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Sample records for beam sludge hygienization

  1. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  2. Sewage sludge hygienization by treatment with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed method for decontaminating sludge is now possible by treating with gamma-rays. Full scale trials have been made with an irradiation plant with a strength of 300 krad in order to estimate the hygienic effect and the influence on the behaviour of sewage sludge. A satisfactory rate of reduction of the micro-organisms could be proved by means of three different sludges as long as the total solids concentration was not greater than 4%. Although the thickening ability of the sludge was basically improved by the irradiation the artificial dewatering proved that a higher amount of chemicals is necessary to centrifuge the ray-treated sludges. No definite effects were determined by the dewatering in filterpresses. Supernatent liquors of the thickened sludge, filtrates and centrifugates from ray-treated sludges generally show a higher concentration of BOD5 and COD. (orig.)

  3. Hygienization of sewage sludge with radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special irradiation plant in Geiselbullach (Federal Republic of Germany) has recently been charged up with caesium 137 sources. This is the first time that highly radioactive waste products from nuclear power stations are being employed for the hygienization of sewage sludge. About 150 m3 of sewage sludge per day are subjected for a short time to irradiation by hard gamma rays in the Geiselbullach plant. The irradiation destroys the living organisms dangerous to human health present in the sludge. This results in an end product used as fertilizer in agriculture. (Auth.)

  4. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 108 to 1.6 x 109 and from 2.2 x 107 to 1.5 x 108 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  5. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  6. Electron beam treatment of wastewaters and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various procedures for decreasing the health risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludges are discussed including land storage, thermophilic digestion, autothermal aerobic digestion, the Porteus Process, the Zimpro Process, incineration, pyrolysis, thermal pasteurisation, composting, lime utilisation, flash drying and radiation techniques. A fully automated sludge irradiation facility at Geiselbullach near Munich and an electron accelerator experimental plant near Boston are described. Advantages and disadvantages are given for both processes. Costs of electron radiation treatment of sewage sludges (a slurry containing 5 per cent solids) for a city the size of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of R900 000 per year at a dose rate of 4 000 Gy, which would produce a product of reasonable hygienic quality but not necessarily meet the criteria laid down by local authority medical officers at all times. In order to reduce costs it would be necessary to have a readily available market to dispose of disinfected material

  7. Operating experience with a sewage sludge hygienization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sewage sludge irradiation plant at Geiselbullach, near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was designed and constructed by SULZER and has been operating since July 1973. Up to the present more than 150000 m3 of sewage sludge have been treated and supplied as fertilizer to agriculture and the plant has been in operation for more than 50000 h. The plant was first loaded with a radioactive source (Co-60) of rating 120000 ci, which corresponds to a daily throughput of 30 m3 sludge with a dry substance content of 3.5%. The irradiation activity was increased to 570000 ci (Co-60) in December 1978, with the result that the daily throughput could be increased to 145 m3, i.e. equal to the total amount of sludge produced by the sewage installation. This increased capacity was obtained without any changes in the construction of the irradiation plant. The plant is nowadays available for 350 days in the year, and the total costs of sludge irradiation treatment are less than 5 DM/m3. (Auth.)

  8. Technical and economic aspects of radiation hygienization of municipal sewage sludge using gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of sewage sludge, especially in large metropolitan cities throughout the world, is emerging as a serious problem for urban authorities as sludge contains a high load of microbes which are a serious threat to public health.. There exists a need for development of cost effective and environment friendly technologies to overcome the problem. High-energy ionizing radiation can create extremely reactive species like free radicals or ions at room temperature or even at low temperature in any phase and in a variety of substrates without addition of external additives. The highly reactive intermediates produced during radiolysis of water namely, hydroxyl radical OH, hydrated electron e-aq. and hydrogen atom H have the capability to react with the pathogenic microbes present in the sludge resulting in its disinfection. In India, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has designed, built and has been operating, since 1992, a Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI), adjacent to the municipal sewage sludge treatment plant in Vadodara for reduction of pathogens in the sludge. The plant has provided valuable experience regarding the design, operational parameters of the irradiator and irradiated sludge has been shown to be useful as a fertilizer in agricultural practice. The operational experience of SHRI facility, current status, some recent developments and the economic aspects of this technology are presented. (author)

  9. Hygienizing with gamma rays for the treatment of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This method which treats sewage sludge with gamma rays is supported by fundamental knowledge on the effects of ionizing rays on bacteria and parasites. This irradiation treatment neither increases the volume, nor does it release organic nitrogen compounds. The plant (designed for a flow rate of 30 m3/d, source distribution 105Ci60Co, 300 Krad) consists mainly of an irradiation shaft with a built-in central pipe and a circulation system with accessible pump shaft, circulation and suction pumps, block and regulating devices. (orig./HP)

  10. Occurrence and Distribution of Synthetic Organic Substances in Boreal Coniferous Forest Soils Fertilized with Hygienized Municipal Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Tysklind; Kenneth Sahlén; Richard Lindberg

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances following application of dried and granulated (hygienized) municipal sewage sludge in Swedish boreal coniferous forests were investigated. Elevated concentrations of triclosan (TCS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the humus layer. Concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE2), norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin (FQs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not signi...

  11. Application of radiation technology for hygienization of municipal sewage sludge for use in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large metropolitan cities in the world are experiencing a deterioration in the quality of water bodies as a result of sewage and industrial effluents being discharged into them. The realization that such pollutants may pose a serious threat to public health, and indeed the mankind. has necessitated the need for development of cost effective and environment friendly technologies to overcome the problem. High energy ionizing radiation has the unique ability to create extremely reactive species like free radicals or ions at room temperature or even at low temperature in any phase and in a variety of substrates without addition of external additives. The highly reactive intermediates produced during radiolysis of water namely, hydroxyl radical OH, hydrated electron e-aq, and hydrogen atom H have the capability to react with the pollutants present in the water, both microbial as well as chemical, and result in disinfection and purification of contaminated waters. Thus, the use of ionizing radiation for controlling environmental pollution is emerging as an important application in the area of public health. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has designed, built and has been operating since 1992, a Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI). adjacent to the municipal sewage sludge treatment plant in Vadodara for reduction of pathogens in the sludge. The plant has provided valuable experience regarding the design, operational parameters and irradiated sludge has been shown to be useful as a fertilizer in agricultural practice. The operational experience of SHRI facility, current status and some recent developments of this technology are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters. (author)

  13. Test and optimization of a pilot plant for sewage sludge hygienization by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continous operation of the sewage sludge irradiation plant in Geiselbullach was well possible at a high rate flow and shorter irradiation times. The plant availability was 92% and could be improved to 95%. By different measures for avoiding dead times the flow rate could be increased by 6-10%. The total costs for the irradiation treatment were calculated to be 8,98 DM per m3; they are at least comparable to those for other treatments. By injection of pure oxygen into the recirculation system during the irradiation treatment the hygienic effect on salmonellas could be improved; therefore a dose of 200 krad in a synergistic effect seems to be comparable to the 300 krad of irradiation. More hygienic investigations are necessary. The use of Cs-137 sources instead of Co-60 seems to be favourable for the acceptance of the irradiation technique; however an over-stimulated public opinion about radiation-using techniques prevent at present the installation of more plants of this type. (orig.)

  14. Comparative microbiological-hygienic studies in mesophilic and thermophilic fouling of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlig-Schmitt, M.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    Investigations concerning the inactivation of microbial pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites) during anaerobic, alkaline dignestion of sludge are described. A thermophilic (54/sup 0/C) and a mesophilic (34/sup 0/C) operated biogas model plant were compared from the point of view of hygiene. Is was found that in the thermophilic process Salmonella senftenberg survived 13,5 h, Streptococcus faecium 55 h, Streptococcus faecalis 42 h and Klebsiella pneumoniae 0,5 h. Within 30 min eggs of Ascaris suum lost their infectivity Bovine Parvovirus was inactivated after 1 d to 2 d treatment. Survival times under mesophilic conditions of 13 d for Salmonella senftenberg and more than 8 mouth for Streptococcus faecium were found. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated in 8 d while Bovine Parvovirus survived no longer than 15 d. The results obtained in the thermophilic process were compared to those after heat treatment of the test microorganisms in ampules exposed in a wather-bath under defined conditions to 54/sup 0/C. It was found, that the bacteria survived only about half the time in this case. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated after 0,75 h and Bovine Parvovirus after 7 d exposure. (orig.RB)

  15. Technical-economical, agronomical, pedological, hygienic and normative aspects of municipal wastewater sludges; Aspetti tecnico-economici, agronomici, pedologici, igienico-sanitari e normativi dei fanghi di depurazione civile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottavi, C. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Ottaviani, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Figliolia, A. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    This review is intended to give an overview on the technical, economical, agronomical, pedological and hygienic aspects of sludges from treatment plants of civil wastewater, Both Italian and European regulations on the sludge disposal are considered.

  16. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms. - Highlights: ► The hygienic efficiency of electron beam against slurry was researched. ► The hygienization efficiency depended on the slurry characteristics and microorganism species. ► In most of the cases 7 kGy dose was sufficient for slurry hygienization. ► Dose below 1 kGy allowed for 90% elimination of microorganism population. ► The radiation hygienization is a good alternative for typical slurry treatment methods

  17. A Study on the Sludge Solubilization by Alkaline Treatment and Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge is a major product in the wastewater treatment operations. The disposal of wastewater sludge which contains mainly microbial pathogens and organic compounds remains a critical problem in the world. The sludge solubilization reduces the amount of sludge for the final disposal. Moreover, it makes possible to utilize recovered organic acids from the sludge as an external carbon source in the denitrification process. In this study, we studied the sludge solubilization and E. coli sterilization by an alkaline treatment and electron beam irradiation

  18. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  19. Comparative analysis of the efficiency, reliability, technical feasibility and costs of methods to convert sewage sludge to a hygienically safe condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the development of sewage treatment technology and the construction of new and sewage works and enlargement of older ones, increasing amounts of sewage sludge have been produced. Agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge is a practicable way of utilization which, however, is often limited for reasons of hygienic safety. The present study intends to describe methods of sewage sludge disinfection which have been used in practice or tested extensively, as well as technical innovations in this field, and to give information on their performance with respect to hygienic and technical requirements. A direct comparison of processes has turned out to be extremely difficult because disinfection of sewage sludge is only one of the stages of sewage treatment. For comparison, numerous factors have to be taken into account such as plant size, type of sewage and sludge treatment processes, energy costs, sales potential for agricultural use etc. This study is meant as an aid in such work. (orig.)

  20. Occurrence and Distribution of Synthetic Organic Substances in Boreal Coniferous Forest Soils Fertilized with Hygienized Municipal Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Tysklind

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances following application of dried and granulated (hygienized municipal sewage sludge in Swedish boreal coniferous forests were investigated. Elevated concentrations of triclosan (TCS, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were detected in the humus layer. Concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE2, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin (FQs, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were not significantly influenced. Maximum concentrations in humus were as follows (in ng/g dry matter: TCS; 778; PBDEs; 25; and PCB7; 16.7. Fertilization did not alter the levels of the substances in mineral soil, ground water, and various types of samples related to air. Further research within this area is needed, including ecotoxicological effects and fate, in order to improve the knowledge regarding the use of sludge as a fertilizing agent. Continuous annual monitoring, with respect to sampling and analysis, should be conducted on the already-fertilized fields.

  1. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. PMID:24907480

  2. Electron beam processing programme: Wastewater and sludge treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research, working on environmental applications, has an extensive research programme using high energy electron beam in treating industrial wastewater and sludge. The experiments are being conducted in a pilot plant using an industrial electron beam 1.5MeV, 25mA, where the streams are presented to the scanned electron beam in counter flow. This pilot plant is designed to process approximately 3.0m3/h with an average dose 5kGy and the absorbed dose measurement is performed continuously by calorimetric system in real time. Combined biological and radiation treatment of domestic sewage and sludge were carried out to investigate disinfestation and removal of organic matter. The experiments showed that total and fecal coliforms were decreased by about 5 logs cycles with a 3.0kGy radiation dose in raw sewage and biological effluents, respectively. Concerning the industrial wastewater in the first stage of the programme, the irradiation was conducted using batch systems with samples originating from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant. The data showed a significant color reduction effect when delivered dose was increased, and the opposite was noted for turbidity and total suspended solids. Other experiments were focused to process real industrial effluents from one of the most important chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Brazil. A special transport truck was used to transfer the liquid waste from the Industry to the Electron Beam Pilot Plant. Large quantities of liquid waste were irradiated with and without air addition with the doses from 2kGy to 20kGy. Such experiences performed in association with the Industry demonstrated that this technology has a great potential to be transferred and to contribute with a permanent cleanup alternative for hazardous wastes

  3. Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy

  4. Treatment of liquid separated from sludge by the method using electron beam and ozone in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the liquid separated from sludge in the dehydration or concentration process of sewer sludge contains considerable amount of organic compositions that are hard to be decomposed by microorganisms, it has become difficult to be treated by conventional activated sludge process. In the case of discharging the separated liquid into closed water areas, the higher quality treatment is required. The method of using electron beam irradiation and ozone oxidation in combination for cleaning the liquid separated from sludge was examined, therefore, the results are reported. The water quality of the sample from the sludge treatment plant in A City is shown. The method of bio-pretreatment, the treatment method by using electron beam and ozone in combination, and the method of analyzing the water quality are described. The effect of the treatment by activated sludge process, as the effect of the treatment by the combined use of electron beam and ozone, the change of COD and TOC, the change of chromaticity, the change of gel chromatogram, and the reaction mechanism are reported. In this paper, only the basic concept on the model plant for applying the method of the combined use of electron beam and ozone to the treatment of the liquid separated from sludge is discussed. (K.I.)

  5. Hygienic assessment of the ozone formation resulting from electron beam treatment of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of hygienic assessment of the ozone formation resulting from electron beam treatment of electric cables and wires with polymer isolation are presented. The investigations have been carried out with the use of the EhlV-1 accelerator. Electron energy constitutes 0.7 MeV. Ozone concentrations have been determined in the region close to accelerators, at working places, in air ducts and in the free air. A formula for calculation of ozone concentration in ventilation effluents is given. It is shown that at modern doMestic cable plants with a number of accelerators equalling 4-6 daily eff:.uent of ozone reaches 26-38 kg, and annual effluent - 7-10 t. The data obtained on ozone formation have been used to prevent the unfavourable effect of its high concentrations on personnel and environment

  6. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  7. Investigations of the effect of electron-beam irradiation on bacteria in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron beams on bacteria was investigated in 2 experimental facilities. A 400 kV electron accelerator was used to irradiate sludge quantities of 10 l and 180 l. The total bacterial count, the number of coliform bacteria and, in injected sludge, the relative bacteria density of salmonella were investigated. A dose of 0.5 to 0.75 Mrad was required to reduce coliform bacteria to below the detectable level in 0.1 ml. With a dose of 1.5 Mrad salmonella were reduced by 6 orders of magnitude on the average. In addition, the dependence of the reduction in bacteria on the dose rate as well as on mixing of the irradiated material was investigated. Substantial reproduction of bacteria in digested sludge was found in all cases after the irradiation. (orig./MG)

  8. Investigations of the effect of electron-beam irradiation on bacteria in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron beams on bacteria was investigated in 2 experimental facilities. A 400 kV electron accelerator was used to irradiate sludge quantities of 10 l and 180 l. The total bacterial count, number of coliform bacteria and, in injected sludge, the relative bacteria density of salmonella were investigated. A dose of 0.5 to 0.75 Mrad was required to reduce coliform bacteria to below the detectable level in 0.1 ml. With a dose of 1.5 Mrad salmonella were reduced by 6 orders of magnitude on the average. In addition, the dependence of the reduction in bacteria on the dose rate as well as on mixing of the irradiation material was investigated. Substantial reproduction of bacteria in digested sludge was found in all cases after the irradiation. (author)

  9. Disinfection of sewage sludge by gamma radiation, electron beams and alternative methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludges generally contain high concentrations of pathogens, even after digestion or other conventional treatments for stabilization. Disinfection can be effected by irradiation (e.g. gamma or electron beam), by heat treatment (pasteurization or thermophilic stabilization), and by changing the pH (lime treatment). Irradiation is a simple and reliable process for disinfection with special advantages and favorable side-effects. Irradiation can be combined with oxygenation, heat or other treatments, with favorable synergistic effects. The total costs for the irradiation treatment of sewage sludges are comparable to those of alternative disinfection methods. Most of the worldwide practical experience has been obtained at the sewage-sludge irradiation plant in Geiselbullach (10 km west of Munich, Germany), which was continuously in operation from 1973 to 1993. A multidisciplinary research programme was conducted during the first 8 years. In subsequent years, the plant was operated commercially for sewage-sludge disinfection, without public funds. Other demonstration or research plants for sewage-sludge irradiation have been reported in the USA, India, Russia, Japan, Austria, Germany and Hungary. (author)

  10. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  11. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  12. CGR MeV program for water and liquid sludges treatment with high-energy electron beams. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the application of high-energy electron beams treatment to water and liquid sludges is described. Topics discussed include limitations of conventional methods of water treatment, dosimetry, biological assays with Pleurodeles waltlii, radioactivity measurement, chemical and bacteriological analysis. (author)

  13. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R. M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50-70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application.

  14. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hygiene Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Hygiene Basics Print A A A Text Size What's ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  15. Treatment test of supernatant from sewage sludge by irradiation of high energy electron beams under supersaturation with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics. Therefore, it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge method. The development of a new technology is required to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) effectively below 30 mg/l. Irradiation of high energy electron beams can convert nondegradable organics in water into substances which are biodegradable. However, sufficient dissolved oxygen in water is needed to induce oxidation effectively. In the present study, the treatment of supernatant was studied using an apparatus which can be irradiated by high intensity electron beams in flow system under supersaturation with oxygen by pressurization up to 3 atms. The dependence of oxygen concentration on the reduction in absorbance at 230 nm of azo dye (Acid Red 265) aqueous solution was examined, and it was clarified that sufficient oxygen was supplied in the solution up to about 14 kGy under 3 atms of oxygen. Radiation treatment of supernatant which came from the leather works was carried out using the above apparatus. However, as this supernatant contained high concentration of nitrite, the nitrite was removed by limited aeration activated sludge method. By this pretreatment, COD was reduced from 200 mg/l to 53 mg/l. Then, the biodegradability of supernatant irradiated under supersaturation with oxygen was examined. The final COD of the supernatant was reduced below 30 mg/l by the combined method of irradiation of 7 kGy and biological treatment. (author)

  16. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  17. Occupational hygiene

    CERN Document Server

    Gardiner, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    Employees, employers and the government have all become very aware of the effects on health of the work environment. As a result, this subject area is rapidly developing with recent changes in legislation, sampling and measurement methods, as well as a new emphasis on the psychological impact of work, and the importance of an appropriate work-life balance. The purpose of this book is to provide a clear and concise account of the principles of occupational hygiene and, as such, it is suitable for students studying for degree courses in this subject and for the MFOM. It is also suitable for occ

  18. Tratamento térmico de lodo anaeróbio com utilização do biogás gerado em reatores UASB: avaliação da autossustentabilidade do sistema e do efeito sobre a higienização e a desidratação do lodo Thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge utilizing biogas produced in UASB reactors: evaluation of system self-sustainability and the effect on sludge hygienization and dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sales Machado Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetiva avaliar a eficiência do biogás gerado em reatores UASB como fonte de energia para higienização térmica do lodo excedente, atentando-se ainda para a autossustentabilidade do sistema e para a avaliação do desaguamento do lodo tratado termicamente. Foi desenvolvido em um aparato experimental em escala de demonstração constituído de reator UASB, reservatório de biogás, reator térmico e leitos de secagem. A autossustentabilidade foi verificada por meio de balanço térmico teórico e de testes experimentais de higienização térmica. Estes testes indicaram que o aproveitamento da energia térmica do biogás foi suficiente para aquecer o lodo em temperaturas de 55 a 65ºC, durante três a cinco horas, possibilitando a completa eliminação de ovos viáveis de helmintos. No entanto, o processo de desidratação se mostrou muito mais difícil para o lodo tratado termicamente.The objective of this research was to determine how effectively biogas produced in UASB reactors could be used as a source of heat for the thermal hygienization of excess anaerobic sludge, whether the system can operate on a self-sustained basis and how the dehydration of the thermally treated sludge behave. The experiments were conducted in a demonstration-scale setup comprising UASB reactor, biogas holder, thermal reactor and sludge drying beds. The self-sustainability of the system was evaluated by the systemâ€TMs theoretical thermal balance and by experimental hygienization tests. These tests indicated that the recovery of thermal energy from the biogas was sufficient to heat the sludge at temperatures in the range of 55 to 65ºC, for three to five hours, allowing the complete elimination of viable helminth eggs. However, the dehydration process showed to be much more difficult for the thermally treated sludge.

  19. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  20. Hygiene habits through time

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In this work I did a research about hygiene habits of people and their home environment. The work presents how the hygiene habits changed in people home environment through time. The work presents changes of the body hygiene standards adopted by people from the middle ages onward. Todays customs are quite different from the ones we had some time ago. Moreover, hygiene of living environment has also changes which resulted into lower death rate and death illness related to bad hygiene among pop...

  1. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it again in front of me. Sure, no problem. Thanks doctor. I know how important hand hygiene ... it again in front of me. Sure, no problem. Thanks doctor. I know how important hand hygiene ...

  3. Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Specific Types of Emergencies Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for you to remember to practice basic hygiene during the emergency period. Always wash your hands ...

