. Mediante un diseño factorial 23 se encontraron las mejores condiciones del proceso alcalino para obtener celulosa. A las pulpas se les determino; No. de Kappa, % rendimiento y sus propiedades físico-mecánicas. Los tratamientos seleccionados T4, T7 y T8 se refinaron durante 6, 12, 18 y 22 minutos, posteriormente se formaron hojas estándar para corrugar y evaluar sus propiedades funcionales; compresión en ondulado, en anillo y en lateral. Se determinó que las características fisicomecánicas fueron relativamente mejores en los niveles de refinación 18 y 22 minutos. El tratamiento T8 con 22 minutos fue el que obtuvo mejores resultados en el índice de tensión (76.3 N.m/g e índice de explosión (5.3 kPa.m2/g. En cuanto a las pruebas de compresión se observó que el tratamiento T8 con nivel de refinación de 18 minutos tuvo mejor resistencia de compresión (CMT 238.7 N. Se concluye que la pulpa de higuerilla al 100 %.

  5. Penentuan Ph Dan Suhu Optimum Untuk Aktivitas Ekstrak Kasar Enzim Lipase Dari Kecambah Biji Jarak Kepyar (Ricinus communis L) Terhadap Hidrolisis Minyak Wijen

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Nora Anggiani

    2011-01-01

    Determination of optimum pH and temperature for crude lipase enzyme activity from castor bean seeds germination had been conducted. Castor bean seed germination made by soaking time process, seed separation from solution of soaking and seed germination in temperature 28 – 30oC during 4 days. Crude lipase enzyme was obtained by centrifugations during 30 minutes with the speed of rotation 5000 rpm and 3400 rpm, and addition of acetone and drying by freeze drier. Crude lipase enzyme powder gener...

  6. EFEITO DA CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA NO CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO DA CULTURA DA MAMONA (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Tiritan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean is an oilseed crop of outstanding importance in Brazil and worldwide. Besides the wide application in chemical industry, is important due to its tolerance to drought, making it a viable crop for the semi-arid region of Brazil, where there are few agricultural alternatives. However, this culture is not unique to semi-arid region and is also planted with excellent results in various regions of the country. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of liming and potassium fertilization on the crop of castor bean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized complete block randomized in a factorial 3 x 2, where the first factor consisted of potassium (0, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 and in the presence or absence lime to raise the base saturation to 60%. It was found that liming in combination with an intermediate dose of K2O (30 kg ha-1 elevates the production of dry mass of the area, however not change the concentration nutrients in the castor bean.

  7. EFEITO DA CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA NO CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO DA CULTURA DA MAMONA (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sérgio Tiritan; Juliano Carlos Calonego; Diego Henriques Santos

    2010-01-01

    The castor bean is an oilseed crop of outstanding importance in Brazil and worldwide. Besides the wide application in chemical industry, is important due to its tolerance to drought, making it a viable crop for the semi-arid region of Brazil, where there are few agricultural alternatives. However, this culture is not unique to semi-arid region and is also planted with excellent results in various regions of the country. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of liming and potassium fertiliza...

  8. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  9. Evaluation of Dwarf Caster (Ricinus communis L.) Varieties Introduced from America%美洲矮秆蓖麻品种的引进鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小龙; 魏佳; 裘晓云; 姚陆松; 胡荣斌; 张红; 沈国新

    2013-01-01

    A field evaluation was conducted to 15 dwarf castor varieties introduced from America on their phenological periods, agronomic traits and major economic characters so as to obtain excellent varieties for production or materials for breeding. The results indicated that, the height of 15 introduced varieties was between 76. 1 cm and 89. 3 cm, in which 7 varieties were super-dwarf types with plant height below 80 cm. Among them, Zhe-intro 15, Zhe-intro 10, Zhe-intro 2, Zhe-intro 5, Zhe-intro 12, Zhe-intro 6 and Zhe-intro 14 produced 38 773 -42 647 kg/hm2 castor leaves, similar to those of domestic dwarf castor varieties as control. However, they produced 4 038. 0-4 657. 5 kg/hm2 castor beans, being significantly or extremely significantly higher than the control varieties. Among the 7 high yield varieties, 3 varieties had higher oil and ricinoleic acid contents than the domestic control varieties. A preliminary evaluation revealed that the above high yield dwarf castor varieties have good agronomic traits and adaptability, being excellent leaf- and bean-yielding castor varieties. After multi-point evaluation, it is promising to use them for production directly or as materials for breeding new varieties.%2011 ~2012年对从美洲引进的15个矮秆蓖麻品种进行物候期、农艺性状和主要经济性状的大田鉴定,选拔可直接应用于生产的优良品种或优异的育种材料.引进的15个品种株高在75.5 ~ 89.3 cm之间,其中有7个品种的株高在80 cm以下,为超矮秆蓖麻品种.浙引15号、浙引10号、浙引2号、浙引5号、浙引12号、浙引6号和浙引14号7个品种的蓖麻叶产量为38 773~42647 kg/hm2,与国内矮秆蓖麻对照品种相仿,而蓖麻籽产量为4 038.0 ~4 657.5 kg/hm2,均显著或极显著高于对照品种.7个高产品种中,有3个品种的含油率和蓖麻油酸含量高于国内对照矮秆品种.经初步鉴定,上述高产矮秆蓖麻品种的主要农艺性状及适应性优

  10. Eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) e mamona (Ricinus communis L.) na resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaerth.) a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; Ademilson Daniel de Souza; Carlos Roberto de Lima; Pierre Farias de Souza

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986627A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica) e de mamona (Ricinus communis) na melhoria da resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra) a fungos xilófagos em simulador de campo. Os óleos de nim e de mamona foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo das soluções preservativas. Amostras de madeira com dimensões de 1,5 x 0,5 x 15 cm (radial x tangencial x longitudinal) foram tratadas para ati...

  11. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  12. Growth of castor bean BRS-149 nordestina fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Lima de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in a greenhouse located at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, with castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L., cv BRS Nordestina, in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth. A completely randomized design with three replications and 15 treatments originated from a baconian matrix was adopted. Reference doses were 40:90:60 kg ha-1 of N:P2O5:K2O, respectively. Plant height, stem diameter, number and length of leaves were measured at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 days after planting (DAP. The unbalanced fertilization affected the development and seed production of castor bean, and the best response of the plants was observed at levels of 200 kg ha-1 de N; 150 kg ha-1 de P2O5 and 150 kg ha-1 de K2O.

  13. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

  14. Eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. e mamona (Ricinus communis L. na resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986627A pesquisa objetivou avaliar a eficiência dos óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e de mamona (Ricinus communis na melhoria da resistência da madeira de sumaúma (Ceiba pentandra a fungos xilófagos em simulador de campo. Os óleos de nim e de mamona foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo das soluções preservativas. Amostras de madeira com dimensões de 1,5 x 0,5 x 15 cm (radial x tangencial x longitudinal foram tratadas para atingir uma retenção nominal de 10 a 16 kg de solução/m³ de madeira. As amostras permaneceram por 180 dias sob ação da microflora natural existente em três tipos de solos: de floresta, de uso agrícola e de pastagem natural. Entre os solos testados, o de uso agrícola apresentou maior atividade biológica, deteriorando mais as amostras. Dentre as soluções testadas, o óleo de nim puro proporcionou maior proteção à madeira. As soluções preparadas com os óleos de nim e mamona não protegeram bem a madeira do ataque de fungos xilófagos naturalmente existentes no solo de uso agrícola.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

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    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  16. Crioconservação de sementes de mamona das variedades nordestina e pernambucana Cryoconservation of nordestina and pernambucana varieties of castor bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available É grande a importância da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. para a economia do semi-árido nordestino, que é responsável por 80% da produção nacional, no entanto durante 1970 e 2000, a produção líquida dessa oleaginosa foi reduzida na mesma percentagem. Registrou-se também a existência de aproximadamente 90 tipos diferentes de sementes empregadas no cultivo desta Euforbiaceae. Devido a este problema, o trabalho desenvolvido no Laboratório de Processamento e Armazenamento de Produtos Agrícolas do DEAg/UFPB, objetivou desenvolver técnicas de crioconservação para duas variedades de Ricinus communis, com vistas a uma armazenagem segura e por tempo indefinido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com os dados obtidos nos 7º e 14º dias depois da semeadura, dispostos em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 (duas variedades, três períodos de crioconservação, duas temperaturas de crioconservação e dois tipos de acondicionamento com oito repetições de vinte e cinco sementes cada uma. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos fatores qualitativos comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que: o nível máximo de umidade para a crioconservação das sementes das duas variedades de Ricinus communis (nordestina e pernambucana encontra-se entre 4 e 10% base úmida; os melhores resultados de qualidade fisiológica foram obtidos aos 30 dias da crioconservação, podendo essas sementes serem crioconservadas tanto no vapor (-176 ºC como na imersão (-196 ºC em nitrogênio líquido; o canister de alumínio utilizado para acondicionar as sementes mostrou-se superior ao de PVC.The castor bean (Ricinus communis L. has great importance for the economy of the semi-arid region of the northeast of Brazil, responsible for 80% of the national production, but during 1970 and 2000, the net production of this oil crop was reduced

  17. Effect of glyphosate on the castor plant Ricinus communis L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of a toxin in the castor seed has been a major impediment to the reintroduction of castor as a domestic crop in the US. Because dehiscent forms of castor are invasive and castor seed remains viable for years under the right conditions, there is concern that if castor were widely cultiva...

  18. Characterization of castor bean genotypes under various environments using sds-page of total seed storage proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an indeterminate, non-edible oil seed crop grown in low rainfall regions of semi-arid tropics and sub-tropics. The present work was conducted to see the feasibility of electrophoresis for intra-specific characterization of castor bean on the basis of their total seed storage proteins. The protein profiles of all the four accessions were very much alike, both in number of bands and in their distribution on the gel, even though accessions represented a wide range of geographic origin. Occasionally, variation was observed in the density or sharpness of bands. The seed protein patterns were also uniform among various accessions grown under various environments. On the basis of banding pattern, polypeptides could be divided into three regions, A to C, equivalent to increasing Rf value and decreasing molecular weight. The present investigation revealed no variation in different accessions and under different environments with regards to their total seed protein profiles. The results clearly showed that it was impossible to discriminate various genotypes from each other, as they were characterized by same banding patterns. However, it might be useful to distinguish diverse forms of it from one another. The present investigation revealed very limited variation in castor bean genotypes in Pakistan. (author)

  19. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  20. Building Supply Systems from Scratch: The Case of the Castor Bean for Biodiesel Chain in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassia Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study contributes to identifying obstacles to the development of a local biodiesel agro-industrial system (AGS in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research questions are: “How do local social characteristics influence the organizational effectiveness of agents involved in the joint production effort?”; and “How can the institutional arrangement of biodiesel production be described?” The method adopted is the case study, focused on family farmers served by the Family Farmers Rural Extension and Technical Assistance Company (EMATER. This state organization introduced castor beans (Ricinus communis L. to family farmers as an alternative crop to supply a processing plant (Darcy Ribeiro Biodiesel Plant—DRBP in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. These family farmers are not horizontally organized, and sign individual contracts with DRBP. The paper concludes that the primary obstacle to developing the biodiesel AGS with castor beans in Minas Gerais is the lack of horizontal organization among family farmers.

  1. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  2. Adding value to a toxic residue from the biodiesel industry: production of two distinct pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum in castor bean waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Mateus G; Gutarra, Melissa L E; Castro, Aline M; Machado, Olga L T; Freire, Denise M G

    2011-08-01

    In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology. PMID:20844923

  3. Variation in the oxygen isotope ratio of phloem sap sucrose from castor bean. Evidence in support of the Péclet effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Schurr, U; Henry, B K; Wong, S C; Farquhar, G D

    2000-06-01

    Theory suggests that the level of enrichment of (18)O above source water in plant organic material (Delta) may provide an integrative indicator of control of water loss. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of the processes affecting Delta. One such gap is the observed discrepancy between modeled enrichment of water at the sites of evaporation within the leaf and measured enrichment of the leaf water as a whole (Delta(L)). Farquhar and Lloyd (1993) suggested that this may be caused by a Péclet effect. It is also unclear whether organic material formed in the leaf reflects enrichment of water at the sites of evaporation within the leaf or Delta(L). To investigate this question castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) leaves, still attached to the plant, were sealed into a controlled-environment gas exchange chamber and subjected to a step change in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference. Sucrose was collected from a cut on the petiole of the leaf in the chamber under equilibrium conditions and every hour for 6 h after the change in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference. Oxygen isotope composition of sucrose in the phloem sap (Delta(suc)) reflected modeled Delta(L). A model is presented describing Delta(suc) at isotopic steady state, and accounts for 96% of variation in measured Delta(suc). The data strongly support the Péclet effect theory. PMID:10859197

  4. Deficiências de macronutrientes no estado nutricional da mamoneira cultivar Iris Deficiencies of macronutrients on nutritional status of castor bean cultivar Iris

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    José Lavres Junior

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o efeito da deficiência dos macronutrientes no crescimento e estado nutricional da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e a obtenção do quadro sintomatológico das deficiências de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Cultivou-se Ricinus communis L. cultivar Iris em solução nutritiva, tendo como tratamentos soluções completa e deficientes em N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Foram determinadas a concentração indireta de clorofila, a atividade da redutase do nitrato, os teores solúveis de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ e realizados testes rápidos para N, P e K. As deficiências de N, Ca, S e Mg foram as que mais restringiram a produção de massa de matéria seca, na ordem decrescente: N>Ca>S>Mg>K>P. Os maiores acúmulos de macronutrientes, no tratamento completo, foram observados nas raízes e no limbo das folhas inferiores. As concentrações críticas para N e Ca, ambas no limbo das folhas superiores e, Mg, no pecíolo das inferiores foram, respectivamente, 46,7, 13,8 e 6,5 g kg-1. As deficiências influenciaram as leituras do clorofilômetro. A atividade da redutase do nitrato guardou relação direta com a determinação da clorofila. Os teores de N (NO3-, P (H2PO4- e K+ foram menores nas folhas deficientes em N, P e K, respectivamente, o mesmo acontecendo quando avaliadas pela análise de toque.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of macronutrient deficiencies on growth and on nutritional status of castor beans (Ricinus communis L., and to obtain the symptoms of the lack of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Nutrient solutions containing all macronutrients and those from which one of these elements was omitted were the treatments used. The following determinations were made: chlorophyll (indirectly, nitrate reductase activity, NO3--N, H2PO4--P and K+, both on soluble fractions, and by spot tests. Deficiencies of N, Ca, S and Mg were the most limiting for dry matter production, followed in decreasing order by those of K and

  5. Neuroglial response to neuron injury. A study using intraneural injection of ricinus communis agglutinin-60.

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, E A; Wen, C Y; J.Y. Shieh; Yick, T Y; Leong, S K

    1989-01-01

    The present study has shown the selective destruction of large ventral horn neurons in the lumbosacral cord segments following a single injection of RCA-60 into the sciatic nerve. The neurons appeared to undergo structural alteration beginning 3 days after the RCA application. In the postoperative period extending from 1 to 60 days, degeneration of neurons was progressive and irreversible and this elicited a rapid increase in the number of microglial cells. They were most numerous in the 7 da...

  6. Neuroglial response to neuron injury. A study using intraneural injection of ricinus communis agglutinin-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, E A; Wen, C Y; Shieh, J Y; Yick, T Y; Leong, S K

    1989-06-01

    The present study has shown the selective destruction of large ventral horn neurons in the lumbosacral cord segments following a single injection of RCA-60 into the sciatic nerve. The neurons appeared to undergo structural alteration beginning 3 days after the RCA application. In the postoperative period extending from 1 to 60 days, degeneration of neurons was progressive and irreversible and this elicited a rapid increase in the number of microglial cells. They were most numerous in the 7 days postoperative animals. The massive microglial cells penetrated the neuropil and appeared to strip off the axon terminals from the postsynaptic somata. Occasional axon terminals were phagocytosed by microglia. The numerous microglial cells often formed a multilayered 'barrier' encircling the somata of the RCA-poisoned neurons which eventually became totally disorganised. It is postulated that in the course of neuronal degeneration induced by RCA, microglial cells serve to prevent the leakage or diffusion of the toxic lectin from the neuronal somata into the neighbouring neuropil. They also function as scavenger cells in the removal of degenerating myelinated axons in the longer surviving rats. Oligodendrocytes do not appear to react actively to the degeneration process. However, astrocytes showed a significant increase in the 7 and 15 day postoperative rats and this coincided with the presence of mitotic astrocytes in the same period. PMID:2606792

  7. Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) for tibial crest deviation in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed respectively at 30 (GI), 60 (GII) and 90 (GIII) days post-surgery. Evaluations methods included clinical assessment, radiology, gross and macroscopic study, tomography and statistical analysis. Clinically, there were no signs of implant rejection. Radiology revealed intense periosteal reaction and new bone formation. On gross examination, there was thickening and lateral deviation of the tibial crest and new bone neoformation. On microscopic examination, there was fibrous tissue around the polyurethane, periosteal proliferation on the medial side of the tibia and no bone proliferation towards the implant. Cat scans reveled lateral deviation of the tibial crest in eleven animals, which was statistically significant (p<5; pared T test)

  8. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445

  9. Sintesis Surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat dari Sulfonasi Metil Ester Asam Lemak Minyak Kastor (Ricinus communis L)

    OpenAIRE

    Aritonang, Rianti E J

    2011-01-01

    Methyl ester sulfonate (MES) surfactant is an anionic surfactant which could be synthesized from oil. Surfactant have a capability to reduce surface tension, interface tension and elevate the stability of emulsion system. The material sources to produce surfactant was derived from petroleum oil, vegetables oil and animals fats. One of vegetables oil is polar castor oil, because it contained of ricinoleic acid as the major compound which has –OH group. Castor oil could be synthesize became ...

  10. Heterosis and inbreeding depression for seed yield and its component traits in castor (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A. P., Mehta D. R. and Desale C. S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken with a view to generate genetic information on heterosis and inbreeding depression for seed yield and its component traits. The heterosis over better parent was found significant in desirable direction for number of capsules on main raceme in JP 96 x JI 368; for length of main raceme, effective length of main raceme and number of capsules on main raceme in cross JP 96 x JI 372; and for oil content in cross JP 101 x SKI 215. Inbreeding depression was observed significant for shelling outturn, seed yield per plant and 100-seed weight in JP 96 x JI 368; for length and effective length of main raceme, number of capsules per plant and oil content in cross JP 96 x JI 372; and for days to maturity, plant height, number of nodes and 100-seed weight in cross JP 101 x SKI 215. In majority of cases, a close agreement was seen between the observed and the expected values of relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and inbreeding depression in all the three castor crossses with few exemptions

  11. Regiospecific analysis of diricinoleoylacylglycerols in castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    HPLC fractions of diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the loss...

  12. Control of papaya fruits anthracnose by essential oil of Ricinus communis

    OpenAIRE

    César Luis Siqueira Júnior; Maria das Graças Machado Freire; Antônio Sérgio Nascimento Moreira; Maria Ligia Rodrigues Macedo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of castor oil for the control of papaya diseases caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the bacterium Pseudomonas caricapapayae. The treatment with 1% castor oil did not significantly affect the fungal growth. The effectiveness of castor oil for the control of anthracnose was shown when 5% and 10% (v/v) were used in the assays resulting in reduced mycelial growth. Fungal sporulation was strongly inhibited at 10% (v/v) conc...

  13. Enhanced accumulation of Cd in castor (Ricinus communis L) by soil-applied chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Guoyong, Huang; Jun, Zhu; Kubar, Kashif Ali; Hongqing, Hu

    2016-07-01

    Phytoextraction has been identified as one of the most propitious methods of phytoremediation. This pot experiment were treated with varying amounts of (ethylenediamine triacetic acid) EDTA 3-15, (Nitriloacetic acid) NTA 3-10, (Ammonium citrate) NH4 citrate 10 - 25 mmol and one mg kg(-1)Cd, filled with 5 kg soil. The addition of chelators significantly increased Cd concentration in soil and plant. The results showed that maximum Cd uptake was noted under root, shoot and leaf of castor plant tissue (2.26, 1.54, and 0.72 mg kg(-1)) under EDTA 15, NTA 10, and NH4 citrate 25 mmol treatments respectively, and in soil 1.08, 1.06 and 0.52 mg kg(-1) pot(-1) under NH4 citrate 25, NTA 10 and EDTA 15 mmol treatments respectively, as against to control (p EDTA 15 mmol as compared to other treatments, However, Bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and remediation factor (RF) were significantly increased under EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol as against control. Our results demonstrated that castor plant proved satisfactory for phytoextraction on contaminated soil, and EDTA 15 and NH4 citrate 25 mmol had the affirmative effect on the Cd uptake in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:26588431

  14. Pattern of genetic diversity among Fusarium wilt resistant castor germplasm accessions (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anjani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ricini (Wr Gordon is one of the major yield losing diseases in castor.Cultivating wilt resistant cultivars is an effective strategy to control the disease. Utilization of diverse sources ofstable resistance is a prerequisite for durable resistance breeding. The experiment was conducted to identifygenetically diverse resistant sources in castor germplasm. Genetic diversity among 20 identified wilt resistantgermplasm was assessed using multivariate classificatory methods. Wide genetic diversity was demonstratedamong these accessions. These accessions are valuable in wilt resistance breeding programme. They wouldserve as base diverse material for wilt resistance breeding, wilt resistant genepool construction and moleculartagging of resistant genes.

  15. SELEÇÃO AGRONÔMICA DE ACESSOS E CULTIVARES DE MAMONEIRA (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cristina de Arruda Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate agronomic and to characterize morfologic, 23 genetic materials collected with agricultural producers of diverse and regions two to cultivate, for comparative effect, ` Guarani ' and ` IAC 80 '. The experiment was established in the Department of Agriculture of the Federal University of Lavras, Lavras - MG where 23 accesses had been characterized morphologic and agronomic in accordance with the describers considered for the Agronomic Institute of Campinas. The identification of the adapted accesses more was made by means of evaluations, during one year, of the agronomic characteristics: evolution cycle, height of plant; diameter of main connecting rod; height until the insertion of first racimo; number of stem until first racimo; relation weight of first racimo and all up weight; weight of first racimo and total weight, in a competition assay. In accordance with the analysis of variance, did not have significant difference between the treatments.

  16. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  17. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC Simulation of soil organic carbon changes in crop systems with castor bean using the RothC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila González Molina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis: multiestratos (MUL, callejones (CALL y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG. Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema TMC. Las tasas de cambio de COS estimadas con el RothC, en ambas profundidades de suelo, estuvieron en 0,5-1,2, 0,4-0,8, 0,3-0,5 y 0,04-0,1 Mg ha-1 de C por año en los sistemas HIG, MUL, CALL y TMC, respectivamente, y fueron consistentes con las reportadas en la literatura. El desempeño del RothC tuvo 89% de eficiencia (EF, con R²=0,9, lo que muestra que este modelo puede usarse con información temporal del COS escasa, información de la historia de uso de suelo y mediciones de la entrada de residuos vegetales aéreos y subterráneos en el suelo.The objective of this work was to simulate, by the RothC model, the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC caused by changes of land use - from the traditional maize-squash (TMC association to systems with castor bean (Ricinus communis: multilayer (MUL, alleys (CALL and monoculture (HIG. SOC simulations were performed for 0-20 and 0-40 cm soil depths, for the period 1980-2040, considering the TMC system as the base line. SOC change rates estimated with RothC, for both soil depths, were 0.5-1.2, 0.4-0.8, 0.3-0.5 and 0.04-0.1 Mg ha-1 C per year in the HIG, MUL, CALL and TMC systems, respectively, and were consistent with those reported in the literature. RothC perfomance had 89% efficiency (EF and R² = 0.9, which shows that this model can be used with scarce SOC temporal information, information on the history of land use, and with input measurements of aerial and underground plant residues in the soil.

  18. Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus

    OpenAIRE

    Cotté, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Chauvin, Alain; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Lecuelle, Benoit; Lilin, Thomas; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals. B. henselae causes cat-scratch disease and is increasingly associated with several other syndromes, particularly ocular infections and endocarditis. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae and the bacteria are transmitted to cats by cat fleas. However, new potential vectors are suspected of transmitting B. henselae, in particular, Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant ixodid...

  19. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    OpenAIRE

    K.V. Fernandes; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Z.A.S. Guimarães; V.V. Nascimento; de Melo, E.J.T.; Freire, D. M.G.; M. Dansa-Petretski; O.L.T. Machado

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) protein...

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, Vibeke; Frandsen, F.; Steenberg, Tove

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the tick stage, engorgement and season. Ticks were collected from the vegetation, from small rodents and from deer. All entomopathogenic fungi found belonged...... infected with fungi. Thirty-three out of 149 engorged females were infected, whereas males and engorged larvae were not infected. Throughout the season, a significantly higher proportion of ticks collected in autumn were infected. Entomopathogenic fungi may have a significant impact on the size of the I...

  1. Energetic potential of the vegetable oil of Canton Tosagua ricinus comunnis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plantation of Higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) can be considered as an alternative of high energy, economic and social importance for the climatic conditions of the Ecuador's coastal area, due to its easy cultivation, the resistance to the drought is being considered as a plant generator for rent and work for small farmers in the geography of Tosagua, Rocafuerte and other towns in the vicinity to Manabi province. The castor oil is a xerofila and heliofila plantation in other words , adapted to arid atmospheres and sun loving. The paper shows a characterization carried out to higuerilla seeds in the biotechnology laboratory of to the Polytechnic High School of Calceta (ESPAM). The seeds collected in different villages near Tosagua, let us estimate the energy potential of the Higuerilla plantation like energy source for the Manabi province. The industrialization of the product obtained from Higuerilla plantation would have as advantage the pure vegetable oil (PVO) as main by-product, besides it can obtain a cake rich in protein. The castor oil cake can be used to restore out lands; also, it contains products that can be used for the control of nematodes of the ground, due to the high toxicity that confers it toxic protein denominated ricine. (author)

  2. Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai

    2014-01-01

    Myrtus communis (MC) L. is a well-known Mediterranean plant with important cultural significance in this region. In ancient times, MC was accepted as a symbol of immortality. Maybe due to this belief, it is used during cemetery visits in some regions. Although it is a well-known plant in cosmetics, and there is a lot of studies about its different medical properties, anticancer studies performed using its different extracts or oils are not so much, but increasing. We collected these anticancer property-related studies in this review. PMID:26401362

  3. Antiviral activity of constituents of Tamus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, R; Conti, C; De Simone, F; Orsi, N; Pizza, C; Stein, M L

    1991-10-01

    The antiviral activity of the phenanthrene derivatives 1-6, of the spyrostane triglycosides dioscin (7) and gracillin (8), of the furostanol tetraglycosides methylprotodioscin (9), its (25S) epimer methylprotoneodioscin (10), and methylprotogracillin 11, have been tested towards two RNA viruses: vesicular stomatitis virus and human rhinovirus type 1B. All these products were extracted from the rizomes of Tamus communis L; compound 11 was isolated also from Asparagus cochinchinesis, together with pseudoprotodioscin (12), a 20 (22)-unsaturated furostanoside, which was also investigated for antiviral activity. The results were of some interest mainly for the phenanthrene derivatives. PMID:1667189

  4. Descriptores botánicos para caracterizar germoplasmas de Ricinus communis de diferentes zonas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Solera-Steller

    2015-03-01

    Los resultados mostraron valores significativos para la longitud del racimo y el número de frutos por racimo, la razón largo/ancho del fruto, peso del fruto, la razón del largo/ancho de la semilla y el peso de la semilla, con correlaciones superiores a un 45%. Sin embargo, el ACP mostró que existe una alta variabilidad entre los datos, algo muy común entre individuos silvestres, debido principalmente a su forma de dispersión y a la gran cantidad de zonas de vida muestreadas. Para la CJA, se pudieron observar tres grupos ordenados principalmente por las correlaciones entre el tamaño del racimo y el número de frutos, la razón largo/ancho y el peso del fruto y la razón largo/ancho y peso de la semilla, los cuales pueden usarse como indicadores para la caracterización morfológica de la higuerilla proveniente de todo el país.

  5. Phloem flow and sugar transport in Ricinus communis L. is inhibited under anoxic conditions of shoot or roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuke, A.D.; Gessler, A.; Trumbore, S.; Windt, C.W.; Homan, N.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2015-01-01

    Anoxic conditions should hamper the transport of sugar in the phloem, as this is an active process. The canopy is a carbohydrate source and the roots are carbohydrate sinks.By fumigating the shoot with N2 or flooding the rhizosphere, anoxic conditions in the source or sink, respectively, were induce

  6. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran, Suchandra; Xiang, Yu; Schobert, Christian; Thompson, Gary A.; Lucas, William J.

    1997-01-01

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injec...

  7. Identification of acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids in castor (Ricinus communis L.)oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricinoleate, a monohydroxy fatty acid, in castor oil has many industrial uses. Dihydroxy fatty acids can also be used in industry. The C18 HPLC fractions of castor oil were used for mass spectrometry to identify the acylglycerols containing dihydroxy fatty acids. Four diacylglycerols identified were...

  8. Studi Alkoksilasi Dengan Gliserol Terhadap Hasil Epoksidasi Metil Risinoleat Yang Diperoleh Dari Minyak Jarak (Ricinus communis Linn).

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Dina Ocha

    2011-01-01

    Polyhidroxy compound (polyol) derivative from fatty acid is used as material of polymer compound such as polyurethane, polyesther and ubstituent material of petrochemical industry. Castor oil that isolated from castor seed reacted with methanol using sulfate acid catalys on benzene solvent in reflux condition produced fatty acid methyl ester castor oil. Methyl ricinoleic has been separated from mixture of fatty acid methyl ester castor oil using column chromatography with hexan...

  9. Use of gamma rays for development of leaf hopper resistant pistillate lines in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non revertant stable pistillate line -DPC 9 of castor was developed at Directorate of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad. It is resistant to a major biotic stress like soil borne Fusarium wilt but susceptible to the incidence of leaf hopper - Empoasca flavescenes (Fabr). Resistance to leaf hopper is linked to presence of waxy coating called bloom on plant parts which is a highly heritable character and controlled by dominant, single to oligogenes. Castor is a sexually polymorphic species and pistillate character in S type is controlled by dominant and epistatic factors. Mutation breeding is resorted to strike a balance between a complex character like non revertant pistillate expression and a simply inherited character like presence of bloom. Seeds of DPC 9 were treated with different doses of gamma rays starting from 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 Gy rays in 2001. Observations recorded on germination (%), hypocotyl length and root length in 50 seedlings of 15 day age, grown under pot culture conditions indicated that 600Gy gamma rays resulted in 25-30% reduction in these parameters. Three hundred M1 plants of 550Gy gamma ray treated lot were raised in Rabi season, 2002-03 at a spacing of 90 x 45 cm and continued up to 6th to 7th order of spike for selection of stable pistillate expression and selfed. Plant to row progenies were continued in M2 and selection for pistillate expression continued up to M5 in Rabi season every year. Break down of resistance to Fusarium wilt was observed in M3 and majority of the plant progenies succumbed to wilt under filed conditions of the inoculum. In M5, DPC 9 plants with the presence of bloom on all parts (triple bloom), stem and lower side of the leaf (double bloom) were observed and advanced to M6. In M6, DPC 9 pistillate plants with triple bloom and high intensity of bloom on older leaves were identified. The pistillate line is under stabilization for its presence of bloom and stable pistillate character. Selection criteria in the present study included stable pistillate expression, presence of bloom and resistance to Fusarium wilt and leaf hoppers under field conditions. (author)

  10. HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT CHARACTERS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. HYBRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAMESH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the components of genetic variation were worked out by Kempthorne method from a Line x Tester analysis in castor for fourteen plant type related traits. The analysis for combining ability revealed significant mean sum of squares of both general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for all the characters which indicated the presence of both additive and non-additive gene actions. The ratio of GCA variance and SCA variance ratio revealed the predominance of non-additive gene action for all the traits except plant height up to primary spike, no. of nodes up to primary spike, no. of capsules/primary spike and total spike length of secondary. JP-87 was good general combiner for most of the characters including seed yield. The line DCS-106 was also a good general combiner for early flowering, days to maturity and number of capsules on secondary spike. Cross JP-87 × RG-1740/A was a good specific combiner for seed yield per plant and for other yield component. The hybrid DPC-9 × RG-156 with good specific combining ability for days to maturity can be used for yield improvement in castor. In general for yield and other yield attributing traits the promising hybrids with high heterosis were JP-87 × RG-1740/A, JP-87 × DCS-106, DPC-17 × RG-156, DPC-17 × DCS-106 and DPC-17 × DCS-107 were on par with the check. These cross combinations could be utilized for further use in breeding programme for improvement in yield of castor.

  11. Review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of giant fennel (Ferula communis L. subsp. communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akaberi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferula communis L., subsp. communis, namely giant fennel, has extensively been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. Fresh plant materials, crude extracts and isolated components of F. communis showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties including antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic activities. The present paper, reviews the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of F. communis in order to reveal its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. A bibliographic literature search was conducted in different scientific databases and search engines including Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of science. Phytochemical studies have led to the isolation of different compounds such as sesquiterpenes from F. communis. This plant has two different chemotypes, the poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes. Each chemotype is endowed with various constituents and different activities. The poisonous chemotype exhibits anticoagulant and cytotoxic activities with sesquiterpene coumarins as major constituents, while the non-poisonous one exhibits estrogenic and cytotoxic effects with daucane sesquiterpene esters as the main compounds. In addition, although various pharmacological properties have been reported for F. communis, anti-microbial activities of the plant have been investigated in most studies. Studies revealed that F. communis exhibits different biological activities, and contains various bioactive compounds. Although, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are the two main pharmacological effects of this plant, further studies should focus on the mechanisms underlying these actions, as well as on those biological activities that have been reported traditionally.

  12. Divergência genética entre acessos e cultivares de mamoneira por meio de estatística multivariada Genetic divergence on castor bean accesses and cultivars through multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nóbrega da Costa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a divergência genética entre acessos e cultivares de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e utilizá-la como critério na escolha de genitores que viabilizem, a partir de hibridações, a formação de populações segregantes. Os tratamentos foram representados pelos acessos BRA 4871, BRA 2968, BRA 5550 e BRA 7722 Papo-de-gia, e as cultivares BRS 188 Paraguaçu, BRS 149 Nordestina, IAC-80, Mirante-10 e Pernambucana Melhorada. As características analisadas foram: início do florescimento (FR, número de racemos por planta (NRP, comprimento efetivo do racemo primário (CR, altura de planta (AP, potencial produtivo (PP e teor de óleo nas sementes (TO. A divergência genética foi estimada por meio de estatística multivariada, com base em variáveis canônicas e análise de agrupamento, tendo-se empregado a distância euclidiana média. Houve a formação de dois grupos: o grupo I formado por oito genótipos e o grupo II por apenas um genótipo, a cultivar Mirante-10. Apesar de a cultivar Mirante-10 ter sido a mais divergente, não deve ser recomendada para hibridação, por sua baixa média de desempenho. As demais cultivares também apresentam restrições para hibridação, por serem bastante similares. As variáveis que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética foram FR, AP, TO e CR.This work aimed to evaluate genetic divergence among castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivars, in order to enable the choice of parents which make the formation of segregating populations possible. Accesses BRA 4871, BRA 2968, BRA 5550 and BRA 7722 Papo-de-gia, and cultivars BRS 188 Paraguaçu, BRS 149 Nordestina, IAC-80, Mirante-10 and Pernambucana Melhorada were evaluated. Characteristics analyzed were: days to flowering, number of racemes per plant, length of pistillate region of main raceme, plant height, potential yield, and seed oil content. The genetic divergence among accesses and cultivars was studied by

  13. Synthesis of carboxylate complexes and evaluation of their catalytic activities for polyesterification of castor oil (Ricinum communis with terephthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ulisses Xavier Peres

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of castor oil (Ricinus communis has been pointed out as an interesting alternative to produce several polymers obtained from step-growth polymerization and are suitable to be used as resins and coatings. The ricinoleate metal complexes Ni[C17H34(OHCOO]2, Sn[C17H34(OHCOO]2, Co[C17H34(OHCOO]2 and Fe[C17H34(OHCOO]2 have been prepared and used as catalyst precursors for polyesterification of castor oil and terephthalic acid (TFA. The observed catalytic activity decreased in the order: Fe[C17H34(OHCOO]2 > Co[C17H34(OHCOO]2 > Sn[C17H34(OHCOO]2 > Ni[C17H34(OHCOO]2. The new polymeric materials did not show homogeneity in their chains, as indicated by their high polydispersity. Indeed, the polydispersity index value varied from 5.49 for the polymer produced in the presence of the nickel complex to 12.42 for these prepared with the cobalt compound. On the other hand, the final material presented high molecular weight, being the lower value (Mw = 13400 Da observed for the polymer prepared with the nickel complex and the highest (Mw = 36400 Da verified for the one obtained with the cobalt compound. It was observed only a glass transition temperature for all the materials, suggesting an amorphous structure of polymeric chains.

  14. Anthrasteroid hydrocarbons of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníčková, Helena; Kalinová, Blanka; Šaman, David; Cvačka, Josef; Svatoš, Aleš; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul; Šimek, Petr

    Barcelona: University of Barcelona, 2006. s. 127. [Annual Meeting International Society of Chemical Ecology. 15.07.2006-19.07.2006, Barcelona] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : anthrasteroid hydrocarbon * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. Características agronômicas de cultivares de mamona em função do local de cultivo e da época de semeadura no Rio Grande do Sul Characteristics of castor bean cultivars according to the environmental crop and sowing season in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Zuchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A mamona (Ricinus communis L. é uma planta oleaginosa anual e, ocasionalmente, bienal em regiões tropicais, com ciclo médio de 150 dias para a maioria das cultivares anuais e de 120 a 130 dias para cultivares anuais precoces. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características agronômicas de cultivares das mamonas 'Al Guarany 2002', 'IAC 80', 'IAC 226' e 'BRS 188 Paraguaçu'em função do ambiente de cultivo e da época de semeadura. As cultivares foram semeadas entre o primeiro e o quinto dia dos meses de novembro e dezembro, na Embrapa Clima Temperado, em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Cada época teve 12 unidades experimentais em três blocos casualizados. A emergência, a altura de planta e de inserção do primeiro cacho, o período de florescimento e colheita e o ataque de pragas e doenças foram avaliados e analisados com o programa WinStat Versão 2.0. O comportamento entre as cultivares diferiu entre locais de cultivo e época de semeadura. A inserção do cacho foi mais alta, e as florações e colheitas foram mais tardias em plantas da segunda época de semeadura. Danos por pragas e doenças e os descritores morfológicos da planta de mamona apresentaram diferenças entre os locais de cultivo.Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an oleaginous plant with annual cycle and occasionally biennial cycle in tropical areas, with mean cycle of 150 days for the majority of annual cultivars and 120 to 130 days for annual early cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of castor cultivars according to environmental crop and sowing season. The experiment was conduced at Embrapa Clima Temperado - Pelotas/RS, in two places. The castor cultivars used in this research were 'Al Guarany 2002', 'IAC 80', 'IAC 226' and 'BRS 188 Paraguaçu', which were sown in two sowing times: the first was in early November (between 1st and 5st and the second was in early December (between 1st and 5st. Each sowing season was

  16. Babesia Species Occurring in Austrian Ixodes ricinus Ticks▿

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschitz, Marion; Narodoslavsky-Gföller, Melanie; Kanzler, Michaela; Stanek, Gerold; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of veterinary and medical importance. The first Austrian case of human babesiosis was recently recorded. In the current study, ticks at all life cycle stages (instars), including 853 Ixodes ricinus and 11 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, from sampling sites throughout Austria were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. by using 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing, and the overall mean infection rate was 51.04%. The infection rates for sampling sites were ...

  17. Longitudinal surveillance of the tick Ixodes ricinus for borreliae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2003), s. 46-51. ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1204; GA AV ČR IBS6093007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme disease Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Disease s ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.040, year: 2003

  18. Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2004), s. 228-231. ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726; GA AV ČR IBS6093007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme disease Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Disease s ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2004

  19. Ixodes ricinus defensins attack distantly-related pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonk, M.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Estrada--Pena, A.; Vilcinskas, A.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Rahnamaeian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2015), s. 358-365. ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antimicrobial peptide * Defensin * Ixodes ricinus * Listeria monocytogenes * Staphylococcus aureus * Staphylococcus epidermidis * Escherichia coli * Pseudomonas aeruginosa * Fusarium spp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255582327 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :3875 3988:3875 lipid binding protein, putative Ricinus communis MKMESTKILALLFICMFFTSSAATAVNPDCGACGHHKPPKHGGHKGGGGGLLPPIVKPPINLPPVI...PPVVKPPINLPPVIPPVVKPPINLPPVIPPVVKPPINLPPVIPPVVKPPINLPPVIPPVIKPPINLPPVTVPPVI

  1. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255577163 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :6554 3988:6554 hypothetical protein RCOM_0753050 Ricinus communis MQLGNAFIAILLILILFCISIDFSVASAGLKQNFTIVISQSPWLKNVTENLPHP...VSPFNCGSCGNKCPWGVLCVYGMCGYAEPWPPWPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPHPPPKPPKPWPHRPPQSPPKPIKPWPHHPPKADHEPSQSAMGPSY ...

  2. High Prevalence of Granulocytic Ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Christova, Iva; Schouls, Leo; van de Pol, Ingrid; Park, Jinho; Panayotov, Stefan; Lefterova, Viktoria; Kantardjiev, Todor; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Bulgarian Ixodes ricinus ticks were examined for Ehrlichia and Borrelia coinfection: 34 and 32% of adult ticks and at least 2 and 10% of nymphs were positive for these infections, respectively. Coinfections and dual or triple Borrelia infections were frequent, although Ehrlichia phagocytophila heterogeneity was minimal. Multiple tick-borne bacteria coexist in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Europe.

  3. Blood feeding on large grazers affects the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by Ixodes ricinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Benning, M.E.; Jacobs, F.; Leidekker, J.; Sprong, H.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Ixodes ricinus and their associated Borrelia infections on large grazers was investigated. Carcases of freshly shot red deer, mouflon and wild boar were examined for the presence of any stage of I. ricinus. Questing ticks were collected from locations where red deer and wild boar are

  4. Ethnomedicinal and Phytochemical Prospectives of Pyrus Communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Arya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinal implies the usage of medicinal plants used by a group of people on account of their traditional knowledge and phytochemical means the individual chemical that plant contains. This review involves the ethnomedicinal and phytochemical prospectives of Pyrus communis Linn. In the “The Indian Materia Medica”, the common pear or gabbu gosha is considered as ‘Amritphala’ because of its immense potenial in human health care system.Various phenolic glucoside compounds have been isolated and identified from Pyrus communis Linn. e.g. arbutin, quercitin, kaempferol, fredielin, sterols, isoquercitrin, ursolic acid,sorbitol,astragalin, phloridzin and various tannins responsible for different activities viz. in urinary therapeutics,as skin whitenining agent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, astringent, spasmolytic. Also used in diabetes because of low sucrose content.

  5. MRI in soils: determination of water concent changes due to root water uptake by means of a multi-slice-multi-echo sequence (MSME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlmeier, A.; Vergeldt, F.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.; Dusschoten, van D.; Vereecken, H.

    2010-01-01

    Root water uptake by ricinus communis (castor bean) in fine sand was investigated using MRI with multiecho sampling. Before starting the experiments the plants germinated and grew for 3 weeks in a cylindrical container with a diameter of 9 cm. Immediately before the MRI experiments started, the cont

  6. Antihepatoma Activity of Artocarpus communis Is Higher in Fractions with High Artocarpin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Tzeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  7. Ixodes ricinus defensins attack distantly-related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Miray; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Rego, Ryan O M; Grubhoffer, Libor; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic innate immunity. Defensins are a well-known family of antimicrobial peptides, widely distributed in ticks, insects, plants and mammals, showing activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoan parasites. Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick species in Europe and is a vector of pathogens affecting human and animal health. Recently, six defensins (including two isoforms) were identified in I. ricinus. We investigated the evolution of the antimicrobial activity of I. ricinus defensins. Among the five unique defensins, only DefMT3, DefMT5 and DefMT6 showed in vitro antimicrobial activity. Each defensin was active against rather distantly-related bacteria (P < 0.05), significantly among Gram-negative species (P < 0.0001). These three defensins represent different clades within the family of tick defensins, suggesting that the last common ancestor of tick defensins may have had comparable antimicrobial activity. Differences in electrostatic potential, and amino acid substitutions in the β-hairpin and the loop bridging the α-helix and β-sheet may affect the antimicrobial activity in DefMT2 and DefMT7, which needs to be addressed. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of the γ-core motif of selected defensins (DefMT3, DefMT6, and DefMT7) was also tested. Interestingly, compared to full length peptides, the γ-core motifs of these defensins were effective against less species of bacteria. However, the antifungal activity of the γ-core was higher than full peptides. Our results broaden the scope of research in the field of antimicrobial peptides highlighting the overlooked ability of arthropod defensins to act against distantly-related microorganisms. PMID:26255244

  8. Determination of Novel Borrelia Genospecies in Swedish Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A total of 301 adult questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at 15 different locations along the south and east coasts of Sweden to determine the Borrelia genospecies diversity. Thirty-two ticks (11%) were found to be positive by nested PCR with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific primers. Species determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the flagellin gene. Five different Borrelia species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the Borrelia DNA found in ...

  9. Diversity of Babesia Infecting European Sheep Ticks (Ixodes ricinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Duh, Darja; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana

    2001-01-01

    Questing Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) adult and nymphal ticks collected in various parts of Slovenia were tested for the presence of babesial parasites with a PCR assay based on the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene (nss-ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). Thirteen of 135 ticks were found to contain babesial DNA. Sequence determination and analysis of amplified portions of nss-rDNA revealed their identity with Babesia microti and a high degree of homology with Babesia odocoilei and Babesia divergens. Th...

  10. Studies on Ricinus Lipase Enzyme Isolated from Castor Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Srivastava; Rashmi Mohan Mathur; Rachna Prakash; Shashi Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Healthy and bold seeds of castor variety “Aruna“ were collected. The de-hulled castor kernels were separated from seed coat and finely grounded in an electric grinder. The powdered kernels were passed through 60 mesh sieve and defatted using n-hexane in a soxhlet extractor. After complete extraction of oil seed meal was made free from solvent at low temperature. The defatted seed meal was pulverized and again passed through 60-mesh sieve to get final product .The RICINUS LIPASE source thus, o...