  4. Headache Hygiene -- What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Hygiene - What is it? Print Email Headache Hygiene - What is it? ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... by entering your e-mail address below. Headache Hygiene - What is it? Headache hygiene is the practice ...

  5. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  6. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  7. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...... homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation...... as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority...

  8. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. PMID:27515139

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points ... importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the hospital to get well, but you should know that each year in the United States ... practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with soap and water ...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, ... and Prevention , Office of the Associate Director for Communications, Division of Public Affairs Follow CDC Email Recommend ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Both of these practices can help prevent the spread of germs. Let's take a look in another ... how important hand hygiene is in preventing the spread of infections. Your loved ones can play an ...

  13. A specific hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunsheng Han, Cliff

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases have reached epidemic proportions in Western populations in the last several decades. The hygiene hypothesis proposed more than twenty years ago has helped us to understand the epidemic and has been verified with numerous studies. However, translational measures deduced from these studies to prevent allergic diseases have not proven effective. Recent studies on immigrants' allergies and any potential association between oral infection and allergic diseases prompt me to propose a specific hygiene hypothesis to explain how oral hygiene practices might have contributed to the uprising of hay fever, the most common allergic disease. The historic oral hygiene level in US is closely associated with the emerging allergic epidemic. Future studies to test the hypothesis are needed and verification of the hypothesis can potentially yield highly effective measures to prevent allergic diseases. PMID:27372876

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: ... hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to ...

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. ... than those who don't. In the following video, you'll see how easy it is to ...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, and after using the restroom. It is important ...

  17. Pubescent Dental Hygiene Education

    OpenAIRE

    MÁČALÍKOVÁ, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the stance of pubescent to oral hygiene. Theoretical part aims at the anatomy and physiology of buccal cavity, psychology of pubescent youths and next most frequent teeth troubles, such as caries, pulpitis and parodontosis. Their primary etiology, diagnostic, therapy and prevention are described. The noticeable part is devoted to oral hygiene, its resources, methods of teeth cleaning and prevention also. Practical part describes monitoring of the work of dental...

  18. The Hygiene Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Frederic; Severijns, Cassandra; Albiez, Daniela; Seljutin, Eugen; Jovanović, Marko; Eyvazi Hesar, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the correlation of hospital acquired infections and insufficient hand hygiene, we propose a supportive system to enhance the individual hygiene habits of health care workers. By applying gamification to incentivize health care professionals while maintaining a high standard of privacy and usability, the system focuses on technical simplicity by using concepts like bring your own device in a scaleable proof of concept implementation. PMID:27332297

  19. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  20. Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Hygiene Fast Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Information on Water-related Hygiene Handwashing It is estimated that washing hands with ...

  1. Use of sewage sludge for agriculture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the use of sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge is gradually increasing. They are applied not only to agricultural land, but also to golf courses, parks, etc. The presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for such utilization of sludge. Composting is a traditional method of sewage treatment. Laws have been introduced and guidelines prepared for proper and safe use of these materials by farmers. Public acceptance plays a crucial role. At a time when environmental preservation is a major issue in almost every aspect of life, greater emphasis will have to be placed on making sludge and compost hygienically acceptable with minimum contamination from pathogenic organisms and heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. This paper reviews studies conducted on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture in japan. (author)

  2. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  3. Headache Hygiene -- What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Instagram DONATE TODAY Headache Hygiene – What is It? Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to ... If My Head Hurts? Headache Hygiene – What is It? Migraine’s House of Headaches ..and Visiting the Neighbors ...

  4. Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing Keeping Hands Clean Handwashing: A Family Activity ...

  5. A natural history of hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-01-01

    In unpacking the Pandora’s box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behav...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... most important thing you can do to help prevent infections. Everyone around you must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ...

  7. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Better hygiene and access to drinking water and sanitation will accelerate progress toward two millennium development goals (MDGs): 'reduce under-five child mortality rate by 2/3 between 1990 and 2015' and "by 2015 halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Meeting the latter goal will require infrastructure investments of about ...

  8. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  9. Chemical hygiene plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials

  10. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  11. Hygiene in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the hygienic management in radiological departments with special regard to the handling of injections and infusions. It includes prevention of bacterial as well as viral infections. In radiological departments disinfection of X-ray tables is necessary only in exceptional cases. A special proposal for disinfection is added. A safe method of sterilisation of flexible catheders is included, which proved to prevent bacterial infection. (orig.)

  12. Immunoassay in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation of nonspecific protection factors, T- and B-immunity system factors, which application is advisable when solving problems of radiation hygiene are described. Data on changes in immunity under chronic low dose irradiation of external and internl radiation by incorporated radiomechides are genralized and analysed. Combined action of ionizing radiation and factors of nonradiation nature is described. 120 refs.; 11 figs.; 33 tabs

  13. Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Irradiation treatment of sewage sludge: History and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first reviews the history of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world. The first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 and used 60Co as irradiation source. Since then, many sludge irradiators were constructed in U.S.A., India, Japan, Canada, Poland, etc., which used 60Co, 137Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources. The paper then describes some basic research on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge. Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology in the future

  15. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  16. Vulvovaginal hygiene and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupte Pushpa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of the skin is very important, which is achieved by a thin acid film - the acid mantle. Human skin has an acid mantle of pH 4-6. It prevents invasion by pathogenic organisms, acting as a first-line defence and helping in a disease-free existence. The vaginal mucosa has a similar acid mantle. Here, the natural acidic pH is maintained by lactic acid, an integral part of the vaginal ecosystem. This can be easily lost due to the lack of awareness of local care or various aggressive hygiene practices in addition to various diseases. Gentle cleansing along with good moisturization can go a long way in keeping the vulva healthy.

  17. [Hygiene as a behavior problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1987-03-01

    The subject of the study is a systematizing analysis of present research concerned with the barriers which prevent scientific findings about hygiene from being carried out and which hamper the obvious adoption of hygienically and psycho-hygienically relevant prophylactic measures. A general interpretive model with explanatory value for health- and hygiene-related behavior is being developed. Future studies will particularly have to clarify what significance and what interpretative relevance do the diverse influencing factors have for a particular person in a particular position and situation and how in the course of one's biography even something like lifestyles of hygienic behavior develop and change. For the necessity of improvement as regards the hygienic status in various realms of life the knowledge about existing barriers is a basic essential. The following quantities and constructs pass into the theoretic interpretive model which should also provide the basis for further evolvement of theories as well as the starting point for specific research hypotheses but not least for the development of specific research and evaluation designs: Standard of information, informational behavior and quality of information. The individual risk assessment: A function of the subjective importance and probability that benefit and cost factors of prophylactic behavior will occur. Additional influencing factors essential to the development of a desirable health- and hygiene-related behavior are: Objective shortcomings with regard to prophylaxis: deficits of the hygienic research including the deficits concerning the development of feasible and universally applicable disinfection methods. Hazards connected to prophylaxis: Objective risks with regard to prophylaxis (disinfection methods which may cause allergies, which involve problems with the compatibility of materials and so forth) and psychological risks (impaired relations between physician and patient due to the wearing of a

  18. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  19. Dnepropetrovsk hygienic school: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Beletskaya E.M.; Zemlyakova T.D.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents historical analysis of formation of hygiene school of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy over the 100 year period - from formation of Katerinoslav province sanitary district council, as a unique self-government social organization in XIX century to the present. The basic stages of its development, including foundation of Hygiene Courses at High Mining School, their transformation into department of general hygiene, social hygiene and hygiene of labor in Katerinoslav Medical A...

  20. A microbiological study on sewage sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolation and identification of salmonellae in sewage sludge cake and radiation sensitivities of the isolated strains were studied. Disinfection of the sludge by heat or radiation and effect of such treatment on composting were also carried out. Five groups of O-antigen and seven serotypes of salmonellae were identified from the sludge cakes. D10 values of the salmonellae in phosphate buffer were ranged from 0.16 to 0.22 kGy and those in sludge were about three times larger. Total bacterial counts and coliforms in the sludges were determined to be 4.6 x 107 - 5.1 x 109 and 1.3 x 105 - 1.1 x 109 colony forming unit (cfu/g). After irradiation at 20 kGy by gamma ray or electron beam, decrease of total bacterial count was 5 - 7 log cycles and a dose of 5 kGy was enough to eliminate all of the coliforms. Coliforms decreased rapidly by heating at 65degC, but only one log cycle decrease was observed in total bacterial count. By heating at 100degC, total bacterial count decreased rapidly. Two peaks were observed in CO2 evolution curves of radiation disinfected sludge composting, but only one peak in heat disinfected sludge composting. (author)

  1. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  2. Hygiene at Work: An Engineering Perspective on the Development of Hygiene Science

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J Pityn

    2008-01-01

    The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygie...

  3. Hygiene at work: An engineering perspective on the development of hygiene science

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J Pityn

    2008-01-01

    The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygie...

  4. Radiation sterilization and effective utilization of sewer sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and disposal of the sludge that is generated in sewage treatment plants in large quantity have become a social problem. At present it is disposed mostly by landfill or reclamation. The research and development of the effective utilization of sewer sludge as fertilizer after sterilizing it by radiation have been carried out since relatively long ago. In this report, the technology of the sterilization and effective utilization of sludge by using radiation is introduced, centering around the research carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The general treatment process for sewage in Japan is explained. Sewer sludge is a useful resource, but when it is used for farmland as fertilizer, the problems are the possibility of the contamination with high concentration heavy metals, the possibility of the contamination by pathogenic bacteria and parasites and the bad smell of sludge. The radiation sterilization of sewer sludge, the electron sterilization of sewer sludge, the basic test and the pilot plant test on making compost, the effect of applying electron beam-sterilized sludge compost, and the economical efficiency of this process are reported. Accompanying recent environment pollution, small amount of harmful substances have become to be mixed in sludge, and it becomes the obstacle to the effective use of sludge. (K.I.)

  5. SLUDGE ORGANICS BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. vailable data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. ludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical c...

  6. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  7. [Comprehensive hygienic assessment of solaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O K

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined. PMID:22250385

  8. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections.

  9. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  10. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  12. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  13. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene....

  14. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygien...

  15. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  16. Dnepropetrovsk hygienic school: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents historical analysis of formation of hygiene school of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy over the 100 year period - from formation of Katerinoslav province sanitary district council, as a unique self-government social organization in XIX century to the present. The basic stages of its development, including foundation of Hygiene Courses at High Mining School, their transformation into department of general hygiene, social hygiene and hygiene of labor in Katerinoslav Medical Academy in 1922, foundation of separate departments of hygiene in 1940-1948, their reorganization at the end of XX – beginning of XXI centuries are outlined. It is established, that Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school during its existence formed a great number of outstanding scientists, more than 100 dissertations in different directions devoted to hygienic diagnostics of technogenically changing environment, its impact on human health as well as hygienic control levers and health strengthening of population of industrial areas were defended. Scientific contribution of prominent scientists and teachers, their achievements and discoveries in the field of preventive medicine, role in the formation of preventive world outlook of students are estimated. At the XIV hygienic congress 30 hygienists were recognized as leading scientists of Ukraine over XX century, seven of them are from Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school; this indicates its importance in the noble cause of serving public health.

  17. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  18. [Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

  19. Reputational Incentives for Restaurant Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Ginger Zhe Jin; Phillip Leslie

    2009-01-01

    How can consumers be assured that firms will endeavor to provide good quality when quality is unobservable prior to purchase? We test the hypothesis that reputational incentives are effective at causing restaurants to maintain good hygiene quality. We find that chain affiliation provides reputational incentives and franchised units tend to free-ride on chain reputation. We also show that regional variation in the degree of repeat customers affects the strength of reputational incentives for g...

  20. Iodine isotopes in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine isotopes belong among the factors of anthropogenic contamination of the biosphere. A radiation hygiene survey is presented of literary data and the author's own results of studies of the metabolism and biological effect of radioactive isotopes of iodine. The risk of their intake by the human organism is evaluated. Particular attention is paid to 132-135I and 129I. Data on the biological danger of these isotopes are scarce in the literature. (author)

  1. Comparative bacteriological investigations of sewage sludge after treatment with gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial investigations of the hygienic effect of Gamma-irradiation on sewage sludge were carried out under practical conditions in a sewage plant of conventional construction, (mechanical-biological treatment), containing an irradiation-plant (Gamma-irradiation source Cobalt 60). - The mechanical-biological treatment reduces the bacterial-count by an average of 3 log, Enterococci by 1-2 log and Enterobacteria by 3-4 log. The following irradiation of the digested sludge further reduced surviving bacteria by 1-2 log for the bacterial count, 2-3 log for Enterococci and 5-6 log for Enterobacteria. - Salmonella were isolated from 32 of 34 raw sludge samples and from 128 samples of non-irradiated digested sludge 117 were positive. 27 out of 38 from drying-bed, containing non-irradiated digested sludge were Salmonelle positive. After treatment of digested sludge in the irradiation plant, with 300 krad for 75 min, of 55 sludge batches 165 samples were taken. 163 proved Salmonella negative. - After storage at 370C and 15-180C in different containers the irradiated digested sludge remained negative for Salmonella. During the storage of irradiated sludge in drying beds under practical conditions, from 2 out 28 samples, taken at different times of year, Salmonella were isolated. Repeat investigations proved negative. - Model experiments with 15 Salmonella pure-cultures produced - with irradiation in the plant of 300 krad/75 min - a reduction of the count by around 5.2 - 7.9 log (average 6.3 log). - The experimental results show not only an inadequancy of mechanical-biological treatment but also the good hygienic effect achieved by Gamma-irradiated under practical conditions. (orig.)

  2. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment. PMID:20392787

  3. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  4. Hot balls dry sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2004-01-01

    Each year some 25 million m3 of mineral sludge are dredged from rivers, canals and harbours in the Netherlands alone, twenty percent of which is polluted. The unpolluted sludge is usually dumped at sea. The remaining five million m3 may only be dumped in a few selected landfill locations, at conside

  5. Anaerobic sludge granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Castro Lopes, de S.I.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial stage

  6. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  7. Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Azzam al Kadi; Sajad Ahmad Salati

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awarene...

  8. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired in...

  9. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Sotnikova; Georgia Fasoi

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene...

  10. Male genital hygiene beliefs and practices in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, M.; Bukusi, E; Cohen, C; Shell-Duncan, B; Holmes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Attitudes and practices concerning genital hygiene may influence topical microbicide use by men. This study examines knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene, genital hygiene, circumcision and hygiene, and to genital hygiene before and after sex among men in Nairobi, Kenya.

  11. The validity and reliability study of Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlude Karadag

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The adaptation of translated and ldquo;Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory and rdquo; in Turkey is found to be reliable and valid to evaluate hand hygiene belief and practices. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 271-284

  12. [Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, L

    2001-03-01

    Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation. PMID:11525045

  13. Dewatering of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  14. Additional advantages of irradiation of sewage sludge for agriculture use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agricultural use of sewage sludge produced in wastewater-treatment plants, to increase soil fertility and crop yields is widely known, but is limited by the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, heavy metals, and toxic chemicals. The irradiation of sludges to eliminate pathogens has been successfully developed. Nevertheless, commercial-scale projects are still not promoted for economic reasons and due to public concerns. In this paper we report additional advantages of gamma irradiation over other methods of disinfection, i.e. composting, and biological treatments in general: decomposition of pesticides in the sludge; release of mineral N, thus increasing N availability for plants; killing of weed seeds; viscosity decrease that helps movement through pipes for management and application. Anaerobically digested sewage sludges produced at the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Tucuman City were irradiated with 60Co gamma sources at the Semi-industrial Irradiation Plant in the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. The absorbed irradiation doses were within the range of 3.5 kGy for liquid sludges and 6.5 kGy for dried sludges, as recommended for disinfection. Much published work, chiefly with electron beam accelerators, has describe the decomposing effects of ionizing radiation on hazardous organic pollutants in surface or drinking water. There have been a few reports on the decomposition of sludge-borne chemicals by gamma radiation. Organic toxicants that have been detected in Tucuman's municipal sludge include chlorpyrifos, heptachlor, lindane, and phenoxyacids; all were decreased by gamma radiation. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used to examine sludge and artificially polluted water extracts. Although the effectiveness of radiation was lower in sludge than in aqueous solution, the irradiation treatment appeared to accelerate decomposition of the toxic substance

  15. Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene Education: Creating a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Dona E.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the meaning of baccalaureate dental hygiene education is the offering of upper-division courses in the theory and practice of dental hygiene itself. Restructuring the associate programs as strictly two-year, lower-division programs would require standardization of baccalaureate programs as strictly upper-division curricula. (MLW)

  16. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee hygiene. 416.5 Section 416.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  18. Assessment of sewage sludge treatment processes for the purpose of determining technical operating parameters. Ueberpruefung von Verfahren der Klaerschlammentseuchung zur Festlegung von technischen Betriebsparametern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, H.; Lang, A.

    1989-01-01

    Using survey investigations for enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, salmonella, faecal streptococci, f-specific bacteriophagi, enteric virus and parasitic developmental studies the epidemic-hygienic consistency of crude and treated sludges from 24 conventionally operated sewage treatment plants was determined. The results of these studies also provided information about the frequency of occurrences of potential indicator organisms. The microorganisms found were examined for their temperature and ph-resistance to check their suitability as epidemic-hygienic indicators. In this fashion the following parameters were found which can serve for the epidemic-hygienic evaluation of sewage sludge: According to results of laboratory studies, sewage sludge can be considered harmless (1) if it contains not more than 1000 entero bacteriaceae/g, (2) if it contains no salmonella and (3) if it contains no contagious worm eggs. These parameters according to results of laboratory studies also apply to enteric viruses. The parameters also serve in concluding examinations to check some of the practically operated, generally accepted decontamination processes with respect to their epidemic-hygienic efficiency. In this respect it was ascertained that, if properly operated, the processes are basically able to produce epidemically and hygienically harmless sewage sludge. (orig./EF).

  19. Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahiluoto, H; Kuisma, M; Ketoja, E; Salo, T; Heikkinen, J

    2015-02-17

    Phosphorus (P) flow from deposits through agriculture to waterways leads to eutrophication and depletion of P reserves. Therefore, P must be recycled. Low and unpredictable plant availability of P in residues is considered to be a limiting factor for recycling. We identified the determinants for the plant-availability of P in agrifood residues. We quantified P in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and in field soil fractions with different plant availabilities of P as a response to manure and sewage sludge with a range of P capture and hygienization treatments. P was more available in manure and in sludge, when it was captured biologically or with a moderate iron (Fe)/P (1.6), than in NPK. Increasing rate of sludge impaired P recovery and high Fe/P (9.8) prevented it. Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduced plant-availability at relevant rates. The recovery of P was increased in AD manure via composting and in AD sludge via combined acid and oxidizer. P was not available to plants in the sludge hygienized with a high calcium/P. Contrary to assumed knowledge, the recyclability of P in appropriately treated residues can be better than in NPK. The prevention of P sorption in soil by organic substances in fertilizers critically enhances the recyclability of P. PMID:25569114

  20. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods for...... waste have shown reductions of microorganisms allowing for unrestricted utilization in agriculture, meeting the product control:FS below 100/g and no Salmonella detected. The effect of storage of sludge at summer and winter temperatures respectively has been investigated. At temperatures (around 20°C...

  1. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  2. Sludge treatment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na7(PO4)2F·19H2O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO2-H2O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO3 sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth

  3. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  4. Sludge treatment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  5. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 550C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities

  6. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-03-01

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 55/sup 0/C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities.

  7. Hygienic aspects of porcine gullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, P G; Mossel, D A; van Logtestijn, J G

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to elaborate good manufacturing practices, including the collection, processing and storage of porcine gullets, their bacterial condition immediately after collection (100 samples), as well as that of deep frozen gullets just before incorporation into meat products (40 samples), was assessed. Fresh gullets were found to be contaminated to a high degree: poured plate colony count at 30°C (PPCC) approximately 10(6) to 10(7) and Enterobacteriaceae approximately 10(3) to 10(4) cfu g(-1). Deep frozen gullets showed even higher counts: PPCC approximately 10(7) to 10(8) and Enterobacteriaceae approximately 10(4) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Hygiene during collection was visually assessed in six abattoirs and found to be satisfactory in two, moderate in three and poor in one. The effects of processing, by cleaning or removal of the mucus membrane, on bacterial condition, pH, colour and odour were assessed before and during storage at 4°C and 20°C. Both cleaning and removal of the mucus membrane resulted in up to approximately a tenfold reduction of colony counts. After 7 days' storage at 4°C these were significantly lower than those of unprocessed gullets (P < 0·01). Processed gullets stored at 4°C were no longer fit for consumption after 4 days' storage. It being impossible to achieve a marked improvement in the bacteriological condition of gullets, the incorporation of these products into sausages should be discouraged and their use in petfoods only allowed under reasonable conditions of hygiene and chilling. PMID:22055164

  8. The challenge of faecal sludge management in urban areas--strategies, regulations and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingallinella, A M; Sanguinetti, G; Koottatep, T; Montanger, A; Strauss, M

    2002-01-01

    In urban centres of industrialising countries, the majority of houses are served by on-site sanitation systems such as septic tanks and unsewered toilets. The faecal sludges (FS) collected from these systems are usually discharged untreated into the urban and peri-urban environment, posing great risks to water resources and to public health. Contrary to wastewater management, the development of strategies to cope with faecal sludges, adapted to the conditions prevailing in developing countries, have long been neglected. The authors describe the current situation and discuss selected issues of FS management. A proposal is made for a rational setting of sludge quality or treatment standards in economically emerging countries. The authors stipulate that regulatory setting should take into account local economic, institutional and technical conditions. Defining suitable treatment options as critical control points in securing adequate sludge quality is better than setting and relying on numerical sludge quality standards. A separate section is devoted to the practice and to regulatory aspects of (faecal) sludge use in Argentina. An overview of treatment options, which may prove sustainable in less industrialized countries is provided. Planted sludge drying beds are one of these options. It has been piloted in Thailand for four years and details on its performance and operation are presented along with data on the hygienic quality of treated biosolids. PMID:12479483

  9. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  10. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-10-04

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.

  11. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sotnikova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics and guidelines. Results: There are numerous studies that demonstrate the central role of hand hygiene of employees in transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Hand hygiene is a process, which should not be omitted or replaced by the use of antiseptics. The professionals position in the hospital, the workplace and staff shortages, in conjunction with the large number of hospitalized patients seem to be the main factors that negatively affect the compliance with hand hygiene. The staff working in the hospital, especially with high-risk patients (ICU, surgery should not wear artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry - rings and should not have inflammation or infection on their hands. Conclusions: Hand hygiene should be applied before and after contact with each patient. Nurses have to comply with these guidelines, in order for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

  12. Thickening methods in sludge processing

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of wastewater occur a large amount of sludge that contains high percentage of water and substances that provide a poor quality of wastewater (suspended organic and inorganic substances, substances that give unpleasant odors, bacteria, etc.). The high content of water in the sludge requires relatively large objects for sludge processing. This indicates the need for application procedures for treating sludge to volume reduce, stabilization of substances subject to decay and ...

  13. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies reported herein have shown that a treatment of 550C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads γ radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron-beam (which, for all practical purposes, is equivalent to γ irradiation for a given absorbed dose) was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities

  15. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  16. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Sleep Growing Healthy Healthy Children > Healthy Living > Oral Health > Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Healthy Living Listen Español Text ...

  17. Food hygiene practices in different food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Djeki, I.; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, E.P.; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L.; Pacheco, A. (A.)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities -Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene indifferent food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses wereincluded in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. Inparallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the o...

  18. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AWARENESS AMONG RURAL UNMARRIED GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    Jain; Aswar; Domple; Doibale Mohan; Barure Balaji

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. Lack of menstrual hygiene was found to result in adverse outcomes like reproductive tract infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was done among rural unmarried girls of age group 18 - 25 years. Data collection was done by semi structured predesigned questionnaire. Data was entered in Microsoft excel and analy...

  19. Perspective of health professionals on hand hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Silva; Otília Andrade; Ernestina Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the practices reported by health professionals on hand hygiene; To determine how the practices of hand hygiene are related to socio-demographic and professional variables and variables in the context of practice. Material and methods: A descriptive-correlational and cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital in central Portugal, in May and June, 2012. 71 health professionals participated, with 23.9% physicians, 64.8% nurses and 11.3% operating assistants, in paedi...

  20. Profits go hand in hand with hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Deanne

    2009-01-01

    In Zambia, where hygiene and safety are critical issues in food processing, researchers are using a new tool to get their message across: a coloring book for kids. 'Protect Yourself With Handwashing' features three smiling youngsters in a cartoon car of citrus, melons, and vegetables in vibrant hues. Though its target audience is children of employees at food processing and distribution centers in Lundazi and Mfuwe, the book also reminds parents that good hygiene begins at home. ME (Manage...

  1. Food hygiene practices in different food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Djekic, I; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, EP; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L; Pacheco, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene in different food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses were included in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. In parallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

  3. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  4. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and...... filtration). It therefore is an important property related to process performance, including process economics. To account for this, rheological behaviour is being included in process design, necessitating its measurement. However, measurements and corresponding protocols in literature are quite diverse...

  5. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  6. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  7. Impacts of certain biofertilizers on cowpea plants in sludge amended sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge from El-Gabal EI-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 percent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 percent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 percent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 percent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK) or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application

  8. Chemical conditioning of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, John T.; Park, Chul

    2003-07-01

    With all the advances made in understanding the structure and composition of sewage sludges, chemical conditioning remains a trial and error process, both with regard to the type and dose of conditioner needed. Recent studies at Virginia Tech have found that biological floc consists of two types of biopolymer, material associated with iron and aluminum and material associated with calcium and magnesium. These materials behave differently when sludges undergo digestion. This results in very different material being released into solution during digestion and very different conditioning requirements. This study shows that the primary materials released during anaerobic digestion are proteins and coagulation of the colloidal protein fraction in solution is the primary mechanism for conditioning. For aerobically digested sludges, both proteins and polysaccharides make up the colloid fraction that interferes with dewatering. This research also shows that the effectiveness of the digestion process as characterized by volatile solids destruction is directly related to the chemical dose required for conditioning. That is, as the solids destruction increases, the conditioning chemical requirement also increases. Well-digested sludges dewater more poorly and require more conditioning chemical that those with less volatile solids destruction. (author)

  9. Chemical conditioning of sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J T; Park, C

    2004-01-01

    With all the advances made in understanding the structure and composition of sewage sludges, chemical conditioning remains a trial and error process, both with regard to the type and dose of conditioner needed. Recent studies at Virginia Tech have found that biological floc consists of two types of biopolymer, material associated with iron and aluminium and material associated with calcium and magnesium. These materials behave differently when sludges undergo digestion. This results in very different material being released into solution during digestion and very different conditioning requirements. This study shows that the primary materials released during anaerobic digestion are proteins and coagulation of the colloidal protein fraction in solution is the primary mechanism for conditioning. For aerobically digested sludges, both proteins and polysaccharides make up the colloid fraction, which interferes with dewatering. This research also shows that the effectiveness of the digestion process as characterized by volatile solids destruction is directly related to the chemical dose required for conditioning. That is, as the solids destruction increases, the conditioning chemical requirement also increases. Well digested sludges dewater more poorly and require more conditioning chemical than those with less volatile solids destruction. PMID:15259940

  10. Sewage sludge treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  11. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  12. Physiologie foundations of radiation hygiene of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book deals with the physiological foundations of labour hygiene in handling sources of ionizing radiations. The main principles of radiation protection of personnel, questions of providing optimum hygienic working conditions, which ensure the maintenance of the working capacity of the personnel and their health are considered. Extensive factual material on estimation of the factors of professional effects on personnel is generalized. Particular attention is given to the functional reactions of the organism and extension of the physiological mechanisms of development of production fatigue in various forms of labour activity (when using sources of ionizing radiations in isotope laboratories and on nuclear reactors). A physiological substantiation of the hygienic requirements imposed on the equipment for handling radioactive materials is presented

  13. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pivotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of schoolstudent’s oral hygiene. Results: The study evaluated 202 schoolstudent. Regarding daily toothbrushing, 121 (59.9% reported that an adult is responsible for carrying out this procedure for the child and 81 (40.1% reported the own child performs brushing. Brushing frequency for 128 (63.4% children was three times a day and floss was not used by 137 (68% of them. In 114 (56.4% of the schoolchildren was found an OHI-S classified as reasonable hygiene (1.3 to 2. Regarding how to deal with the oral hygiene of children, 140 (69% parents stated having already received such information and the source cited by 118 (58.4% was the dentist. Conclusion: Schoolchildren presented oral hygiene habits with deficiency in dental plaque removal and flossing, resulting in a reasonable OHI-S. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p455

  14. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A recommendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge

  15. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  16. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome. PMID:26665632

  17. Hygiene i islam og dagens medisin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All matters related to personal hygiene are crucial and fundamental in the religion of Islam. This is outlined in detail, both in the Quran and hadith (the sayings of prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and narrations about his life). Since the 7th century, Islam has always placed a strong emphasis on hygiene. Other than the need to be ritually clean in time for the daily prayers through istinja (washing of private parts) and wudu (physical washing of specific bodyparts before p...

  18. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  19. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Pivotto; Luciane Campos Gislon; Maria Mercês Aquino Gouveia Farias; Beatriz Helena Eger Schmitt; Silvana Marchiori de Araújo; Eliane Garcia da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of scho...

  20. Hygiene aspects of cosmetic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kukułowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently beauty salons offer a wide range of services, from beauty treatments starting with skin cleansing, peeling or manicure, to permanent makeup and body piercing. During all these treatments, there is a risk of infection with different diseases caused most often by Fungi (Candida albicans, pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (herpes, hepatitis B and C, and therefore the staff should use disposable equipment and sterilized tools.Aim of research. The aim of the study was to assess the hygiene conditions in a selected beauty salon. Material and methods. The research was carried out in a selected Salon in the Tri-city. The subject of microbiological analysis were the hands of beauticians, the surface of the table, the uniform, the cover of the chair for treatments for the face, clean towels and bowls for soaking feet prior to pedicure treatment. The aim of the research was to establish the total number of microorganisms (OLD, the number of yeasts and moulds, and the presence of staphylococci. Results. In the analysed material, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus was not confirmed. Among the studied samples, only slightly above 8% were free of moulds, while 25% were free of the presence of yeasts. Staphylococci settled on about 14% of the evaluated surfaces, mostly occurring on the hands of beauticians and in bowls for soaking feet. The average number of microorganisms isolated from the tips of 5 fingers amounted to 32 cfu/25 cm2. Staphylococcus epidermidis was present on the hands in more than 60% of the samples. Only about 7% of the samples were found to exceed the limit for class D premises, amounting to 50 cfu/25 cm2, while on over 70% of the analysed surfaces the microorganisms reached the level of 1–25 cfu/25 cm2, which confirms high standard of provided services. Conclusions. 1 In the examined beauty salon the analyzed surfaces were clean and free of Staphylococcus aureus, but Staphylococcus

  1. Characterization of lorry washing sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Gómez-Rico Núñez de Arenas, María Francisca

    2014-01-01

    The sludge generated by washing lorry refuse and some fractions of municipal solid waste have been studied, to justify that washing sludge presents no danger and can therefore be managed adequately in a landfill, as well as other municipal solid waste fractions. One problem attributed to this type of sludge is its high level of sulfide content, which causes this waste to be considered hazardous. The determination of sulfide content in the studied samples was carried out according to environme...

  2. Faecal Sludge Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Strande, Linda; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    "It is estimated that literally billions of residents in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation systems (e.g. various types of latrines and septic tanks). Until recently, the management of faecal sludge from these onsite systems has been grossly neglected, partially as a result of them being considered temporary solutions until sewer-based systems could be implemented. However, the perception of onsite or decentralized sanitation technolo...

  3. Glazed Sludge Tile

    OpenAIRE

    Dayalan J; Beulah. M

    2014-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and Clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Three different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 10cm *10cm*1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800°C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 ...

  4. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  5. Glazed Sludge Tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalan J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA and Clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Three different proportions of clay (by weight ratio were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 10cm *10cm*1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800°C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red, V2O5 (yellow, and CoCO3 (blue and three different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050°C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of sludge ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles.

  6. Activated Sludge Ozonation to Reduce Sludge Production in MBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-bing; XUE Gang; WANG Bao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The total experimental period was divided into two stages.At the first stage, a series of batch studies were carried out to get an understanding of the effect of ozonation on sludge properties. At the following stages, three MBRs with different amounts of activated sludge to be ozonated were run in parallel for a long period to evaluate the influence of sludge ozonation on sludge yield and permeate quality.Through batch study, it was found that ozone could disrupt the cell walls and caused the release of plasm from the cells,then the amounts of soluble organics in the solution increased with ozonation time. With the rise of soluble organics, the amount of soluble organics to be mineralized increased as well, which wonld reduce the soluble organics content. For the counteraction between these two aspects, a pseudo-balance could be achieved, and soluble organics would vary in a limited range. Sludge ozonation also increased the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in the solution. In addition, ozonation was effective in improving sludge settling property. On the basis of batch study, a suitable ozone dosage of 0.16 kgO3/kgMLSS wasdetermined. Three systems were run in parallel for a total period of 39 days, it was demonstrated that a part of activated sludge ozonation could reduce sludge production significantly, and biological performance of mineralization and nitrification would not be inhibited due to sludge ozonation. Experimental results proved that the combination of ozonation unit with MBR unit could achieve an excellent quality of permeate as well as a small quantity of sludge production, and economic analysis indicated that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and sludge was only 0.096Yuan (US $0.011,5)/m3 wastewater.

  7. Gingival Recession, Oral Hygiene and Associated Factors Among Tanzanian Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Mumghamba, E G S; Honkala, S; Honkala, E.; Manji, K P

    2009-01-01

    Females are generally more motivated with regard to oral hygiene practices and thus brush their teeth more frequently than males. To determine the prevalence of gingival recession, oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and associated factors in women attending a maternity ward in Tanzania. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Maternity ward of Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. Four hundred and forty six women were interviewed on oral hygiene practices and maternal factors, and a full...

  8. Nurses' contradictory hygiene practices in an infection ward

    OpenAIRE

    Sellin, Kira; Rantanen, Sini

    2015-01-01

    Nurses’ contradictory hygiene practices in an infection ward The purpose of this study was to find out why there are contradictory hygiene practices in the field of nursing. The aim of this study was to create discussion and present the findings to the ward. The literature search conducted revealed that the major factors affecting contradictory hygiene practices are incidence of the bacteria, hygiene nurse, education and orientation, students, available equipment, hospital's budget, t...

  9. A reformulation of the hygiene hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene hyp...

  10. Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

  11. Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…

  12. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…

  13. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  14. Industrial hygiene protection for the podiatric physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1987-07-01

    The podiatrist should remain alert to the potential for exposure to hazardous agents such as those discussed in this article. Exposures in the office or hospital may be evaluated by the methods of industrial hygiene. If control is needed, simple measures can frequently effect substantial reduction in exposure and afford protection to the physician, staff, and patient.

  15. North Seattle Community College Chemical Hygiene Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Seattle Community Coll., WA.

    The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…

  16. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  17. Oral hygiene behaviour change using motivational interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wynne, Leanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding a person's readiness to change could improve the way in which oral hygiene interventions and advice are given in the clinical setting. The aim of this article, therefore, is to provide a brief guide to behaviour change using motivational interviewing when discussing interdental cleaning.

  18. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  19. Hygiene and Industrial Security Program: General aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the aspects that must be included in the elaboration and monitoring of an Hygiene and Industrial Security Program (Prevention of Accidents and Occupational Diseases Program). It is applicable to any type of exploitation company, or any kind of task (in nature or importance) where people work, no matter the number workers

  20. Epidemiology, occupational hygiene and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of radiation protection practices to the practice of occupational medicine and hygiene is discussed. For example, accurate studies of a number of biological systems were stimulated. It is suggested that an accurate epidemiological assessment of workers exposed at or below the recommended radiation dose limits be undertaken. (H.K.)

  1. The correlation between sustainable development and home hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Hygiene refers to the science of the establishment and maintenance of (human) health. In everyday life, hygiene is closely associated with good housekeeping, This article will focus on home hygiene in relation to cleaning, on microorganisms, and on sustainable development of domestic technology. In

  2. Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

  3. HYGIENE PERSEORANGAN SANTRI PONDOK PESANTREN WALI SONGO NGABAR PONOROGO

    OpenAIRE

    Moh. Badri

    2012-01-01

    Perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat terutama hygiene perseorangan di pondok pesantren pada umumnya kurang mendapatkan perhatian dari santri. Hal tersebut dapat menyebabkan timbulnya penyakit scabies. Faktor yang mempengaruhi penularan penyakit ini adalah sosial ekonomi yang rendah, hygiene perseorangan yang jelek, sanitasi lingkungan yang buruk, perilaku yang tidak mendukung kesehatan, dan hunian yang padat. Tujuan penelitian ini: 1) Menguraikan kepedulian pimpinan pondok tentang hygiene perseora...

  4. Computer screen saver hand hygiene information curbs a negative trend in hand hygiene behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Helder, Onno; Weggelaar-Jansen, Anne Marie; Waarsenburg, Daniël; LOOMAN, Caspar; van Goudoever, Hans; Brug, Hans; Kornelisse, René

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abtract__ Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of noncompliance) may be most effective, but have not been tested. Methods: The study was conducted in a 27-bed neonatal intensive care unit. We performed an inter- rupted time series analysis of objectively measure...

  5. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues

  6. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  7. Nitrogen availability of anaerobic swine lagoon sludge: sludge source effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amber D; Israel, Daniel W; Mikkelsen, Robert L

    2005-02-01

    Increased numbers of swine producers will be removing sludge from their anaerobic waste treatment lagoons in the next few years, due to sludge exceeding designed storage capacity. Information on availability of nitrogen (N) in the sludge is needed to improve application recommendations for crops. The objective of this study was to investigate possible effects of different companies and types of swine operations on the availability of N in sludge from their associated lagoons. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to quantify the availability of N (i.e. initial inorganic N plus the potentially mineralizable organic N) in the sludge. Nine sludge sources from lagoons of sow, nursery and finishing operations of three different swine companies were mixed with a loamy sand soil (200 mg total Kjeldahl N kg(-1) soil) and incubated at a water content of 0.19 g. water g(-1) dry soil and 25+/-2 degrees C for 12 weeks. Samples were taken at eight times over the 12-week period and analyzed for inorganic N (i.e. NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) to determine mineralization of organic N in the sludge. Company and type of swine operation had no significant effects (P incubation. While plant N availability coefficients were not measured in this study, the lack of significant company or type of swine operation effects on sludge N mineralization suggests that use of the same plant N availability coefficient for sludge from different types of lagoons is justifiable. The validity of this interpretation depends on the assumption that variation in other components of different sludge sources such as Cu and Zn does not differentially alter N uptake by the receiver crops. PMID:15474933

  8. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  9. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  10. RECLAMATION OF ALUMINUM FINISHING SLUDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research study of the reclamation of aluminum-anodizing sludges was conducted in two sequential phases focused on enhanced dewatering of aluminum-anodizing sludges to produce commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, i.e., liquid alum. The use of high-pressure (14 to...

  11. Beam-Beam Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  12. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  13. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. PMID:23587728

  14. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  15. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    approach is to focus on surface material hygienic lifetime. Test of this is made in an industrial test loop run by biotechnology researchers in co-operation with materials producers and a food producer to compare biofilm formation, cleanability and deterioration of different rubber and plastic materials......Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... with cleaning chemicals and cleaning procedures • Optimising design of production equipment • Development of environmentally friendly cleaning procedures for removal of biofilm The partners include food production/processing companies and producers of equipment for the food industry, cleaning chemicals...

  16. Hygienic Macros for JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Timothy Charles

    2015-01-01

    Languages like Lisp, Scheme, and Racket have shown that powerful and expressive macro systems can give programmers the ability to grow their own language. Unfortunately, in languages with syntax like JavaScript, macros have had less success, due in part to the difficulty of integrating macro expansion and complex grammars.This dissertation describes sweet.js, a hygienic macro system for JavaScript that fixes long standing challenges in lexing JavaScript and provides expressive pattern matchi...

  17. AIR AS A FACTOR AFFECTING FOOD HYGIENE

    OpenAIRE

    Klaudia Jomová; Melánia Feszterová

    2012-01-01

    The air is the most endangered component of the environment. The air pollution has not only got various economical and ecological consequences but also has various negative effects on human health, animals, plants and food hygiene. Elevated anthropogenic SO2 emissions can also have negative influences upon the environmental conditions, human health, and ecosystems. The most emissions come from industrial chimneys, heavy traffic emissions and population density. It is inevitable to monitor the...

  18. Romanian Consumers Habits regarding Dental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Cetinã Iuliana; Gârdan Daniel Adrian; Geangu Iuliana Petronela

    2011-01-01

    In the actual context, marketing in the dental care services field is confronting with more and more challenging demands. Among them one of the most important one is refering to the need to integrate consumers motivation in the field of marketing strategy. The present research aims to investigate the content and the different corelations of consumer habits regarding dental hygiene. The results are intended to be used in developing new promotional campaigns build on motivational techniques for...

  19. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Nutrition in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Iffat; Mbuya, Nkosinathi

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a systematic review of the evidence to date, both published and grey literature, on the relationship between water and sanitation and nutrition. We also survey the potential impact of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) on undernutrition. This is the first report that undertakes a thorough review and discussion of WASH and nutrition in Bangladesh. The report is meant to serve two purposes. First, it synthesizes the results/evidence evolving on the pathway of WA...

  20. Technical and economical feasibility study of a sewage sludge disinfection plants by irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical and economical evaluation for a disinfection plant of sewage sludge based on irradiation. The process starts after sludge stabilization which is achieved by anaerobic digestion. It includes two stages, plus an optional: the first corresponds to dewatering of sewage sludge up to a solids content between 20 and 25 %, the second stage corresponds to disinfection by gamma or electron beam irradiation, and the third, which is optional, corresponds to the drying of sewage sludge up to a water content of 50%, which allows to diminish significantly the volumes of solids to be transported. If this stage is not accomplished the final product corresponds to a sewage sludge with 25 % of dry solids, which can also be disposed in agricultural land. Process was designed to treat 60 tons per day of sewage sludge (dry matter basis). The report presents the design of process equipment, principal and auxiliary, the investment and operational cost estimations as well as the total cost of treatment per ton of sewage sludge. A sensitivity analysis is also included to determine the influence of operational process parameters in operational and investment costs. The results showed that a sewage sludge plant including dewatering and disinfection process through gamma irradiation, achieves a capital investment of about US$ 12.000.000 with a treatment cost per ton of dry sludge of US$140. Including the optional air-drying stage, the total cost of treatment is about US$148 per ton of dry matter. In the case of electron beam irradiation the capital investment achieves a value of US$ 11 millions with a total treatment cost of US$ 136 per ton of dry matter. These values resulted quite similar to the cost of alternative treatment, i.e., disposal in a dedicated landfill. (L.V.)