  11. Morphological features of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids: nymphs and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, Sergey V; Belova, Oxana A; Bespyatova, Liubov A; Ieshko, Eugeniy P; Karganova, Galina G

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to reveal morphological features of first-generation Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus hybrids (nymphs and adults) obtained under laboratory conditions for further study of natural populations of these species in sympatry foci. In 65 nymphs of three groups I. ricinus (23 specimens), I. persulcatus (21 specimens), and hybrids (21 specimens), 16 parameters were evaluated (length/width of the scutum and capitulum, length of the hypostome, palp, tarsus I, coxa I, sternal setae, and various scutal and alloscutal setae) and discrimination analysis was performed allowing differentiation of hybrid nymphs from original species. General effectiveness of classification of I. ricinus, I. persulcatus, and hybrids was >95 %. Discriminant functions are presented allowing classification of I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and hybrid nymphs. For description of morphology, 27 adult hybrids (13 males and 14 females) were examined under a stereo microscope at 14-28× (without preparation of permanent mounts). The following morphological distinctions of hybrids from original species were described: posterior marginal groove is not clear (as in I. ricinus) and absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I persulcatus). In hybrid males, simultaneous absence of syncoxa on coxa I (as in I. persulcatus) and a long internal spur on coxa I (as in I. ricinus) can be used as a diagnostic feature. Based on the detected characteristics, 10 of 157 ticks collected in Karelia in I. ricinus and I. persulcatus sympatry area were classified as hybrids. PMID:26984610

  12. Can leek interfere with bean plant–bean fly interaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Bandara, PB; V Kumar; Ninkovic, Velemir; Ahmed, Elham; Pettersson, Jan; Glinwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Effects of volatile odors from leek, Allium porum L., on the behavior of bean ßy, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), were tested in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Aqueous and solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) of leek were repellent to adult ßies. Whole leek plants were repellent and prevented attraction to the host plant, beans. Beans that had been exposed to volatiles from living leek plants for 7 d became repellent to the ßy. Leek and several...

  13. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  14. Simulación de los cambios de carbono orgánico del suelo en sistema de cultivo con higuerilla por el modelo RothC Simulation of soil organic carbon changes in crop systems with castor bean using the RothC model

    OpenAIRE

    Lucila González Molina; Esaú del C. Moreno Pérez; Laksmi Reddiar Krishnamurty; Aurelio Baéz Pérez; Acosta Mireles Miguel

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la simulación de los cambios del carbono orgánico del suelo (COS), por el modelo RothC, en razón del cambio de uso de suelo del sistema tradicional - asociación maíz-calabaza (TMC) - a sistemas con higuerilla (Ricinus communis): multiestratos (MUL), callejones (CALL) y monocultivo de higuerilla (HIG). Las simulaciones del COS se hicieron para las profundidades de suelo 0-20 y 0-40 cm, para el periodo de 1980-2040, considerándose como línea base al sistema ...

  15. Seasonal distribution of Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green areas at four localities in the Belgrade region (Ada Ciganlija, Košutnjak, Miljakovac forest, and Mt. Avala were investigated in 2004. The aim of the research was to clarify the faunistic composition, relative abundance, and population dynamics of ticks, as well as the seasonal distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl in Ixodes ricinus. Two species of ticks were detected: Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulates. Relative abundance analysis revealed that the species Ixodes ricinus was predominant (97.41 %. Out of 942 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 188 (19.96 % were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sl. The infection rate of adults by localities ranged from 19.16% to 30.99% (Mt. Avala and Ada Ciganlija, respectively.

  16. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Øines Øivind; Radzijevskaja Jana; Paulauskas Algimantas; Rosef Olav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR...

  17. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J; Nijhof, Ard M; Hovius, Joppe W

    2014-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus. PMID:25919587

  18. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Coumou

    Full Text Available Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus.

  19. Experimental in vitro transmission of Babesia sp. (EU1) by Ixodes ricinus

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Sarah; Brisseau, Nadine; Hermouet, Axelle; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Babesia sp. (EU1), first characterized in 2003, has been implicated in human cases of babesiosis in Italy, Austria and Germany. It has been identified in roe deer and in its suspected tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, in several European countries. The aim of the present study was to validate the competence of I. ricinus as a vector of Babesia sp. (EU1) via experimental infections. For this purpose, a parasite strain isolated from roe deer was cloned in sheep erythrocytes. After experimental infec...

  20. Studies on Ricinus Lipase Enzyme Isolated from Castor Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Srivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and bold seeds of castor variety “Aruna“ were collected. The de-hulled castor kernels were separated from seed coat and finely grounded in an electric grinder. The powdered kernels were passed through 60 mesh sieve and defatted using n-hexane in a soxhlet extractor. After complete extraction of oil seed meal was made free from solvent at low temperature. The defatted seed meal was pulverized and again passed through 60-mesh sieve to get final product .The RICINUS LIPASE source thus, obtained was stored in a screw capped glass vial and kept in a desiccator. As and when required portions from this preparation were used in further enzymatic studies.

  1. Registration of 'Croissant' pinto bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Croissant’ (Reg. No. CV-299, PI 656597), a new medium-maturity (94–98 d) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar was released by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station to provide dry bean producers in the USA with a high-yielding cultivar that combines resistance to rust [caused by Uromyc...

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Zehneria scabra and Ricinus communis against Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereket Abew

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The potency of plant extracts against test organisms were depend on different organic solvents used. Clinical isolate of bacterial pathogens showed less zones of diameter compared to the standard strains. Gram-positive had wide inhibition zones than Gram-negative bacteria. Further studies should be carried out to isolate the pure compounds and standardization of the methods of plant extracts for an in vitro testing.

  3. Qualitative histologic evaluation of the tissue reaction to the polyurethane resin (ricinus communis - based biopolymer implantation assessed by light and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Campos Belmonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue reaction of bone tissue accessed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM images after polyurethane resin implantation is presented in this study. Twenty four male rabbits were used, divided into two groups of 12 animals each (experimental group and control group in which full-thickness cranial defect was surgically created. At 30 and 90 days post operation 6 animals of each group were euthanized and bone samples were removed for analysis. The microscopic results indicated no inflammatory foreign body reaction, a perfect union between the polymer and surgical bone bed surface, lack of bone resorption and presence of a thin layer of osteogenic material covering the polymer surface in contact with the surgical bone bed. The SEM images demonstrate the porosity of the resin, with diameters from 120 to 500 µm. This important feature of this polymer is associated with its osteoconductivity, allowing the bone growth inside it, improving the integration between the material and bone tissue. These results confirm that polyurethane resin derived from Ricinuscommunis is an excellent bone substitute for use in repair surgery for great bone losses.

  4. COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis) PARA BIOCOMBUSTIBLE EN RELACIÓN A LOS CULTIVOS ACTUALES EN EL EDO. DE OAXACA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Rafael; Zamarripa Colmenero, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Ante el problema actual del calentamiento global por las altas emisiones de CO a la atmósfera, 2 así como la escasez y encarecimiento de los energéticos fósiles como el petróleo, carbón y gas, ha cobrado importancia la búsqueda y aprovechamiento de fuentes alternas de combustibles. Las principales especies vegetales que pueden proveer de biocarburantes son la caña de azúcar, sorgo, maíz, entre otros para etanol; soya girasol y cacahuate, entre otros para biodiesel; sin embargo la utilizació...

  5. Ultrastructural changes of the nodose ganglion cells following an intraneural injection of Ricinus communis agglutinin-60 into the vagus nerve in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, E A; Wen, C Y; Shieh, J Y; Yick, T Y; Wong, W C

    1991-01-01

    Virtually all the ganglion cells in the nodose ganglion in hamsters underwent rapid degeneration following an intraneural injection of RCA-60 into the vagus nerve in the cervical region. The earliest signs of neuronal degeneration were evident in animals which survived 5 days after the ricin application. A remarkable feature was the appearance of a variable number of granular dense bodies measuring 1-4 microns in diameter in the cytoplasm. They were composed of closely stacked cisternae which...

  6. Potencial do uso da torta de mamona (Ricinus communis L.) como matriz para produção de compósitos e nanocompósitos

    OpenAIRE

    Kumode, Marina Mieko Nishidate

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Durante as últimas décadas, tem aumentado os problemas ambientais causados pelo grande consumo de petróleo, um produto não-renovável, base de materiais plásticos e isso têm despertado interesse na comunidade científica na busca de novos materiais. Esses materiais devem ter as características de renovabilidade, fácil biodegradabilidade, com propriedades específicas comparáveis e, claro, de baixo custo e que causem menor impacto ambiental. O desenvolvimento destes novos materiais é poss...

  7. Effect of glycerine and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis on animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Teresa Barreto Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corn substitution by glycerine and essential oils on animal performance, apparent digestibility and red and white blood cells of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot was evaluated. Thirty bulls with average weight of 311±28.8 kg and 22±2 month-old were allocated in three diets: CON (without glycerine or essential oils, GLY (with glycerine and GEO (with glycerine and essential oils. The bulls were fed a diet of sorghum silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Three grams of cashew and castor oil/animal/day were included in GEO diet. Animals were kept in feedlot for 115 days and slaughtered at average weight of 467±40.6 kg. No differences (P<0.05 among diets regarding final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion were reported. Ether extract intake was higher (P<0.05 in CON diet compared to the others. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in GLY diet compared to CON. Acid detergent fibre digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CON compared to GLY diet. Nonfibrous carbohydrate, fibrous carbohydrate and ether extract digestibility were similar (P>0.05 among diets. No effect of glycerine and essential oil addition on total blood cholesterol, triglycerides, haemogram, leukogram and plasmatic proteins was observed. Corn replacement by glycerine and essential oils addition did not affect (P>0.05 carcass weight, dressing and conformation, carcass length and cushion thickness.

  8. Influence of metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis in soil contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains PsM6 and PjM15 isolated from a serpentine soil were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas jessenii, respectively, on the basis of their morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. Assessment of plant growth-promoting parameters revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole N source, solubilization of insol...

  9. Evaluation of dentin cleansing by a detergent derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) used as root canal irrigant: a scanning electron miscroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Molteni Aguiar; Lilian Eiko Maekawa; Adriana Chung; Maria Renata Giazzi Nassri

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: To evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the cleaning of root canal walls after biomechanical preparation and irrigation with castor oil (Endoquil®) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Material and methods: Fifteen maxillary incisors were subjected to standardized root canal instrumentation with different irrigants (n = 5): G1 – Endoquil; G2 – 0.5% NaOCl; G3 – saline solution (control). After instrumentation, the teeth were prepared for SEM analysis (...

  10. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F0 animals and growth and development of the F1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  11. A systems level analysis reveals transcriptomic and proteomic complexity in Ixodes ricinus midgut and salivary glands during early attachment and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Tenzer, Stefan; Hackenberg, Michael; Erhart, Jan; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Mazur, Johanna; Kuharev, Jörg; Ribeiro, José M C; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2014-10-01

    Although pathogens are usually transmitted within the first 24-48 h of attachment of the castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus, little is known about the tick's biological responses at these earliest phases of attachment. Tick midgut and salivary glands are the main tissues involved in tick blood feeding and pathogen transmission but the limited genomic information for I. ricinus delays the application of high-throughput methods to study their physiology. We took advantage of the latest advances in the fields of Next Generation RNA-Sequencing and Label-free Quantitative Proteomics to deliver an unprecedented, quantitative description of the gene expression dynamics in the midgut and salivary glands of this disease vector upon attachment to the vertebrate host. A total of 373 of 1510 identified proteins had higher expression in the salivary glands, but only 110 had correspondingly high transcript levels in the same tissue. Furthermore, there was midgut-specific expression of 217 genes at both the transcriptome and proteome level. Tissue-dependent transcript, but not protein, accumulation was revealed for 552 of 885 genes. Moreover, we discovered the enrichment of tick salivary glands in proteins involved in gene transcription and translation, which agrees with the secretory role of this tissue; this finding also agrees with our finding of lower tick t-RNA representation in the salivary glands when compared with the midgut. The midgut, in turn, is enriched in metabolic components and proteins that support its mechanical integrity in order to accommodate and metabolize the ingested blood. Beyond understanding the physiological events that support hematophagy by arthropod ectoparasites, we discovered more than 1500 proteins located at the interface between ticks, the vertebrate host, and the tick-borne pathogens. Thus, our work significantly improves the knowledge of the genetics underlying the transmission lifecycle of this tick species, which is an essential step for

  12. Ixodes ricinus and Its Endosymbiont Midichloria mitochondrii: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands and Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venere, Monica; Fumagalli, Marco; Cafiso, Alessandra; De Marco, Leone; Epis, Sara; Plantard, Olivier; Bardoni, Anna; Salvini, Roberta; Viglio, Simona; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Iadarola, Paolo; Sassera, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I. ricinus, but its biological role is not yet understood. Most M. mitochondrii symbionts are localized in the tick ovaries, and they are transmitted to the progeny. M. mitochondrii bacteria have however also been detected in the salivary glands and saliva of I. ricinus, as well as in the blood of vertebrate hosts of the tick, prompting the hypothesis of an infectious role of this bacterium. To investigate, from a proteomic point of view, the tick I. ricinus and its symbiont, we generated the protein profile of the ovary tissue (OT) and of salivary glands (SG) of adult females of this tick species. To compare the OT and SG profiles, 2-DE profiling followed by LC-MS/MS protein identification were performed. We detected 21 spots showing significant differences in the relative abundance between the OT and SG, ten of which showed 4- to 18-fold increase/decrease in density. This work allowed to establish a method to characterize the proteome of I. ricinus, and to detect multiple proteins that exhibit a differential expression profile in OT and SG. Additionally, we were able to use an immunoproteomic approach to detect a protein from the symbiont. Finally, the method here developed will pave the way for future studies on the proteomics of I. ricinus, with the goals of better understanding the biology of this vector and of its symbiont M. mitochondrii. PMID:26398775

  13. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil and Methanolic Extract of Myrtus communis L.

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOUDVAND, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; SHARIFI, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated usin...

  14. Leaf mineral concentrations of Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis growing in the proximity of a natural CO2 spring

    OpenAIRE

    Peñuelas, Josep

    2001-01-01

    Leaf mineral concentrations of co-occurring Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis were measured at bimonthly intervals throughout a year in a natural CO2 spring and in a nearby control site with similar soil chemistry in a Mediterranean environment. There were different responses to the elevated [CO2] (c. 700 μL L−1) of the spring site plants depending on the element and the species. In the CO2 spring site K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Fe, and Ti leaf concentrations and the ratio C/N sho...

  15. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  16. purple_bean_crithab_streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This linear coverage represents critical habitat deliniation for the Purple Bean in the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins. Linear segments were digitized over a...

  17. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    the plant–soil system associated with faba bean cropping via nitrate leaching or emissions of N2O to the atmosphere as a consequence of the rapid mineralization of N from its N-rich residues. It is important to develop improved preventive measures, such as catch crops, intercropping, or no-till technologies......The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  18. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  19. PHYSIOLOGIC AND SANITARY QUALITY OF CASTOR BEAN SEEDS UNDER DIFFERENT CHEMICAL TREATMENTS QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA E SANITÁRIA DE SEMENTES DE MAMONA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMENTOS QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Murilo Macedo Barbosa

    2009-12-01

    ="en-US" align="JUSTIFY">KEY-WORDS: Ricinus communis L.; seeds pathogens; carbendazim; carboxim; thiram.

    O tratamento de sementes com fungicidas tornou-se medida indispensável no controle de patógenos. Entretanto, a eficácia de muitos produtos ainda não é bem conhecida para algumas culturas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses dos fungicidas carbendazim e carboxim + thiram no controle de patógenos e sua interferência sobre a qualidade fisiológica em sementes de mamona. O ensaio foi constituído dos seguintes tratamentos (gramas do ingrediente ativo por 100 kg de sementes: carbendazim (15, 30 e 60, carboxim + thiram (25 + 25, 50 + 50, 100 + 100, formoldeído 0,15% (v/v e testemunha (água destilada. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi determinada pela germinação, primeira contagem, emergência a campo, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, número de folhas, comprimento, massa verde e seca da parte aérea e condutividade elétrica. Não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos, nas avaliações de germinação, IVE, número de folhas, comprimento, massa verde e seca da parte aérea. O tratamento com formoldeído, se comparado aos demais, proporcionou menores médias (p < 0,05 para a primeira contagem e emergência a campo. Sementes tratadas com fungicidas apresentaram maior condutividade elétrica. Os fungos identificados foram Cladosporium spp.; Bipolaris spp.;

  20. Molecular evidence for bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting Shetland ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotarczak, Bogumiła; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Adamska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus has the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and domestic animals. The feeding I. ricinus (n = 1737) collected from 49 Shetland ponies and questing ones from vegetation (n = 371) were tested for the presence and differentiation of the bacterial species. DNA of I. ricinus ticks was examined with PCR and sequencing analysis to identify species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Altogether, 24.3 % I. ricinus of the infested horses and 12.4 % ticks from vegetation carried at least one pathogen species. Horse-feeding ticks (19.2 %) were significantly more frequently infected with Borrelia spp. than questing ticks (4.8 %). Among Bbsl species, in I. ricinus infesting ponies, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana and B. lusitanie and one species, B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group, were detected. The 73 flaB gene sequences of Borrelia obtained from feeding I. ricinus have been deposited in GenBank. Among Rickettsia species, two were identified: R. helvetica which was dominant and R. monacensis. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Bbsl and R. helvetica were detected in 6.3 % of infected ticks collected from horses. Shetland ponies may play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of Bbsl and probably could contribute to the natural cycle of A. phagocytophilum and R. helvetica as host for infected ticks. The awareness about these infectious agents in ticks from ponies might be an important criterion for the risk assessment of human diseases, especially as these animals are maintained for recreational purposes. PMID:26920921

  1. The toxic effect of permethrin and cypermethrin on engorged Ixodes ricinus females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Buczek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] tick is of great medical and veterinary importance and has a wide range of geographical distribution. The study presents the effect of permethrin (Per and cypermethrin (CM on engorged[i] I. ricinus[/i] females. materials and method. The effect of perythroids studied on engorged I. ricinus females was assessed on the basis of the pre-oviposition and oviposition period. Remote effects of Per and CM application were assessed by investigation of the length and course of embryonic development and larval hatching from eggs laid by pyrethroid-treated females. Per (Copex WP was used at doses of 0.78125–25.0 µg/1 specimen, and CM (Kordon 10WP was applied at 0.3125–10.0 µg/1 specimen. Immediately after the feeding period, I. ricinus females were sprayed with 20 µl of a pyrethroid solution and kept at 28 °C and 75%RH. results. The experiments demonstrated that CM exerted a stronger toxic effect on [i]I. ricinus[/i] females than Per. The lowest doses of CM doubled the length of the pre-oviposition period while its highest doses prolonged the period nearly three times compared with the control. The pyrethroids applied reduced the number and weight of eggs and changed the parameters of the oviposition process. Application of the tested pyrethroid doses led to disturbances in the embryonic development of[i] I. ricinus[/i], i.e. the development was prolonged, few normal larvae hatched, numerous eggs and embryos at various developmental stages died, and larval hatch was inhibited. conclusions. Knowledge about the sensitivity of engorged females to different doses of the tested pyrethroids and the remote effects of their action can be used in practice for tick control among livestock animals, and the reduction of tick population abundance in the environment.

  2. Mitogenomes reveal diversity of the European Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Giovanna; Kitchen, Andrew; Kim, Hie Lim; Ratan, Aakrosh; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; McGraw, John J; Kazimirova, Maria; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, the Ixodes ricinus tick is the most important vector of the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis and several other emerging tick-borne diseases. Because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, understanding the vector population structure is crucial to inform public health research of pathogen dynamics and spread. However, the population structure and dynamics of this important vector species are not well understood as most genetic studies utilize short mitochondrial and nuclear sequences with little diversity. Herein we obtained and analyzed complete mitochondrial genome (hereafter "mitogenome") sequences to better understand the genetic diversity and the population structure of I. ricinus from two long-standing tick-borne disease foci in northern Italy. Complete mitogenomes of 23 I. ricinus ticks were sequenced at high coverage. Out of 23 mitogenome sequences we identified 17 unique haplotypes composed of 244 segregating sites. Phylogenetic reconstruction using 18 complete mitogenome sequences revealed the coexistence of four highly divergent I. ricinus maternal lineages despite the narrow spatial scale over which these samples were obtained (100km). Notably, the estimated coalescence time of the 18 mitogenome haplotypes is ∼427 thousand years ago (95% HPD 330, 540). This divergence between I. ricinus lineages is consistent with the mitochondrial diversity of other arthropod vector species and indicates that long-term I. ricinus populations may have been less structured and larger than previously thought. Thus, this study suggests that a rapid and accurate retrieval of full mitochondrial genomes from this disease vector enables fine-resolution studies of tick intraspecies genetic relationships, population differentiation, and demographic history. PMID:27165938

  3. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen Coumou; Alex Wagemakers; Trentelman, Jos J.; Nijhof, Ard M; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2015-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccin...

  4. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ). The PRA, titled ``Importation of French Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Runner Bean, Phaseolus... as follows: Sec. 319.56-51 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya...

  5. ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of Myrtus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F. M.; Dettori, M. F.; Magnani, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest of researchers for the application of sophisticated analytical techniques in conjunction with statistical data analysis methods to the characterization of natural products to assure their authenticity and quality, and for the possibility of direct analysis of food to obtain maximum information. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA) are applied to study the chemical composition and variability of Sardinian myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) through the analysis of both berries alcoholic extracts and berries epicarp. ToF-SIMS spectra of berries epicarp show that the epicuticular waxes consist mainly of carboxylic acids with chain length ranging from C20 to C30, or identical species formed from fragmentation of long-chain esters. PCA of ToF-SIMS data from myrtle berries epicarp distinguishes two groups characterized by a different surface concentration of triacontanoic acid. Variability in antocyanins, flavonols, α-tocopherol, and myrtucommulone contents is showed by ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts.

  6. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and ...

  7. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh; Sharififar, Fariba; Sharifi, Iraj; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi

    2015-02-01

    Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat various diseases such as infectious diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Myrtus communis against Leishmania tropica on an in vitro model. Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of M. communis on promastigote forms and their cytotoxic activities against J774 cells were evaluated using MTT assay for 72 hr. In addition, their leishmanicidal activity against amastigote forms was determined in a macrophage model, for 72 hr. Findings showed that the main components of essential oil were α-pinene (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.6%), and linalool (12.6%). Findings demonstrated that M. communis, particularly its essential oil, significantly (PJ774 cells. However, essential oil indicated a more cytotoxic effect as compared with the methanolic extract of M. communis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that M. communis might be a natural source for production of a new leishmanicidal agent. PMID:25748705

  8. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  9. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  10. Anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha activity in Ixodes ricinus saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koník, Peter; Slavíková, Veronika; Salát, Jiří; Řezníčková, Jana; Dvorožňáková, E.; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 12 (2006), s. 649-656. ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick saliva * TNF Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.009, year: 2006

  11. SPME as tool to identify a trail pheromone in the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul; Zahradníčková, Helena; Zemek, Rostislav; Kalinová, Blanka; Dusbábek, František

    Neuchatel: Université de Neuchatel, 2005. s. 54-54. [International Conference on Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens /5./. 29.08.2005-02.09.2005, Neuchatel] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * solid phase microextraction * contact pheromone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were loca

  13. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585. ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  14. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  15. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øines Øivind

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR, and sequence analysis. Results From a total of 1908 questing l. ricinus ticks, 17 (0.9% indicated the presence of Babesia spp. after realtime-PCR screening. Ixodes ricinus harbouring Babesia spp. was detected in 9 out of 22 localities. Further molecular analyses of DNA from these positive ticks indicate the presence of Babesia venatorum, B. divergens, B. capreoli and a currently undescribed Babesia in Norwegian ticks. The most prevalent was B. venatorum found in 71% of the positive ticks. Conclusions A total of 17 out of 1908 (0.9% ticks were positive for Babesia. Our data confirm that there are several Babesia species in ticks in Norway. Babesia venatorum was the most prevalent. This species has a zoonotic potential and may cause human babesiosis following a tick bite.

  16. Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Sarah; Jouglin, Maggy; L’Hostis, Monique; Chauvin, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We report in vitro culture of zoonotic Babesia sp. EU1 from blood samples of roe deer in France. This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1.

  17. Structure of the fruit peel of Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The peel of fruits of Pyrus communisL. cv. ‘Klapsa’,harvested at commercial maturity in September 2011, was examined using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy as well as scanning electron and transmission microscopy. The fruit peel was found to be composed of an epidermis covered by a cuticle and several layers of hypodermis. SEM observations showed that in the cuticle there were numerous microcracks of various widths, running in different directions, as well as numerous oval- or star-shaped lenticels with a diameter of approximately 130-230 µm. The microcracks ran along the cell walls and the appearance of the widest ones resembled a zipped-up zip. Crystalline wax platelets with horizontal and, more rarely, vertical orientation in relation to the surface of the organ were visible on the surface of the cuticle. The largest number of vertical wax platelets was found inside the microcracks, whereas inside the lenticels mycelium hyphae and/or fungal spores were sometimes observed. In the cross-section through the surface layer covering the fruit of Pyrus, the cells of the single- and sometimes two-layered epidermis were found to have different shapes and sizes and to be covered with a cuticular epithelium characterized by a varying structure and a thickness of about 10 µm. The cuticle covered not only the external tangential walls, but also penetrated through the anticlinal walls significantly increasing their thickness and reducing the inner diameter of the cells. TEM observations showed that inside the epidermal cells, which exhibited varying degrees of vacuolation, there was parietal cytoplasm in which cell nuclei, plastids with starch grains, and numerous mitochondria could be observed. In the hypodermis, which was composed of 3 up to 5 layers of tangential collenchyma cells with thickened tangential walls, organelles were found similar to those described in the epidermis, whereas in the vacuoles there were visible fibrous deposits

  18. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer, ferrocyanate, TCA and ferric chloride. Different concentrations of samples were mixed with DPPH and after 30 min the absorbances were measured. For determination of phenolic content, 500 μl of sample was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu and sodium carbonate. For determination of flavonoids, 500 μl of sample was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water, NaNO2 and NaOH. In reducing power method, chloroform fraction showed the highest reducing capacity. In the DPPH radical scavenging method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in buthanol fraction (IC50=84.42±1.8 μg/ml. In FRAP method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in crude extract (5.4±0.3 mg/ml and buthanol fractions (5.51±0.4 mg/ml, respectively. The highest amount of phenolic compounds was detected in ethyl acetate fraction of Myrtus communis (17.5±0.001 μg/g. The highest amount of flavonoids was found in crude extract of Myrtus communis (171.9±7.3 μg/ml. Overall, we can suggest that the leaves of Myrtus communis can be used as antioxidant and as a food additives to avoid oxidative degradation of foods.

  19. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanie MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Walle Birhanie,1 Bizuayehu Walle,1 Kidist Rebba2 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated.Methods: Essential oil (EO of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg. Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively.Results: There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner.Conclusion: The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. Keywords: Myrtus communis, hypnotic, motor coordination, muscle relaxation, essential oil

  20. Metagenomic profile of the bacterial communities associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Carpi

    Full Text Available Assessment of the microbial diversity residing in arthropod vectors of medical importance is crucial for monitoring endemic infections, for surveillance of newly emerging zoonotic pathogens, and for unraveling the associated bacteria within its host. The tick Ixodes ricinus is recognized as the primary European vector of disease-causing bacteria in humans. Despite I. ricinus being of great public health relevance, its microbial communities remain largely unexplored to date. Here we evaluate the pathogen-load and the microbiome in single adult I. ricinus by using 454- and Illumina-based metagenomic approaches. Genomic DNA-derived sequences were taxonomically profiled using a computational approach based on the BWA algorithm, allowing for the identification of known tick-borne pathogens at the strain level and the putative tick core microbiome. Additionally, we assessed and compared the bacterial taxonomic profile in nymphal and adult I. ricinus pools collected from two distinct geographic regions in Northern Italy by means of V6-16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing and community based ecological analysis. A total of 108 genera belonging to representatives of all bacterial phyla were detected and a rapid qualitative assessment for pathogenic bacteria, such as Borrelia, Rickettsia and Candidatus Neoehrlichia, and for other bacteria with mutualistic relationship or undetermined function, such as Wolbachia and Rickettsiella, was possible. Interestingly, the ecological analysis revealed that the bacterial community structure differed between the examined geographic regions and tick life stages. This finding suggests that the environmental context (abiotic and biotic factors and host-selection behaviors affect their microbiome.Our data provide the most complete picture to date of the bacterial communities present within I. ricinus under natural conditions by using high-throughput sequencing technologies. This study further demonstrates a novel detection

  1. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.)

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255564343 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VNGRARKFNRVFNAIESVEVLYSEGRKLHLQMEEKLSVLHGMLNREIDKPVEASLQDGSYAKHEGGRKRESRDEQERTIKIRSNVQNDGNAYGPASSSAMDLLGVPQECIKGL...EDFLINGRLMVHSDASIERLEGCDSRINIFLDGIYLNLSSNPASADQLVAGSIILASVCAAIDHIEFICEASYNLLQIRKYENDTILIILHVFAYLGG...CAIRTCMVRCSLDTERECLVQKIFHALKTEAKISPKEKACALFTLLLLNFSWCTLDKCGNFADKNFFLCLDSFACRINAVVCAVEARSLFAELCCCEELVGLI...8:7959 ATP binding protein, putative Ricinus communis MAADVPVKQLSLPVNPCCALWKEKCSKLEGGRKHLRQAVQILNEQVDKIQAENL...SDSFGFDLEKSERFEEIENGDYMKLLDLDNTADEECYRRAMEMPLSPTLPEIEISRIETFDVDNFRAFNFNGGLSNEKEVLVPSHRLDVAG

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255562238 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GNVGCGSIGGGATDLPKSYSVNSLRDVDDEEFKKLLRLLSEKGTETESYMQSSEQGDWRSCSRKASAMRRNYSVGVGKIGRIDEGRACSFREEEDDVNGNSYSRSRSHAVRRNVVYY ... ...880:2911 3987:2911 3988:2911 conserved hypothetical protein Ricinus communis MRSKPNKLSKLVQISKAPIRILCKARDFYVKGMLGFANS

  4. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255562723 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :3079 3988:3079 conserved hypothetical protein Ricinus communis MIETSDANSAYSTQRGKSPLPCSQPRKKMRSDETGNTVATSNSETLSSKRKVNLNSYS...PEFKVRRVAAPSANSSFSDRSLPLINPIYLANGYLNLNQVIGRINVAMPRSNLSKCKDKQLSHERKAAGGQPSEGPPCLRIVSAAESAN...NFVSKHPFFRVVMRSTYLNDYVIVFRYIDSSKAKLEQKQGSSGTAHLQSSMMGSTSYAYCNSGHHYASTNKLCKKHMQHQNKNITLQFEGRTWSATFCSLTNRIRGGWKSFVRNNSLREGDVCVFELIDSRKALVKVSIFRSEN ...

  5. 不同品种蓖麻对镉的响应及修复能力评价%Evaluation of Cadmium Tolerance and Cadmium-phytoextraction Ability of 30 Castor Bean Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晗芝; 郭庆军; 杨俊兴; 陈同斌; 王坚; 王鑫; 陈刚; 邵春岩

    2016-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a valuable renewable resource, is cultivated as a resource for bioenergy production, and also for bioremediation. In this study, we compare the growth of 30 castor bean cultivars under 2 mg·kg-1 Cd and 5 mg·kg-1 Cd conditions in a pot experiment in the greenhouse (5~32℃). We evaluate Cd accumulation in different parts of the plants, and compare the abilities of the cultivars to extract Cd from the soil. The 30 cultivars show different degrees of Cd tolerance, as indicated by the aboveground biomass response to Cd stress index (> 0 with 10 cultivars, < 0 with 20 cultivars). Under 2 mg·kg-1 Cd conditions, the range of Cd concentrations is 0.600~1.670 mg·kg-1 in the stems, 0.310~1.970 mg·kg-1 in the leaves and 0.130~0.909 mg·kg-1 in the fruit. The average Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and fruit is 1.030, 0.831 and 0.362 mg·kg-1, respectively. Under 5 mg·kg-1 Cd conditions, the range of Cd concentrations is 1.012~4.032 mg·kg-1 in the stems, 0.698~3.514 mg·kg-1 in the leaves and 0.227~1.525 mg·kg-1 in the fruit. The average Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and fruit is 1.964, 1.583 and 0.694 mg·kg-1, respectively. Four cultivars are high-Cd accumulators, and 25 cultivars are low-Cd accumulators. The cultivars also show a range of abilities to extract Cd from soil (26.3~65.7μg·pot-1 under 2 mg·kg-1 Cd and 37.0~121.6μg·pot-1 under 5 mg·kg-1 Cd). Cd concentrations and extraction capability (EA) in aboveground organs are cultivar-dependent, and less affected by the Cd concentration in the soil. On the basis of the Cd concentrations and enrichment factors of the aerial part, castor is not a Cd hyperaccumulator. Therefore, the relative high tolerance cultivars of castor can address the Cd contaminated farmland for phytostabilization and high seed-oil production with a healthy pattern.%蓖麻(Ricinus communis L.)是一种有价值的能源作物,可用于修复镉污染农田同时生产生物能源。

  6. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  7. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  8. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  9. Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy S; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S; Levin, Michael L; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-07-01

    Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely to encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers. PMID:27263092

  10. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  11. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  12. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of droug...

  13. Propoxur residues in cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pod-bearing Amazon and Amelonado cocoa plants were sprayed with Unden 20% (propoxur, arprocarb, baygon) at the recommended rate of 210 g a.i./ha and twice the recommended rate at monthly intervals from July to October, 1976, and cured beans from the ripe pods analysed for propoxur residues by gas chromatography. In a radiotracer study with 14C-labelled propoxur, the effect of processing methods on residues and systemic uptake of propoxur from insecticide deposits on pod surfaces were also investigated. Residues did not exceed 0.03 ppm. There was no relationship between residues and harvesting time, cocoa type or rate of application. Contamination of beans with insecticide deposits on the pod surface during processing, and systemic uptake of insecticide from pod surfaces were negligible. (author)

  14. Inhibition of neutral lipase from castor bean lipid bodies by coenzyme A (CoA) and Oleoyl-CoA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) in lipid body membranes isolated from the endosperm of 4 day old castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings catalyzes the hydrolysis of [14C]trioleoylglycerol, releasing [14C]oleic acid for up to 4 hours. However, the addition of Mg-ATP and coenzyme A (CoA), which are present in the cytoplasm of plant cells, caused a progressive inhibition of the neutral lipase such that after 15 minutes, release of [14C]oleic acid was almost undetectable. A fatty acyl CoA synthetase was found in the lipid body membrane which converts [14C]oleic acid produced from the lipase reaction to [14C]oleoyl-CoA under these conditions. The concentration of free oleoyl-CoA in the reaction mixture when the lipase was inhibited by 50% was calculated to be about 21 micromolar. It was found that a mixture of exogenously added oleoyl-CoA and CoA was most effective in causing lipase inhibition. Little inhibition of lipase was detected in the presence of CoA alone. It is possible that this effect is important in vivo in coordinating lipase activity with fatty acid oxidation

  15. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. ...

  16. Detection of Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks and Bartonella seroprevalence in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Schötta, Anna Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors for many bacterial, protozoan and viral pathogens and are potential vectors for Bartonella species. Hunters and foresters, therefore, may be regarded as high-risk groups for Bartonella infections. The aims of this study were (i) to identify Bartonella species in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in all provinces of Austria, and (ii) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella species in hunters and blood donors in eastern Austria. A total of 515 larval, nymphal and adult I. ricinus, collected throughout Austria in 2005, were selected from the tick library at the Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology of the Medical University of Vienna and screened in a specific real-time PCR that targeted a region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella species. The overall Bartonella infection rate was 2.1% (11/515) and the highest rate, 7.5% (4/53), was found in ticks from Vienna. This finding was confirmed by screening a further 60 I. ricinus collected from Vienna in 2013: of these, 6.7% (4/60) were positive for Bartonella spp. The rate of infection was always higher in adult ticks. Sequence analysis in the Bartonella-positive ticks identified several species, including B. henselae, B. doshiae and B. grahamii. To our knowledge this is the first time that these species have been identified in I. ricinus in Austria. Prevalence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and B. quintana was determined in serum samples from hunters (100) and blood donors (100): in hunters 23% were positive for B. quintana and in 2 samples (2%), antibodies to both B. quintana and B. henselae were detected; in blood donors 22% were positive for B. quintana, 1% for B. henselae and 5% for both. These results indicate that exposure to ticks does not constitutes a relevant risk for Bartonella infection. PMID:26997137

  17. Identification and partial characterisation of new members of the Ixodes ricinus defensin family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonk, Miray; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Bell-Sakyi, L.; de la Fuente, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 540, č. 2 (2014), s. 146-152. ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antimicrobial peptide * defensin * Ixodes ricinus * tick * tick cell line Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2014

  18. Development of genomic resources for the tick Ixodes ricinus: isolation and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillery, E; Quenez, O; Peterlongo, P; Plantard, O

    2014-03-01

    Assessing the genetic variability of the tick Ixodes ricinus-an important vector of pathogens in Europe-is an essential step for setting up antitick control methods. Here, we report the first identification of a set of SNPs isolated from the genome of I. ricinus, by applying a reduction in genomic complexity, pyrosequencing and new bioinformatics tools. Almost 1.4 million of reads (average length: 528 nt) were generated with a full Roche 454 GS FLX run on two reduced representation libraries of I. ricinus. A newly developed bioinformatics tool (DiscoSnp), which isolates SNPs without requiring any reference genome, was used to obtain 321 088 putative SNPs. Stringent selection criteria were applied in a bioinformatics pipeline to select 1768 SNPs for the development of specific primers. Among 384 randomly SNPs tested by Fluidigm genotyping technology on 464 individuals ticks, 368 SNPs loci (96%) exhibited the presence of the two expected alleles. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests conducted on six natural populations of ticks have shown that from 26 to 46 of the 384 loci exhibited significant heterozygote deficiency. PMID:24119113

  19. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  20. Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reis

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

  1. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capligina, Valentina; Berzina, Inese; Bormane, Antra; Salmane, Ineta; Vilks, Karlis; Kazarina, Alisa; Bandere, Dace; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2016-03-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that have been reported in many European countries and are considered to be emerging pathogens. Several Babesia spp. have been identified in ticks in Latvia. Recently, canine babesiosis cases were diagnosed for the first time in Latvia; therefore, continued studies on the prevalence and occurrence of new species are warranted. In the present study, questing tick samples collected in 2005-2007 were screened for the presence of Babesia spp.; in total, 432 Ixodes ricinus and 693 Ixodes persulcatus ticks were analyzed. Babesia spp. were detected in 1.4% of the I. ricinus ticks and in 1.9% of I. persulcatus ticks. Sequencing revealed that ixodid ticks in Latvia contained Babesia microti, Babesia capreoli, and Babesia venatorum. Babesia microti was the most prevalent species, accounting for 58% of all positive samples; moreover, two distinct B. microti genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene of two B. capreoli/B. divergens isolates indicated a closer relationship to the B. capreoli clade than B. divergens. This is the first report of B. venatorum in I. persulcatus ticks in Latvia. Our results suggest that both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks play important roles in the epidemiology of these zoonotic pathogens in Latvia. PMID:26481239

  2. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  3. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  4. Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Chloroacetic Acid Modified Ferula Communis Based Adsorbent: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Shameran Jamal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This research aimed to propose an alternative cheap and abundantly available adsorbent (Ferula communis) for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions. Chloroacetic acid modified Ferula communis (MFC) shows a great potential for the removal of basic red 9 dyes (BR9) from aqueous solution with the effects of solution capacity under pH, temperature, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration condition on BR9 removal were examined. The adsorption equilibrium d...

  5. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  6. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  7. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  8. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. PMID:24871476

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00081-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Castor bean cDNA library from leaves, 1... 54 0.006 2 ( EE260272 ) RFABO81TH Castor bean cDNA library from flowers...y from leaves, 1... 54 0.006 2 ( EE258316 ) RFAB030TH Castor bean cDNA library from flowers,8... 54 0.006 2 ...( EE255054 ) RFAA310TH Castor bean cDNA library from flowers,8... 54 0.007 2 ( EG658271 ) RCLER38TP Castor b... D21162 ) Ricinus communis cat2 gene for catalase CAT2, compl... 54 0.015 1 ( EE259933 ) RFAB661TH Castor bean cDNA library from flow...ers,8... 54 0.015 1 ( EE254561 ) RBAA346TO RBAA-Castor bean cDNA library from leav.

  10. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  11. Element repertoire: change and development with age in Whitethroat Sylvia communis song

    OpenAIRE

    Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Hansen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Song repertoires are often important determining factors in sexual selection. In several species, older males have larger repertoires than 1-year-old males. The development of large song repertoires by an individual is, however, poorly understood. We studied song element repertoire changes in five individual male Whitethroats Sylvia communis sampled as 1- and 2-year olds. These males increased the size of their element repertoire between their first and second year, but so...

  12. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. PMID:26765354

  13. Radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has been performed by Ghanaian scientists from 1977 to 1987 to evaluate the seriousness of infestation and to establish effective doses for radiation disinfestation against insects and fungi which cause deterioration in grains and cocoa beans. Supporting investigations have been done on the effect of radiation disinfestation on some quality parameters and wholesomeness of grains (with maize as the test grain) and cocoa beans. A minimum dose of 0.8 kGy was established for effective control of insects present in stored grains and cocoa beans. For the decontamination against fungi and yeasts, a combination of moist heat (85% RH) applied to 60 deg. C for 30 min followed by a dose of 4 kGy was effective for maize and moist heat (85% RH) applied 80 deg. C and a dose of 4 kGy was recommended for cocoa beans. No significant difference was found between the organoleptic qualities of the products from maize and cocoa that had been treated with moist heat and radiation and the untreated samples. The cooling (solidifying) curves of cocoa butter prepared from untreated and treated cocoa beans were very similar. Irradiated cocoa beans were found to be wholesome. The prospects of radiation disinfestation of grains and cocoa beans have also been discussed. (author). 27 refs, 4 tabs

  14. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2014), s. 439-447. ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Complement * Innate immunity * Limulus Clotting Factor C * Phagocytosis * RNA interference * Tick Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  15. Développement de Borrelia burgdorferi dans la tique Ixodes ricinus

    OpenAIRE

    Gern, Lise; Z. Zhu; Aeschlimann, André

    2011-01-01

    Nous avons étudié le développement de Borrelia burgdorferi dans son vecteur européen, la tique Ixodes ricinus, lors du repas sanguin. Nos résultats montrent que durant la phase de gorgement lente, les spirochètes présents dans l'intestin se multiplient. Chez certains individus, quelques spirochètes traversent la paroi intestinale et produisent une infection systémique de la tique. La présence de borrélies dans les conduits des glandes salivaires semblent prouver leur transmission via la saliv...

  16. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medlock, Jolyon M.; Hansford, Kayleigh M.; Bormane, Antra;

    2013-01-01

    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion......, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape...

  17. Functional characterization of two defensin isoforms of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrudimská, Tereza; Slaninová, Jiřina; Rudenko, Natalia; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2011), e63. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA206/09/1782; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : defensin * antimicrobial compounds * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011

  18. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  19. The Need for Continued Development of Ricin Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Reisler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricin toxin, an extremely potent and heat-stable toxin produced from the bean of the ubiquitous Ricinus communis (castor bean plant, has been categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a category B biothreat agent that is moderately easy to disseminate. Ricin has the potential to be used as an agent of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Therefore, there is a critical need for continued development of ricin countermeasures. A safe and effective prophylactic vaccine against ricin that was FDA approved for “at risk” individuals would be an important first step in assuring the availability of medical countermeasures against ricin.

  20. Contrasting patterns of genetic divergence in two sympatric pseudo-metallophytes: Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn.

  1. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa; Valdinei Sofiatti; Cleber Daniel de Góes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; João Igor de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide s...

  2. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleavage of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick I. ricinus by contaminating proteolytic activity mimicked the specific processing of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form of the serpin which produced crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. It is produced in the salivary glands of the tick and its anti-inflammatory activity suggests that it plays a role in parasite–host interaction. Recombinant IRS-2 prepared by heterologous expression in a bacterial system was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P43 and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Mass-spectrometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed that IRS-2 was cleaved by contaminating proteases during crystallization. This processing of IRS-2 mimicked the specific cleavage of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form (the so-called relaxed conformation), which produced well diffracting crystals. Activity profiling with specific substrates and inhibitors demonstrated traces of serine and cysteine proteases in the protein stock solution

  3. Exon variability of gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Ixodes ricinus ticks*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Ž.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously found apparent differences in Gpdh allele frequences between borrelia infected and uninfected Ixodes ricinus as revealed by native gel electrophoresis of allozyme polymorphisms. The present study deals with the genetic basis of the observed allozyme polymorphism. Multiple sequence alignment of 36 Gpdh open reading frames identified a total of 40 polymorphic nucleotide sites. Of the 40 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 34 were silent (did not result in amino acid residue change, while six were active causing a change in the amino acid chain. All polymorphic amino acid sites were situated within the N-terminal NAD-binding domain, whereas the C-terminal substrate-binding domain was highly conserved. Analysis of the obtained Gpdh sequences and GPDH allozyme polymorphisms for individual ticks pointed to amino acid changes at positions 61 (glycine-to-glutamic acid, 64 (serineto- cysteine and 102 (glycine-to-arginine as a key for differential mobility of GPDH allozymes in an electric field. Our findings are discussed in the context of the molecular basis of I. ricinus host finding behavior.

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  5. Histomorphological evaluation of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus in bone regeneration in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological evaluation is an effective method in the behavioral description of the qualitative and quantitative implanted materials. The research validated the performance of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus on bone regeneration with the histomorphological analysis results. Were selected 30 rabbits, females, divided into 3 groups of 10 animals (G1, G2, G3) with a postoperative time of 45, 70 and 120 days respectively. Each animal is undergone 2 bone lesions in the ilium, one implemented in the material: Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus and the other for control. After the euthanasia, the iliac bone was removed, identified and subjected to histological procedure. The evaluation histological, histomorphological results were interpreted and described by quantitative and qualitative analysis based facts verified in the three experimental groups evaluating the rate of absorption of the material in the tissue regeneration, based on the neo-bone formation. The histomorphologic results classified as a material biocompatible and biologically active. Action in regeneration by bone resorption occurs slowly and gradually. Knowing the time and rate of absorption and neo-formation bone biomaterial, which can be determined in the bone segment applicable in the clinical surgical area.

  6. Exploring Diversity among Norwegian Borrelia Strains Originating from Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Tveten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterisation of Borrelia strains from Ixodes ricinus ticks is important in the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens. Multilocus sequences analysis (MLSA is a molecular genotyping tool with high discriminatory power that has been applied in evolutionary studies and for the characterisation of Borrelia genospecies. MLSA was used to study genetic variations in Borrelia strains isolated from I. ricinus ticks collected from the woodlands in Skodje. The results demonstrate that the 50 Borrelia strains were separated into 36 sequence types (STs that were not previously represented in the MLST database. A distance matrix neighbour-joining tree (bootstrapped 500 iterations showed four deeply branched clusters, and each deeply branched cluster represented one Borrelia genospecies. The mean pairwise genetic differences confirm the genospecies clustering. The combination of alleles separates the Borrelia strains from northwest Norway from the strains in the MLST database, thus identifying new STs. Although a highly divergent B. afzelii population could be expected, the heterogeneity among the B. garinii strains is more unusual. The present study indicates that the circulation of strains between migrating birds and stationary birds in this coastal region may play a role in the evolution of B. garinii strains.

  7. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonczek, Ondřej; Žákovská, A.; Vargová, L.; Šerý, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 642-646. ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi s. I. * Borrelia spielmanii * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.126, year: 2014

  8. Functional analysis of fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs, Ixoderins) of the tick Ixodes ricinus and their function in pathogen transmission

    OpenAIRE

    MONDEKOVÁ, Helena

    2015-01-01

    This study is focused on characterization of fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) from the tick Ixodes ricinus using molecular methods - PCR, cloning, qRT-PCR, RNA interference via dsRNA synthesis and injection, and also pathogen (Borrelia sp.) transmission on animal model.