  1. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AWARENESS AMONG RURAL UNMARRIED GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. Lack of menstrual hygiene was found to result in adverse outcomes like reproductive tract infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was done among rural unmarried girls of age group 18 - 25 years. Data collection was done by semi structured predesigned questionnaire. Data was entered in Microsoft excel and analyzed for frequency and percentage. RES ULTS: 24.33% of rural unmarried girls knew that normal age of menstruation was 14 years , 83.33% of them knew normal days of menstrual flow to be 3 - 5 days , most them knew that normal days between two cycles is 28 - 35 days while only 50% of them knew that the cause of menstruation is hormonal. All of them use pad during menstruation , however only 40% of them use sanitary napkin while 45% of them use old cloth. Among them 23.33% use both soap and water for washing genitalia while 60% of them used only water. CO NCLUSION: Knowledge regarding menstruation is unsatisfactory among the rural. So , the girls should be educated about the process of menstruation and also about the menstrual hygiene to maintain their proper health. They should also be clarified with their misconceptions.

  2. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  3. Hand hygiene knowledge of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001). PMID:20499532

  4. Assessment of microbiological and parasitological quality of composted wastes: health implications and hygienic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briancesco, Rossella; Coccia, Anna Maria; Chiaretti, Gianluca; Della Libera, Simonetta; Semproni, Maurizio; Bonadonna, Lucia

    2008-04-01

    Feedstock and compost samples were collected from twenty composting plants and analysed from the microbiological point of view. Faecal indicator organisms were determined in order to evaluate the efficacy of processes for the removal of pathogenic micro-organisms with similar survival characteristics and to verify their suitability as appropriate markers of microbial quality of composted products. In addition to the classical bacterial indicators, selected organisms, such as Salmonella, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Clostridium spores and helminth ova, were investigated. Statistically significant differences in the removal of the different micro-organisms were observed with regard to both the different composting plants (P sewage sludge was shown to have a better hygienic quality in comparison with compost containing green discards and municipal solid waste as raw matter. Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts and helminth ova were not effective indicators of hygienic quality of compost, whereas Clostridium perfringens spores, because of their high resistance to treatments, could be considered as an additional model for assessing the composting process, especially with regard to more resistant pathogen reduction. PMID:18578158

  5. Sewage sludge drying and combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Mario Alejandro Heredia

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the paper pulp production process in order to understand the origin of the sewage sludge was performed. Then a general revision of the current treatment options for this type of waste was addressed. The thermal treatment by combustion was focused and a review of the state of the art of this process was performed. The high moisture content of sludge was identified as a major concern. Thus a revision of the state of the art regarding thermal drying of sewage sludge was perform...

  6. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  7. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 yearsex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  8. [Definition of "Safety and Hygiene Packages" as a management model for the Hospital Hygiene Service (HHS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, Matteo; Damiani, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Sara; Wachocka, Malgorzata; Boninti, Federica; Bruno, Stefania; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Moscato, Umberto; Boccia, Stefania; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Posteraro, Brunella; Berloco, Filippo; Celani, Fabrizio; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and formalize the Hospital Hygiene Service activities and products, evaluating them in a cost accounting management view. The ultimate aim, is to evaluate the financial adverse events prevention impact, in an Hospital Hygiene Service management. A three step methodology based on affinity grouping activities, was employed. This methodology led us to identify 4 action areas, with 23 related productive processes, and 86 available safety packages. Owing to this new methodology, we was able to implement a systematic evaluation of the furnished services. PMID:25008222

  9. Radiation processing of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sludge resulting from municipal wastewater treatment usually is in the form of a liquid or semisolid liquid that typically contains 0.25-12% solids by weight, depending on the operations and processes used. Of the components removed in wastewater treatment, sludge is by far the greatest in volume, and the problems associated with its processing and disposal are complex because: - It is composed of the substances responsible for the offensive character of untreated wastewater; - The portion of sludge produced from biological treatment and requiring disposal is composed of the organic matter contained in the wastewater, but in a form that can decompose and become offensive; - Only a small portion of the sludge is solid matter

  10. Aluminum removal from washed sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this project is to reduce the volume of storage tank sludge to be treated by removing the Al and other nonradioactive components. In initial sludge surrogate studies, Al, Cr, and Zn showed the highest solubility in NaOH solutions; Ce and Zr were the least soluble of the elements tested. Removal of Fe and Bi approached 2%, the rest of the elements studied showed <1% removal. Amount of Al removed increased as the NaOH conc. increased from 0.1 to 6 M. Sequential washing of the sludge surrogate with 3 M NaOH removed 84% of the Al, 39% of the Cr, and 65% of the Zn. Surrogate sludges containing U and Th were also studied

  11. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  12. Irradiation of municipal sludge for agricultural use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Scott B.

    Research has demonstrated that irradiation is an effective means for reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where sludge reuse in public areas meets criteria for protection of the public health. Complementary research has demonstrated the value of the irradiated sludge in both agronomic and animal science applications. The benefits of sludge application to cropland are well documented. The irradiation process does not increase the extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals from sludge-amended soils. However, it does eliminate the hazards associated with pathogen contamination when applying sludge to agricultural land. Irradiated sludge has also been evaluated as a supplemental foodstuff for cattle and sheep. The data indicate that products derived from raw sewage may have a substantial nutritive value for ruminant animals. Irradiation of sewage sludge is a practical means of sludge disinfection. Where a highly disinfected sludge is required, it should be considered as a viable sludge management alternative. Evaluation of sludge irradiation technology and its associated costs must be done with consideration of other sludge treatment processes to develop an acceptable sludge management system.

  13. Use of irradiation for chemical and microbial decontamination of water, wastewater and sludge. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The co-ordinated research project (CRP) was established in order to focus the attention of appropriate technical experts in integrating the effects of ionizing radiation on refractory organic pollutants and pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in the treatment of water, waste water and sewage sludge. This publication describes the findings of the CRP in three subject areas: ground water remediation, decontamination of industrial and municipal waste water and sewage sludge hygienization. This publication contains 11 individual papers from participants; each of the papers was indexed separately

  14. Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-01-01

    Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease through...

  15. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; CORTESI, FLAVIA; Wolfson, Amy; Harsh, John

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was o...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF ALIMENTATION HYGIENE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Pietriková; Dagmar Kozelová; Lucia Zeleňáková

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was an analysis of nutriotion and hygienic habits of students while staying at school as well as analysis of catering hygiene in the school catering establishment. Method for obtaining information, a questionnaire was developed for this purpose (355 respondents, aged 7 – 15 years). We have focused on the awareness of the issues of healthy nutrition, the observance of the principles of personal hygiene, prioritising certain dishes and drinks, the food, the overall lev...

  17. Adoption of hand hygiene practices among health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Archanalakshmi; Meriton Stanly A.; Christina Mary Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is the most important measure to avoid the transmission of harmful germs and prevent health care-associated infections. Hand washing with plain soap removes loose transient flora even though it does not remove pathogens from the hands of healthcare workers. Proper hand hygiene is cheap, most effective, easiest and foremost method of reducing health care associated infections. This study was carried out to know the present status of hand hygiene practices and the barri...

  18. Relationship between Systems-Level Factors and Hand Hygiene Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ≥95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may o...

  19. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  20. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Srigley, Jocelyn A; Lightfoot, David; Fernie, Geoff; Gardam, Michael; Muller, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provi...

  1. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR; Murat Cengizhan YAŞ; SEPET, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as w...

  2. Personal Hygiene and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002–2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygien...

  3. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, D

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate han...

  4. Feminine hygiene practices among female patients and nurses in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Methods Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. Results The study included 249 women. 21.3...

  5. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  6. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming;

    2001-01-01

    Hydrophobic contaminants sorb to sludge in wastewater treatment plants and enter the soil environment when the sludge is applied to agricultural fields. The mineralization of pyrene was examined in soil, in sludge mixed homogeneously into soil, and in sludge-soil systems containing a lump of sludge....... Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  7. Hand hygiene performance and beliefs among public university employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2015-10-01

    The workplace is an important location to access community members, and employers have a direct interest in employee well-being. A survey administered to a random sample of employees at a Midwestern US university tested the ability of a model informed by the theory of planned behavior to predict hand hygiene practices and beliefs using structural equation modeling. Questions demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Constructs predicted self-reported hand hygiene behaviors, and hand hygiene behaviors reduced the odds of reporting sickness from respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections. The findings support multi-modal hand hygiene improvement interventions. PMID:24265297

  8. Waldorf School - the Strategy of Education of Mental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    HORÁKOVÁ, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question, what is the strategy of mental hygiene education at the Waldorf school. The aim was to find out how mental hygiene at the Waldorf school is educated and then compare this strategy with the strategy of mental hygiene education at the school of traditional education system. Another aim of this study was to show whether the correct strategy of mental hygiene education in elementary schools has some influence on the development of the child. The research was m...

  9. Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo

    2007-06-01

    Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process.

  10. Work plan for integrated sludge packaging demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the tasks which will be performed to support the hot demonstration of the integrated sludge packaging system to package the sludge that has accumulated in the KE Basin. This activity will be performed in three phases: Phase 1 will consist of testing component and sub-system performance using a surrogate sludge, Phase 2 will consist of cold testing the integrated sludge packaging system using a surrogate sludge, and Phase 3 will consist of the hot demonstration of the integrated sludge packaging system

  11. [The hygiene of refrigerated and frozen foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinell, H J

    1989-04-01

    Health and spoilage hazards arising from refrigerated and deep frozen foods may be due to - raw materials, e.g. pathogenic microorganisms which come from infected living animals or contaminate raw foods during handling. Psychrotrophic organisms have particular significance as pathogens or spoilage organisms as they can multiply also during refrigeration; - improper processing. Temperature abuse and incorrect time/temperature relations are main causes for microorganisms being not destroyed at the expected rate or even getting a chance of multiplying. Proper handling after refrigeration or frozen storage of foods ("hygiene of thawing") deserves also particular attention. - contamination, i.e. initial contamination of raw products which are ready for consumption without further processing (fruits, raw salads). Recontamination which follows a heat process is much more important and occurs before, during and after application of cold. In those cases, again, one has to distinguish between products which (a) are ready for consumption without a process (bakery and confectionary goods, ice cream, drinking milk) and (b) have to pass a process which reduces the bacterial load before consuming the food (ready to eat dishes or other foods ready for reheating in the home). Sites of increased hygienic hazard are a) lack of partitioning "clean" and "unclean" areas and processes, b) defects of sanitation and hygiene of personnel, c) defects of packaging, d) leakage during aseptic filling. Hazards are controlled through product and plant specific analysis of the process flow followed by continuous monitoring the "Critical Control Points". As an example, a report is given on a study on random samples taken from 180.000 prepackaged deep frozen menus which had been produced for a mass meeting. Microbiological monitoring of the process revealed time/temperature relations as critical control points of primary importance. Particular problems arose from any stoppage at the production line

  12. Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of sewage sludge; Digestion aerobia termofila autosostenida de lodos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de las Heras, J. L.; Gutierrez, I.

    2002-07-01

    Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) is one of the most promising technologies for applying the digested sludge to soil amendment. The system was studied in the 60's and developed mostly in Europe since the 70's. The full-scale facilities improvement ran in parallel to the scientific and legislative worry about the presence of pathogenic organisms both in the raw and the digested sewage sludge. ATAD is usually a two stage aerobic process working in the thermophilic temperature range (40 to 80 degree centigree) without any external heat source; the heat produced by the biochemical exergonic reactions during the aerobic degradation of the organic sludge holds the desired temperature values. A comparison of this system with the existing anaerobic stabilisation processes shows as main advantages a high hygienization capacity, small reactor volume for the same organic loading, is resistant to overloading and temperature shocks, is easily manageable, and is economically feasible for small.medium size populations. This process is specially suitable to fulfill the law requirements imposed by the most demanding countries regarding the application of treated sewage sludge to soil improvement. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Space for Hygiene in Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene—the bathroom. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time, urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well into the dwelling......, and in many dwellings, the bathroom has developed as the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today’s housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of “space for hygiene” in the 20th century will be...

  14. Oral hygiene for the partially edentulous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, M A; Grant, A A

    1981-04-01

    THE EFFECTIVENESS of a proximal brush on the interdental hygiene for partially edentulous individuals was investigated. Nineteen partially edentulous adults participated in a crossover study. Three groups were instructed to use the toothbrush alone or a toothbrush combined with either toothpicks or proximal brush. The effectiveness of the cleansing devices was measured by the amount of plaque remaining on the examined surfaces. The results indicated that the cleaning efficiency of the proximal brush is greater than that of the toothpicks on the proximal surfaces of teeth adjacent to edentulous areas. On the other hand, the toothpicks were more effective on the proximal surfaces of teeth in contact. PMID:6939841

  15. Radon: radiation aspects of residential hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article attempts to outline the role that radon plays in the radiation hygiene of the living environment. The natural occurrence of 222Rn and the internal irradiation doses caused by the daughter products are discussed. The induction of lung cancer in various groups of mine workers exposed to radon and radon daughter products is considered and the factors affecting the concentration of radon in buildings, particularly houses, are presented. A number of case studies concerning the occurrence of radon in dwellings in different countries, are outlined. (C.F.)

  16. Urgency of changing paradigms in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance

  17. Dental Hygiene Program Directors' Perceptions of Graduate Dental Hygiene Education and Future Faculty Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S.; Mann, Ginger; Tishk, Maxine

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)

  18. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Tecchnical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Aemmaelae, A.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), Email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi

    2010-10-15

    Wastewater sludges contain valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aimed with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge were the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. The effects of wood based filter aids were studied on the dewatering properties of waste activated sludge. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.)

  19. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  20. Radiation method for hygienization food and agriculture products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of food and agriculture products have been used for several goals. That are: disinsectization, disinfection, sprout inhibition and retardation of mattering. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology). The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and and industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author)

  1. [Guidelines for hygienic classification of learning technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Teksheva, L M; Milushkina, O Iu

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of the educational environment under the present-day conditions has been in progress, by using learning techwares (LTW) without fail. To organize and regulate an academic process in terms of the safety of applied LTW, there is a need for their classification. The currently existing attempts to structure LTW disregard hygienically significant aspects. The task of the present study was to substantiate a LTW safety criterion ensuring a universal approach to working out regulations. This criterion may be the exposure intensity determined by the form of organization of education and its pattern, by the procedure of information presentation, and the age-related peculiarities of a pupil, i.e. by the actual load that is presented by the product of the intensity exposure and its time. The hygienic classification of LTW may be used to evaluate their negative effect in an educational process on the health status of children and adolescents, to regulate hazardous factors and training modes, to design and introduce new learning complexes. The structuring of a LTW system allows one to define possible deleterious actions and the possibilities of preventing this action on the basis of strictly established regulations. PMID:18592639

  2. Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyás, Z

    1978-01-01

    Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures.Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel.Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc.In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques. PMID:310716

  3. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  4. Building health: The need for electromagnetic hygiene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isaac A.; Holdstock, Paul; ApSimon, Helen M.; Bell, J. Nigel B.

    2010-04-01

    Whilst the electromagnetic nature of the built environment has changed considerably over the past century, little thought is at present given to the possible advantages of creating electromagnetic microenvironments that more closely resemble those found in nature and/or developing biologically-friendly technology aligned more closely to its operating principles. This review paper examines how more natural exposures to a variety of electromagnetic phenomena could be re-introduced into the built environment, possible benefits that might arise, and discusses the extent to which there may be tangible benefits obtainable from introducing more rigorous properly considered electromagnetic hygiene measures. Amongst the matters discussed are: the effects of different materials, finishes and electrical items on charge generation (and the effects of excess charge on contaminant deposition); the possible benefits of suitably grounding conductive objects (including humans) in order to reduce excess charge and contaminant deposition; how the presence of vertical electric field regimes, similar to those found in nature, may enhance biological performance; and possible pitfalls to avoid when seeking to introduce appropriate electromagnetic hygiene regimes.

  5. Veterinary urban hygiene: a challenge for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Ghatak, S; Banga, H S; Gill, J P S; Singh, B

    2013-12-01

    India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems. PMID:24761721

  6. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Richard T.; Barysauskas, Constance M.; Rundensteiner, Elke A; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A prospective controlled trial conducted in two intensive care units found that an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provides real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance can increase hand hygiene activity.

  7. Pemeliharaan Oral Hygiene Dan Penanggulangan Komplikasi Perawatan Ortodonti

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuditha, Findya

    2011-01-01

    Perawatan ortodonti merupakan salah satu bentuk perawatan dalam bidang kedokteran gigi yang berperan penting untuk memperbaiki susunan gigi sehingga dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pengunyahan, berbicara, serta penampilan. Keberhasilan dari perawatan ortodonti dapat dipengaruhi oleh oral hygiene, pengetahuan tentang komplikasi, dan cara penanggulang selama pemakaian pesawat ortodonti, sehingga kerusakan yang parah dapat dihindarkan. Pemeliharaan oral hygiene merupakan faktor yang berperan un...

  8. Changes in Generic and Degree Completion Dental Hygiene Student Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda

    1989-01-01

    A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)

  9. The Effect of Recent Trends on Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Chester W.

    1991-01-01

    Six trends affecting dental hygiene practice are discussed: demographic changes; disease pattern changes; higher societal expectations; financing and delivery system changes; technological advancement; and regulatory and legislative trends. It is argued that, though the trends reflect positively on dental hygiene, practitioners need to increase…

  10. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  11. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  12. Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

  13. Requirements and Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a guide for dental hygiene education program development, and to serve as a stimulus for improving established programs. The first section of the report discusses the function of the Council on Dental Education and the trends in hygiene program development. In section II the requirements for an accredited…

  14. General radiation hygiene and safety aspects in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation of all essential aspects concerning practical radiation hygiene in dental radiography is given. The report reflects the established opinion and practice of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene evolved through many years of experience in this field. The principal target group includes all dental staff members in Norway

  15. Dental Hygiene Curriculum Model for Transition to Future Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarmann, Carlene S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)

  16. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are perfec

  17. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  18. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  19. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9 School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  20. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  1. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  2. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  3. The dangers of dirt: household hygiene and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging changes in hygiene practices are potentially one of the mosteffective means of reducing the global impact of diarrhoeal diseases, whichkill an estimated 3.3 million children a year. However, efforts to improve hygiene in the developing world have met with limited success. Some of thereas

  4. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  5. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27... § 850.27 Hygiene facilities and practices. (a) General. The responsible employer must assure that...

  6. Quality approach in hygiene in a nuclear medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of nuclear medicine, by their constraints of radiation protection, present difficulties for rules of hygiene protocols. Considering the particular risks of certain techniques, the approach brings to the fore the compromise between radiation protection and hygiene and to adapt the recommendations to local specificities. (N.C.)

  7. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility, located in the 100-N Area. This facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  8. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  9. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  10. Effect of cations on activated sludge dewatering

    OpenAIRE

    Raynaud, M.; Vaxelaire, J.; Héritier, P.; Baudez, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Even after mechanical dewatering, the residual water within activated sludge remains high. Due to its complex structure, this material is usually extremely compressible and known to be difficult to dewater. The ability of sludge to dewater depends on its biological nature, its composition and also the type of treatment it comes from. Indeed, changes in ionic strength and in ionic composition of sludge affect the stability of structural properties of activated sludge and thus the dewatering...

  11. Hybrid Sludge Modeling in Water Treatment Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Sludge occurs in many waste water and drinking water treatment processes. The numeric modeling of sludge is therefore crucial for developing and optimizing water treatment processes. Numeric single-phase sludge models mainly include settling and viscoplastic behavior. Even though many investigators emphasize the importance of modeling the rheology of sludge for good simulation results, it is difficult to measure, because of settling and the viscoplastic behavior. In this thesis, a new method ...

  12. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Lousada-Ferreira, M

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of the sludge to be filtrated through a membrane, in a wastewater treatment system designated as Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). An MBR is a wastewater treatment system that combines an activated sludge proc...

  13. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Maureen EC; Sargeant, Jan M.; Weese, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygien...

  14. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    cultural perceptions of hygiene and sanitation which inform everyday hygiene practices did not differ substantially and were similar to hygiene explanations found in the rural majority population elsewhere in Vietnam. However, the difficult living conditions, particularly in highland communities, reinforce...... a sense of marginalization among the EMGs, which had great impact on how they perceive and respond to government sanitation interventions. The enclosed latrines promoted by authorities are met with reluctance by the EMGs due to cultural perceptions of the body as permeable and therefore, vulnerable......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is...

  15. Relating admissions criteria to dental hygiene student retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Tammy R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to identify preadmission variables that relate to dental hygiene student retention. METHODS. An online survey was sent by email to 309 dental hygiene chairs/program directors. The survey comprised 18 questions to collect program demographic information, program admissions requirements, and program student retention rates. RESULTS. There were 139 respondents who participated in the survey for a 45% return rate. The mean for program retention of participating accredited dental hygiene programs was 91%. Stepwise regression analysis discovered three independent variables (aE=0.15) that relate to dental hygiene program retention rates. These independent variables include interviews (p=0.054), overall college GPA (p=0.029), and overall high school GPA (p=0.141). CONCLUSION. Preadmission requirements that include overall high school GPA, overall college GPA, and interviews can be used by admissions committees to predict dental hygiene student retention. PMID:25433188

  16. Fractionation and business potential from sludge (Pafrak)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P.; Kylloenen, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Niinimaeki, J.; Oksanen, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generation of potential business ideas which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Municipal waste activated sludge and deinking, primary, waste activated and tertiary sludge from pulp and paper industry are the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Dewatering properties, which are one of the key topics, have been studied with a novel flocculation/filtration device. Conventional fractionation equipment (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone. filter belt press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge could be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. One of the key issues in future research is how to affect the binding forces between different substances in sludge. (orig.)

  17. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  18. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  19. Understanding the Determinants of Australian Hospital Nurses' Hand Hygiene Decisions Following the Implementation of a National Hand Hygiene Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this…

  20. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety.

  1. Abstracts of 14th radiation hygiene days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 90 abstracts of submitted papers and posters. All have been inputted in INIS. They concern radiation hygiene and radiation protection, this both in general terms and in terms of occupational hazards; they inform on natural radioactivity measurement; on radon levels in buildings; the assessment and monitoring of escapes of radioisotopes into the environment (especially following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident). The questions are discussed of building monitoring networks in the environs of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste burial sites. Some presentations deal with dose measurement and spectrum evaluation; the organisation of the national personnel dosimetry service; tests of radiopharmaceuticals purity and activity; dosimetry work during dismantle of a shutdown reactor; medical radiology risks; and other problems. (M.D.)

  2. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  3. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  4. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (peducational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices. PMID:24882769

  5. Sewage sludge and wastewater for use in agriculture. Proceedings of consultants meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, gamma rays and electron beams have been successfully used on sludges and wastewater to eliminate pathogenic organisms and some toxic chemicals. Sufficient technical data are available for gamma treatment of sludges, permitting its application on the demonstration or commercial scale, but gaps in our knowledge exist for the practical application of electron-beam technology. The IAEA's involvement in studies of radiation processing of sewage sludge dates back several years. A five-year Co-ordinated Research programme on Radiation Treatment of Sewage Sludge for Safe Reutilization, involving Canada, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and the United State of America, was completed in 1990. This programme laid a solid foundation on which future programmes can be built. However, at present, information is limited on the availability of nutrients from sewage sludges to crops, its benefits as an organic amendment to soil, and the harmful effects of heavy metals on crop growth. Isotope and radiation techniques are valuable tools of potential use in finding answers to some of these questions

  6. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  7. The World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Hugo; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Chraïti, Marie-Noëlle; Boyce, John; Larson, Elaine; Pittet, Didier

    2009-12-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene adherence and providing performance feedback to health care workers is a critical component of multimodal hand hygiene promotion programs, but important variations exist in the way adherence is measured. Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) First Global Patient Safety Challenge known as "Clean Care is Safer Care," an evidence-based, user-centered concept, "My five moments for hand hygiene," has been developed for measuring, teaching, and reporting hand hygiene adherence. This concept is an integral part of the WHO's hand hygiene improvement strategy conceived to translate the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care into practice. It has been tested in numerous health care facilities worldwide to ensure its applicability and adaptability to all settings irrespective of the resources available. Here we describe the WHO hand hygiene observation method in detail-the concept, the profile and the task of the observers, their training and validation, the data collection form, the scope, the selection of the observed staff, and the observation sessions-with the objective of making it accessible for universal use. Sample size estimates, survey analysis and report, and major bias and confounding factors associated with observation are discussed. PMID:20004812

  8. [Guidelines on hand hygiene in health care institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenić, Smilja; Budimir, Ana; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Acketa, Lorena; Belina, Drazen; Benko, Ivan; Bosnjak, Danica; Culo, Marija; Jajić, Ines; Kis, Marina; Kos, Karmela; Koscák, Darko; Kuzman, Ilija; Lekić, Dusica; Prugovecki, Danijela; Juraga, Ana Tomić

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) are huge problem all over the world, and 5-10% of all hospitalized patients will develop infection during hospitalization. From the times of I. P. Semelweiss we know that clean hands are the most important single factor that can decrease the number of HCAI. World Health Organization (WHO) has recognised this problem and developed Guidelines for hand hygiene in healthcare institutions. This also was the reason of developing Croatian national Guidelines. The main goal of the Guidelines was to decrease number of HCAI associated with the hands of healthcare workers. These Guidelines are meant for all healthcare workers and other hospital staff who come to the direct contact with patients. An interdisciplinary team of experts developed these Guidelines using WHO Guidelines, other existing guidelines and literature reviews for hand hygiene. Grades of evidence for specific recommendations were determined using CDC/HICPAC grading system. Categorization is based on existing data, theoretical basis, applicability and economic impact. After a broad discussion in different professional societies, Guidelines were accepted. Guidelines include recommendations for hand hygiene indications, hand hygiene technique, surgical hand preparation, choosing hand hygiene preparations, skin care, nails, glove use, patients and visitors hand hygiene, role of education, as well as role of healthcare institution and role of government. Furthermore, in the Guidelines the concept of "Five moments for hand hygiene" is explained in detail, and main literature data are presented. PMID:21888080

  9. Solidification process for sludge residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-09-10

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria.

  10. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  11. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  12. Quantification of wastewater sludge dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Samuel J; Studer, Lindsay J; Dixon, David R; Hillis, Peter; Rees, Catherine A; Wall, Rachael C; Cavalida, Raul G; Usher, Shane P; Stickland, Anthony D; Scales, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Quantification and comparison of the dewatering characteristics of fifteen sewage sludges from a range of digestion scenarios are described. The method proposed uses laboratory dewatering measurements and integrity analysis of the extracted material properties. These properties were used as inputs into a model of filtration, the output of which provides the dewatering comparison. This method is shown to be necessary for quantification and comparison of dewaterability as the permeability and compressibility of the sludges varies by up to ten orders of magnitude in the range of solids concentration of interest to industry. This causes a high sensitivity of the dewaterability comparison to the starting concentration of laboratory tests, thus simple dewaterability comparison based on parameters such as the specific resistance to filtration is difficult. The new approach is demonstrated to be robust relative to traditional methods such as specific resistance to filtration analysis and has an in-built integrity check. Comparison of the quantified dewaterability of the fifteen sludges to the relative volatile solids content showed a very strong correlation in the volatile solids range from 40 to 80%. The data indicate that the volatile solids parameter is a strong indicator of the dewatering behaviour of sewage sludges. PMID:26003332

  13. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172. ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  14. Self-reported oral hygiene practices among adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Krustrup, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the present level of oral hygiene practices in the Danish adult population aged 16 or above, in particular to analyse how self-care practices in terms of oral hygiene habits and cleaning of dentures are affected by socio-economic factors, dental status, actual dental visiting......-administered questionnaires. The response rate was 66%. RESULTS: Toothbrushing twice-a-day was reported by 68% of the dentates while 32% brushed their teeth once-a-day or less frequent. Daily use of toothpicks was reported by 28% while daily use of dental floss was reported by 11%. Oral hygiene habits were more frequent...

  15. Promoting action control and coping planning to improve hand hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Lippke, Sonia; Knoll, Nina; Blanca Moya, Emanuel; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined a brief educational intervention addressing hand hygiene self-regulatory mechanisms, and evaluated which psychological mechanisms may lead to hand hygiene behaviours. Methods Two hundred forty two students (mean age = 21 years, SD = 3.9) received either an experimental (n = 149) or a control condition on action control and planning (n = 93). Hand hygiene, coping planning, and action control were measured at baseline and six weeks later. By applying repeated measures ANO...

  16. Oral Hygiene Level Maintenance among Dental Medicine Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kocovski, Darko; Toneva, Verica; Dimova, Cena; Apostoloski, Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral hygiene is one of the most important measures for the preservation and promotion of oral health. Not proper maintenance of oral hygiene leads to create dental plaque. Dental plaque of the teeth and gums is the major cause of diseases of the tissues such as tooth decay, sensitivity of teeth and tooth necks, sore gums, gum recession, loosening of the teeth as a result of periodontitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of maintenance of oral hygiene am...

  17. Aspects of food hygiene and demands on irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legislation of food irradiation in the GDR has been entailing a number of topical demands on food research and monitoring. International literature has been evaluated for aspects of food hygiene in the context of irradiation, with the view to ensure proper preservation and hygiene of foodstuff. Dose-dependent induced radioactivity, formation of toxic substances as well as the impact of radiation on biological valence and on sensorial food conditions are discussed, with particular reference to microbicidal action of ionizidng radiation. Conclusions are drawn in the context of food hygiene, with general demands on irradiation of foodstuff. (author)

  18. COCA Call: New Frontiers in Hand Hygiene Practices

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-11

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call, "New Frontiers in Implementation and Measurement of Hand Hygiene Practices." CDC's Katherine Ellingson discusses recent challenges in applying hand hygiene recommendations and identifies global and national campaign activities and resources that support hand hygiene in the reduction of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).  Created: 5/11/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID/DHQP) and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  19. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  20. Effects of hygiene guidance associated or not to provision of hygiene devices on habits of denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferruzzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate hygiene of dentures contributes to the maintenance of oral and systemic health. However, most of denture wearers had never been instructed on how to perform daily oral/denture care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of a guidance material associated or not to the provision of hygiene devices and its effect on the habits of denture wearers. Forty- eight complete denture wearers were randomly divided into three groups. Group N received no guidance on how to clean and wear their dentures, group G received an illustrated leaflet and verbal complementary instructions and group GK received the same guidance as group G and a hygiene kit for denture cleaning. After a six to ten week period they responded to a ‘hygiene and wearing habits’ questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis considering p < 0.05. Brushing was the most frequent cleaning method, the majority of groups N and G used toothpaste. Participants of group G and GK presented low percentages of individuals with hygiene and wearing routine considered improper. The differences between groups in hygiene and wearing routine were statistically significant (p < 0.001. The proposed guidance material yielded better results when associated to provision of hygiene devices for denture cleaning.

  1. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A Scheinemann

    Full Text Available Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%, the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45% is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  2. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  3. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  4. Irradiation of sewage sludge and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigaton was to establish how the chemico-physical nature of sewage sludge varies with irradiation dose and circulaton frequency. For aerobically-stable sludge, irradiation treatment was found to improve settling, whereas dehydration was impaired. Irradiation achieved an approx. 20% improvement in dehydration for anaerobically stable sewage from a non-heated fermentation room. Filtration resistance and the amount of organic flocculant required deteriorated, however. For anaerobic sludge from a heated fermentation room, settling behaviour improved by 10%, specific filtration resistance by 50% and dehyration by as much as 80% upon irradiation. A radiation dose greater than 300 krad (3000 T/kg) was however necessary. The amount of organic flocculant required remained uncharged and at the same time more favourable settling and filtering characteristics of the sludge could be observed. Increase in dry matter of the liquid sludge on irradiation was caused to same 60-95% by suspended matter (> 0.45 μm). Increasing circulation frequency led, in general, to a deterioration in the sludge characteristics of all treated sludges. In order to achieve a dose distribution as homogenous as possible, irradiation should be carried out with a medium circulation frequency of approx. 1.5 rotations/min. Irradiated sewage sludge had more favourable physical properties compared to pasteurisation and had no repugnant odor. Provided sufficient inoculating sludge is added to raw sewage, irradiation treatment does not affect the fermentation gas production. Irradiated sludge exhibited a slightly more favourable settling and filtration behaviour. (orig./MG)

  5. Use of Distance Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed dental hygiene programs to determine the prevalence of distance education use. Found that 22 percent have distance education, and that most were satisfied with it as an adequate alternative to traditional approaches. (EV)

  6. Task Force on Innovation in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The background, origins, functions, and recommendations of the American Association of Dental Schools' task force investigating improvement of access to dental hygiene training programs and of curriculum and program design are presented. (MSE)

  7. Assessing Interdisciplinary Education in U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lorie; Bray, Kimberly; Mayberry, Bill; Overman, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)

  8. Paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene: a Japanese mothers' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the views of 20 Japanese mothers concerning paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene. In Japan, routine male circumcision has never been implemented for newborns and children, and adult males are mostly circumcised at aesthetic clinics. However, media reports indicate a trend of Japanese mothers willing to have their sons circumcised. In discussing penile hygiene and male circumcision, the construct of a 'sexual script' becomes relevant to understanding how linguistic and gender barriers made references to male genitalia and penile hygiene largely appear as 'vulgar' and 'unfeminine' in daily life conversations. Peers were often identified as the main source of information and only mothers who have struggled with their children's penile infections have learnt about male genital hygiene, a domain of knowledge largely transmitted by men. Male circumcision becomes a double-edged sword that could help prevent penile infections but also an embarrassing conversational topic that could elicit discrimination because most Japanese children are uncircumcised. PMID:24152018

  9. PLOS Medicine and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Committed Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    The PLOS Medicine Editors,

    2014-01-01

    The PLOS Medicine editors discuss the importance of water, sanitation, and hygiene and confirm PLOS Medicine's commitment to continuing to publish WASH-related research. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  10. National Institute for Radiation Hygiene - Annual Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the activities at the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Norway during 1991. Lists of staff, publications, lectures and conference papers are included, together with a summary of participation in international working groups etc. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  12. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  13. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge in a pilot plant (60Co gamma-radiation 300 krad, 300 min.). The reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 23 sludge batches from digestor II, 21 were free of Salmonella after irradiation. Of 7 sludge batches from digestor I with a higher level of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonellae, 5 batches still contained Salmonella after treatment. By making some alterations in the pipe system and reloading further cobalt 60-sources, the duration of irradiation could be reduced to 65 min. while maintaining the dose level of 300 krad. Employing this altered procedure, 16 batches from digestor II and 4 from digestor I were irradiated to date. Only in one of 60 samples were Salmonellae detectable. The hygienic effects of the irradiation plant were confirmed by means of model experiment with pure bacterial cultures. Microorganisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their radiosensitivity. Parasitological experiments were conducted with Ascaris suum ova. No embryonation was noted after radiation treatment at a dose of 300 krad. (orig./HK)

  14. Hygiene and good manufacturing practice in terms of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel CEVİZCİ; Ayşe Emel ÖNAL

    2009-01-01

    With globalization, presenting service and product which have good quality and conformity with hygienic regulations, have become more important in health, pharmacy and food sectors. That’s why the quality control and documentation systems which are also considerable in terms of public health, were about to change. Today, lots of companies especially in health sector, prefer “Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)”- including a developed quality-hygiene control and documentation method - that they...

  15. Community Participation & Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudip Joshi. Community Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal. Language: English. Jarvenpaa, Autumn 2011, 79 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The study specifically intends to assess the situation of community ownership of sanitation and hygiene in rural communities of Western Nepal through a community development perspective. The present study provides an overview of the Rural Wate...

  16. Water, sanitation and hygiene: The missing link with agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tsegai, Daniel; McBain, Florence; Tischbein, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate access to safe water and sanitation services coupled with poor hygiene practices continues to kill, sicken and diminish opportunities of millions of people in developing countries. Various interventions to improve drinking water quality and service levels, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) have been applied, albeit in isolated approaches. Relevant literature focused on assessing the cost and health effectiveness of such approaches. In parallel, irrigation in agriculture, which affects a...

  17. A survey on oral hygiene practices among Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Esa, R.; Razak, I. A.; Jallaudin, R. L.; Jaafar, N.

    1992-01-01

    A survey on oral hygiene practices was conducted on 537 dentate adult patients aged 15 years and over. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in dental behavior with regards to socio-demographic factors, namely age, sex, ethnicity, income, education and occupational status. Patients attending nine randomly selected government dental clinics were interviewed on their daily oral hygiene practices. The majority (89.7) of the subjects reported that they brushed their teeth, 68 use...

  18. Oral Health and Hygiene Content in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonski, Rita A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published pri...

  19. Clinical review: Airway hygiene in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Jelic, Sanja; Cunningham, Jennifer A; Factor, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few are substantiated by clinical data. This review focuses on the impact of oral hygiene, tracheal suctio...

  20. Hygiene of the skin: when is clean too clean?

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, E.

    2001-01-01

    Skin hygiene, particularly of the hands, is a primary mechanism for reducing contact and fecal-oral transmission of infectious agents. Widespread use of antimicrobial products has prompted concern about emergence of resistance to antiseptics and damage to the skin barrier associated with frequent washing. This article reviews evidence for the relationship between skin hygiene and infection, the effects of washing on skin integrity, and recommendations for skin care practices.

  1. Effectiveness of a denture hygiene intervention programme among institutionalized elders

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Kar-yan; Cheung, Hiu-ching; Chung, Sze-man; Lai, Chi-fung; Leung, Ki-ki; Leung, Yat-fung; Ng, Yuk-chun; Wah, Yat-shing, Jonathan; Wong, Chun-lung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a denture hygiene intervention programme in terms of improving denture cleanliness and denture stomatitis. Methods: Residents at seven elderly care homes were invited to participate in a denture hygiene programme. Clinical assessment of denture stomatitis was undertaken and denture cleanliness assessed: (i) qualitatively by the Denture Cleanliness Index ratings and (ii) quantitatively by planimetric assessments of plaque coverage from digital im...

  2. Assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, AKC; Lau, SSY; Wong, WS; Lung, DPY; Chau, KW; Ho, DCW; Wong, SK; Leung, HF

    2004-01-01

    The recent global outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome has aroused public concern on environmental health and hygiene. Develops a practical assessment scheme for assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings in Hong Kong. The scheme involves assessing a hierarchy of building factors that have a bearing on environmental qualities, and thus occupants' health. Proposes an index method to integrate the assessment outcomes into a simple and user- friendly performance...

  3. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  4. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabe Saquib Abullais; Nitin Dani; Priyanka Ningappa; Kapil Golvankar; Amit Chavan; Nikhil Malgaonkar; Anup Gore

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patien...

  5. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite consider...

  6. Assessment of hand hygiene levels among healthcare professionals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rameswarapu, Rohin; K, Surendranath Sai; Valsangkar, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionHand hygiene, either by hand disinfection or hand washing remains to be most pivotal in controlling infection in healthcare settings. Simple preventive measures have been proven effective to contain infections. The exiguity on studies done in healthcare settings in India has galvanized us to undertake this study on hand hygiene assessment among nurses in a healthcare setting in IndiaMaterials and methodsA cross sectional study was done in one of leading organization in preventive ...

  7. An exploration of consultant doctors' hand hygiene: practice and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Westbury, J

    2012-01-01

    Hand hygiene is considered the cornerstone of infection prevention practice, but previous studies demonstrate one group of healthcare professionals, doctors, have not achieved good levels of compliance in comparison to other staff groups. The aim of the research was to examine consultant doctors? practice and perspectives of hand hygiene, exploring their perceptions as leaders and role models, so as to identify strategies to improve compliance. The study design was based on naturalistic i...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video (Short Version)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 4/26/2010.

  9. Hygiene and welfare evaluation of pigs slaughtered in agritourisms

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Mazzette; Francesca Piras; Vanessa Agus; Gabriella Porcheddu; Giuseppe Fois; Simonetta Gianna Consolati

    2015-01-01

    The slaughtering procedures at agritourism farms must be carried out in accordance with the general and hygiene requirements of Regulations (EC) No 852 and 853/2004. In addition, regional laws define minimum requirements allowing some flexibility. Piglets and finishing pigs are the most frequently slaughtered animal in Sardinian agritourism farms. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate: the general and hygiene requirements of outbuilding slaughterhouses in agritourisms; the animal welf...

  10. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  11. AIR AS A FACTOR AFFECTING FOOD HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Jomová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The air is the most endangered component of the environment. The air pollution has not only got various economical and ecological consequences but also has various negative effects on human health, animals, plants and food hygiene. Elevated anthropogenic SO2 emissions can also have negative influences upon the environmental conditions, human health, and ecosystems. The most emissions come from industrial chimneys, heavy traffic emissions and population density. It is inevitable to monitor the state of the air pollution. Submitted work includes the summary of the sulphur dioxide pollution and its impact on the environment in the area of chemical factory Duslo Šaľa, Inc. Monitoring anthropic impacts help us to predict what requirements on space particular industry requires and how they act in the area. The basis of our evaluation was observing diversity monitoring and types of negative anthropogenic features in monitored area: concentrations of SO2 in air, real sources of air pollution from the vehicles and other mechanisms and real sources of air pollution from local town residential area sources.

  12. Radiation hygienization of poultry processing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hygienization has been standardized as an essential step in the preparation of value added products such as protein hydrolysates using proteolytic enzymes from chicken intestine. The total bacterial count and coliform count of the intestine were 1± 0.54 X 107 and 9.7 ± 2.36 X 106 cfu/g tissue respectively. A dose dependent decrease in bacterial count was observed when chicken intestine was exposed to gamma radiation. The total bacterial count was reduced by 4 log cycles and 6 log cycles at 5 kGy and 10 kGy respectively. During post irradiation storage for 20 days at 4 degC, the total bacterial count was found to increase by 2 log cycles in these samples. A radiation dose of 25 kGy rendered the samples sterile, which remained so during the entire period of storage. Exposure to ionizing radiation did not cause any significant change in the activities of tissue proteases. Nearly 90% of the activities of cathepsin D and aminopeptidase were retained in samples exposed to 25 kGy even after storage for 20 days. (author)

  13. Biosorption of fluoroquinolones by activated sludge and aerobic granules sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vanessa R. A.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Cravo, Sara M.; Tiritan, Maria E.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Afonso, Carlos M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral communication Antibiotic residues have been detected in various environmental matrices, such as surface water and even drinking water. Although present at low levels (μg/L, ng/L), many antibiotics are bioaccumulative, pseudo-persistent and can promote resistance/alterations in bacterial populations [1]. Recent studies on antibiotics removal by activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granules (AGS) show biosorption as the dominant process, determining the fate of these micropollutants [2-3]....

  14. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  15. A Survey of Hand Hygiene Facilities in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun Adesola Busari; Matthew Segun Agboola; Oluwalana Timothy Oyekale; Olubunmi Mercy Ojo; Opeyemi James Oje; Yusuf Olatunji Oladosun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Hand hygiene causes a significant reduction in the carriage of potential pathogen in the hand. Inadequate hand hygiene facilities is one of the factors affecting compliance with hand hygiene by health care workers. The objective of the study was to evaluate the availability and accessibility of hand hand hygiene facilities and supplies of hand hygiene agents in the inpatient wards of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted in a federal tert...

  16. Effect of good hygiene practices intervention on food safety in senior secondary schools in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, Patricia; Taylor, Tony; Swainson, Mark; Daramola, Bukola

    2016-01-01

    Eleven schools in three different hygiene categories were given hygiene training as an intervention to reported low hygiene standards. Staff hygiene knowledge scores, food temperature, food service time and microbiological quality of jollof rice (cooked rice in tomato sauce and fish) were measured before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon’s Signed- Rank Test for repeated measures on SPSS were used to evaluate the effect of GHP intervention. Staff hygiene knowledge...

  17. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  18. The influence of sewage sludge treatment on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge amended soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kouloumpos, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the current work were a) to identify the correlation between sewage sludge conditioning / dewatering processing and fate of a major sludge organic pollutant (Nonylphenol, NP) in sludge-amended soils and b) to provide, if possible, clues about the mechanism driving this correlation. In view was a contribution to predicting and controlling the fate of organic xenobiotics in the soil-sludge environment, by examining an until now not adequately studied, but nevertheless potentia...

  19. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  20. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  1. Environmental sustainability of wastewater sludge treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer-Souchet, Florence; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The European Water Framework Directive addresses the issue of pollution from urban waste water and is thereby changing the scope of sewage treatment. As part of this process, the Neptune project (EU, FP6) focuses on developing new and upgrading existing technologies of waste water and sludge...... treatment for municipal waste water. A special focus area in Neptune is sludge handling because the sludge amount is expected to increase due to advanced waste water treatment. The main sludge processing methods assessed in Neptune can be divided into two categories: disintegration processes before...... resources. As part of a sustainability assessment (or “best practice evaluation”), a comparison between the existing and new sludge handling techniques have been done by use of life cycle assessment (LCA).The concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts when introducing a new sludge treatment...

  2. Effects of hygiene guidance associated or not to provision of hygiene devices on habits of denture wearers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Ferruzzi; Júlio César Leonard Sabzack Martins; Giovani Oliveira Corrêa; Eduardo Kurihara; Sérgio Sábio

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate hygiene of dentures contributes to the maintenance of oral and systemic health. However, most of denture wearers had never been instructed on how to perform daily oral/denture care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of a guidance material associated or not to the provision of hygiene devices and its effect on the habits of denture wearers. Forty- eight complete denture wearers were randomly divided into three groups. Group N received no guidance on how to c...

  3. Sludge Properties, Sellafield, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the preparation for decommissioning pond facilities, it will be necessary to characterize wastes. However, it should be recognized that it is difficult to fully characterize wastes that are dispersed over large areas. The design of retrievals and treatment techniques needs to include provisions to make the techniques robust to variations in properties. It may be necessary to engage experts with specific experience to help understand sludge wastes (e.g. rheologists, microbiologists and experts from other industries that handle sludge). The output of all characterization work should be compiled into a single point of reference that is used to underpin all work on the project. During the preparation of project schedules, allowance should be made for these activities. This approach will be beneficial in removing the opportunity for inconsistence use of data or protracted debate about which data sources to use

  4. Anaerobic treatment of thermal sludge conditioning liquor with granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal sludge conditioning liquor was successfully treated by a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic hybrid system with an effective volume of 10.4 m3. The reactor was similar to the HYAN reactor in Lakeview but without a recirculation system. A gas-solid separator was installed above a filter packed with polypropylene pall rings. The organic loading rate was increased stepwise to 30 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3·d. The hydraulic retention time was only 6 hours at the target loading rate. More than 70% of soluble COD in the influent was removed, even at an organic loading as high as 30 kg COD/m3·d. Soluble 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removal efficiency at the loading rate exceeded 95%. Volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent was consistently less than 60 mg/L after the day when stable treatment had been obtained. The methane production fluctuated between 0.3 and 0.4 L/g COD removed. The inside of the reactor consisted of two zones, a sludge blanket zone with less than 1% solids concentration and a sludge bed zone with 4-7% solids concentration. Although the reactor was seeded with an anaerobically digested sludge, granular sludge was produced in the reactor. The ratio of granules to the solids remaining in the reactor increased to approximately 70% at the end of the experiments. Most of the granules had diameters of less than 1 mm and their settling velocity was 0.6 cm/s or more. The granules were composed of bacteria like Methanothrix according to SEM observations. The methane production rate was between 0.8 and 1.1 kg methane as COD/kg SS·d in an acetate solution. According to substrates distribution in the reactor and tracer tests, the bed zone in the reactor worked similarly to a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Evaluation of soluble COD removal rates in the reactor indicated that the rate could be simulated by a Monod type reaction. 10 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhareva, N.; Korotchenko, T.; Yurkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing treatment methods.

  6. Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    C. Elicker; P. J. Sanches Filho; K. R. L. Castagno

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering...

  7. Using Boiling for Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this work we investigated the feasibility of using short time, low superheat boiling to treat biological sludge. The treated sludge exhibited reduced filterability and enhanced settleability. The boiling treatment released a large amount of extra-cellular polymers (ECPs) from the solid phase and reduced the microbial density levels of the total coliform bacteria and the heterotrophic bacteria. A diluted sludge is preferable for its high degree of organic hydrolysis and sufficient reduction in microbial density levels.

  8. Cations and activated sludge floc structure

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul

    2002-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effect of cations on activated sludge characteristics and also to determine their influence on digestion performance. For this purpose, cations in solution and in floc were evaluated along with various activated sludge characteristics and the collected waste activated sludge underwent both anaerobic and aerobic digestion. It was found that large amounts of biopolymer (protein + polysaccharide) remained in the effluent of WWTP that received high in...

  9. Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined

  10. An Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined.

  11. 'My five moments for hand hygiene': a user-centred design approach to understand, train, monitor and report hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, H; Allegranzi, B; Uçkay, I; Larson, E; Boyce, J; Pittet, D

    2007-09-01

    Hand hygiene is a core element of patient safety for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Its promotion represents a challenge that requires a multi-modal strategy using a clear, robust and simple conceptual framework. The World Health Organization First Global Patient Safety Challenge 'Clean Care is Safer Care' has expanded educational and promotional tools developed initially for the Swiss national hand hygiene campaign for worldwide use. Development methodology involved a user-centred design approach incorporating strategies of human factors engineering, cognitive behaviour science and elements of social marketing, followed by an iterative prototype test phase within the target population. This research resulted in a concept called 'My five moments for hand hygiene'. It describes the fundamental reference points for healthcare workers (HCWs) in a time-space framework and designates the moments when hand hygiene is required to effectively interrupt microbial transmission during the care sequence. The concept applies to a wide range of patient care activities and healthcare settings. It proposes a unified vision for trainers, observers and HCWs that should facilitate education, minimize inter-individual variation and resource use, and increase adherence. 'My five moments for hand hygiene' bridges the gap between scientific evidence and daily health practice and provides a solid basis to understand, teach, monitor and report hand hygiene practices. PMID:17719685

  12. [Barriers to the enforcement of hygiene requirements in dental practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1986-12-01

    In a psychological exploration study 40 dentists were interviewed on the basis of an attitude-orientated decision-making model; 20 of them also made dental units in their consulting rooms available to M. Borneff (10) for analysis and examination. Both subsamples are comparable in terms of structure; differences in the way of answering were not detected. The study focuses on the analysis of complex psychological barriers which would permit us to explain and predict unsatisfactory hygienic behavior in dental practice. The following major results deserve attention: Hygiene and infection prophylaxis in dental practice are questions of relatively high current relevance and sensitivity. The dealing with hygienic hazards and related prophylactic measures is relatively varied and indicates that dentists are willing to further receive and absorb information. But the elimination of possible risk factors is impaired by a variety of psychological barriers which do not exist independently from each other and which also tend to reciprocally intensify one another: Barriers for lack of knowledge While interviewees attribute increasing significance to hygiene in the study of dentistry, the compulsory subject hygienics plays a rather minor role within one's individual education. Knowledge in the field of hygiene and hygienic behavior are essentially a question of further training. But sources of information providing additional continued training are used rather sporadically and judged diversely. Incomprehensibilities and inconsistencies in scientific publications, unsatisfactory effectiveness and practicability of possible hygienic measures do not contribute to a coherent, systematic formation of opinion relevant to behaviour. Deficiencies in terms of knowledge also occur in dental assistants who play a crucial role in carrying out hygienic measures in dental practice. Barriers on account of probability Being aware of the essential hygienic risk factors (dental staff and patients

  13. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  14. Process of Waste Sludge Facultative Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茵

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory- scale experiments were conducted to determine new technology of waste sludge facultative metabolism . 10-L laboratory-scale facultative reactors were operated during 24-hour sludge residence time (SRT) and in room temperature . Results show that the organic matter in waste sludge after hydrolysis acidification will be reduced by 75.39%, the removal rate of CODer above 85% . Advantage of the process is hydrolysis-acidification in ambient air temperature as there is no need for facilities to be sealed or heated. In addition, the sludge will be recycled into the wastewater treatment system and finally towards zero-discharge.

  15. Convective drying of sludge cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  16. Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Ledin, Anna; Grabic, Roman;

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentr......Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal...

  17. Home oral hygiene revisited. Options and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Alberto; Arregui, Ignacio; Gallego, Montserrat; Cabezas, Blanca; Cuesta, Susana

    2003-01-01

    In regard to the limited literature on the subject, and the contradictions observed, we can not conclude that the types of manual brushes produce clinically important effects on the patients' gingival health, or that these effects can be detected consistently. However, the best results have been obtained with new brush designs, and future studies are necessary to clarify the existing contradictions. There is a clear need of long-term studies which comparatively evaluate the ability to reduce gingivitis and plaque with the newly designed brushes. On the other hand, there is evidence that supports the use of powered toothbrushes in the general population, especially those of the oscillating-rotating and counter-rotational type, as they have shown their ability to reduce gingival bleeding or inflammation, and dental plaque with greater efficacy than manual brushes. There is a clear need of long-term trials on the efficacy of powered brushes in orthodontic patients. With the existing studies we can conclude that there is limited evidence that orthodontic patients using a powered toothbrush show a slight, but significant, reduction of bleeding, compared with users of manual brushes. No conclusion can be made concerning the type of brush to be used. The techniques of interproximal oral hygiene, fundamentally the use of dental floss and interproximal brushes, appear to add additional benefits, in terms of plaque reduction, when they are associated with conventional manual brushes. Further long-term studies are necessary to confirm their efficacy in the reduction of gingival bleeding or inflammation. The choice of the type of technique must be made in relation to the characteristics of the patient: dental floss could be indicated in individuals with closed interdental spaces, and inter-proximal brushes in periodontal patients, or in those with open embrasures. PMID:15655973

  18. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS. PMID:27453288

  19. Effects of total solids content on waste activated sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion and its sludge dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfeng; Chen, Jie; Shen, Honglang; An, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The role of total solids content on sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was investigated in batch reactors. A range of total solids content from 2% to 10% was evaluated with two replicates. The lowest inhibitory concentration for free ammonia and total ammonia of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was 110.9-171.4mg/L and 1313.1-1806.7mg/L, respectively. The volumetric biogas production rate increased with increasing of total solids content, but the corresponding biogas yield per gram volatile solid decreased. The result of normalized capillary suction time indicated that the dewaterability of digested sludge at high total solids content was poor, while solid content of sediment obtained by centrifuging sludge at 2000g for 10min increased with increasing of total solids content of sludge. The results suggest that thickened sludge mixed with dewatered sludge at an appropriate ratio could get high organic loading rate, high biogas yield and adequate dewatering effort. PMID:26897469

  20. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabe Saquib Abullais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by “conventional scalpel technique” and other group by “new paralleling technique”. To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results: Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. Conclusion: High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique.

  1. [Hygienic problems in dumping, composting and incineration of urban refuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, K H

    1983-09-01

    Hygiene of waste disposal embraces all preventive measures which ensure an unobjectionable and, wherever possible final elimination of all sorts of urban refuse. As the hazards to our environment largely result from unsolved waste disposal problems in residential areas and congested industrial zones, such disposal measures are increasingly given priority. In view of the decreasing resources, the methods of waste disposal must also allow for the possibility of recycling of waste material. With respect to what is objectionable hygienically, differences exist in infectiousness and toxicity between solid and sludy refuse. For this reason the necessary treatment methods and the procedures for collection, treatment, elimination, and exploitation must comply with the various requirements of hygiene. From the hygienic point of view, waste disposal commences already with the collection of refuse and ends with its final elimination. Such a complete appreciation of hygienic parameters necessarily leads to waste disposal procedures which are innocuous to our environment. The importance of innocuous waste disposal is, however, not restricted to the prevention of epidemics and infectious diseases. Even abiogenous noxa in urban refuse are likely to threaten the environment in a direct or indirect manner.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6649992

  2. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Ningappa, Priyanka; Golvankar, Kapil; Chavan, Amit; Malgaonkar, Nikhil; Gore, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by “conventional scalpel technique” and other group by “new paralleling technique”. To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results: Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. Conclusion: High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique. PMID:27041834

  3. [Social hygiene aspects of abortion in Odessa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, E M; Popov, V E

    1988-02-01

    The birth rate is a major concern in contemporary society today. Socialist countries having the material wherewithal and cultural wealth to maintain their populations have a genuine interest in population growth and maternity is therefore encouraged. The decision to have children lies with each individual family and does not involve society directly, except for the significant number of women who regulate their family size by having an abortion. In connection with the severity of such an intervention, a study of social and hygienic aspects of induced abortion was conducted in Odessa. The information was gathered anonymously among women who came to the gynecological department of a city hospital. 6.1% of the women were under age 20 and this figure may increase in the future. In the U.S. that figure already constitutes 1/3 of all abortions. 47.5% said they had had 3 previous abortions. 13.4% had no children, and 48.8% had 1 child. None of the women with no children thought of that as being the ideal. As reason for the abortion 31.7% gave irregular housing and living conditions, 12.2% unsatisfactory material well-being, 17.1% health reasons, 7.3% enough children already in the family, and 7.3% sickness of children and husband. In 24.4% of cases the husband was indifferent, and in 35.4% insisted on, and in 40.1% was against the woman having an abortion. 60% were thus probably poorly informed about the harmfulness of the operation. 39% of women did not use any contraception. Only 20% had received any information regarding contraceptives. Only 1/3 of obstetricians regularly instruct their patients about the use of contraceptives. Half of the nurses do not touch upon the subject due to lack of time and since instruction in birth control methods is not considered obligatory. Nevertheless it is important for women's health that during clinical examinations risk factors of abortion and the purposefulness of contraception are pointed out. PMID:3367727

  4. [Brief analysis of the characteristics of hygienic law system of the Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Liang, Jun; Yan, Xiao-yu

    2009-01-01

    The Qing dynasty, the last feudal dynasty of Chinese history, the social formation of which had changed many times as well as the hygienic law formation changed accordingly. The legislative principles of consulting the hygienic law system of the Han and the Jin dynasty, the hygienic law with thoughts of concentration of authority and the rules of rites, the customary law with supplementary functions, the colonial nature of late hygienic law constituted the characteristics of hygienic law system of the Qing dynasty, which had certain reference values to current construction of hygienic law system. PMID:19824356

  5. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent vis

  6. Impact of sludge deposition on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzetti, Sergio; van der Spoel, David

    2015-11-01

    Sludge deposition in the environment is carried out in several countries. It encompasses the dispersion of treated or untreated sludge in forests, marsh lands, open waters as well as estuarine systems resulting in the gradual accumulation of toxins and persistent organic compounds in the environment. Studies on the life cycle of compounds from sludge deposition and the consequences of deposition are few. Most reports focus rather on treatment-methods and approaches, legislative aspects as well as analytical evaluations of the chemical profiles of sludge. This paper reviews recent as well as some older studies on sludge deposition in forests and other ecosystems. From the literature covered it can be concluded that sludge deposition induces two detrimental effects on the environment: (1) raising of the levels of persistent toxins in soil, vegetation and wild life and (2) slow and long-termed biodiversity-reduction through the fertilizing nutrient pollution operating on the vegetation. Since recent studies show that eutrophication of the environment is a major threat to global biodiversity supplying additional nutrients through sludge-based fertilization seems imprudent. Toxins that accumulate in the vegetation are transferred to feeding herbivores and their predators, resulting in a reduced long-term survival chance of exposed species. We briefly review current legislation for sludge deposition and suggest alternative routes to handling this difficult class of waste. PMID:26318179

  7. Pathogen reduction in sludges by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is international interest in the use of ionizing radiation in waste water and sludge treatment. Results of programs to study effects of radiation on disease-causing microbes commonly found in wastewater sludges will be discussed. Although emphasis will be on the work conducted at Sandia Laboratories, the discussion will include work in progress in West Germany, France, South Africa, and other countries

  8. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.;

    2004-01-01

    /solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...

  9. Nitrogen mineralization of sewage sludges in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garau, M.A.; Felipo, M.T.; de Villa, M.C.R.

    In order to profit from recycling sewage sludge through the soil-plant system and avoid the hazards associated with excessive NO/sub 3//sup -/-N in soils, it is necessary to know the amount of mineralizable organic-N from sludge. The purpose of this study was to determine N-mineralization of two sewage sludges in two different soils, comparing leached and nonleached incubation procedures. The cumulative N mineralized during successive incubation periods increased linearly with incubation time and sludge incorporation rate. The mineralization process was more influenced by soil type than by rate and kind of sludge applied. The amount of mineralized-N was higher for the leaching procedure. This cumulative-N expressed as the percentage of applied organic-N was inversely dependent on sewage sludge rate added for the leached procedure and is independent of the rate for the nonleached. The N-mineralization rate was 0.0202 +/- 0.0011 and 0.0650 +/- 0.0068 d/sup -1/, respectively, for leached and nonleached procedures. The potentially mineralizable N increased with the sludge rate applied and was higher for aerobic sludge and neutral soil. In general, the leached method gave twofold higher values than the nonleached method. The net percentage of potentially mineralizable N vs. organic-N added was 43.0 +/- 7.8 and 27.7 +/- 4.0, respectively, for leached and nonleached procedures.

  10. DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rational procedure is presented in this manual for the design of municipal sludge land application systems. he utilization of sludge in agriculture and forestry, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in det...

  11. BEHAVIOUR OF METALS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emission of toxic metals from sewage sludge incinerators can present a risk to human health and the environment. ignificant base of data on the behaviour of metals in sludge incinerators has been compiled. hese data were examined in detail to identify the mechanisms responsib...

  12. Reactivity Studies of Sludge and Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T Afzal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sludge and biomass are wastes with energy value. Both can provide a renewable energy in the form of gaseous fuels through thermal conversion processes. Proper understanding of the thermal properties and reaction kinetic of sludge and biomass is important for efficient design, operation and modeling of the conversion process. This study was carried out to obtain the kinetics data of the sludge and biomass in pure oxygen atmosphere at 30 mlmin-1 with the combustion temperature ranging from 50 to 900oC. The effect of sample size and heating rate on thermal degradation were studied and kinetic parameters of sludge, bagasse and sawdust combustion were described using Arrhenius equation. Two distinct reaction zones were observed for sludge, bagasse and sawdust samples. The activation energy and pre-exponential factors, in the first zone were found to be significantly higher than that of the second zone where as the opposite way for sawdust.

  13. Novel method for sludge blanket measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewerda, J; Förster, G; Heinrichmeier, J

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used methods for sludge blanket measurements are based on acoustic or optic principles. In operation, both methods are expensive and often maintenance-intensive. Therefore a novel, reliable and simple method for sludge blanket measurement is proposed. It is based on the differential pressure measurement in the sludge zone compared with the differential pressure in the clear water zone, so that it is possible to measure the upper and the lower sludge level in a tank. Full-scale tests of this method were done in the secondary clarifier at the waste water treatment plant in Hecklingen, Germany. The result shows a good approximation of the manually measured sludge level. PMID:24569276

  14. Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which ∼ 3.3 x 106 L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP)

  15. Clinical review: Airway hygiene in the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Sanja; Cunningham, Jennifer A; Factor, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance of airway secretion clearance, or airway hygiene, is important for the preservation of airway patency and the prevention of respiratory tract infection. Impaired airway clearance often prompts admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can be a cause and/or contributor to acute respiratory failure. Physical methods to augment airway clearance are often used in the ICU but few are substantiated by clinical data. This review focuses on the impact of oral hygiene, tracheal suctioning, bronchoscopy, mucus-controlling agents, and kinetic therapy on the incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory infections, length of stay in the hospital and the ICU, and mortality in critically ill patients. Available data are distilled into recommendations for the maintenance of airway hygiene in ICU patients. PMID:18423061

  16. Sleep hygiene use in a psychiatry outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, J

    2012-02-01

    Non-pharmacological measures are recommended prior to use of hypnotics in the latest NICE guidance. This study investigated if non-pharmacological measures are utilised prior to hypnotic prescribing in a general adult psychiatry outpatient setting, and further reviewed patient\\'s sleep quality following implementation of sleep hygiene education. Interviews were conducted with 85 patients, and poor adherence with NICE guidance was found among the 74 (87%) patients previously prescribed a hypnotic. Just five (6.8%) patients recalled use of non-pharmacological measures prior to hypnotic prescription, 47 (63.5%) indicated non-pharmacological measures had not been discussed, while a further 22 (29.7%) could not remember. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores following implementation of sleep hygiene education was also noted (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that increased awareness of sleep hygiene education for clinicians may be beneficial.

  17. Failures in conveying hygienic procedures during milking of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk presents very convenient environment for multiplying of microorganisms from the surroundings or from udder itself. To obtain milk correct in hygienic sense, except health milk glands, environmental factors which could contribute to additional milk contamination are important too. Failures in hygiene of milk, milkmen, milking environment or milking machines, as well as their technical accuracy, have primary importance in occurence of udder diseases and therefore in milk quality too. In this paper, the mentioned factors were examined on the farm with free keeping of cows, where they were milked in a milking parlour. Results obtained by the observation and estimation of corresponding procedures are satisfactory on the whole, but correction of the existing failures could contribute to better health condition of udder, better production results and improvement of hygienic quality of milk.

  18. Radiation hygiene of animal production in normal and emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hazards imposed by contemporary development and peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy have implied the introduction of radiational control in animal production, and radiation-hygienic expertize of animal products and animal foodstuffs. Various treatments in scientific research, education and uses of relevant equipment, undertaken in right time, enabled our Veterinary services to start successfully to solve problems of radiation control and protection of animal production in normal and emergency situations. An important role in this context has the Section of Radiation Hygiene Yugoslav Veterinary Association, as an initiator of many activities that are intended to affirme Radiation Hygiene in the domain of scientific research and in the field of national defence and self-protection

  19. Hand Hygiene Practices Reported by Nurse Aides in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas; Handler, Steven; Wagner, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Information from nurse aides describing their opinions of hand hygiene practices in nursing homes including perceived barriers to hand hygiene is presented. The information comes from a questionnaire developed for this investigation, with items addressing compliance, facility guidelines and protocols, training, hand washing facilities and materials, and hand washing barriers. Information from 4,211 nurse aides (response rate of 56%) working in a nationally representative sample of 767 nursing homes (participation rate = 51%) is used. We find that 57.4% of nurse aides comply with hand washing when caring for residents most of the time, while 21.7% always comply. With facilities, 43.3% sometimes check that hand washing is performed. In summary, self-reported compliance was poor, and facilities and materials were often lacking. These findings are useful in identifying issues and interventions, including the need for further initiatives to address hand hygiene practices. PMID:24652917

  20. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  1. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS)

    OpenAIRE

    Storfer-Isser, A; LeBourgeois, MK; Harsh, J.; Tompsett, CJ; Redline, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19 years; 17.7±0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Self-reports of sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness, caretaker-reports of behavior, and sleep-wake estimation on ...

  3. Keeping oral hygiene while taking complex care of seniors

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚCHOVÁ, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is Keeping oral hygiene while taking complex care of seniors. Count of seniors that have dental problems or don't have teeth at all increases according to specialized literature (Pacovský, 1994). The most frequent causes of that are growing motoric and cognitive issues at the old age but also increasing dependency of the hospitalized seniors on the nursing staff. Oral hygiene is also often done incorrectly (Kubíčková, 2012), or in a minimal scale only. Having...

  4. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a...... tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing equipment was discussed based on modelling the flow in a valve house, an up-stand and various...

  5. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  6. HACCP system in radiation-hygiene control of pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Radosav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents instructive methodology for introducing and realizing the HACCP system in pig production, as a typical representative of intensive breeding, with the objective of establishing radiation-hygiene supervision. Attention was focused on the type of pig diet as the key link in the production chain, in fact the selection of the raw material components necessary in the production of pig feed concentrates for intense breeding conditions, and on the establishment of a certain radiation-hygiene balance through prognostic-selective methodology, as a guarantee of radiation safety.

  7. Hygienic significance of radiostability as measures of adaptive feasibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to substantiate hygienic significance of radiostability analysis as measures of adaptive feasibilities variation under the low dose ionizing radiation effect (IR). Examples of this substantiation are presented. Not only biological radiation effects but social adaptivity problems may be analysed. With more information adaptive feasibilities of human body to radiation factor are extended, its radiostability increases. Analysis of the state of adaptive feasibilities and their development estimation are vital problems of radiation hygiene, the basis for regulation and normalization of radiation factor

  8. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a...... tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing equipment was discussed based on modelling the flow in a valve house, an up-stand and various...

  9. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  10. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

  11. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned. PMID:27620082

  12. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  13. ERC Safety and Hygiene Programs functional organization structure and mission statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a description of the functions, structure, commitments, and goals of the Environmental Restoration Contractor Safety and Hygiene Program. The current structure of the ERC Safety and Hygiene organization is described herein

  14. Recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash; Rueckgewinnung von Phosphor aus Klaerschlamm und Klaerschlammaschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, P. [Institut WAR, Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer in agriculture is not reasonable because it contains high amounts of heavy metals and other persistent xenobiotics. Since resources of phosphat minerals for fertilizer industry are limited the high amount of phosphates in sewage sludge should be recovered. Various separation processes for phosphates from sewage sludge or sewage sludge ashes are presented and described. (uke)

  15. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  16. Forest industry sludge as a resource for energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelqvist, Alina

    2009-01-01

    Forest industries produce large amounts of carbon rich sludges as by-products in their processes. Presently sludge is treated as a poor quality biofuel for co-incineration, some mills treat it solely as a disposal problem. This thesis provides an introduction to production, composition and disposal issues of sludge. It also includes a presentation of strategies for sludge handling. The main concern with energy recovery from sludge is connected to high content of water (50-80%). Mechanical dew...

  17. Sludge washing and dissolution of Melton Valley Storage Tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus is on experimental and modeling R ampersand D for comprehensive sludge/supernatant processing flowsheet being done for the Underground Storage Tank Integration Demonstration; emphasis is on Hanford tank waste disposal involving dissolution of the sluge before pretreatment. Combination of tests on actual Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludge, tests on sludge simulants, and modeling of sludge chemistry provides a broad evaluation of sludge and supernate processing. The information is useful for both MVST and Hanford tank wastes

  18. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  19. Virological investigations on inadiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virusinactivating activity of a Co60-irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 digested sludge samples after irradiation and 9 raw sludge samples after irradiation. We completed these investigations by adding poliovaccinevirus type 1 to the digested sludge before irradiation and by adding suspensions of pure virus in MEM + 2% FBS packed in synthetic capsules and mixtures of virus and sludge packed in synthetic capsules to the digested sludge. After the irradiation we collected the capsules and determined the virustiter. The testviruses were poliovaccinevirus type 1, poliowildvirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackie-B-virus type 5, coxsackie-A-virus type 9 and adenovirus type 1. In the field trial the irradiation results were like the laboratory results assuming that the sewage sludge was homogenized enough by digestion and the solid particle concentration was not more than 3%. The D-value was 300-400 krad for enteroviruses and 700 krad for adenovirus. (orig.)

  20. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg-1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  1. Sludge reed bed facilities: operation and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S

    2005-01-01

    Short operating periods and problems with dewatering efficiency, vegetation, mineralisation and odour are primarily caused by incorrect construction of the filter, poor capillary connections, an inadequate number of basins, insufficient basin area and overloading during commissioning and during subsequent operation. Dimensioning should be based on the sludge quality including the dewatering qualities and not solely on calculations of the sludge production. Loading after planting depends on the development level of the vegetation. The loading program should ensure that reed establishment is not impeded and should prevent the sludge residue from growing so quickly horizontally and vertically that the reeds cannot colonise the sludge residue. Overloading results in an anaerobic sludge residue with ensuing methane production. Typically, a sludge reed bed facility with a loading period of maximum 5 days, must be built with 10 basins to permit a rest phase of about 40 days. Facilities with 8 basins, where it is possible to load 1 basin for 7 days, will be able to have a 7-week rest phase before the first basin is loaded again. Facilities with for example 8-13 basins and loading period of between 4 and 10 days are able to achieve rest periods of up to 2 to 2(1/2) months, which results in the optimal evapotranspiration and minerilization. The conditions and thus the possibilities vary depending upon the type of sludge. PMID:16042248

  2. Modelling the structure of sludge aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczyński, Lech; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Kosobucka, Marta; Smoczyński, Michał; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kvaal, Knut

    2016-05-01

    The structure of sludge is closely associated with the process of wastewater treatment. Synthetic dyestuff wastewater and sewage were coagulated using the PAX and PIX methods, and electro-coagulated on aluminium electrodes. The processes of wastewater treatment were supported with an organic polymer. The images of surface structures of the investigated sludge were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The software image analysis permitted obtaining plots log A vs. log P, wherein A is the surface area and P is the perimeter of the object, for individual objects comprised in the structure of the sludge. The resulting database confirmed the 'self-similarity' of the structural objects in the studied groups of sludge, which enabled calculating their fractal dimension and proposing models for these objects. A quantitative description of the sludge aggregates permitted proposing a mechanism of the processes responsible for their formation. In the paper, also, the impact of the structure of the investigated sludge on the process of sedimentation, and dehydration of the thickened sludge after sedimentation, was discussed. PMID:26549812

  3. Enrichment of radioactive nuclides in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, precipitations in various parts of Europe carried radioactivity for a short period. This meant necessarily that the water received by sewage treatment plants was also polluted. Measurements in a sewage treatment plant having received sewage water which carried radioactivity showed the following: Active nuclides are removed from the sewage water and are to a high extent enriched in sewage sludge. On comparison of the values for the activity of sludges with the stages of the plant, an increase in specific activity (nCi/kg) is found in parallel to the increase in the share of dry substance. Centrifugation of sludges yields a supernatant of relatively low radioactivity, while the radioactive elements are enriched in the sediment. By far the highest activities are found in the ashes of burnt sludge (2860 nCi/kg) and in dewatered sludges. These results are confirmed by comparison measurements in six other plants. In the period between May 7th, 1986 and June 16th, 1986, activities in digester sludge were measured ranging from 395 to 58.6 nCi/l; in pressed sludge, 1717 to 290.4 nCi/l were measured. (orig./RB)

  4. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  5. Nonlinear beam-beam resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head-on collisions of bunched beams are considered, assuming the two colliding beams have opposite charges. A few experimental observations are described. The single resonance analysis is developed that is applicable to the strong-weak case of the beam-beam interaction. In this case, the strong beam is unperturbed by the beam-beam interaction; motions of the weak beam particles are then analyzed in the presence of the nonlinear electromagnetic force produced by the strong beam at the collision points. The coherent motions of the two coupled strong beams are shown to exhibit distinct nonlinear resonance behavior. 16 refs., 22 figs

  6. Sanitation and hygiene in Kibera Slums, Nairobi : women´s concerns and nurses promotional tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ng´ang´a, Elizabeth; Karanja, Jane Mercy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to review the relevant literature of sanitation and hygiene regarding women in poor urban centres and explore ways on empowering women on sanitation and hygiene. The aim of the study was to describe the typical concerns for women regarding sanitation and hygiene in Kibera as well as providing women with practical suggestions to improve Hygiene and Sanitation in slums. The data collection method involved reviewing relevant literature which consisted research m...

  7. Hand hygiene and aseptic techniques during routine anesthetic care - observations in the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Megeus, Veronika; Nilsson, Kerstin; Karlsson, Jon; Eriksson, Bengt I.; Andersson, Annette Erichsen

    2015-01-01

    Background More knowledge is needed about task intensity in relation to hand hygiene in the operating room during anesthetic care in order to choose effective improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to explore the indications and occurrence of hand hygiene opportunities and the adherence to hand hygiene guidelines during routine anesthetic care in the operating room. Methods Structured observational data on hand hygiene during anesthetic care during 94 surgical procedures was collec...

  8. DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ifesanya, Joy U.; Adeleke O Ifesanya; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and preg...

  9. An index developed for the determination of oral hygiene motivation success

    OpenAIRE

    Taner Arabaci; Turgut Demir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to develop a new index system to identify the individual oral hygiene score (OHS) and the level of the motivation success by using some scales, which are an indicator of the individual oral hygiene status. In this way, the level of personal oral hygiene would be determined and a standard motivation success scale would be presented by comparing the oral hygiene levels measured before and after the motivation application. The Hypothesis: In this hypo...

  10. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India – a Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The ...

  11. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R.; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...

  12. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  13. Hygienic effects of pulsed corona discharges in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vykouk, T.; Člupek, Martin; Lukeš, Petr

    Praha, 2005 - (Ambrožová, J.; Tlustá, P.), s. 13-17 ISBN 80-86832-07-4. [Water Supply Biology 2005. Praha (CZ), 02.02.2005-03.02.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Keywords : Pulsed corona discharge * water treatment * hygienic effects Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  14. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…

  15. Hygienic assessment of persistent organochlorine pesticides in milk products

    OpenAIRE

    NORMATOVA SHAKHNOZA ANVAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    In this article the hygienic assessment of averages entering the body in the milk and milk products daily doses of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the towns of the Ferghana valley (Ferghana, Andijan, Namangan region). According to a special formula has been determined the actual level of pesticides and on the results of the study made the appropriate conclusions.

  16. Rhizopus Keratitis Associated with Poor Contact Lens Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Warner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Rhizopus keratitis in a young woman with poor contact lens hygiene. The mold was highly sensitive to treatment with amphotericin 0.15% drops, after a relatively prompt diagnosis. Obtaining cultures of both corneal infiltrates and presumably infected contact lenses may help to avoid a delay in proper treatment.

  17. Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Hygiene in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of the technical assistance (TA) Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Hygiene in Indonesia, carried out by the World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). It was developed in consultation with the Directorate of Environmental Health, Directorate General of Public Health and Centre for Health Promotion of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and with key institutions in t...

  18. The Use of Gaming in a Dental Hygiene Review Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Charlotte A.; Mauriello, Sally M.; Caplan, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of gaming to create an interactive, stimulating learning environment as a review format for the Dental Hygiene National Board examination. Students (n=28) participated in either the gaming or a lecture review format. The gaming group scored higher on the exam on eight of 12 topics as well as on the case-based learning…

  19. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  20. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  1. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  2. Dysphagia screening and intensified oral hygiene reduce pneumonia after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Terp; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, Karsten;

    2013-01-01

    control group (n = 58, retrospectively selected from same clinic), and one external control group (n = 30) from a comparable stroke unit in a neighboring hospital. The intervention consisted of early screening with a clinical method of dysphagia screening, the Gugging Swallowing Screen, and intensified...... Gugging Swallowing Screen method and intensified oral hygiene reduced the incidence of x-ray verified pneumonia....

  3. Tomb evaders: house-hunting hygiene in ants

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Nigel R; Hooper, James; Webb, Catherine; Dornhaus, Anna

    2005-01-01

    House-hunting ants avoid otherwise excellent potential nest sites that contain dead ants which may pose risks from poor hygiene. This discovery adds another category to the exceptionally long list of nest site attributes that ants evaluate. It further indicates the importance of disease as a selection pressure on social insects.

  4. International trends in education and training in occupational hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries occupational hygiene has become an indispensable discipline in managing long-term risks to the health of workers. The international collaboration on education and training started with a workshop in Luxembourg in 1986 (sponsored by the EC and WHO). This meeting provided

  5. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: forgotten foundations of health.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, J; Cairncross, S

    2010-01-01

    As the first article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers.

  6. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  7. Evaluating a Hygiene Education Program for Child Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.

    Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…

  8. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Care for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…

  9. [Oral hygiene in Moroccan school children and their mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimi, Sihame; Tajmouti, Rhita; Ennibi, Oum Keltoum

    2016-06-01

    Low rates of toothbrush use were observed in this population and the brushing method was very inefficient. The correlation between the plaque index of mothers and their children suggests that mother’s oral hygiene behaviours influence their children’s oral health.. PMID:27392059

  10. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  11. Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: What Needs to Be Done?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Cairncross; Jamie Bartram; Oliver Cumming; Clarissa Brocklehurst

    2010-01-01

    In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

  12. Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: Forgotten Foundations of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Bartram; Sandy Cairncross

    2010-01-01

    As the first article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers.

  13. Cross-contamination in the kitchen: effect of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Nauta, M.J.; Jonge, de R.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effect of hygiene measures on cross-contamination of Campylobacter jejuni at home and to select a safe tracer organism for C. jejuni. Methods and Results: Comparative tests were conducted with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei and L. casei was chosen as th

  14. Desalinated water hygiene and scientific bases for its investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, G I; Rakhmanin YuA

    1978-01-01

    In view of the increasing scarcity of fresh water reserves in many countries of the world, a thorough hygienic evaluation of the different methods of desalinating highly mineralized underground and sea waters for economic and drinking purpose becomes indispensable. In addition to generally accepted hygienic criteria (favourable organoleptic properties, innocuous chemical composition and epidemiological safety), introduction of supplementary criteria for the assessment of the characteristic of the quality of freshened drinking water is necessary, i.e., its full value in the physiological sense and stability of drinking properties. The necessity of hygienic tests concerned with the study and regulation of the mineral and microelement composition of desalinated drinking water as well as of its microbial composition, structural peculiarities, the so-called "deuterium number" and the presence of various organic substances in desalinated water was pointed out. A certain degree of priority should be given to the study of the mentioned indices in hygienic assessment of the different methods of water desalination (distillation, freezing out, ion exchange, electrodialysis, inverse osmosis and others). PMID:570985

  15. Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene and Recapped Brood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees bred for “suppression of mite reproduction” resist the growth of Varroa destructor through the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. This is varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), and the bees are called VSH bees. VSH is a multi-step process that involves detection, uncapping of th...

  16. The Effect of Teaching Experience on Service-Learning Beliefs of Dental Hygiene Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in the United States. Dental hygiene educators from entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the United States completed the Web-based…

  17. Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Bette A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…

  18. Relationship between udder health and hygiene on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, W.; Neijenhuis, F.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Poor hygiene is an important risk factor for reduced udder health. Because the teat cleaning process is done automatically on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), hygiene management might differ. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hygiene and udder health on far

  19. 75 FR 61119 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Food Hygiene AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public... 42nd Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex... established to draft basic provisions on food hygiene applicable to all food; to consider, amend if...

  20. 78 FR 59336 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Food Hygiene AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public... positions that will be discussed at the Forty-fifth Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) of... food trade. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene is responsible for: (a) Drafting basic provisions...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872.6650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  2. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  3. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  4. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  5. Performance of Anammox granular sludge bed reactor started up with nitrifying granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ping; LIN Feng-mei; HU Bao-lan; CHEN Jian-song

    2004-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation(Anammox) granular sludge bed reactor was started up successfully withnitrifying granular sludge. During the operation, the nitrifying granular sludge was gradually converted into Anammoxgranular sludge with good settling property and high conversion activity. The Anammox reactor worked well with theshortest HRT of 2.43 h. Under the condition that HRT was 6.39 h and influent concentration of ammonia and nitritewas 10 mmol/L, the removal of ammonia and nitrite was 97.17% and 100.00%, respectively. Corresponding

  6. Sewage sludge disintegration by high-pressure homogenization: A sludge disintegration model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxuan Zhang; Panyue Zhang; Boqiang Ma; Hao Wu; Sheng Zhang; Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) technology was applied as a pretreatment to disintegrate sewage sludge.The effects of homogenization pressure,homogenization cycle number,and total solid content on sludge disintegration were investigated.The sludge disintegration degree (DDCOD),protein concentration,and polysaccharide concentration increased with the increase of homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number,and decreased with the increase of sludge total solid (TS) content.The maximum DDCOD of 43.94% was achieved at 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles for a 9.58 g/L TS sludge sample.A HPH sludge disintegration model of DDcoo=kNaPb was established by multivariable linear regression to quantify the effects of homogenization parameters.The homogenization cycle exponent a and homogenization pressure exponent b were 0.4763 and 0.7324 respectively,showing that the effect of homogenization pressure (P) was more significant than that of homogenization cycle number (N).The value of the rate constant k decreased with the increase of sludge total solid content.The specific energy consumption increased with the increment of sludge disintegration efficiency.Lower specific energy consumption was required for higher total solid content sludge.

  7. Compliance with hygiene procedures among medical faculty students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs are transmitted by healthcare workers’ hands, which actively contributes to transferring pathogens from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. Hand hygiene is the easiest and cheapest method for preventing HCAIs. The article presents the compliance with hygiene procedures in a group of medical students of the Wroclaw Medical University. Material and Methods: The anonymous survey was conducted among 112 students. The survey included questions about the frequency of disinfection of hands and stethoscopes, changing clothes into clean ones, compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers, as well as subjective assessment of the availability of disinfectants in the hospital. Results: The results of the survey revealed that 35.7% of students did not disinfect their hands before each patient’s examination, 90% of them indicated limited access to disinfectants as the most important reason. The majority (93.8% of respondents were trained in hand hygiene. In 34.82% the availability of disinfectants in hospitals was assesed as good, 62.5% of respondents drew attention to the fact that the dispensers were often empty. Compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers: 66.9% posessed white coat with short sleeves, 52.68% wore wristwatch or jewelery on their hands, 50% of students laundered white coat less frequently than once a week, 9.82% did not disinfect their stethoscope at all, 15.18% did that before each patient’s examination. Conclusions: Students compliance with hand hygiene now and in their future work as doctors is the easiest method for preventing HCAIs. Providing easy access to disinfectants in the hospital environment and shaping hygiene habits during clinical activities play an essential role. Med Pr 2014;65(5:593–599

  8. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PUDUCHERRY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an swered the pre - designed questionnaires. Data was collected by face to face interview. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was done by using EPI INFO 3. RESULTS: Hygiene practice of hand washing before eating was 95.33%. Only 81.31% students used sli ppers/chappals during use of toilet. Around 58.41% of students went to open field for defecation and 6.07% of students did not wash their hands after defecation. Regarding the frequency of hygiene practice, only 62.15% and 68.22% of students brushed their teeth and bathed every day respectively. The study finding also showed that only 68.69% students washed their face twice daily where as 3.27% students washed their face weekly. As regards to the materials used for hygiene practice, 93.86% of students used tooth brush & paste for brushing of teeth, 85.98% of students used soap while taking bath and 25.70% of students did not use soap for hand wash after defecation. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest the need for more hygiene practice education in rural schoo ls. Such healthy practices may help to decrease the burden of communicable diseases in rural school settings.

  9. Can theoretical intervention improve hand hygiene behavior among nurses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghaei R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rahim Baghaei,1 Elham Sharifian,1 Aziz Kamran2 1Inpatient Safety Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 2Public Health Department, Khalkhal Faculty of Medical Sciences, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IranBackground: Hand washing is the best strategy to prevent known nosocomial infections but the nurses' hand hygiene is estimated to be poor in Iran.Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of BASNEF (Behavior, Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Enabling Factors model on hand hygiene adherence education.Methods: This controlled quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 hemodialysis unit nurses (35 case and 35 control in the health and educational centers of the University of Medical Sciences of Urmia, Iran. To collect the data, a six-part validated and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS version18, using Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. The significance level was considered P<0.05.Results: The mean age was 38.4±8.1 years for the intervention group and 40.2±8.0 years for the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups for any demographic variables. Also, before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups for any components of the BASNEF model. Post-intervention, the attitude, subjective norms, enabling factors, and intention improved significantly in the intervention group (P<0.001, but hand hygiene behavior did not show any significant change in the intervention group (P=0.16.Conclusion: Despite the improving attitudes and intention, the intervention had no significant effect on hand hygiene behavior among the studied nurses.Keywords: hand hygiene, adherence, education nurse, behavior

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule; Preparation des radiopharmaceutiques dans le respect des regles d'hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand-Barat, J.; Rogues, A.M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brunet-Desruet, M.D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 38 - Grenoble (France); Couret, I. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 34 - Montpellier (France). Hopital Lapeyronnie; Fraysse, M. [Hopital-CHG, 03 - Montlucon (France); Saurat, S.; Tafani, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France); Bounaud, M.P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Jean Bernard, 86 - Poitiers (France); Fialdes, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France). Hopital Salengro

    1999-03-01

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  11. Studies on textile sludge treatment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of sludge samples of a textile processing factory revealed that the BOD and COD as well as the levels of total solids, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of sludge liquor were high needing treatment before disposal or reuse. Detention time of 60 days was established for aerobic treatment of the sludge. Optimum dosage for physicochemical methods were established at 4 g/l, using alum and iron III chloride each and 15.5 g/l and 550 mg/l, for lime and polyelectrolyte each. Solids were reduced by 67%, through aerobic and 61 % through anaerobic digestion, while the sludge treated by physicochemical method had higher solid content, recording the highest increase with lime. (author)

  12. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:27240231

  13. Application of Chitosan Flocculant to Conditioning Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李步祥; 陈亮; 陈东辉; 张印堂

    2003-01-01

    The dewaterability of activated sludge conditioned by chitosan fiocculant was studied. The effects of chitasan characteristics such as molecular weight,degree of deacetylation, and dose on the dewaterability were investigated. The sludge dewaterability is evaluated in terms of specific resistance to filtration, residual turbidity of supernatant, moisture content of cake, and settling rate. Sludge dehydrating behaviors conditioned with CTS, PAM and PAC fiocculants were compared. The conditioning was also carried out with dual flocculants in two stages. It is found that the sludge conditioned with CTS has better dewaterability than that with PAC. The optimum conditions with chitosan are: dose 0.8~1.2 g per 100 g dry cake, molecular weight 300,000, and degree of deacetylation 70%. The conditioning in two stages with dual flocculants is found to be more effective than that with single flocculant.

  14. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  15. Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Elicker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering an electrolyte flow-rate of 1.34 L.h-1 at a voltage of 20 V, the removal rate of all the metals accompanied was over 50%; the highest removal efficiency was for Pb, with 72.49%. The results show the feasibility of using the electrochemical technique of electrokinetic remediation for metal removal from a sludge sewage treatment station.

  16. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE SECONDARY CLARIFIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study documented the hydraulic characteristics of typical activated sludge clarifiers. Modifications to the clarifier structures were made in an attempt to improve clarifier hydraulic characteristics and performance. Innovative fluorometric dye tracer studies were used to ob...

  17. Determination of heavy metals in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of heavy metals in sludge has been investigated. The sludge was separated from waste water sewage by precipitation. The heavy metals analysis has been done using neutron activation (NAA) and x-ray fluorescence. The existence of some metals (Cu, Fe, Ca, K, and Ti) is very important for plants. Otherwise, Pb and Cr had polluted the environment. The results are compared with sheep dung, rubbish and cow dung that are used as natural fertilizer. It is found that the sludge has a low concentration of heavy metals than other. Tow standard samples derived from IAEA have been analyzed with our samples. It is found that our sludge contains some concentration of heavy metals less than the standard. It is found that the increase of Cu and Zn concentration due to uses of pesticides. (author)

  18. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by means of gamma radiation to render it suitable for unrestricted reuse as a fertiliser or soil conditioner in the urban environment, was investigated. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disfection. It was found that a total radiation dose of 1 kGy effectively reduced the development of potentially infective larvae in a sludge containing 20% solids, by 99%. The 1% of larvae developing after radiation were infective to white mice. Higher doses of radiation up to 10 kGy did not achieve a 100% kill. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0,5 kGy radiation was applied at 50 degrees Celsius to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0,4 kGy radiation was applied at 55 degrees Celsius to a sludge with 20% solids

  19. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  20. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  1. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative bacteriological studies of sewage sludge in a sewage plant have demonstrated that mechanical-biological sewage treatment reduced the total bacterial count and those of Enterococces by 2 log and the Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 log. Frequently Salmonella could be isolated from sewage sludge. A further reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge (60Co, gamma-radiation, 260 krad, 210 min). This reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count, and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 40 samples investigated after irradiation, two contained Salmonella. The hygienic effects of the irradiation unit were demonstrated by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Micro-organisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their sensitivity to irradiation. Parasitological experiments with eggs of Ascaris suum were carried out to test the inhibitory or killing ability of the gamma rays on the developing stages of parasites

  2. Mesophilic anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge. Mesophile anaerobe Klaerschlammstabilisierung mit aerober Folgebehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, U.

    1988-01-01

    Sludges treated in two stages in experiments - 7 days of anaerobic treatment and 2 days of aerobic-thermophilic treatment - can be judged to be completely stabilized because of the stabilization parameters BOD/sub 5//COD ratio and respiratory activity. The degradation results obtained are comparable to or better than those of the 20-day digestion (reference process). For all aerobic processes under investigation a clear temperature increase in the aerobic reactor was measured because of the exothermal metabolic processes of the aerobic biocenosis. There was a temperature rise of 15/sup 0/C in the tests in the aerobic reactor even after longer digestion times of 15 and 20 days. The results of the epidemics and hygiene investigations show that a secondary aerobic-thermophilic stage after the mesophilic digestion with adequate marginal conditions - germ retention time of 23 hours in the aerobic reactor at process temperatures higher than 50/sup 0/C as well as charging in batch quantities - leads to a safe and complete decontamination. Under these process and operation conditions all salmonellae were killed and the number of the enterobacteriaceae in 1 g of sludge was always less than 1.000. (orig./EF).

  3. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygi...

  4. Impact of INICC Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in ICUs in Four Cities in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Viegas, Mónica; Sztokhamer, Daniel; Benchetrit, Guillermo; Santoro, Beatriz; Lastra, Carlos Esteban; Romani, Adriana; Di Núbila, Beatriz Marta Alicia; Lanzetta, Diana; Fernández, Leonardo J; Rossetti, María Adelaida; Migazzi, Claudia; Barolin, Clarisa; Martínez, Estela; Bonaventura, Claudio; Caridi, Maria de Los Ángeles; Messina, Adriana; Ricci, Beatriz; Soroka, Luisa C; Frías, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach to hand hygiene in 11 intensive care units in 4 cities in Argentina and analyzed predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. We had a baseline period and a follow-up period. We observed 21 100 hand hygiene opportunities. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.3% to 64.8% (P = .0001). Males versus females (56.8% vs 66.4%; P < .001) and physicians versus nurses (46.6% vs 67.8%; P < .001) were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance. PMID:26035705

  5. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin; Herri Susanto; Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis), this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been ...

  6. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-800C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  7. Sanitisation of faecal sludge by ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fidjeland, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Faecal sludge contains valuable plant nutrients and can be used as a fertiliser in agriculture, instead of being emitted as a pollutant. As this involves a risk of pathogen transmission, it is crucial to inactivate the pathogens in faecal sludge. One treatment alternative is ammonia sanitisation, as uncharged ammonia (NH₃) inactivates pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study how the pathogen inactivation depends on treatment factors, mainly NH₃ concentration, temperature and storage tim...

  8. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline

  9. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  10. Leachability of barium-radium sulphate sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from the first phase of a research program designed to examine the leachability of radium-226 from barium-radium sulphate sludges. Batch leaching tests were performed. Results showed that liquid:solid contact time was relatively unimportant; radium in the sludge was stable in the presence of deionized water with a slight increase in the amount leached per gram of sludge occurring at higher liquid:solid ratios. Not unexpectedly, low and high values of leachant pH increased radium leaching. Both monovalent and divalent salt solutions also increased leaching; however, dissolved radium-226 activity levels in the leachate decreased as leachant molarity increased. For divalent salts this can be explained by the common ion effect; for monovalent salts it is opposite to results expected from solubility considerations. The interpretation of all results is complicated by the fact that in most tests, the amount of radium-226 present in the leachate was lower than the calculated contribution from the mother liquour present with the sludge. This apparent ability of the sludge to absorb radium from solution may be related to dissolution and reprecipitation of the sludge during the leaching tests

  11. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)--from a hygiene aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia; Diener, Stefan; Magri, Maria Elisa; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lindström, Anders; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate and lacking sanitation and wastewater treatment systems can lead to the spreading of diarrhoeal diseases. One contributing factor in the lack of such treatment systems is the lack of economic incentives for stakeholders throughout the service chain. However, the organic fraction of the waste is high in valuable plant nutrients and could be reused in agriculture and as animal feed. For example, grown larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), make an excellent protein source in animal feed, while the feeding activity of the larvae substantially reduces the dry mass of the treated material. This study examined the effect of black soldier fly larvae on the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in human faeces and found a 6 log10 reduction in Salmonella spp. in human faeces in eight days, compared with a <2 log10 reduction in the control. No increased reduction was observed for Enterococcus spp., bacteriophage ΦX174 or Ascaris suum ova. PMID:23669577

  12. Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena G. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.

  13. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water

  14. Nitrogen removal from the saline sludge liquor by electrochemical denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Li, XY; Chan, KY; Xie, ZM

    2006-01-01

    Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4 + - N content of around 500 mg/L. The sludge liquor had a high salinity due to seawater being used for toilet flushing in Hong Kong. The results show that the EC process is highly effective for denitrification of the saline sludge li...

  15. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit;

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... was 78.1±0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration. The maximum power density generated from raw sludge reached 190±5 mW/m2. Dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The power density was saturated at sludge...

  16. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  17. Water and sludge treatment device provided with a system for irradiating by accelerated charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment system for a fluid made up of water and sludge, provided with a system for irradiating the fluid by a beam of accelerated charged particles comprising means for obtaining a constant flow of the fluid to be treated, facilities for monitoring this flow, an irradiation channel located on the path of the beam, in which the fluid to be treated can flow, a portion of this channel having at least one window transparent to the beam of accelerated particles. A safety system associated with the system for monitoring the characteristics of the beam and with the system for monitoring the flow of the fluid to be treated, stops the flow of the fluid and the recycling of the fluid defectively treated

  18. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. PMID:16570625

  19. Microbial diversity differences within aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge flocs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; de Bruin, L M M; Verheijen, P J T; Abbas, B; Habermacher, J; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we investigated during 400 days the microbial community variations as observed from 16S DNA gene DGGE banding patterns from an aerobic granular sludge pilot plant as well as the from a full-scale activated sludge treatment plant in Epe, the Netherlands. Both plants obtained the same wastewater and had the same relative hydraulic variations and run stable over time. For the total bacterial population, a similarity analysis was conducted showing that the community composition of both sludge types was very dissimilar. Despite this difference, general bacterial population of both systems had on average comparable species richness, entropy, and evenness, suggesting that different bacteria were sharing the same functionality. Moreover, multi-dimensional scaling analysis revealed that the microbial populations of the flocculent sludge system moved closely around the initial population, whereas the bacterial population in the aerobic granular sludge moved away from its initial population representing a permanent change. In addition, the ammonium-oxidizing community of both sludge systems was studied in detail showing more unevenness than the general bacterial community. Nitrosomonas was the dominant AOB in flocculent sludge, whereas in granular sludge, Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira were present in equal amounts. A correlation analysis of process data and microbial data from DGGE gels showed that the microbial diversity shift in ammonium-oxidizing bacteria clearly correlated with fluctuations in temperature. PMID:23064482

  20. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using on

  1. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility

  2. Preparation of ferric-activated sludge-based adsorbent from biological sludge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Xu, Guoren; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Ferric activation was novelly used to produce sludge-based adsorbent (SBA) from biological sludge through pyrolysis, and the adsorbents were applied to remove tetracycline from aqueous solution. The pyrolysis temperature and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) greatly influenced the surface area and pore characteristics of SBA. Ferric activation could promote the porous structure development of adsorbents, and the optimum preparation conditions were pyrolysis temperature 750°C and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) 0.5. In batch experiments, ferric-activated SBA showed a higher adsorption capacity for tetracycline than non-activated SBA, because the enhanced mesoporous structure favored the diffusion of tetracycline into the pores, the iron oxides and oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorbents captured tetracycline by surface complexation. The results indicate that ferric activation is an effective approach for preparing adsorbents from biological sludge to remove tetracycline, providing a potential option for waste resource recovery. PMID:27038265

  3. Application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a review of current status of the application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology. Different aspects of radiation treatment of natural and polluted drinking water, radiation purification of industrial and municipal wastes, radiation treatment of sewage sludge and radiation purification of exhaust gases are considered. The special attention is paid to the respective pilot and industrial facilities. (author) 70 refs

  4. Bessel Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  5. Application of electron beam irradiation. 4. Treatment of pollutants by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam irradiation is capable of dissolving and removing pollutants, such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and organic compounds, by easy production of OH radicals in flue gas and water. This paper deals with current status in the search for techniques for treating flue gas and waste water, using electron beam irradiation. Pilot tests have been conducted during the period 1991-1994 for the treatment of flue gas caused by coal and garbage burning and road tunnels. Firstly, techniques for cleaning flue gas with electron beams are outlined, with special reference to their characteristics and process of research development. Secondly, the application of electron beam irradiation in the treatment of waste water is described in terms of the following: (1) disinfection of sewage, (2) cleaning of water polluted with toxic organic compounds, (3) treatment for eliminating sewage sludge, (4) promotion of sewage sludge sedimentation, (5) disinfection and composting of sewage sludge, and (6) regeneration of activated carbon used for the treatment of waste water. (N.K.)

  6. [Hygienic assessment of textbooks for educational establishments of different types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, E R; Khamitova, R Ia

    2006-01-01

    The role of hygienic parameters of prints in the development of fatigue and this or that abnormality in schoolchildren of today has been inadequately studied. Practically every three or two textbooks on the humanities, analyzed by the authors, show breaches of the orders of educational publishing products; they are much less significantly encountered in the textbooks on natural sciences and, in isolated instances, in those on mathematical sciences. Thus, due to the variations in their weight, the lettering of a body text, high component complexity and abstractedness, the textbooks are a risk factor for visual, nervous, and musculoskeletal diseases among pupils of educational establishments, particularly those of the innovation type. The problems associated of the present-day textbook are of no hygienic order, although they may exert a considerable impact on pupils' efficiency. PMID:16808411

  7. Certain methodical aspects of hygienic regulation of hazardous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of hygienic regulation of hazardous radiation and chemical factors is considered. Differences in reliability of some standards for radioactive and chemical substances are determined in experiments on animals (mices, rats). The differences were established for 60Co, sup(89, 90)Sr, 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra and for 7 chemical substances (corrosive sublimate, lead, methyl mercury, chlorine compounds, strontium, hexamethylenediamine, beryllium). Maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides are shown to be superfluously over estimated; standards for toxic chemical substances are not strictly substantiated that is dangerous for human beings and environmental objects. Necessity of unique methodological and methodical approaches to hygienic standardization on the base of cost-benefit analysis is emphasized

  8. HACCP system in radiation-hygiene control of pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Radosav; Kljajić Ranko R.; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents instructive methodology for introducing and realizing the HACCP system in pig production, as a typical representative of intensive breeding, with the objective of establishing radiation-hygiene supervision. Attention was focused on the type of pig diet as the key link in the production chain, in fact the selection of the raw material components necessary in the production of pig feed concentrates for intense breeding conditions, and on the establishment of a certain radiati...

  9. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Raquel I.; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence ...

  10. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac CH; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Ever since John Snow’s intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. Methods We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta di...

  11. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquak...

  12. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do we Stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Piers; Coombes, Yolande

    2013-01-01

    "The Third African Sanitation and Hygiene Conference was held in Kigali, Rwanda in July 2011. It was hosted by the Government of the Republic of Rwanda, and the African Minister s Council on Water. The meeting attracted extraordinary interest: over 1000 people registered and nearly 900 people attended from a total of 67 countries, including representatives of 42 African countries. The content of AfricaSan 3 was aligned with the needs of countries as defined in country preparation meeting...

  13. Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Richard John

    2016-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Richard Macey for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy entitled “Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists”, February 2016.Many adult patients that attend NHS dental practices on a regular basis are asymptomatic and do not need any further treatment other than a routine dental examination (“check-up”). As the oral health of the adult population is predicted to improve further, using the General Dental Practitioner to und...

  14. Ensuring Maintenance of Oral Hygiene in Persons with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Lisa V

    2016-07-01

    Patients with special needs often must rely on inadequately trained caregivers for oral health maintenance. Consequently, full compliance is often not achieved. It is crucial that dentists carefully consider restorative materials and restoration design to maximize durability and facilitate cleansing in these challenging circumstances. This article discusses materials selection, prosthetic design, and oral hygiene techniques for caregivers to ensure longevity and maintenance of oral health in the special needs population. PMID:27264852

  15. Association Between Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among...

  16. CONTROL OF OPERATIONAL HYGIENE IN FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomír Lopašovský; Simona Kunová; Alica Bobková; Lucia Zeleňáková; Marek Bobko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was control of operational hygiene in fast-food restaurants. Control was carried out in three fast food restaurants. Samples were collected from ten sampling places, in cycles of morning, afternoon and evening. Sanitation process was also controlled in each operation. Grown colonies of microorganisms were counted after incubation in a thermostat. Samples were collected using a 3M ® plates PetrifilmTM - modern detection methods. Presence of coliform bacteria was determi...

  17. Comparative evaluation of different methods of setting hygienic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term experiments were carried out on white mice and rats to study the relative importance of various procedures used in setting hygienic standards for exposure to adverse factors. A variety of radionuclides and chemical substances were tested and the sensitivities to them of various indices of the bodily state were determined. For each index, statistically significant minimal effective concentrations of substances were established

  18. Radiation-Hygienic control of animal food in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-hygienic control of animal food (concentrated fodder, row material for making fodder and food for pets) was done through the first and second circle of radiation biotechnology monitoring system (BIMOS) in 1996. The gamma-spectrometry determined activity of 137 Cs was less than 2,65 Bq/kg with one sample of fish flour exception (23,9 Bq/kg), so the completely radiation safety for animal food was confirmed. (author)

  19. ORAL HYGIENE OF PROSTHETIC DENTURE USER IN KODINGARENG ISLAND

    OpenAIRE

    NUR, NURUL KUSUMADEWI S.KG

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:to determine the level of oral hygiene for prosthetic denture user, especially for full-denture in Kodingareng Island. This researchincluded the distribution level of prosthetic denture user based on age and education.Methods: the method that used in this research is observational descriptive withcross sectional-studyas the research design. Variable result of the research determined in to 3, those are bad, middle, and good. Result:the highest percentage o...

  20. Standards for the hand hygiene of food handlers / Sanette Klingenberg

    OpenAIRE

    Klingenberg, Sanette

    2008-01-01

    Globally, investigations into food-borne illnesses show that the majority of cases involve poor hand hygiene of the food handler. The challenge of providing safe food therefore requires new strategies for evaluating cross-contamination of pathogenic micro-organisms on the food handler's hands, which might be detrimental or hazardous to the health of the patient Although food-borne diseases may be multifactorial in aetiology, no standards or evaluation systems, such as an occupational health s...