  9. Study of the effect of \\kur{Borrelia burgdorferi} infection on the behaviour of Ixodes ricinus tick

    OpenAIRE

    HUSPEKOVÁ, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this master thesis was to determine whether or not is the infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato responsible for changes in Ixodes ricinus tick behaviour. We tried to investigate if B. burgdorferi infection changes the time required for blood feeding, tick activity, phototaxis and amount of blood which is engorged by the tick.

  10. First evidence of Babesia venatorum and Babesia capreoli in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 212-214. ISSN 1232-1966 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Babesia sp. EU1 * Babesia venatorum * Babesia capreoli * Ixodes ricinus * ixodid ticks Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.126, year: 2014

  11. Variations in Ixodes ricinus Density and Borrelia Infections Associated with Cattle Introduced into a Woodland in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassner, F.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Smallegange, R.C.; Spitzen, J.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of introduced large herbivores on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and their Borrelia infections was studied in a natural woodland in The Netherlands. Oak and pine plots, either ungrazed or grazed by cattle, were selected. Ticks were collected weekly by blanket dragging. Borrelia inf

  12. Rodent species as natural reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassner, F.; Takken, W.; Plas, C.; Kastelein, P.; Hoetmer, A.J.; Holdinga, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex [B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in The Netherlands. B. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ti

  13. ´Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii´, an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sassera, D.; Beninati, T.; Bandi, C.; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul; Sacchi, L.; Fabbi, M.; Lo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 11 (2006), s. 2535-2540. ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * endosymbiont * intramitochondrial Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2006

  14. Measurements of essential oil extract and antioxidant in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves using photo chemiluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oil extracts and antioxidant measurements of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves as hydrophilic and hydrophobic existence species have been carried out. The plant leaves as a source of antioxidants was tested by the influence of its aqueous and essential oil extracts on the yield of photo chemiluminescence, PCL solution applying very sensitive and reliable method. By means of a photo chemiluminescence assay, it was possible to assess the total antioxidants capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic species existence in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves. It has been found that, the integral antioxidant capacity measurements value of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves was found in Kurdaha site which has a value of 465.67 1.18 nmol TE/g DM (total Trolox equivalent /gram of Dry material) . The following three mainly chemical species were found in the essential oil extracts: -Pinene, Cineole and Limonene. (author)

  15. Factors related to RNA polymerase II transcription are localized in interchromatin granule clusters of Panorpa communis oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Parfenov

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diplotene oocyte nucleus of the scorpionfly Panorpa communis is transcriptionally silent and contains numerous nuclear bodies including interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs. The latter consist of the granules of 30-50 nm in diameter and contain IGC marker protein SC35 as well as RNA polymerase II. In this study, we also localized in P. communis oocyte IGCs the transcription coactivators CBP/p300, TATA-binding protein (TBP which is a component of the basal transcription factor TFIID and the basal transcription factor TFIIH. We belive that IGCs in transcriptionally inert P. communis oocytes are storage sites for the components of RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and other factors of RNA pol II transcription.

  16. Topology of the polypeptide chain in the complex of agglutinin from castor bean seeds with β-D-galactose in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional structure of the complex of agglutinin from Ricinus communis with β-D-galactose was established and refined at 2.5 A resolution by X-ray structure analysis. Biocrystals were obtained using dialysis through a semipermeable membrane. X-ray intensity data (Rmerge = 4.6%) were collected from one crystal at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the DESY outstation [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Hamburg, Germany]. The initial phases were calculated by the molecular replacement method. The atoms of both protein and sugar molecules were localized. Unlike ricin, the ricinlike heterodimer RcA contains only one galactose-binding center in the region of the Asn46-Gly25-Trp37-Lys40 site in the first domain of the B subunit, whereas the second galactose-binding site of the B subunit is lost. One functionally important water molecule, which is bound to the residues Tyr123-Glu176-Arg179-Glu207, was revealed in the region of the active center in the A subunit

  17. Influence of growth retardants on the development of Gladiolus communis L. plants

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos; Clarice Backes; Jéssica Maria Coutinho Roters; Elizabeth Orika Ono; João Domingos Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Treatments involving plant growth retardants were studied in sword lily plants (Gladiolus communis L. spp.) to evaluate plant height, number of leaves and flower buds, stem diameter, and flower stalk length. The experimental design was a completely randomized layout, with four replicates and seven treatments (control; applications of mepiquat chloride at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times; chlormequat chloride at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times; and ethephon at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times). Seven non-destructive...

  18. Gregarine Cephaloidophora communis mawrodiadi, 1908 in the barnacle Euraphia rhyzophorae, Oliveira, 1940 from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe Dyrce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The gregarine Cephaloidophora communis was observed for the first time in Brazil in the barnacles Euraphia rhyzophorae collected in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1990 and 1996. Histological studies showed growth phases of the parasite in specific parts of the digestive system. The intracellular forms occurred in the vacuoles of the intestinal cells. Syzygy was frequent, and the most common form following syzygy was cylindrical, with a single membrane. The cytoplasm of the gregarines was always irregular, dense, and occasionally presenting a dark stoch area.

  19. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity. PMID:16233712

  20. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  1. Anti-genotoxic and free-radical scavenging activities of extracts from (Tunisian) Myrtus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayder, N; Abdelwahed, A; Kilani, S; Ammar, R Ben; Mahmoud, A; Ghedira, K; Chekir-Ghedira, L

    2004-11-14

    The effect of extracts from leaves of Myrtus communis on the SOS reponse induced by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Nifuroxazide was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e. the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Aqueous extract, the total flavonoids oligomer fraction (TOF), hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and essential oil obtained from M. communis significantly decreased the SOS response induced by AFB1 (10 microg/assay) and Nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay). Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed the strongest inhibition of the induction of the SOS response by the indirectly genotoxic AFB1. The methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited the highest level of protection towards the SOS-induced response by the directly genotoxic Nifuroxazide. In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, the aqueous extract, the TOF, and the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed an important free-radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. These results suggest the future utilization of these extracts as additives in chemoprevention studies. PMID:15474415

  2. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describes effects of fermented soya beans on gastrointestinal physiology and addresses digestion, absorption and diarrhoea.Using an in vitro digestion model it appeared that fermentation increased solubil...

  3. On the Specification of Components - the JavaBeans Example

    OpenAIRE

    Heisel, Maritta; Santen, Thomas; Souquières, Jeanine

    2002-01-01

    We specify the JavaBean component model and concrete beans using a combination of UML class diagrams, an extension of Object-Z, and life sequence charts. We extend Object-Z by keywords that allow one to concisely describe the interface of a bean by an Object-Z class specification. The component model specification provides specification templates consisting of class diagrams, Object-Z fragments, and life sequence charts that precisely capture the functional behavior of beans in general, inclu...

  4. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  5. Seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuber, Piotr; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Naczk, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) from nymphs, females and males of Ixodes ricinus were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from May to October 2013. The most abundant FAs were 18:1, 18:0, 16:0 and 18:2 which are also dominant FAs of insects. Adults contained higher concentrations of FAs in general than nymphs because they contain more fat body and probably a thicker layer of epicuticular lipids. Larger quantities of FAs > 20 carbon atoms in the carboxylic chain were present in females, which generally show higher content of lipids essential for oogenesis, whereas there were similar amounts of 14-18 in both sexes. In September and October, ticks contained large concentrations of the majority of FAs except for 18:1, the most abundant one in ticks collected from May through August. Thus, most FAs, especially those with more than 20 C atoms, tend to increase at lower temperatures. PMID:26976134

  6. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  8. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medlock Jolyon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  9. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-10-01

    Limulus Clotting Factor C is a multi-domain serine protease that triggers horseshoe crab hemolymph clotting in the presence of trace amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Here we describe and functionally characterize an homologous molecule, designated as IrFC, from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Tick Factor C consists of an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain, four complement control protein (sushi) modules, an LCCL domain, a truncated C-lectin domain and a C-terminal trypsin-type domain. Developmental expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the irfc mRNA is expressed in all stages including eggs. In tissues dissected from adult I. ricinus females, the irfc mRNA is present mainly in tick hemocytes and accordingly, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy localized IrFC intracellularly, in tick hemocytes. Irfc mRNA levels were markedly increased upon injection of sterile saline, or different microbes, demonstrating that the irfc gene transcription occurs in response to injury. This indicates a possible role of IrFC in hemolymph clotting and/or wound healing, although these defense mechanisms have not been yet definitely demonstrated in ticks. RNAi silencing of irfc expression resulted in a significant reduction in phagocytic activity of tick hemocytes against the Gram-negative bacteria Chryseobacterium indologenes and Escherichia coli, but not against the yeast, Candida albicans. This result suggests that IrFC plays a role in the tick primordial complement system and as such possibly mediates transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:24924263

  10. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpaas Tone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.

  12. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutailler, S; Popovici, I; Devillers, E; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Eloit, M

    2016-05-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens-including bacteria, parasites and viruses-than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects. PMID:27158509

  13. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moutailler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ticks transmit more pathogens—including bacteria, parasites and viruses—than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  14. Multi-source analysis reveals latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in range of Ixodes ricinus at its northern distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffersen Anja B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for a latitudinal and altitudinal shift in the distribution range of Ixodes ricinus. The reported incidence of tick-borne disease in humans is on the rise in many European countries and has raised political concern and attracted media attention. It is disputed which factors are responsible for these trends, though many ascribe shifts in distribution range to climate changes. Any possible climate effect would be most easily noticeable close to the tick's geographical distribution limits. In Norway- being the northern limit of this species in Europe- no documentation of changes in range has been published. The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of I. ricinus in Norway and to evaluate if any range shifts have occurred relative to historical descriptions. Methods Multiple data sources - such as tick-sighting reports from veterinarians, hunters, and the general public - and surveillance of human and animal tick-borne diseases were compared to describe the present distribution of I. ricinus in Norway. Correlation between data sources and visual comparison of maps revealed spatial consistency. In order to identify the main spatial pattern of tick abundance, a principal component analysis (PCA was used to obtain a weighted mean of four data sources. The weighted mean explained 67% of the variation of the data sources covering Norway's 430 municipalities and was used to depict the present distribution of I. ricinus. To evaluate if any geographical range shift has occurred in recent decades, the present distribution was compared to historical data from 1943 and 1983. Results Tick-borne disease and/or observations of I. ricinus was reported in municipalities up to an altitude of 583 metres above sea level (MASL and is now present in coastal municipalities north to approximately 69°N. Conclusion I. ricinus is currently found further north and at higher altitudes than described in

  15. Iridoids and phenylpropanoid glucosides from Agalinis communis (Cham. & Schlecht) D'Arcy and Scoparia ericacea Cham. (Scrophulariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Henriques, Amélia T.; Schripsema, Jan; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    In this work we report the isolation of iridoid glucosides from two species of Scrophulariaceae. From the aerial parts of Scoparia ericacea geniposidic acid, geniposide, scandoside methylester, shanzhiside methylester, caryoptoside and the phenylpropanoid glucoside verbascoside were isolated. In...... Agalinis communis aucubin, shanzhiside methylester, 5-deoxypulchelloside I, bartsioside, gardoside methylester, 8-epi-loganin and verbascoside were identified....

  16. Accumulation of chromium by Commelina communis L. grown in solution with different concentrations of Cr and L-histidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐世荣; 席磊

    2002-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments conducted to examine the chromiun uptake by C. communis in the presence of different Cr concentrations (Cr6+ 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively) and free histidine supplementation (0.5 and 1.0 mol/L) showed that shoot and root growth of C. communis decreased greatly with increasing Cr concentrations in the medium; and that the species was a typical excluder since it accumulated high concentrations of Cr in roots but comparatively low concentrations in shoots. Chromium in shoots and roots of Cr24 -supplied plants ranged from 329-1880 and 3788-4240 mg/kg DW, respectively, while those of Cr24 -histidine-supplied plants ranged from 478 to 629 mg/kg and 4157-4303 mg/kg DW, respectively. With Cr present in the hydroponic solution, C. communis accumulated more Cr in its tissues. Increasing histidine application to the solution significantly increased chromium accumulation in the plant tissues but could not alter the accumulation pattern of plants although it induced a higher concentration of Cr in its shoots and roots. These features suggested that C. communis may serve as an alternative species in a constructed wetland for phytoextraction treatment of Cr-containing wastewater and for phytostabilization of Cr mining spoils.

  17. COMMUNI-CARE: Assessment tool for reactions and behaviours of patients with dementia in a multisensory stimulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, José Javier Blanco; Bolívar, Juan Carlos Cejudo; Perez, Manuel Sánchez

    2014-04-01

    BackgroundThe 'Snoezelen' is an approach based on stimulation and sensory stimulation proposals, giving priority to the notion of caretaking. The aim of this paper is to present the creation and validation of the COMMUNI-CARE scale. This is a new tool that allows for an evaluation of the psycho-emotional well-being that the patient with dementia shows in a 'Snoezelen' multisensory stimulation environment.MethodsIn total 429 evaluations in 143 multisensory stimulation interventions were made using the COMMUNI-CARE scale, in 16 patients between 53 and 85 years of age, diagnosed with moderate to severe dementia. The goal was to evaluate the psycho-emotional well-being the patients present.ResultsThe tool's internal consistency showed a Crombach alpha of 0.90. The concurrent validity between the COMMUNI-CARE scale and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was of r = -0.961. The Kappa index used to determine the reliability between evaluators was of K = 0.87.ConclusionsThe COMMUNI-CARE scale fulfills the basic principles of classic psychometrics of construct, and criterion validity and reliability. It does so while showing a clear idea, through its five subscales (anxiety, communication, pleasure, adaptation to the surroundings and affection), of the degree of well-being that the patient with dementia shows during such interventions. This scale embodies, through psychometrics, a very subjective human experience with a tool unavailable to date. PMID:24691272

  18. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C activity in unroasted [14C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH3Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH3Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH3Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  19. Stem Anatomy of Country Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touhidul Islam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical investigation has been made on the stem of country bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet at different stages of growth following the standard paraffin method of microtechnique. The epidermis is single layered with multicellular hairs and glandular trichomes. Beneath the epidermis there are 5-10 layers of cortical cells. The primary vascular tissue appears after the elongation of the first internode of the stem. The vascular bundles are collateral and arranged in a ring. There are two types of vascular bundles, large and small. There are one or more small vascular bundles in between two large bundles. The large vascular bundle contains xylem and phloem but small bundle may or may not contain both xylem and phloem. There are several poles of primary phloem outside the primary xylem. The pericycle is discontinuous. Two adjacent groups of sclerenchyma are connected by one or two layers of sclerenchymatous cells. The cambium initiates in the primary vascular bundle between xylem and phloem at the basal part of the stem of 4 days old plant. Gradually it extends towards the upper part. The cambium is at first confined to the fascicular region. Subsequently it extends into the interfascicular region forming a complete cambial ring. After the formation of the fascicular cambium it gives rise to the secondary xylem adaxially and secondary phloem abaxially. In the mature stem, most of the vessels are multiple, some are paired while the others are solitary. Most of the fibre cells in the phloem region are found in groups. The fibre cells are arranged in such a way that the structure looks like a pyramid. Tannin cells are present in the phloem region of younger and mature stem. The secretory cells devoid of tanniniferous contents have been observed in the secondary phloem region of the mature stem. The phellogen appears in the deeper cortex and produces periderm with lenticel. The periderm consists of 3-5 layers of cork cells abaxially and 2-3 layers

  20. Expressão gênica diferencial em genótipos de mamona (Ricinus communis L. submetidos a déficit hídrico induzido por PEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Favoretto Moraes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira é uma cultura de relevância econômica e social no Brasil e no mundo. O óleo produzido por suas sementes, composto principalmente pelo ácido ricinoleico, é estratégico para as indústrias de lubrificantes, cosméticos, polímeros, dentre outras. Embora a mamoneira seja considerada tolerante à seca, a ausência de chuvas no período da floração pode reduzir a produtividade da planta. Respostas diferenciais ao déficit hídrico na espécie têm sido observadas em acessos de bancos de germoplasma e entre cultivares comerciais. Com intuito de conhecer melhor os mecanismos fisiológicos de resposta ao déficit hídrico e direcionar programas de melhoramento genético, o objetivo do trabalho foi analisar a expressão diferencial de genes potencialmente relacionados com a tolerância da mamoneira ao déficit hídrico e o comportamento de enzimas do sistema de defesa antioxidante. O estudo foi conduzido com três acessos (China Careca, IAC 2028 e PB 07 submetidos a um ensaio com solução de polietilenoglicol (PEG 6.000 por um período de 24 horas para indução do déficit hídrico. Os genes CAT, APX, SOD-Cu/Zn, SOD-Fe e SOD-Mn tiveram maior expressão diferencial no acesso China Careca. O gene SOD-Cu/Zn foi o mais diferencialmente expresso quanto comparado ao controle (3,57 vezes no acesso China Careca. Análise da atividade de enzimas relacionadas com estresse oxidativo (Catalase – CAT, Ascorbato Peroxidase – APX, Guaiacol Peroxidase – GPOX e Superoxide Dismutase – SOD revelou que os acessos possuem diferentes mecanismos de resposta ao déficit hídrico. Os resultados apontam que o acesso China Careca pode ser considerado de grande importância para programas de melhoramento genético por apresentar característica de precocidade, sistema de defesa antioxidante mais eficiente e resistência ao déficit hídrico.

  1. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  2. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosano Edmilson José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  3. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (15N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  4. Ir-CPI, a coagulation contact phase inhibitor from the tick Ixodes ricinus, inhibits thrombus formation without impairing hemostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Decrem, Yves; Rath, Géraldine; Blasioli, Virginie; Cauchie, Philippe; Robert, Severine; Beaufays, Jerome; Frere, Jean-Marie; Feron, Olivier; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Dessy, Chantal; Vanhamme, Luc; Godfroid, Edmond

    2009-01-01

    Blood coagulation starts immediately after damage to the vascular endothelium. This system is essential for minimizing blood loss from an injured blood vessel but also contributes to vascular thrombosis. Although it has long been thought that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo, recent data obtained with genetically altered mice indicate that contact phase proteins seem to be essential for thrombus formation. We show that recombinant Ixodes ricinus contact ...

  5. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  6. Effect of salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus ticks on the proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Martina; Oborník, Miroslav; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 153-158. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811 Grant ostatní: Studentská grantová agentura, Biologická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) SGA2004/009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * saliva -activated transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  7. Detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Areas in Switzerland Where Tick-Borne Fever Is Endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Lutz, Hans; Braun, Ueli

    1998-01-01

    A total of 1,523 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from regions where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and were examined for Ehrlichia phagocytophila via PCR. Of the ticks from cattle with ehrlichiosis, the ticks from healthy cattle, and the free-living ticks, 26.5% (18 of 68), 4.4% (35 of 802), and 0.8% (5 of 653), respectively, were positive.

  8. Functional expression and characterization of cathepsin B and L from the gut of the tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Zdeněk; Pěničková, Helena; Dvorak, J.; Schneider, E. I.; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael; Sojka, Daniel; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, S1 (2009), s. 309-309. ISSN 1742-464X. [34th FEBS Congress: Life's Molecular Interactions. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cathepsin B and L * Ixodes ricinus * functionl expresssion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  9. Identification de facteurs des glandes salivaires d’Ixodes ricinus impliqués dans la transmission de Bartonella henselae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangye

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites of many hosts including mammals, birds and reptiles. After mosquitoes, they are the most important vectors worldwide, and are able to transmit the highest variety of pathogens including virus, bacteria and parasites. Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), the most common tick species in Europe, is a three-life stage hard tick. It is frequently associated with bites in humans, and transmits several pathogens, including Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Babesia ...

  10. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Asnake G. Ede; Abebe G. Demissie

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca) and castor (Ricinus communius L) seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus) and cockroach (Blattela germanica). The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The L...

  11. Two ways of experimental infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišerová, Lenka; Černá, Kateřina; Horká, Helena; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 150-154. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lyme disease spirochete * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia baronii * Borrelia afzelii * tick * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  12. Virus diseases of peas, beans, and faba bean in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled; Pappu, Hanu; Kumari, Safaa G

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, pea, bean, and faba bean production is affected by around 17 major viruses. These viruses do not have the same ecology and consequently require a variety of different preventive measures to control them. Some of these viruses have a narrow host range, such as Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), and others, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a very wide host range. Such features are important when identifying sources of virus inoculum in a region, and the vectors can transmit viruses from natural reservoirs to the crop plants. Some of these viruses are seed borne and, consequently, can be disseminated long distances through infected seeds. Crop losses caused by these viruses are variable, depending on the sensitivity and susceptibility of the crop to infection. Host resistance genes have been identified for some of these viruses, but in others, such as FBNYV, no resistance genes in faba bean have been identified yet. Significant progress was made in developing precise methods for the identification of these viruses, and new virus problems are being identified every year. This chapter is not intended to be a review for pea, bean, and faba bean viruses, but rather focuses on the major viruses which affect these crops in the Mediterranean basin with focus on the progress made over the past two decades. PMID:22682174

  13. Multiplication par marcottage de l'arbre à pain Artocarpus communis var. Apyrenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibungu Kembelo, AO.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials of multiplication by means of layering of the bread tree Artocarpus communis var. Apyrenna. The bread tree, introduced in Zaire near 1910, suscitates hopes as ornemental as well as food plant. Up to now, it has been propagated by means of piping of parts of the roots. In spite of very satisfactory results, this ancient method harms the plant's general state (condition. On the other hand, layering has shown during trials that it also gives good results, with the supplementary advantage that it embellishes the tree by enabling it to keep a nice look and a balanced production. The layers, moreover, grow quickly and produce fruit in less than three years instead of the five years required by roots ' piping.

  14. Influence of growth retardants on the development of Gladiolus communis L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatments involving plant growth retardants were studied in sword lily plants (Gladiolus communis L. spp. to evaluate plant height, number of leaves and flower buds, stem diameter, and flower stalk length. The experimental design was a completely randomized layout, with four replicates and seven treatments (control; applications of mepiquat chloride at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times; chlormequat chloride at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times; and ethephon at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times. Seven non-destructive evaluations were made every 7 days, in addition to a final collection. The ethephon treatments caused reductions in plant height and flower stalk length, and decreased stem diameter. The chlormequat chloride treatment also decreased plant stem diameter.

  15. Commelina communis L.:Copper Hyperaccumulator Found in Anhui Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSHIRONG; HUANGCHANGYONG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Commelina communis L. growing over some new copper mining wastelangds at Bijiashan,Tongling City of Anhui Province,China,was found to be a copper hyperaccumulator,Its copper concentrations were 2707-6159( 4439±2434) mg kg-1 ,369-831,(731±142)mg kg-1 ,and 429-587(547±57)mg kg-1 ,respectively,in the roots,stems,and leaves.The soils supporting the growth of the species had a copper concentration ranging from 4620 to 5020 mg kg-1 and averaging 4835±262 mg kg-1 ,suggesting that the species could not only grow on heavily copper-contaminated soils but aslo accumulate extraordinarily high concentration of copper, thus,it shows great potential in the phytoremediation of copper-contaminated soils,the restoration of mined land,geochemical prospecting ,and the study of environmental pollution changes.

  16. Micropropagation of Pear Rootstock (Pyrus Communis) by using tissue culture technique and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New growing shoots from healthy pear rootstock (Pyrus communis) trees were taken and sterilized 3 times in dipping water. Explants were subjected to antioxidant treatment, different media, different additives and different BAP and NAA concentrations. The obtained results showed that Murashig-Skoog (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/l BA was better than Gamborg medium. Adding antioxidant solution and adenine sulphate to the culture medium was preferred for maximizing explants development. Exposing the explants to gamma irradiation at different doses decreased tissue culture parameters with increasing gamma doses. However, the low dose of gamma rays (1 Krad) significantly increased the number of shoots than other gamma treatments. Adding of BAP at 2 mg/l to the culture medium increased number and length of shoots. However, addition of 1 mg/l NAA to the rooting medium led to increase the root formation

  17. Toxicological effects of ammonia on gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis (Linn.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

  18. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding. PMID:26400359

  19. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beans (15 oz.) ½ medium onion 2 garlic cloves 2 tablespoons vegetable oil ½ teaspoon cumin (ground) ½ teaspoon salt ¼ ... pieces. Set the onions aside. Peel the garlic cloves and mince ... heat your cooking oil over medium high heat. Add the onions and ...

  20. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  1. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  2. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  3. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  4. Phytochemical analysis,hypotensive effect and antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis L.growing in Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amel; Bouaziz; Seddik; khennouf; Mussa; Abu; zarga; Shtaywy; Abdalla; Abderahmane; Baghiani; Noureddine; Charef

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze Myrlus communis chemically and evaluate the hypotensive effects and antioxidant properties of methanol,chloroform,ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts from the leaves of this plant.Methods:Total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant potential of methanol,chloroform,ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts have been investigated by using different in vitro methods.The hypotensive effects of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were evaluated in anaesthetized rats by using the method of invasive blood pressure recording.Moreover,ethyl acetate extract was subjected to analysis by different chromatographic methods in order to identify new compounds.Results:Chemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of myrecitin-3-O-α-rhamnoside.Ethyl acetate extract was found to have the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents with the values of 435.37 ma gallic acid equivalents/g dried weight and 130.75 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried weight,respectively.Ethyl acetate extract also exhibited the highest activity in scavenging 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid),hydroxy]radical and reducing power:whereas,methanol extract exhibited higher chelating activity than ethyl acetate extract did.Chloroform was found to be strong inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in β-carotene bleaching assay(91.19%).ferric thiocyanate method(87.55%).and thiobarbituric acid method(82.59%) as compared to butylated hydroxytoluene.Intravenous administration of methanol and ethyl acetate extract(0.04 to 12 mg/kg body weight) decreased the maximum mean arterial blood pressure with values of 20.6%and 32.49%at 12 mg/kg body weight,respectively in anesthetized rats.Conclusions:This study provides a scientific basis for the use of Myruts communis in traditional medicine as hypertensive agent as well as additional resources for natural antioxidants.

  5. Determination of the status of Phragmites communis within the Fish Springs marsh and a determination of an economic means of control: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses approaches to controlling marsh cane Phragmites communis at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study include: 1...

  6. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  7. Application of In vitro Tissue Culture Techniques for Propagation of Amygdalus communis L. Cultivars, Garrigues and Yaltsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Haki Yapar; Canan Can; Mehmet Ozaslan; Turkan Aytekin; Halit Atli

    2006-01-01

    Almond (Amygdalus communis L.) is planted and naturally spreads in the Southeastern Anatolian region where some hybrid varieties are cultivated and the adaptation studies have still been continued. Although being easily propagated through grafting, plantation in large areas may have some problems, due to the environmental stress. Embryos, nodal segmets of mature shoots and shoot tips of two A. communis L. cultivars, Garrigues and Yaltsinki, were cultured on MS media supplemented with several ...

  8. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  9. Calcium fluxes across the plasma membrane of Commelina communis L. assayed in a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inside-out fraction of plasma membrane-rich vesicles prepared from leaves of Commelina communis L. by aqueous two-phase partitioning was loaded with 45Ca2+ through the action of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Results suggest the presence of a Ca2+ channel in the plasma membrane of C. communis. The channel is obtained in a Ca2+-inactivated state after preparation and Ca2+-loading of the vesicles. The inactivation is removed by TFP [trifluoperazine] or W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], presumably due to the Ca2+-mobilizing effect of these compounds. The activated Ca2+ channel is La3+ sensitive and, in the cell, would allow for passage of Ca2+ into the cell. The possibility that TFP or W-7 act independent of CM, or through CM tightly associated with the plasma membrane, is discussed

  10. From Chemistry to Behavior. Molecular Structure and Bioactivity of Repellents against Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Del Fabbro

    Full Text Available Tick-borne zoonoses are considered as emerging diseases. Tick repellents represent an effective tool for reducing the risk of tick bite and pathogens transmission. Previous work demonstrated the repellent activity of the phenylpropanoid eugenol against Ixodes ricinus; here we investigate the relationship between molecular structure and repellency in a group of substances related to that compound. We report the biological activity of 18 compounds varying for the presence/number of several moieties, including hydroxyl and methoxy groups and carbon side-chain. Each compound was tested at different doses with a bioassay designed to measure repellency against individual tick nymphs. Both vapor pressure and chemical features of the tested compounds appeared to be related to repellency. In particular, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups as well as the side-chain on the benzene ring seem to play a role. These results are discussed in light of available data on chemical perception in ticks. In the course of the study new repellent compounds were identified; the biological activity of some of them (at least as effective as the "gold standard" repellent DEET appears to be very promising from a practical point of view.

  11. The vector tick Ixodes ricinus feeding on an arboreal rodent-the edible dormouse Glis glis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Joanna; Langer, Franz; Havenstein, Nadine; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Richter, Dania

    2016-04-01

    The reservoir competence and long life expectancy of edible dormice, Glis glis, suggest that they serve as efficient reservoir hosts for Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes. Their arboreality, however, may reduce the probability to encounter sufficient questing Ixodes ricinus ticks to acquire and perpetuate LD spirochetes. To define the potential role of this small arboreal hibernator in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we examined their rate and density of infestation with subadult ticks throughout the season of activity. Of the 1081 edible dormice that we captured at five study sites in Southern Germany and inspected for ticks at 2946 capture occasions, 26 % were infested with at least one and as many as 26 subadult ticks on their ear pinnae. The distribution of ticks feeding on edible dormice was highly aggregated. Although only few individuals harbored nymphal ticks soon after their emergence from hibernation, the rate of nymphal infestation increased steadily throughout the season and reached about 35 % in September. Dormice inhabiting a site with few conspecifics seemed more likely to be infested by numerous ticks, particularly nymphs, than those individuals living in densely populated sites. Male dormice were more likely to be parasitized by numerous nymphs than were females, independent of their age and body mass. Our observation that season, population density, and sex affect the rates of ticks feeding on edible dormice suggests that the contribution of edible dormice to the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes depends mainly on their ranging behavior and level of activity. PMID:26670314

  12. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  13. Biodiesel Obtaining from Ricinus Seed. Academical Proyect For Promoting Biofuels Use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Daza, O.; Amador Ramirez, P.; Reyes Ortega, Y.; Rosas Mendoza, S.; Cervantes de la Rosa, A.; Pineda Gonzalez, A.A.

    2007-07-01

    Mexico shares a strong responsibility into Latin-America and with the rest of the world as GHG emitter. At present, this responsibility has not a minimum of response on education, economy, politics, science and technology. One of the most important contamination source in Mexico is transport which, additionally, undergoes a slow modernization process. Brazil and European Union experiences and an abundant scientific literature have shown the economical and technological feasibility for substituting fossil fuels by other renewable and clean fuels as bioethanol and biodiesel. Authors consider as fundamental objective to promote production and use of biofuels in Mexico. They are working on the investigation project which is developed in Puebla State searching to take advantage of regional row materials. Ricinus seed cultivation could stimulate regional socioeconomic conditions because of water demand is modest, currently the seed grows wildly and some land extension in the region is not active due to high emigration towards USA. Knowledge about biodiesel obtaining from diverse materials is abundant and international companies market industrial equipment and technology for producing it, nevertheless, the authors consider important to develop in Mexico adequate technology to the specific socioeconomic and natural conditions working the own raw materials. (auth)

  14. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L

    2013-12-22

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts' function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  15. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  16. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods. PMID:25029555

  17. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  18. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  19. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  20. Ultrasound evaluation in combination with finger extension force measurements of the forearm musculus extensor digitorum communis in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sollerman Christer; Hilliges Marita; Nilsdotter Anna; Brorsson Sofia; Aurell Ylva

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an ultrasound-based method of examining extensor muscle architecture, especially the parameters important for force development. This paper presents the combination of two non-invasive methods for studying the extensor muscle architecture using ultrasound simultaneously with finger extension force measurements. Methods M. extensor digitorum communis (EDC) was examined in 40 healthy subjects, 20 women and 20 men, aged ...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Untenospongin B, a Metabolite from the Marine Sponge Hippospongia communis collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Fassouane Fassouane

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: (--Untenospongin B isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis has been tested for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi using agar disk method and was found to possess a broad and strong activity toward the test organisms. Its antifungal activity was further characterized by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against five fungal species using broth microdilution method.

  2. Differential Expression of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes and Transcription Factor PcMYB10 in Pears (Pyrus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Li LI; Ban, Zhao-Jun; Li, Xi-Hong; Wu, Mao-Yu; Wang, Ai-Li; Jiang, Yu-Qian; Jiang, Yun-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis in various plants is affected by environmental conditions and controlled by the transcription level of the corresponding genes. In pears (Pyrus communis cv. ‘Wujiuxiang’), anthocyanin biosynthesis is significantly induced during low temperature storage compared with that at room temperature. We further examined the transcriptional levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in ‘Wujiuxiang’ pears during developmental ripening and temperature-induced storage. The expressio...

  3. Effcet of ripening stage on the solar drying kinetics and properties of S. Bartolomeu pears (Pirus Communis L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Lopes, Pedro; Barroca, Maria João; Ferreira, Dulcineia

    2009-01-01

    Pears of the variety S. Bartolomeu (Pyrus communis L.) have been used over the years in Portugal to produce a traditional dried pear known as “pera passa”. The processing comprehends a solar drying performed at open air, with obvious disadvantages, either concerning the drying efficiency or the sanitary quality of the final product, taking into account that the products are exposed to multiple contamination agents. For these reasons, attempts have been made to study alternative production met...

  4. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

    1999-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  5. Two distinct nanovirus species infecting faba bean in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Adane; Bencharki, Bouchaib; Torok, Valeria; Katul, Lina; Varrelmann, Mark; Josef Vetten, H.

    2009-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies raised against a Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) isolate from Egypt and a Faba bean necrotic stunt virus (FBNSV) isolate from Ethiopia, a striking serological variability among nanovirus isolates from faba bean in Morocco was revealed. To obtain a better understanding of this nanovirus variability in Morocco, the entire genomes of two serologically contrasting isolates referred to as Mor5 and Mor23 were sequenced. The eight circular ssDNA components, each ...

  6. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with...

  7. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and for...

  8. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, C A; S.C.S. Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of ...

  9. Effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia are major public health problems in many developing countries. Common beans are a staple food in various Eastern African countries. Beans contain high amounts of iron, but the iron is poorly absorbed due to the presence of the iron absorption inhibitors polyphenols and phytic acid. With the overall aim of increasing the intake of bioavailable iron from beans by plant breeding strategies, this study evaluates the importance bean polyphenols on iron absorption. In common beans the polyphenols are concentrated in the bean hulls. Therefore bean hulls were used as a source of natural bean polyphenols and added in three different amounts to a non-inhibitory test meal (phytic acid free bread rolls). Iron absorption from the test meals was measured in three groups of 16 apparently healthy female volunteers using stable iron isotope techniques. Each volunteer consumed a test meal with and a test meal without bean polyphenols extrinsically labeled with 57Fe and 58Fe respectively. Iron absorption was determined based on the incorporation of iron stable isotopes into red blood cells 14 days after administration. Isotopic analysis was performed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results of the absorption studies showed a dose dependent negative effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans. At the lowest polyphenol content tested (20 mg per test meal) no impact on iron absorption was found (p 0.92). A polyphenol content of 50 mg reduced the mean iron absorption significantly from 20.3% to 17.3% (p 0.044). The highest polyphenol content of 200 mg significantly reduced the mean iron absorption from 14.3% to 7.9% (p 0.0001). Further studies are planned to evaluate the relative effect of polyphenols and phytic acid on iron absorption from beans to provide guidance for breeding beans with improved iron bioavailability. (author)

  10. Bone mineral density and the relationship between lipid profile and bone mineral density in the rats administered juniperus communis linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship of Juniperus Communis Lynn. with the bone mineral density in the rats fed with a high cholesterol (1%) diet. Thirty five Wistar albino rats weighed approximately 250-300 were used in this study. The rats are divided in five groups of seven each. Groups I and II were administered 0.5 ml of 0.5% Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC), while Groups II, IV and V administered 0.5 ml of juniperus communis linn dissolved in 25, 50, 100 mg/kg. Group I and Group II were fed with normal pellets while the other four groups were fed with pellets containing 1% cholesterol. Levels of lipid profile and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were defined in all the groups. Furthermore, bone mineral density (B M D) of the animals were obtained with DEXA scanner. BMD values of the rats did not show a different among the groups. Significant negative correlations were determined between BMD measurements and LDL-C levels in all groups connected with dose of Juniperus Communis oil. However, this relationship was not linear. (author)

  11. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Activity of Plant Extracts from Ferula communis and Dittrichia viscosa against Postharvest Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Mondelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available F. communis and D. viscosa are perennial Mediterranean weeds that have been used for different therapeutic purposes in traditional pharmacopeia. Plant extracts were obtained from air dried D. viscosa young shoots (DvA and F. communis aerial part (FcA and roots (FcR with n-hexane. The chemical compositions of the extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, LC-MS (ESI and LC-Q-TOF techniques. Two sesquiterpene lactones (inuviscolide, tomentosin and three sesquiterpene acids (costic acid, hydroxycostic acid, ilicic acid were identified from the D. viscosa extract, while in F. communis extracts three daucane sesquiterpenes (acetoxyferutinin, oxojaeskeanadioyl anisate, fertidin and one coumarin (ferulenol derivates were found. Biological activities of plant extracts were studied in in vitro experiments on the colonies and conidia of Botryotinia fuckeliana, Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena and Aspergillus spp. Extracts showed varying degree of antifungal activities on colony growth and conidia germination. The extract from FcA showed the least effect, while DvA extract had the strongest fungitoxic effects. FcR extract presented a fungitoxic effect on the colony growth, but it was not able to inhibit the conidia germination. These distinctions can be attributed to the differences in chemical composition of plant extracts.

  12. Crushing of roasted arabica coffee beans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Severa, L.; Stoklasová, Pavla; Buchar, J.

    Vol. 1. Nitra: Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, 2010 - (Vozárová, V.). s. 24-25 ISBN 978-80-552-0463-5. [International Conference on Food Physics ICFP 2010 /9./. 20.10.2010-21.10.2010, Nitra] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : strain gauges * impactor * roasted beans Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  13. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  14. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  15. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  16. The Moche Lima beans recording system, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi S. Melka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One matter that has raised sufficient uncertainties among scholarsin the study of the Old Moche culture is a system that comprises patterned Lima beans. The marked beans, plus various associated effigies, appear painted by and large with a mixture of realism and symbolism on the surface of ceramic bottles and jugs, with many of them showing an unparalleled artistry in the great area of the South American subcontinent. A range of accounts has been offered as to what the real meaning of these items is: starting from a recreationaland/or a gambling game, to a divination scheme, to amulets, to an application for determining the length and order of funerary rites, to a device close to an accountancy and data storage medium, ending up with an ‘ideographic’, or even a ‘pre-alphabetic’ system.The investigation brings together structural, iconographic and cultural aspects, and indicates that we might be dealing with an original form of mnemotechnology, contrived to solve the problems of medium and long-distance communication among the once thriving Moche principalities. Likewise, by reviewing the literature, by searching for new material, and exploring the structure and combinatory properties of the marked Lima beans, as well as by placing emphasis on joint scholarly efforts, may enhance the studies.

  17. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (plectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  18. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255573685 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VNFSARCDIRNLVRDLTKCAEMKGIPIEPPFDVFEENPQFRRAPPTVRVEKMFDSIQSKLPGAPKFLLCLLPERKNSDLYGPWKKKNLSDFGIVTQCIAPQRVNDQYL...MIDSLYKPVSDTEDEGMMRELLLDFYSSSGKRKPEQIIIFRDGVSESQFNQVLNIELNQIIEACKHLDEKWNPKFVVIIAQKNHHTKFFQPGLPDNVPPGTVIDNKVC...5610 3988:5610 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2c, putative Ricinus communis MDSFEPDGNGLREGNGIHEGNGSQEGLPPPPPVVPPDVVPMRAEPE...CSLVSLQRYTKALNTLQRASLVEKSRQKPQERMSTLSNALKSSNYDAEPMLRSCGVSISTSFVQVDGRQLQAPKLKVGNGEDFFPRNGRWNFNNKKLVDPSKIERWAV...QESENSQEAIRVLDIILRQHAAKQGCLLVRQNFFHNDPKNFADVGGGVLGCRGFHSSFRTTQGGLSLNIDVSTTMIIQPGPVVDFLIANQNVRDPFQLDWAKAKRTLK

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255552622 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YELESVFVDHWNKHNKQKTWCVGPLCLAGTLAVENERQKKPTWILWLDEKLKQGSAVLYVAFGSQAEISTEQLKDIAIGLEESKVNFLWVIRKEESELGDGFEDRVKERGI...7:2271 3988:2271 UDP-glucosyltransferase, putative Ricinus communis MSSQRQNLDSKSCESSQYHIALFPFMSKGHTIPLLHLAHLLFRRGIAVTVFTTHANHPFIA...YYNRQGRAVACIWVSHGDFSKPTQGERNRVGEVEGELLVGNEKKESELGAERVKDKRILVRDWLDQIGDAGIPERAGVLEPL ... ...IIREWVDQMEILMHPSVEGYLSHCGWNSVLESICAGVPILAWPMMAEQPLNARMVVEEIKVGLRVETCNGSVRGFVKWEALRKMVNE...DFLSNTAASIIDLAFPDNIPEIPSGVESTDKLPSMSLFPPFALATKLMQPDFDEALKSLPLVNFMVSDGFLWWTADSAMKFGI

  1. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255565109 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VLVELEHFDLGKEIHGFSLRFGIESDVFISNSLIDMYAKSGHSTQASVVFHLMTEKNVVSWNAMVANFAQNRFELAAIELVRQMQTDGAIPNPVTFTNALPACA...RMGFLRPGKEIHARAFRMGCYFDQFVSNALTDMYAKCGFLNLARNVFNISLRDEVSYNILIVGYSQTTNSSESLSLFLEMGLVGMERDVVSYMGVIAACAS...:764 3988:764 pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein, putative Ricinus communis MVRNGIRPDDHTFPFVLKACADN...LNVQKGMEIHGCVFKLGFDFDVFVGNTLLLFYGNTGYLSDAKKVFDEMLERDVVSWNTLLGAFSVNGFYLKALDLFYEMNLRSGFRPNMVTVVSVLPVCAAL...EDEVVASEIHCYVVKIGLDSQVTLCNALVDVYGKCGNLKSSRRVFDEMMERNEVSWNAIITSLAYMEHNKDALEAFRLMINEEVKPNSVTIASILP

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255575910 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PMSLTGFSSEVRLDMSYNDLAGMVPIEGIFKNASAISLEGNTNLCGGIRALGLPACTSQQQKRRLSVKLKIIVSVVSVIIGAGLVLAC...DLSNNNLTGSIPQKIFGMPSLSKDLDLSHNQFYGSLPNEVGNLKHLGSLALDHNILSGEIPSGLGSCASLERLDMNHNLFHGSIPSSLSSLRGIRKLNLSHNNLSGKI...LFLWRSRKSKGDATSSSFEKELLRLSYQSLLKATNGFSSDNLIGSGGFGSVYKGILDQDGLRLNIAIDVACALEYLHYHSGTPIVHCDLKPSNVLLDGEMT...:999 3988:999 serine-threonine protein kinase, plant-type, putative Ricinus communis MGLSCRSCLSLSLPSFCSLLLAVLHLLPFTILPA...GHVSDFGLVKFLQDGKIDFSANHSSSVEARGTIGYCPPEYGLGSNISTSGDIFSFGILLLEMFTGKRPTDEMFTEGLSLHNFVNRALPEQVIKIIDPNMLGMQLSEDATSNHHRNLMNRRKDKLMECLTPIFEIGLSCSTESPQERMKIGDVVAQLSSVRNRFLGTRLPRQREVSRTLQ ...

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255563496 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 880:7841 3987:7841 3988:7841 lipid binding protein, putative Ricinus communis MMIHRRSNVVFAVIALTISTSFIVQASNAPAPSPSSTA...TKSPPPLSASSPTKSPTSSPPPSSAPLTSPPTSSPLTSPSRSPTQSPTSSITPATPPPTATAPSPSITPTTPPPTATAPSPSGSPPVLPPASLPPS...VSSAPAIAPILGPVSSPPIPEPPVTATSPEIPPSIPSSSATPTDAPMVFPSTSSPPSPTPASLSPETAESPVNDDSGTGSLYDSRVILSGLLGIGIDRRPSGQEDVPCQDSSVQP ...

  4. Risk assessment and prediction of Ixodes ricinus tick questing activity and human tick-borne encephalitis infection in space and time in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Milan; Zitek, Kamil; Danielová, Vlasta; Kríz, Bohumír; Valter, Jaroslav; Kott, Ivan

    2006-05-01

    Present risk assessment and prediction of future risk of humans exposed to Ixodes (I.) ricinus tick attacks and, consequently, to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus infection as one of the basic preconditions for successful TBE prevention has been intensively studied in the Czech Republic. An atlas of TBE in the Czech Republic containing predictive maps of I. ricinus high-incidence habitats and TBE risk sites identified by satellite data (Landsat 5 TM with spatial resolution 30 m) at a scale of 1:200,000 over a territory of 52,000 km(2) and maps of human TBE case distribution (1971-2000) has been prepared using remote sensing and geographical information systems technologies. The influence of climate changes on a forest ecosystem inhabited by I. ricinus has been studied in the southern region of the Czech Republic. The analysis of long-term series (1931-2000) of climatologic and phenological characteristics has been carried out. The results are compared with the long-term series of TBE incidence. The influence of weather condition on day-to-day changes of I. ricinus host-seeking activities was studied in 2001-2004. Field observations were realized in the south-eastern periphery of Prague where the experimental plots for tick monitoring were established in a relevant type of forest growth (Querceto-carpinetum). I. ricinus activities were investigated by the flagging method on three plots (200 m(2) each) in weekly intervals (March to November) during 2001-2004. The instruments for micrometeorological observations were installed between the experimental plots. Macrometeorological data were used from the nearby Czech Hydrometeorological Institute first class meteorological observatory. Simple and multiple linear regression and quadratic regression were used to test the relation between weather modification and I. ricinus host-seeking activity. Two preliminary most suitable 'models' are demonstrated. PMID:16567128

  5. Fitotoxicidade e seletividade do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium na mamona cultivar BRS Nordestina Toxicity and selectivity of trifloxysulfuron-sodium herbicide in castor bean cultivar BRS Nordestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilma C. de Q. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. da família das Euforbiáceas, é uma planta rústica, heliófila e resistente à seca, caracteriza-se por sua sensibilidade a diversos herbicidas e à competição imposta pelas plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a influência de distintas doses do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium* em vários estádios de desenvolvimento da mamoneira, cultivar BRS Nordestina. O experimento foi conduzido em 2006, em condições de casa de vegetação da EMBRAPA - Algodão de Campina Grande, PB. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, constando de quatro dosagens 5,0; 7,5; 10,0 e 12,5 g ha-1 de trifloxysulfuron sodium e quatro estádios do desenvolvimento da planta (folhas cotiledonares, duas folhas verdadeiras, duas folhas expandidas e quatro folhas e uma testemunha absoluta. Foram testados, no total, dezessete tratamentos com quatro repetições. As variáveis mensuradas foram redução de crescimento e matéria seca da mamoneira, cultivar BRS Nordestina. Verificou-se, com base nos resultados obtidos para a variável redução de crescimento, refletida pela altura e tamanho das plantas, efeito significativo por doses e estádios do desenvolvimento e a interação entre eles, em que a planta mais nova foi mais sensível ao produto. O herbicida que atua nas folhas e raízes é fitotóxico para a mamoneira, cultivar BRS Nordestina, mesmo na menor dose testada.The castor been (Ricinus communis L. is a rustic plant, heliophile, resistant to drought, belonging to the family of Euforbiace. It is characterized by being sensitive to several herbicides and the competition imposed by harmful plants. This work had as objective to study the influence of different doses of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium in different states of development of the castor been, cultivar BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted during 2006, in a greenhouse of EMBRAPA - Cotton at Campina

  6. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Władysław Błaszczak; Grażyna Ellmann-Wąsik; Renata Lesiak-Jerzyk

    2013-01-01

    Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV) when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing prim...

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Myrtus Communis L, Berberis Vulgaris and Metronidazole Vaginal Gel alone for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Mansoureh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing tendency towards herbal medicines for treatment of vaginitis. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris have been demonstrated invitro and invivo. Aim This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of Berberis vulgaris 5% (in metronidazole base) and Myrtus communis L 2% (in metronidazole base) with only metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% on bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods This study was a randomized clinical trial research on 120 married women aged 18-40 years affected by bacterial vaginosis attended for treatment to gynaecology clinic of Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran). They were randomly divided into three groups of 40 participants. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel’s criteria. Myrtus communis L, Berberis vulgaris vaginal gel or metronidazole vaginal gel for five-night usage were prescribed to each group, and after 7 days therapeutic effects were assessed. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results A statistically significant difference was observed with regard to treatment response among the study groups (p<0.001), with Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups having a better response than metronidazole gel alone. Moreover, there was no significant difference between Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups (p= 0.18). The patients in groups of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base did not experience any relapse, but in metronidazole group, 30% of patients experienced relapse during three weeks follow up. Conclusion Findings of the study showed that treatment with a combination of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base improve the efficacy of bacterial vaginosis therapy.

  8. First evidence of [i]Babesia venatorum[/i] and [i]Babesia capreoli[/i] in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kristyna Venclikova; Jan Mendel; Lenka Betasova; Zdenek Hubalek; Ivo Rudolf; Sergio Manuel Salcedo Martínez; Doron M Vardi; Valentina Stefanetti; Mauro Coletti; Chiara Bazzica; Marco Pepe; Maria Gorska

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective. [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] is the most common tick species occurring in Central Europe and it serves as a principal vector of emerging human pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of [i]Babesia spp[/i]. in host-seeking [i]I. ricinus[/i] in urban and natural habitats. Materials and methods. PCR was applied on samples to assess prevalence of [i]Babesia spp.[/i] in questing ixodid ticks. Sequencing was used for [i]Babesia[/i] species determi...

  9. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  10. From the anther to the proctodeum: Pear (Pyrus communis) pollen digestion in Osmia cornuta larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepi, Massimo; Cresti, Laura; Maccagnani, Bettina; Ladurner, Edith; Pacini, Ettore

    2005-07-01

    Modifications of the pollen grains of Pyrus communis Linneaus that occur during the digestion by Osmia cornuta (Latreille) larvae were studied histochemically. We compared the features of the pollen grains found in the anthers, in the larval cell provisions and in the alimentary canal of the 5th instar larvae. Modifications were already evident in the provisions and consisted of protoplast protrusions through the apertures and a decrease in the number of starch-containing pollen grains. After pollen grains were ingested by the larvae, the protoplast appeared retracted from the pollen wall. Pollen digestion began in the anterior part of the midgut, where we observed: (1) disorganised intine at the apertures; (2) disappearance of DAPI staining of nuclear pollen DNA; (3) fewer pollen grains containing starch than in the anthers; (4) some empty pollen grains. Pollen grains in the proctodeum appeared extremely compressed and crushed. Some grains appeared to be unaffected by the digestive process. We hypothesise that the protrusion of the intine and of the protoplast from the apertures in bee provisions could be considered a kind of pre-treatment necessary to initiate the digestion process in the larval alimentary canal. PMID:16105552

  11. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at λ266.5 nm and a small one at λ672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 μg/mL compared with 3.3 μg/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)

  12. Transesterified Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei-gang; Ma Lei; Jiang Jian-xin; Jiang Li; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the transesterification of the Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis) seed (LCS) oil with methanol for the production of biodiesel. The methyl esters of LCS oil were compared with soybean esters to determine biodiesel fuel performance and properties. The fatty acids content in the seed kernel oil (LKO) and coat oil (LCO) were quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). LKO contains 95.1% saturated acids (capric, lauric, myristic and palmitic)and 2.3% unsaturated acids (oleic). LCO contains 24.6% saturated acids (palmitic and stearic) and 73.6% unsaturated acids (oleic,linoleic and palmitoleic). The kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point, cloud point, flash point and cetane index were determined. The methyl esters of LKO had a higher kinematic viscosity and a lower cold filter plugging point value, so it has better performance in cold weather. The biodiesel of LCS oil has fuel properties within the limits prescribed by American (ASTM D 6751-02)standards, except for a slightly lower flash point of LKO biodiesel than that prescribed by these standards (130℃). Thus, LKO and LCO biodiesel have great potential to be used on a large scale as fuel for diesel engines.

  13. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Amygdalus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimeh SHARIFMOGHADAM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Almond (Amygdalus communis is one of the most important and oldest commercial nut crops, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Almond has been used as base material in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, hygienically and food industry. Propagation by tissue culture technique is the most important one in woody plants. In the current research, in vitro optimization of tissue culture and mass production of almond was investigated. In this idea, explants of actively growing shoots were collected and sterilized, then transferred to MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The experiment was done in completely randomized blocks design, with 7 treatment and 30 replications. After 4 weeks, calli induction, proliferation, shoot length and number of shoot per explants were measured. Results showed that the best medium for shoot initiation and proliferation was MS + 0.5 mg/l IAA (Indol-3-Acetic Acid + 1 mg/l BA (Benzyl Adenine. Autumn was the best season for collecting explants. The shoots were transferred to root induction medium with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The best root induction medium was MS + 0.5 mg/l IBA (Indol Butyric Acid.

  14. Changes of Bacterial Community Structure in Copper Mine Tailings After Colonization of Reed (Phragmites communis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Qing; REN Guan-Ju; AN Shu-Qing; SUN Qing-Ye; LIU Chang-Hong; SHUANG Jing-Lei

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from both bare and vegetated mine tailings to study the changes in bacterial communities and soil chemical properties of copper mine tailings due to reed (Phragmites communis) colonization. The structures of bacterial communities were investigated using culture-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. The bacterial diversity in the bare mine tailing was lower than that of the vegetated mine tailing. The former was dominated by sulfur metabolizing bacteria, whereas the latter was by nitrogen fixing bacteria. The bare mine tailing was acidic (pH = 3.78), whereas the vegetated mine tailing was near neutral (pH = 7.28). The contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, and ammonium acetate-extractable otassium in vegetated mine tailings were significantly higher than those in the bare mine tailings (P < 0.01), whereas available phosphorus and electrical conductivity were significantly lower than those in the bare mine tailings (P < 0.01). The results demonstrated that 16S rRNA gene sequencing could be successfully used to study the bacterial diversity in mine tailings. The colonization of the mine tailings by reed significantly changed the bacterial community and the chemical properties of tailings. The complex interactions between bacteria and plants deserve further investigation.

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear (Pyrus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    Sugar, organic acid, triterpenoid and phenolic composition as well as antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear were studied. Fruits and leaves of 'Radana' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were used. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the pear pulp, peel, leaves and seeds. Fructose was the major sugar in pulp, seeds and peel (227.46, 45.36 and 67.49g/kg dry mass [DM], respectively), while sorbitol was predominant in leaves (40.66g/kgDM). Malic acid was the major organic acid, followed by citric and shikimic acids. The highest concentration of triterpenoids (3460.5μg/gDM) was determined in pear peel, and ursolic acid was predominant. Leaves were characterized by the highest amount of phenolics (5326.7mg/100gDM) and the highest DPPH and FRAP values (2027.9 and 3539.6μmol TE/100gDM, respectively). Pear leaves and seeds may be selected as potential sources of phytochemicals. PMID:26948642

  16. Attributes of the soil fertilized with sewage sludge and calcium and magnesium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo R. Zuba Junio; Regynaldo A. Sampaio; Altina L. Nascimento; Luiz A. Fernandes; Natália N. de Lima; João P. Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the chemical attributes of an Inceptisol cultivated with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), variety ‘BRS Energia’, fertilized with sewage sludge compost and calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) silicate. The experiment was conducted at the ICA/UFMG, in a randomized block design, using a 2 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of two doses of Ca-Mg silicate (0 and 1 t ha-1) and four doses of sewage sludge compost (0, 23.81, 47....

  17. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. I - A role for ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, Co(2+) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and two inhibitors of ethylene action, Ag(+) and CO2, are shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag(+) further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect.

  18. The majority of sialylated glycoproteins in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks originate in the host, not the tick

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 389, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 93-99. ISSN 0008-6215 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * sialic acid * tick cell line Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014

  19. First molecular evidence of potentially zoonotic Babesia microti and Babesia sp. EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur, Laetitia; De Cat, Ann; Caron, Yannick; Madder, Maxime; Claerebout, Edwin; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We report the first molecular evidence of the presence of Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. A 1-year national survey collected 1005 ticks from cats and dogs. A polymerase chain reaction technique amplifying a part of the 18S rRNA gene detected Babesia spp. in 11 out of 841 selected and validated tick extracts. Subsequent sequencing identified Ba. microti (n = 3) and Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 6). This study has demonstrated a low infection rate (1.31% with 95% ...

  20. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata;

    common beans. We used micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering analysis to localize and quantify zinc and iron in mature bean seeds. In addition the iron distribution in different P. vulgaris genotypes was studied using Perl's Prussian blue staining. We show  that the...

  1. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  2. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  3. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  4. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  5. Biology of the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  6. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  7. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  9. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  10. Heligmosomoides polygyrus reduces infestation of Ixodes ricinus in free-living yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, N; Cattadori, I M; Rizzoli, A; Hudson, P J

    2009-03-01

    Free-living animals are usually inhabited by a community of parasitic species that can interact with each other and alter both host susceptibility and parasite transmission. In this study we tested the prediction that an increase in the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus would increase the infestation of the tick Ixodes ricinus, in free-living yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis. An extensive cross-sectional trapping survey identified a negative relationship between H. polygyrus and I. ricinus counter to the prediction. An experimental reduction of the nematode infection through anthelmintic treatment resulted in an increase in tick infestation, suggesting that this negative association was one of cause and effect. Host characteristics (breeding condition and age) and habitat variables also contributed to affect tick infestation. While these results were counter to the prediction, they still support the hypothesis that interactions between parasite species can shape parasite community dynamics in natural systems. Laboratory models may act differently from natural populations and the mechanism generating the negative association is discussed. PMID:19154651

  11. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:26964552

  12. Control of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick infestations in rabbits vaccinated with the Q38 Subolesin/Akirin chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Marinela; de la Fuente, José

    2016-06-01

    Diseases transmitted by ticks greatly impact human and animal health and their control is important for the eradication of tick-borne diseases. Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Recent results have suggested that Subolesin/Akirin (SUB/AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here, we describe the effect of vaccination with the Q38 chimera containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick larval mortality, feeding and molting. We demonstrated that Q38 vaccination had an efficacy of 99.9% and 46.4% on the control of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae by considering the cumulative effect on reducing tick survival and molting. The effect of the Q38 vaccine on larval feeding and molting is essential to reduce tick infestations and supports that Q38 might be a candidate universal antigen for the control of multiple tick species that can infest the same host. PMID:27154388

  13. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively whic

  14. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  15. Ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in Europe: new hazards and relevance for public health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rizzoli, A.; Silaghi, C.; Obiegala, A.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, G.; Plantard, O.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Bonnet, S.; Špitalská, E.; Kazimírová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 251 (2014). ISSN 2296-2565 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ticks * Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne pathogens * urban habitats * Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  16. Persistent detection of Babesia EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands during a 5-year surveillance: 2003-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Fonville, M.; Sprong, H.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the finding of Babesia EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands. During 5 years of surveillance between 2003 and 2007, 1488 ticks were collected in a dune forest area near the North Sea and were screened for Babesia infections. In 17 ticks, DNA of the protozoan pa

  17. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L.; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R.; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  18. Evaluation of two drip irrigation systems in production and fruit quality of pear (pyrus communis l.) cv. triunfo de viena

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Bautista, María Cristina; Vélez Sánchez, Javier Enrique; Camacho Tamayo, Jesús Hernán

    2012-01-01

    The rational use of water becomes every day ever more important in fruit production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of double drip line from a line by line plant in pear (Pyrus communis) production, cv. Triunfo de Viena. The research was based on the application of two specific processes, one consisting of a drip line per row of plants with six emitters of 8 lt h-1 and another with two drip lines per row of plants with three emitters of 8 lt h-1 each. Watermark se...

  19. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Zanetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis.

  20. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-01-01

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean. PMID:27173211

  1. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L.; Thompson, Sharon V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women...

  2. The Genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: Composition and Biological Aspects of Essential Oils from M. communis and M. nivellei: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzabata, Amel; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-01

    The genus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (known as common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (known as Saharan myrtle), found in central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North and M. nivellei in the South. The aim of this review was to collect, summarize, and compare the main results reported relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect, and insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health. PMID:27159587

  3. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  4. Identification of critical amino acids in the IgE epitopes of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 and the application of glutamic acid as an IgE blocker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Deus-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The allergenicity of Ricinus communis L. (castor bean, Euphorbiaceae is associated with components of its seeds and pollen. Castor bean allergy has been described not only in laboratory workers, but also in personnel working in oil processing mills, fertilizer retail, the upholstery industry and other industrial fields. In the present study, we describe the critical amino acids in the IgE-binding epitopes in Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, two major allergens of R. communis. In addition, we also investigate the cross-reactivity between castor bean and some air and food allergen extracts commonly used in allergy diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The IgE reactivity of human sera from atopic patients was screened by immune-dot blot against castor bean allergens. Allergenic activity was evaluated in vitro using a rat mast cell activation assay and by ELISA. Cross-reactivity was observed between castor bean allergens and extracts from shrimp, fish, gluten, wheat, soybean, peanut, corn, house dust, tobacco and airborne fungal allergens. We observed that treatment of rat and human sera (from atopic patients with glutamic acid reduced the IgE-epitope interaction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of glutamic acid residues with critical roles in IgE-binding to Ric c 3 and Ric c 1 support the potential use of free amino acids in allergy treatment.

  5. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollini R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

  6. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  7. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Donal M; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  8. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. PMID:26567948

  9. Impact of Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans on Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghising, Kiran; Harmon, Jason P; Beauzay, Patrick B; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A; Helms, Ted C; Ode, Paul J; Knodel, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    Multiple strategies are being developed for pest management of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura; however, there has been little published research thus far to determine how such strategies may influence each other, thereby complicating their potential effectiveness. A susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) variety without the Rag1 gene and a near isogenic resistant soybean variety with the Rag1 gene were evaluated in the laboratory for their effects on the fitness of the soybean aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan). The presence or absence of the Rag1 gene was verified by quantifying soybean aphid growth. To test for fitness effects, parasitoids were allowed to attack soybean aphids on either a susceptible or resistant plant for 24 h and then aphids were kept on the same plant throughout parasitoid development. Parasitoid fitness was measured by mummy and adult parasitoid production, adult parasitoid emergence, development time, and adult size. Parasitoids that attacked soybean aphids on susceptible plants produced more mummies, more adult parasitoids, and had a higher emergence rate compared with those on resistant plants. Adult parasitoids that emerged from resistant plants took 1 d longer and were smaller compared with those from susceptible plants. This study suggests that biological control by B. communis may be compromised when host plant resistance is widely used for pest management of soybean aphids. PMID:22507000

  10. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC EXTRACTS OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS AND ZYGOPHYLUM ALBUM FROM ALGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belmimoun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts and essential oils of two medicinal and aromatic plants Zygophyllum album and Myrtus communis by using the 2,2- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical ,total antioxidant power and agar diffusion methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination.Moreover,the extracts were investigated for their polyphenolic,flavonoids,tannins and anthocyans content by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay,the aluminium trichlorid method,reaction with vanillin and colometer method based on differentiation of absorbance,respectively.The results showed that the highest antioxidant capacity was exhibited by the aqueous extract of Myrtus communis with IC50= 29,080mg/ml.All extracts  possessed more or less antibacterial activity against the  tested Gram- positive and Gram –negative bacteria Bacillus subtilis and E.coli were the more susceptible microorganisms to all extracts and essential oils. Pronounced antibacterial activity was observed by the methanolic extract of Zygophylum album (MIC value=25 µg/ml.Morever,the results showed that the phenolic compounds and flavonoids were abundant in Myrtle aqueous extracts.

  11. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05, but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05 in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.

  12. Heat-Induced Structural Changes in Faba Bean Starch Paste: The Effect of Steaming Faba Bean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczynska, B.; Autio, K.; J. Fornal

    1993-01-01

    Heat-induced structural changes of faba bean starch dispersions were examined at a concentration range of 8-10% as a function of heat treatment. Faba bean starch was isolated from raw (RF-starch) and steamed (SF-starch) faba bean seeds. Hydrothermal treatment resulted in an increase in the amount of non-starch components in the isolated starch. Microstructure of low-sheared 8% starch suspensions heated at 75, 90 and 98°C (for 10 minutes) was studied by light microscopy. Heating induced huge s...

  13. Carotenemia associated with green bean ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Tanya A; Stratman, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carotenemia is a condition characterized by yellow discoloration of the skin and elevated blood carotene levels. Excessive and prolonged ingestion of carotene-rich, yellow- or orange-colored foods such as carrots and winter squash is the most common cause, but more rarely it may be associated with consumption of other foods as well as with hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, liver disease, or kidney disease. Though not uncommon in children, there are few reports in the pediatric literature since its early descriptions in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Awareness of carotenemia can help the provider resolve confusion with jaundice and avoid unnecessary worry and costly tests. Herein we describe carotenemia in an 8-month-old Caucasian girl secondary to increased consumption of commercial infant food green beans. PMID:15575851

  14. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  15. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M1 was cultivated in 1978

  16. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 320C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  17. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  18. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of two types of intermittent regime: intermittence in the spout regime, referred to as spouted/fixed bed and intermittence of the air supply to the bed, called spouted bed/rest. The results were compared to those for bean drying in a spouted bed dryer without intermittence.

  19. Effectiveness of rapid neutrons on small hoarse bean seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small hoarse bean seeds were irradiated. The radiation doses 100-300 rads were used. The obtained mutants were applied in the breeding. The use of fast neutrons was successful and shortened the breeding cycle. (A.S.)

  20. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  1. Magnet systems for ''Bean-Shaped'' tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean-shaping of tokamak plasmas offers a method of reaching stable operation at (beta) > 10%. In order to establish the indentation of the ''bean'', a set of high- current ''pushing coils'' (> 5 MA in a reactor) must be located at the midplane as close as possible to the inboard edge of the plasma. If located in the bore of the TF coils, then maintenance of the pushing coils may be impossible, and the interlocking coils may prevent reactor modularity. If located outside, the required pushing-coil current may be unacceptably large. This dilemma is overcome with a unique TF coil design in which the inboard leg is bent outward in the form of an arc. The pushing coils are housed in the midplane indentation of this arc, just outside the TF coils but adequately close to the plasma. The arched coil transfers forces to the top and bottom legs, where it can be reacted by a clamp structure if necessary. This technique would allow demountable joints to be placed near the inoard leg (for copper TF coils). Another design approach to the pushing coils is to use liquid Li or Na as the conductor and coolant. The liquid metal ''coils'' can be placed immediately adjacent to the plasma, giving optimal control of the plasma shape with minimal coil current, although modularity of the reactor may have to be surrendered. Conceptual designs are presented of PF and TF coil systems for an ignition test reactor with about 14% and for a full-scale demonstration reactor with about 20%, both using copper TF coils

  2. Detection of Borrelia-specific 16S rRNA sequence in total RNA extracted from Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Radulović

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction based assay for Borrelia species detection in ticks was developed. The method was based on amplification of 552 nucleotide bases long sequence of 16S rRNA, targeted by Borrelia specific primers. In the present study, total RNA extracted from Ixodes ricinus ticks was used as template. The results showed higher sensitivity for Borrelia detection as compared to standard dark-field microscopy. Method specificity was confirmed by cloning and sequencing of obtained 552 base pairs long amplicons. Phylogenetic analysis of obtained sequences showed that they belong to B. lusitaniae and B. afzelii genospecies. RT-PCR based method presented in this paper could be very useful as a screening test for detecting pathogen presence, especially when in investigations is required extraction of total RNA from ticks.

  3. Biology of 'Borrelia burgdorferi'-infected and non-infected 'Ixodes ricinus' ticks in the context of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Coralie; Gern, Lise

    2015-01-01

    La tique Ixodes ricinus est très sensible à la dessiccation et elle est particulièrement exposée à des conditions desséchantes lorsqu’elle quête sur la végétation en attente d’un hôte. Nous avons donc étudié la survie de cette tique à la dessiccation en exposant des nymphes et des adultes à des conditions desséchantes créées en laboratoire à l’aide de solutions salines saturées produisant différentes conditions d’humidité relative à différentes températures. Nous avons observé que lorsque les...

  4. Ixodes ricinus salivary serpin IRS-2 affects Th17 differentiation via inhibition of the interleukin-6/STAT-3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páleníková, Jana; Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Langhansová, Helena; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, Jindřich; Kopecký, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Th17 cells constitute a subset of CD4(+) T lymphocytes that play a crucial role in protection against extracellular bacteria and fungi. They are also associated with tissue injury in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, we report that serpin from the tick Ixodes ricinus, IRS-2, inhibits Th17 differentiation by impairment of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT-3 signaling pathway. Following activation, mature dendritic cells produce an array of cytokines, including the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6, which triggers the IL-6 signaling pathway. The major transcription factor activated by IL-6 is STAT-3. We show that IRS-2 selectively inhibits production of IL-6 in dendritic cells stimulated with Borrelia spirochetes, which leads to attenuated STAT-3 phosphorylation and finally to impaired Th17 differentiation. The results presented extend the knowledge about the effect of tick salivary serpins on innate immunity cells and their function in driving adaptive immune responses. PMID:25712932

  5. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. PMID:27283664

  6. The TICKPRO computer program for predicting Ixodes ricinus host-seeking activity and the warning system published on websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Milan; Vráblík, Tomás; Valter, Jaroslav; Kríz, Bohumír; Danielová, Vlasta

    2010-12-01

    The computer program with the acronym TICKPRO (tick prognosis) facilitates medium-range forecasts of the level of host-seeking activity in ticks within a 1-4 day horizon. The program is based on the medium-range weather forecast routinely produced at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), as well as on previously developed mathematical models describing the correlation of meteorological factors with the host-seeking activity of Ixodes ricinus. These models are based on a 6-year whole-season monitoring of I. ricinus host-seeking activity on experimental fields in the Central Bohemia Region in a typical habitat, oakhornbeam forest, where tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.str., B. afzelii, and B. garinii have been found. Meteorological data provided by the CHMI meteorological station in Prague-Libus were used, and during the development of the forecasting algorithm micrometeorological data have been collected directly at the tick monitoring sites under selected synoptic weather situations. In the TICKPRO program, the two most successful models utilized ambient air temperature, quantity of atmospheric precipitation, and relative air humidity. The prediction determines 5 levels of risk of attack according to the current proportion of host-seeking ticks, and thus determines the risk of TBE infection. The levels of risk defined by the TICKPRO program are supplemented by instructions on how to prepare oneself for entering sites with potential tick occurrence, how to move around once there, and how to behave on returning home. This warning system is weekly published on websites of National Institute of Public Health and CHMI, Prague, over entire season (March-November). PMID:21361109

  7. Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Soltani; Robert E. Nurse; Christy Shropshire; Peter H. Sikkema

    2014-01-01

    Four field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2011–2013) in southwestern Ontario to evaluate the level of weed control provided by various halosulfuron tankmixes applied preplant incorporated (PPI) in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied alone or in combination caused 4% or less visible injury 1 and 4 weeks after emergence (WAE) in white bean. Trifluralin, s-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and imazethapyr applied PPI provided 80–96%, 84–95%, 83...

  8. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    OpenAIRE

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez; Yonara Poltronieri; Adriana Farah; Daniel Perrone

    2013-01-01

    Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots) and control without zinc supplementation (four plots). Pla...

  9. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO; Jose de J. BERRIOS; Vânia Zanella PINTO; Mariana Dias ANTUNES; Nathan Levien VANIER; Elessandra da Rosa ZAVAREZE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared,...

  10. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compar...

  11. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; HARNLY, JAMES M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin...

  12. In vitro colchicine-induced polyploid plantlet production and regeneration from leaf explants of the diploid pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar, 'Fertility'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyploid plantlets, including triploid, tetraploid and other polyploids, were induced from in vitro leaves of a European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Fertility' by a colchicine treatment. In vitro leaves were incubated in 0.4% colchicine solution for 24, 48 or 72 h, and transferred to an adv...

  13. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautel Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied. The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied strongly avoided the

  14. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  15. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (76 FR 16700-16703, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0101) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations by allowing... (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States...

  16. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  17. Effect of various fertilization levels on the crack resistance of horse beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzelany J.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compression tests were carried out on horse bean seeds within the scope of tests on micro tensile tester, Model Zwick 1425. The maximum value of force [N] causing bean crack and sample deformation [mm] up to the bean crack moment, were determined. The variation of predetermined mechanical indicators was analysed depending on the mode of varied fertilization, bean moisture content and loading direction. It was shown that varied fertilizer dose has significant effect on value of force causing bean damage and bean deformation up to crack.

  18. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  19. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  20. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  1. IrML – a gene encoding a new member of the ML protein family from the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáčková, J.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Havlíková, S.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2010), s. 410-418. ISSN 1081-1710 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick * ML-domain containing protein * in situ hybridization * gene expression * ML (MD-2-related lipid-recognition) domain Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.256, year: 2010

  2. Detection of four species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpkema, S G; Herbes, R. G.; Verbeek-De Kruif, N.; Schellekens, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were investigated for their value as sentinel animals for Lyme borreliosis in the Netherlands. Serum was obtained from 114 roe deer, and 513 Ixodes ricinus, predominantly females (72%), were obtained from 47 animals (41%). The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a total of 190 ticks, comprising 106 engorged ticks and 84 non-engorged ticks. Borrelia DNA was detected in 24 engorged ticks (23%) and 26 non-engorged ...

  3. The Effect of Shaking, CO2 Concentration and Light Intensity on Biomass Growth of Green Microalgae Desmodesmus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanags

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect microalgae growth. In this research, four different groups of experiments were set up in order to determine the influence of different mixing conditions, CO2 concentration and light intensities on Desmodesmus communis growth. The range of CO2 concentration in the air - CO2 mixture was 0–16 v/v%, light intensities ranged between 100 µmol m-2s-1 and 300 µmol m-2s-1. The best biomass productivity and biomass yield of 0.54 g d-1 and 3.53 g l-1 respectively were achieved when mixing was provided by using shaker as well as gas bubbling with air - CO2 mixture of 96:4 v/v% and light intensity of 300 µmol m-2s-1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.70.4.8437

  4. Stability and antioxidant activity of polyphenols in extracts of Myrtus communis L. berries used for the preparation of myrtle liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Piacente, Sonia; Perrone, Angela; De Feo, Vincenzo; Cabras, Paolo; Pizza, Cosimo

    2006-08-28

    Flavonoids and anthocyanins in berry extracts from Myrtus communis, prepared by following a typical Sardinia myrtle liqueur recipe, were identified by HPLC coupled with Electrospray Mass Spectrometry and quantified by HPLC coupled with Ultraviolet/Visible Detection in order to evaluate the stability of the extracts during 1 year of storage. Antioxidant activity was measured by using TEAC assay, and the free-radical scavenging activity was monitored during time of the stability evaluation. Anthocyanins have found to be the most instable compounds, but a considerable instability was observed also for flavonoids, suggesting the use of extracts not over 3 months from their preparation. The myrtle extract showed interesting free-radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity was preserved in 3 months. PMID:16554139

  5. Studying the antibacterial effects of some phytochemical compounds isolated from Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus and Myrtus communis on some bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary The Origanum Syriacum, Thymus syriacus and Myrtus communis leaves samples were collected. Essential oils (EO) extractions were done by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus. GC-FID was used to analyze the essential oils and GC-MS was used to confirm the identities of the isolated components. Preparative HPLC technique was used to separate and isolate the oils main components. The bulk EO and the separated components were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Brucella melitensis, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus using broth microdilution method. The results confirm that the EOs and some of its components exhibited significant bactericidal activity. (author)

  6. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  7. Mersin Bitkisi (Myrtus communis L.'nde Farklı Hasat Zamanlarının

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Betül AVCI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Bornova araştırma alanında bulunan Mersin (Myrtus communis L. bitkilerinde farklı hasat zamanlarının uçucu yağ oranlarına etkisini araştırmak amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, Mersin bitkisinden Ekim 2002 tarihinden itibaren bir yıl boyunca her ayın 15'inde ve günün üç farklı saatinde (08:00, 13:00, 18:00 olacak şekilde yapraklı dal örnekleri alınmıştır. Mersin (Myrtus communis L. bitkisinde en yüksek uçucu yağ oranı ortalama % 0.725 ile Temmuz ayında saat 18.00'de yapılan hasatta, en düşük oran ise ortalama % 0.250 ile mart ayında saat 13.00'de yapılan hasatta elde edildiği gözlenmiştir. Yapılan LSD testine göre farklı aylara ve saatlere göre belirlenen uçucu yağ değerleri arasındaki fark istatistiksel açıdan önemli bulunmuştur.

  8. Results of preliminary investigations at radio sensitivity of bean (Vicia faba L.) on fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated with fast neutrons. The radiation doses applied ranged from 40 to 600 rads. Then irradiated seeds were sowed. During bean vegetation radiation effects were observed. (A.S.)

  9. Irradiation disinfestation of stored cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between effective dosages to induce mortality and sterility in several important storage beetles was investigated. To induce 100% mortality, doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 kGy require 4-7 weeks, 0.2-1.0 kGy need 1.5-3 weeks and 2.0 kGy require 1 week for Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Lasioderma serricorne, respectively. Only at 5.0 kGy did instant mortality occur in the insects tested. Total prevention of F1 progeny was achieved at the lowest dosage (0.05 kGy) for T. castaneum and O. surinamensis; for L. serricorne, the sterility level achieved was 92-99% for doses ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 kGy. Semi-pilot scale tests (12 months) were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of gamma irradiation to control insects (artificially infested L. serricorne and T. castaneum) and moulds in cocoa beans packed in either jute or laminated polypropylene or unlaminated polypropylene bags. Good control against insect infestations was achieved for the whole duration of storage. Laminated polypropylene afforded the best protection against insect reinfestation. Other than a change in moisture content, no changes in the physicochemical properties were observed in the flavour or in the total protein, soluble protein, amino acid and free fatty acid contents. 15 refs, 10 tabs

  10. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  11. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  12. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  13. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  14. 芦苇末多级利用系统的生态学效率和经济效益分析%Ecological and Economic Efficiency of Multistage Utilization Technique of Phragmites communis Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍萍; 朱忠贵

    2002-01-01

    The ecological effect and economic return of the P. Communis multistage utility technique was studied.P. Communis residue was firstly used to culture mushroom,and then mushroom residue was used as medium of vegetable cultivation,and finally the medium residue with vegetable root was applied to farmland as organic matter.The result showed that the assistant energy efficient is 8.1% in the mushroom culture and 8.4% in the vegetable culture.N transformation efficiency is about 40%both in mushroom and vegetable culture.The yield of both mushroom and vegetable with P. Communis residue as medium are equal to the yield with conventional medium culture.For the cost of P. Communis residue is much less than conventional medium,the economic return is much higher as well.

  15. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    OpenAIRE

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H.; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritiona...

  16. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively which negatively effect the protein digestibility by nonruminants e.g. pigs. Also the storage protein is not easily digested by nonruminants. The main aim of the present study was to find a reasonable ...

  17. Reduction of Microbe Contamination through Steaming Process to Cocoa Beans Using Steaming Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Hendy Firmanto

    2014-01-01

    Dry cocoa bean quality is also determined by its microbe contamination level. Steaming process for dried cocoa beans as a pretreatment process was selected because of less effect on organic compound inside the dried cocoa bean. This experiment aim was to study microbial contamination level of cocoa beans using steaming process, determining its microbial population and evaluate its chemical changes. Experiment was carried out in Postharvest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research In...

  18. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Troels

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized by a...

  19. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  20. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  1. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  2. Snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quality profile by sensory descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar; Rodiño Míguez, Ana Paula; González Fernández, Ana María; Canosa Rodríguez, Pilar; Rodríguez Vega, Iria; Riveiro, Manuel; Santalla Ferradás, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Sensory quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) influence consumer preferences. The application of sensory descriptive analysis (SDA) for snap bean quality is shown in this work. SDA has allowed generatin gdescriptors for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture, which could be used to characterize snap bean varieties.

  3. Análise clínica, radiológica, macroscópica e histológica do úmero de codornas domésticas (Coturnix japonica, submetido ao implante da poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona (Ricinnus communis Clinical, radiological, macroscopical and histological analysis of domestic quail (Coturnix japonica humerus submitted to implant of polyurethane from castor oil polymer (Ricinnus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bolson

    2005-10-01

    ça de trabéculas e medula óssea no interior do implante. Concluiu-se que a poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona é biocompatível em aves, podendo ser utilizada na cirurgia ortopédica, ocorrendo osteointegração.In orthopedic surgery there are frequently situations in which the surgeon faces severe bone losses caused by high-energy trauma, tumors or infections. Repairing these losses require knowledge about filling materials. Those materials can be biological, synthetic or metallic, with emphasis in bony grafts and biomaterial implants. The increase of the use of birds as pets is leading to an increasing number of clinical and surgical cases related to this taxon, where fractures are the most commonly observed surgical problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, radiological, macroscopic and microscopic effects of the polyurethane derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis polymer, when implanted in the humerus of domestic quails (Coturnix japonica. Twenty male and female quails, were used randomly distributed in four groups of five individuals. The birds received the implants in the left humerus, being submitted to daily physical examination during the postoperative period, immediate and biweekly radiological examination, and macroscopic and microscopic evaluation at the 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days. Clinically, there were not observed local, regional or systemic changes. Radiologically, increase in local density was observed with no signs of changes in bone or adjacent tissue, as well as in the air sacs. Macroscopic analysis revealed that the polyurethane derived from castor oil polymer was not absorbed in none of the four groups, remaining implanted within the pneumatic bone. Its resistance, however, has changed. Microscopic examination evidenced minimum inflammatory reaction, slight fibrosis around the implants, and osteo-integration with presence of trabeculi and bone marrow inside the implants. Concluding, implants of polyurethane

  4. Hyperspectral imaging for differentiation of foreign materials from pinto beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Zemlan, Michael; Henry, Sam

    2015-09-01

    Food safety and quality in packaged products are paramount in the food processing industry. To ensure that packaged products are free of foreign materials, such as debris and pests, unwanted materials mixed with the targeted products must be detected before packaging. A portable hyperspectral imaging system in the visible-to-NIR range has been used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from pinto beans that have been mixed with foreign matter. Bands and band ratios have been identified as effective features to develop a classification scheme for detection of foreign materials in pinto beans. A support vector machine has been implemented with a quadratic kernel to separate pinto beans and background (Class 1) from all other materials (Class 2) in each scene. After creating a binary classification map for the scene, further analysis of these binary images allows separation of false positives from true positives for proper removal action during packaging.

  5. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L-1 P as KH2PO4. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h-1 plant-1) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h-1 cm-1) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h-1 plant-1 and 0.05 nmol h-1 cm-1, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  6. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  7. Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Jokura, Hiroko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Komai, Norio; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    Our previous study revealed the antihypertensive effects of green coffee bean extract (GCE) ingestion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. We suggested that this antihypertensive action was due to the fact that GCE contains chlorogenic acid (CQA) as a major phenolic compound, and CQA in turn contains ferulic acid as a metabolic component that acts on nitric oxide (NO) derived from the vascular endothelium. In this study, the effects of GCE on blood vessels were evaluated in healthy males. The subjects were 20 healthy males with reduced vasodilation responses measured by strain gauge plethysmograms (SPG) to ischemic reactive hyperemia. Of the 20 subjects, 10 (mean age, 37.2 years) ingested a test drink containing GCE (CQA: 140 mg/day), and the other 10 (mean age, 34.8 years) ingested a placebo drink for 4 months. During the ingestion period, SPG, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and serum biochemical parameters were measured, and acceleration plethysmograms (APG) were taken. The reactive hyperemia ratio (RHR) in the test drink group began to increase after ingestion for 1 month and was significantly higher (p <0.05) than that in the placebo group after ingestion for 3 months and 4 months. In addition, after ingestion for 4 months, the test drink group showed a significant decrease (p <0.01) in the plasma total homocysteine level compared with the pre-ingestion level. However, there were no significant differences in PWV or APG between the test drink group and the placebo drink group. The improvement in RHR after ingestion of a drink containing GCE suggested an improvement in vasoreactivity by this component. PMID:15785008

  8. Medical image of the week: coffee bean and whirlpool signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease presented with altered mental status, poor oral intake, and multiple episodes of nausea and vomiting. An abdominal x-ray demonstrated dilated loops of bowel and the coffee bean sign concerning for sigmoid volvulus (Figure 1. The coffee bean sign occurs when a thick “inner wall” represents the double wall thickness of opposed loops of bowel while the thinner outer walls due single thickness. A contrast CT abdomen showed dilated sigmoid loop and whirlpool sign confirming sigmoid volvulus (Figure 2. She underwent a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and full recovery.

  9. Technique of irradiation sterilization of local flavor bean products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local flavor bean products were packed with 0.07 - 0.10 mm nylon-polythene plastic bags, vacuumed, sealed and irradiated by 60Co γ-rays of 5 - 10 kGy and stored for 30 days at normal temperature (25 degree C) and for 90 days at (2 - 7) degree C, respectively. The results show that the bacteria number of irradiated bean products accords with the national standard and the protein and fat contents have no obvious change compared with the CK

  10. Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-09-01

    In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone. PMID:23025188

  11. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. PMID:26873811

  12. Sebaran Sukun Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap (Artocarpus Communis Forst) Pada Daerah Tangkapan Air Danau Toba Di Nagori Purba Saribu, Kecamatan Haranggaol Horison, Kabupaten Simalungun

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Jordy Marthin

    2015-01-01

    Forests and land in the catchment area of Lake Toba, showed a decrease for quality and quantity of the land. This study aims to determine the public perception of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst). Research carried out in the catchment area of Lake Toba, Simalungun. Analysing public perception using a questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed by descriptive quantitative. Perception is influenced by factors of age, education, livelihood and long lived. Research shows t...

  13. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  14. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  15. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26471657

  16. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  17. Germination test for identification of gamma-irradiated bean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of germination test for the practical detection of irradiated beans has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if the relationship between the root growth rate and radiation dose could be used to produce a rapid analytical method for identification of irradiated beans. Such detection method could be potentially used for both (a) identification of irradiated food, and (b) for quarantine inspection (to certify that the agricultural product has been irradiated, and the pests present in it do not pose a quarantine risk). Results presented in this paper indicate that the germination test is not always capable of discriminating satisfactorily between irradiated and unirradiated samples of bean seeds, because the sensitivity of the test is often higher than the low doses which are suggested for disinfestation purposes. However, using the germination test, an unexperienced person can easily discriminate untreated bean seeds from those irradiated with 0.3-1.5 kGy doses of gamma radiation. (orig./vhe)

  18. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet

  19. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial (mark

  20. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  1. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2-2.5 min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans

  2. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  3. Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous 51Cr in Mung beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K251Cr2O7 and 51Cr(NO3)3.9H2O. Growth rate was also studied in the presence and absence of phosphate salts in the medium. It has been found that the transfer of chromium from soil to plant is significantly low (maximum 5% for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI)). Maximum accumulation of Cr occurs in the root with respect to the total chromium accumulation by the plant. Other parts of the Mung bean plant, e.g. cotyledons, shoot and leaves, show negligible accumulation. Therefore, the chance of direct intake of Cr through food as well as through the grazing animals to human body is less. - The chance of bio-magnification of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) to human body via direct or indirect intake of Mung bean is negligible

  4. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds. PMID:27507478

  5. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  6. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 174-175, which is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  8. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diversity panel of 250 dry bean lines from the Andean gene pool was evaluated for cooking time. Cooking time ranged from 17 to 90 min with an average of 36 min. A faster cooking time was also correlated with a number of other seed characteristics, most notably, higher levels of boron and potassium...

  9. Studies on interference between newly defined bean-infecting potyviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the plant virus family Potyviridae (Barnett, 1991, 1992) are of great economic importance. A large number of strains of BCMV and BlCMV are found to occur in nature, either in single or in mix

  10. WATER NEEDS FOR WINTER BEAN CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Klar

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of water use by bean winter crop (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., cv. Carioca was carried out in a Red Yellow Latosol, clay texture. A furrow irrigation system maintained soil water potentials higher than -40 KPa. Two broadcast nitrogen treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha were applied 25 days after planting. The major objectives were to study the nitrogen and evapotranspiration interaction and measure the crop coefficients (Kc. The maximum average evapotranspiration (ETm was 1.71 mm/day, or 157.16 mm over 92 days of observations; the ETm values for the vegetative (1, flowering (2 and pod formation (3 phases were 1.48, 2.35, and 1.50 mm/day, respectively, for the 30 kg/ha nitrogen treatment, and 1.48, 1.88 and 1.45 mm/day for the no nitrogen treatment. The crop coefficients (Kc = ETm / ETo were 0.62 and 0.78 for the phase 1, 0.80 and 1.10 for the phase 2, 0.45 and 0.55 for the phase 3 and 0.61 and 0.80 for the entire cycle, based on the FAO-Penman and Class A Pan reference methods (ETo, respectively. The latter one was the best approach to estimate maximum water use by winter bean crop. Nitrogen treatments did not affect evapotranspiration significantly. However, the measured evapotranspiration obtained from the water balance method was 59.78 and 27.12% higher in the flowering than in the vegetative phase, respectively, under 30 and 0 kg N/ha.Um estudo sobre o uso de água do feijoeiro de inverno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca foi realizado num solo Latossol Vermelho Amarelo de textura argilosa. Um sistema de sulcos de infiltração foi usado para proceder a irrigação com o intuito de manter o solo em potenciais de água superiores a -40,0 KPa. Duas doses de aplicação de N em cobertura (0 a 30 Kg N/ha foram colocados 25 dias após o plantio. Os principais objetivos do estudo foram: avaliar a interação entre as duas doses de N com a evapotranspiração e medir os coeficientes de cultura (Kc. A evapotranspiração média máxima (ETm foi 1,71 mm

  11. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  12. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  13. The Shortwave Infrared Bands’ Response to Stomatal Conductance in “Conference” Pear Trees (Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Struthers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements consisting of stomatal conductance, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit and the spectral reflectance in the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions of thirty “Conference” pear trees (Pyrus communis L. were repeatedly measured for eighty-six days. The SWIR was segmented into eight regions between 1550 and 2365 nm, where distances ranged from 40–200 nm. Each of the regions was used to describe the change in canopy water status over a period of approximately three months. Stomatal conductance of the water stress treatment was first determined to be significantly different from the control group nine days after stress initiation. The most suitable SWIR region for this study had wavelengths between 1550 and 1750 nm, where the first significant difference was also measured nine days after stress was initiated. After the period of water stress ended, forty-seven days after stress was initiated, all of the trees received full irrigation, where the SWIR region between 1550 and 1750 nm determined that stomatal conductance of the stress treatment lagged behind the control group for thirty days. Using a temporal sequence of SWIR measurements, we were able to successfully measure the beginning and the recovery of water stress in pear trees.

  14. Direct Ethanol Production from Breadfruit Starch (Artocarpus communis Forst. by Engineered Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (ESSF using Microbes Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftachul Farida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst. is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%. Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s 0.09 g cell/g substrate.

  15. A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if the relative displacement between the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon and its surrounding tissues can be used as an adhesion index (AI) for assessing adhesion in metacarpal fractures by comparing two clinical measures, namely single-digit-force and extensor lag (i.e., the difference between passive extension and full active extension). The Fisher–Tippett block-matching method and a Kalman-filter algorithm were used to determine the relative displacements in 39 healthy subjects and 8 patients with metacarpal fractures. A goniometer was used to measure the extensor lag, and a force sensor was used to measure the single-digit-force. Measurements were obtained twice for each patient to evaluate the performance of the AI in assessing the progress of rehabilitation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the various correlations between the AI, extensor lag, and single-digit-force. The results showed strong correlations between the AI and the extensor lag, the AI and the single-digit-force, and the extensor lag and the single-digit-force (r = 0.718, −0.849, and −0.741; P = 0.002, P AI in the patients gradually decreased after continuous rehabilitation, but remained higher than that of healthy participants. PMID:27492808

  16. Investigation of sedative and hypnotic effects of Amygdalus communis L. extract: behavioral assessments and EEG studies on rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Najafi, Forough; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-04-01

    Amygdalus communis L. (almond) has been traditionally used as a natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. The present research studied the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous fraction of seeds of almond in rats. In order to investigate these effects, a combination of behavioral methods (open field test and loss of righting reflex test) as well as quantitative and analytic methods (EEG and EMG) were applied. The results of the open field test showed that a dose of 400 mg/kg of the almond extract significantly inhibited the locomotion activity of rats compared to normal. The results also illustrated that the almond extract affected pentobarbital-induced sleep through increasing the number of fallings asleep and prolongation of sleeping time. Analysis of EEG recordings of the animals which had received the same dose of the almond extract as the open field test demonstrated marked changes in the animals' sleep architecture. Significant prolongation of total sleeping time as well as significant increase in NREM sleep were the main observed changes compared to the normal condition. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of almond has significant sedative and hypnotic effects, which may support its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:26711831

  17. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  18. Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elmhalli, Fawzeia; Pålsson, Katinka; Örberg, Jan; Jaenson, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), the main arthropod-repellent compound in the oil of the lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora, was evaluated against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus using five methods (A-E) of a contact toxicity bioassay. Mortality rates were estimated by recording numbers of dead nymphs at 30 min intervals during the first 5 h after the start of exposure and at longer intervals thereafter. The mortality rate increased with increasing concentration of PMD and duration o...

  19. Thioester-containing proteins of the tick Ixodes ricinus: Gene expression, response to microbial challenge and their role in phagocytosis of the yeast Candida albicans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Veronika; Šíma, Radek; Šauman, Ivo; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 55-64. ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Candida albicans * Complement * Innate immunity * Phagocytosis * Thioester-containing proteins * Tick Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  20. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement