WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam sludge hygienization

  1. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuba, V.; Pospíšil, M.; Múčka, V.; Jeníček, P.; Dohányos, M.; Zábranská, J.

    2003-01-01

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters.

  2. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters. (author)

  3. Occurrence and Distribution of Synthetic Organic Substances in Boreal Coniferous Forest Soils Fertilized with Hygienized Municipal Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Tysklind; Kenneth Sahlén; Richard Lindberg

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances following application of dried and granulated (hygienized) municipal sewage sludge in Swedish boreal coniferous forests were investigated. Elevated concentrations of triclosan (TCS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the humus layer. Concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE2), norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin (FQs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not signi...

  4. Comparative microbiological-hygienic studies in mesophilic and thermophilic fouling of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlig-Schmitt, M.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    Investigations concerning the inactivation of microbial pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites) during anaerobic, alkaline dignestion of sludge are described. A thermophilic (54/sup 0/C) and a mesophilic (34/sup 0/C) operated biogas model plant were compared from the point of view of hygiene. Is was found that in the thermophilic process Salmonella senftenberg survived 13,5 h, Streptococcus faecium 55 h, Streptococcus faecalis 42 h and Klebsiella pneumoniae 0,5 h. Within 30 min eggs of Ascaris suum lost their infectivity Bovine Parvovirus was inactivated after 1 d to 2 d treatment. Survival times under mesophilic conditions of 13 d for Salmonella senftenberg and more than 8 mouth for Streptococcus faecium were found. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated in 8 d while Bovine Parvovirus survived no longer than 15 d. The results obtained in the thermophilic process were compared to those after heat treatment of the test microorganisms in ampules exposed in a wather-bath under defined conditions to 54/sup 0/C. It was found, that the bacteria survived only about half the time in this case. Poliovirus Type 1 was inactivated after 0,75 h and Bovine Parvovirus after 7 d exposure. (orig.RB)

  5. Technical-economical, agronomical, pedological, hygienic and normative aspects of municipal wastewater sludges; Aspetti tecnico-economici, agronomici, pedologici, igienico-sanitari e normativi dei fanghi di depurazione civile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottavi, C. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Ottaviani, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Figliolia, A. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    This review is intended to give an overview on the technical, economical, agronomical, pedological and hygienic aspects of sludges from treatment plants of civil wastewater, Both Italian and European regulations on the sludge disposal are considered.

  6. Two-stage anaerobic and post-aerobic mesophilic digestion of sewage sludge: Analysis of process performance and hygienization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Levantesi, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated to be effective for enhanced sludge stabilization, in terms of increased solid reduction and improvement of sludge dewaterability. In this study, we propose a modified version of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion process by operating the aerobic step under mesophilic conditions (T=37 °C), in order to improve the aerobic degradation kinetics of soluble and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD). Process performance has been assessed in terms of "classical parameters" such as volatile solids (VS) removal, biogas production, COD removal, nitrogen species, and polysaccharide and protein fate. The aerobic step was operated under intermittent aeration to achieve nitrogen removal. Aerobic mesophilic conditions consistently increased VS removal, providing 32% additional removal vs. 20% at 20 °C. Similar results were obtained for nitrogen removal, increasing from 64% up to 99% at the higher temperature. Improved sludge dewaterability was also observed with a capillary suction time decrease of ~50% during the mesophilic aerobic step. This finding may be attributable to the decreased protein content in the aerobic digested sludge. The post-aerobic digestion exerted a positive effect on the reduction of microbial indicators while no consistent improvement of hygienization related to the increased temperature was observed. The techno-economic analysis of the proposed digestion layout showed a net cost saving for sludge disposal estimated in the range of 28-35% in comparison to the single-phase anaerobic digestion. PMID:26760266

  7. Comparative analysis of the efficiency, reliability, technical feasibility and costs of methods to convert sewage sludge to a hygienically safe condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the development of sewage treatment technology and the construction of new and sewage works and enlargement of older ones, increasing amounts of sewage sludge have been produced. Agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge is a practicable way of utilization which, however, is often limited for reasons of hygienic safety. The present study intends to describe methods of sewage sludge disinfection which have been used in practice or tested extensively, as well as technical innovations in this field, and to give information on their performance with respect to hygienic and technical requirements. A direct comparison of processes has turned out to be extremely difficult because disinfection of sewage sludge is only one of the stages of sewage treatment. For comparison, numerous factors have to be taken into account such as plant size, type of sewage and sludge treatment processes, energy costs, sales potential for agricultural use etc. This study is meant as an aid in such work. (orig.)

  8. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-06-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

  9. Occurrence and Distribution of Synthetic Organic Substances in Boreal Coniferous Forest Soils Fertilized with Hygienized Municipal Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Tysklind

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances following application of dried and granulated (hygienized municipal sewage sludge in Swedish boreal coniferous forests were investigated. Elevated concentrations of triclosan (TCS, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were detected in the humus layer. Concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE2, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin (FQs, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were not significantly influenced. Maximum concentrations in humus were as follows (in ng/g dry matter: TCS; 778; PBDEs; 25; and PCB7; 16.7. Fertilization did not alter the levels of the substances in mineral soil, ground water, and various types of samples related to air. Further research within this area is needed, including ecotoxicological effects and fate, in order to improve the knowledge regarding the use of sludge as a fertilizing agent. Continuous annual monitoring, with respect to sampling and analysis, should be conducted on the already-fertilized fields.

  10. Electron beam processing programme: Wastewater and sludge treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research, working on environmental applications, has an extensive research programme using high energy electron beam in treating industrial wastewater and sludge. The experiments are being conducted in a pilot plant using an industrial electron beam 1.5MeV, 25mA, where the streams are presented to the scanned electron beam in counter flow. This pilot plant is designed to process approximately 3.0m3/h with an average dose 5kGy and the absorbed dose measurement is performed continuously by calorimetric system in real time. Combined biological and radiation treatment of domestic sewage and sludge were carried out to investigate disinfestation and removal of organic matter. The experiments showed that total and fecal coliforms were decreased by about 5 logs cycles with a 3.0kGy radiation dose in raw sewage and biological effluents, respectively. Concerning the industrial wastewater in the first stage of the programme, the irradiation was conducted using batch systems with samples originating from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant. The data showed a significant color reduction effect when delivered dose was increased, and the opposite was noted for turbidity and total suspended solids. Other experiments were focused to process real industrial effluents from one of the most important chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Brazil. A special transport truck was used to transfer the liquid waste from the Industry to the Electron Beam Pilot Plant. Large quantities of liquid waste were irradiated with and without air addition with the doses from 2kGy to 20kGy. Such experiences performed in association with the Industry demonstrated that this technology has a great potential to be transferred and to contribute with a permanent cleanup alternative for hazardous wastes

  11. Enhancement in characteristics of sewage sludge and anaerobic treatability by electron beam pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam was studied to enhance the biodegradability of sewage sludge. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the sludge were examined with various irradiation doses, sludge thicknesses and exposure times. Irradiation thickness was suggested as the key factor affecting the efficiency of solublization of solid organic matter, whereas exposure time would be the most critical parameter in inducing cell lysis in sewage sludge. In addition, biogas production was improved as much as 22% when the sludge thickness was 0.5 cm with a dose of 7 kGy

  12. Treatment of liquid separated from sludge by the method using electron beam and ozone in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the liquid separated from sludge in the dehydration or concentration process of sewer sludge contains considerable amount of organic compositions that are hard to be decomposed by microorganisms, it has become difficult to be treated by conventional activated sludge process. In the case of discharging the separated liquid into closed water areas, the higher quality treatment is required. The method of using electron beam irradiation and ozone oxidation in combination for cleaning the liquid separated from sludge was examined, therefore, the results are reported. The water quality of the sample from the sludge treatment plant in A City is shown. The method of bio-pretreatment, the treatment method by using electron beam and ozone in combination, and the method of analyzing the water quality are described. The effect of the treatment by activated sludge process, as the effect of the treatment by the combined use of electron beam and ozone, the change of COD and TOC, the change of chromaticity, the change of gel chromatogram, and the reaction mechanism are reported. In this paper, only the basic concept on the model plant for applying the method of the combined use of electron beam and ozone to the treatment of the liquid separated from sludge is discussed. (K.I.)

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

  14. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  15. Influence of Microwave Heating on Fertilizer Efficiency and Hygienic Index of Sludge%微波加热对污泥肥效和卫生指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅大放; 邹路易; 蔡元明

    2001-01-01

    污泥经微波辐照处理后,氮、磷、有机质的含量有所降低,但仍是很好的有机肥原料;污泥的卫生学指标能达到控制标准的要求;污泥机械脱水时加入絮凝剂(PAM)的分子质量也明显降低,有利于污泥的农用化。设计制作了一台大型试验装置,在污水处理厂的现场试验结果与实验室的试验结果是一致的。%Microwave irradiation was studied for treatment of wastewater sludge in laboratory scale. The results show that the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter reduces slightly after microwave irradiation, but it is still a good raw material of organic fertilizer. The hygienic indexes of the sludge can meet the controlled standard and the molecular weight of PAM, a coagulant added before sludge dewatering, reduces markedly, so microwave heating of sludge is beneficial to fertilizing utilization. A large-scale equipment was developed. The result from an on - site test at a wastewater treatment plant with the large-scale equipment is fully in line with that from laboratory scale test.

  16. Treatment test of supernatant from sewage sludge by irradiation of high energy electron beams under supersaturation with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Masakazu; Arai, Hidehiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Aizawa, Masaki; Shimooka, Toshio; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Shimizu, Ken; Sugiyama, Masashi.

    1993-02-01

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics. Therefore, it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge method. The development of a new technology is required to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) effectively below 30 mg/l. Irradiation of high energy electron beams can convert nondegradable organics in water into substances which are biodegradable. However, sufficient dissolved oxygen in water is needed to induce oxidation effectively. In the present study, the treatment of supernatant was studied using an apparatus which can be irradiated by high intensity electron beams in flow system under supersaturation with oxygen by pressurization up to 3 atms. The dependence of oxygen concentration on the reduction in absorbance at 230 nm of azo dye (Acid Red 265) aqueous solution was examined, and it was clarified that sufficient oxygen was supplied in the solution up to about 14 kGy under 3 atms of oxygen. Radiation treatment of supernatant which came from the leather works was carried out using the above apparatus. However, as this supernatant contained high concentration of nitrite, the nitrite was removed by limited aeration activated sludge method. By this pretreatment, COD was reduced from 200 mg/l to 53 mg/l. Then, the biodegradability of supernatant irradiated under supersaturation with oxygen was examined. The final COD of the supernatant was reduced below 30 mg/l by the combined method of irradiation of 7 kGy and biological treatment. (author).

  17. Occupational hygiene

    CERN Document Server

    Gardiner, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    Employees, employers and the government have all become very aware of the effects on health of the work environment. As a result, this subject area is rapidly developing with recent changes in legislation, sampling and measurement methods, as well as a new emphasis on the psychological impact of work, and the importance of an appropriate work-life balance. The purpose of this book is to provide a clear and concise account of the principles of occupational hygiene and, as such, it is suitable for students studying for degree courses in this subject and for the MFOM. It is also suitable for occ

  18. Tratamento térmico de lodo anaeróbio com utilização do biogás gerado em reatores UASB: avaliação da autossustentabilidade do sistema e do efeito sobre a higienização e a desidratação do lodo Thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge utilizing biogas produced in UASB reactors: evaluation of system self-sustainability and the effect on sludge hygienization and dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sales Machado Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetiva avaliar a eficiência do biogás gerado em reatores UASB como fonte de energia para higienização térmica do lodo excedente, atentando-se ainda para a autossustentabilidade do sistema e para a avaliação do desaguamento do lodo tratado termicamente. Foi desenvolvido em um aparato experimental em escala de demonstração constituído de reator UASB, reservatório de biogás, reator térmico e leitos de secagem. A autossustentabilidade foi verificada por meio de balanço térmico teórico e de testes experimentais de higienização térmica. Estes testes indicaram que o aproveitamento da energia térmica do biogás foi suficiente para aquecer o lodo em temperaturas de 55 a 65ºC, durante três a cinco horas, possibilitando a completa eliminação de ovos viáveis de helmintos. No entanto, o processo de desidratação se mostrou muito mais difícil para o lodo tratado termicamente.The objective of this research was to determine how effectively biogas produced in UASB reactors could be used as a source of heat for the thermal hygienization of excess anaerobic sludge, whether the system can operate on a self-sustained basis and how the dehydration of the thermally treated sludge behave. The experiments were conducted in a demonstration-scale setup comprising UASB reactor, biogas holder, thermal reactor and sludge drying beds. The self-sustainability of the system was evaluated by the systemâ€TMs theoretical thermal balance and by experimental hygienization tests. These tests indicated that the recovery of thermal energy from the biogas was sufficient to heat the sludge at temperatures in the range of 55 to 65ºC, for three to five hours, allowing the complete elimination of viable helminth eggs. However, the dehydration process showed to be much more difficult for the thermally treated sludge.

  19. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it again in front of me. Sure, no problem. Thanks doctor. I know how important hand hygiene ... it again in front of me. Sure, no problem. Thanks doctor. I know how important hand hygiene ...

  1. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...... a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account and teach in local languages. Creating stronger links between home...

  2. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  3. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. PMID:27515139

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. ... than those who don't. In the following video, you'll see how easy it is to ...

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Both of these practices can help prevent the spread of germs. Let's take a look in another ... how important hand hygiene is in preventing the spread of infections. Your loved ones can play an ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points ... importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, ... and Prevention , Office of the Associate Director for Communications, Division of Public Affairs Follow CDC Email Recommend ...

  8. A specific hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunsheng Han, Cliff

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases have reached epidemic proportions in Western populations in the last several decades. The hygiene hypothesis proposed more than twenty years ago has helped us to understand the epidemic and has been verified with numerous studies. However, translational measures deduced from these studies to prevent allergic diseases have not proven effective. Recent studies on immigrants' allergies and any potential association between oral infection and allergic diseases prompt me to propose a specific hygiene hypothesis to explain how oral hygiene practices might have contributed to the uprising of hay fever, the most common allergic disease. The historic oral hygiene level in US is closely associated with the emerging allergic epidemic. Future studies to test the hypothesis are needed and verification of the hypothesis can potentially yield highly effective measures to prevent allergic diseases. PMID:27372876

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: ... hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, and after using the restroom. It is important ...

  11. Pubescent Dental Hygiene Education

    OpenAIRE

    MÁČALÍKOVÁ, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the stance of pubescent to oral hygiene. Theoretical part aims at the anatomy and physiology of buccal cavity, psychology of pubescent youths and next most frequent teeth troubles, such as caries, pulpitis and parodontosis. Their primary etiology, diagnostic, therapy and prevention are described. The noticeable part is devoted to oral hygiene, its resources, methods of teeth cleaning and prevention also. Practical part describes monitoring of the work of dental...

  12. The Hygiene Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Frederic; Severijns, Cassandra; Albiez, Daniela; Seljutin, Eugen; Jovanović, Marko; Eyvazi Hesar, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the correlation of hospital acquired infections and insufficient hand hygiene, we propose a supportive system to enhance the individual hygiene habits of health care workers. By applying gamification to incentivize health care professionals while maintaining a high standard of privacy and usability, the system focuses on technical simplicity by using concepts like bring your own device in a scaleable proof of concept implementation. PMID:27332297

  13. Use of sewage sludge for agriculture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the use of sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge is gradually increasing. They are applied not only to agricultural land, but also to golf courses, parks, etc. The presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for such utilization of sludge. Composting is a traditional method of sewage treatment. Laws have been introduced and guidelines prepared for proper and safe use of these materials by farmers. Public acceptance plays a crucial role. At a time when environmental preservation is a major issue in almost every aspect of life, greater emphasis will have to be placed on making sludge and compost hygienically acceptable with minimum contamination from pathogenic organisms and heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. This paper reviews studies conducted on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture in japan. (author)

  14. Increasing hygiene productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger P

    2003-03-01

    Dentists have many opportunities to expand the role of dental hygienists and provide patients with better oral health care, while increasing production and profits. But the proper business systems and verbal skills need to be incorporated. You must train hygienists to do all they can do for every patient. Begin with one service and add others, as the hygienists becomes familiar with each one. Set a goal of a 15% increase in production per year for the hygiene department. Clinicians using these strategies have experienced as much as a 100% to 200% increase in hygiene revenue during the first year of incorporating these services. An added benefit is that these dentists often see a substantial increase in dental treatment diagnosis and case acceptance. An effective and efficient hygiene department will often identify and help secure more than 50% of a doctor's production.

  15. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  16. Headache Hygiene -- What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Instagram DONATE TODAY Headache Hygiene – What is It? Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their Relationship to ... If My Head Hurts? Headache Hygiene – What is It? Migraine’s House of Headaches ..and Visiting the Neighbors ...

  17. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Better hygiene and access to drinking water and sanitation will accelerate progress toward two millennium development goals (MDGs): 'reduce under-five child mortality rate by 2/3 between 1990 and 2015' and "by 2015 halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Meeting the latter goal will require infrastructure investments of about ...

  18. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  19. Chemical hygiene plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials

  20. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs. PMID:27620188

  1. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  2. Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Irradiation treatment of sewage sludge: History and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first reviews the history of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world. The first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 and used 60Co as irradiation source. Since then, many sludge irradiators were constructed in U.S.A., India, Japan, Canada, Poland, etc., which used 60Co, 137Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources. The paper then describes some basic research on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge. Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology in the future

  4. History and prospects of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world.Since the first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 which used 60Co as irradiation source, many sludge irradiators were constructed in USA, India, Japan, Canada, Poland and so on, which used 60Co, 137Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources.Some basic researches on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge are, respectively, reviewed, including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge.Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology.

  5. [Hygienic aspects of the hot water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, T S

    1991-08-01

    Hygienic significance of hot water-supply was demonstrated. In the case of the sanitary inspection deficiency it may be the complaints appearance. Hygiene of hot water-supply seems as an independent scientific branch of hygiene. PMID:1937089

  6. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  7. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from tran

  8. [Hygiene as a behavior problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1987-03-01

    The subject of the study is a systematizing analysis of present research concerned with the barriers which prevent scientific findings about hygiene from being carried out and which hamper the obvious adoption of hygienically and psycho-hygienically relevant prophylactic measures. A general interpretive model with explanatory value for health- and hygiene-related behavior is being developed. Future studies will particularly have to clarify what significance and what interpretative relevance do the diverse influencing factors have for a particular person in a particular position and situation and how in the course of one's biography even something like lifestyles of hygienic behavior develop and change. For the necessity of improvement as regards the hygienic status in various realms of life the knowledge about existing barriers is a basic essential. The following quantities and constructs pass into the theoretic interpretive model which should also provide the basis for further evolvement of theories as well as the starting point for specific research hypotheses but not least for the development of specific research and evaluation designs: Standard of information, informational behavior and quality of information. The individual risk assessment: A function of the subjective importance and probability that benefit and cost factors of prophylactic behavior will occur. Additional influencing factors essential to the development of a desirable health- and hygiene-related behavior are: Objective shortcomings with regard to prophylaxis: deficits of the hygienic research including the deficits concerning the development of feasible and universally applicable disinfection methods. Hazards connected to prophylaxis: Objective risks with regard to prophylaxis (disinfection methods which may cause allergies, which involve problems with the compatibility of materials and so forth) and psychological risks (impaired relations between physician and patient due to the wearing of a

  9. Industrial Hygiene Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    This breakout session is a traditional conference instrument used by the NASA industrial hygiene personnel as a method to convene personnel across the Agency with common interests. This particular session focused on two key topics, training systems and automation of industrial hygiene data. During the FY 98 NASA Occupational Health Benchmarking study, the training system under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was deemed to represent a "best business practice." The EPA has invested extensively in the development of computer based training covering a broad range of safety, health and environmental topics. Currently, five compact disks have been developed covering the topics listed: Safety, Health and Environmental Management Training for Field Inspection Activities; EPA Basic Radiation Training Safety Course; The OSHA 600 Collateral Duty Safety and Health Course; and Key program topics in environmental compliance, health and safety. Mr. Chris Johnson presented an overview of the EPA compact disk-based training system and answered questions on its deployment and use across the EPA. This training system has also recently been broadly distributed across other Federal Agencies. The EPA training system is considered "public domain" and, as such, is available to NASA at no cost in its current form. Copies of the five CD set of training programs were distributed to each NASA Center represented in the breakout session. Mr. Brisbin requested that each NASA Center review the training materials and determine whether there is interest in using the materials as it is or requesting that EPA tailor the training modules to suit NASA's training program needs. The Safety, Health and Medical Services organization at Ames Research Center has completed automation of several key program areas. Mr. Patrick Hogan, Safety Program Manager for Ames Research Center, presented a demonstration of the automated systems, which are described by the following: (1) Safety

  10. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  11. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl

  12. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  13. Radiation sterilization and effective utilization of sewer sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and disposal of the sludge that is generated in sewage treatment plants in large quantity have become a social problem. At present it is disposed mostly by landfill or reclamation. The research and development of the effective utilization of sewer sludge as fertilizer after sterilizing it by radiation have been carried out since relatively long ago. In this report, the technology of the sterilization and effective utilization of sludge by using radiation is introduced, centering around the research carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The general treatment process for sewage in Japan is explained. Sewer sludge is a useful resource, but when it is used for farmland as fertilizer, the problems are the possibility of the contamination with high concentration heavy metals, the possibility of the contamination by pathogenic bacteria and parasites and the bad smell of sludge. The radiation sterilization of sewer sludge, the electron sterilization of sewer sludge, the basic test and the pilot plant test on making compost, the effect of applying electron beam-sterilized sludge compost, and the economical efficiency of this process are reported. Accompanying recent environment pollution, small amount of harmful substances have become to be mixed in sludge, and it becomes the obstacle to the effective use of sludge. (K.I.)

  14. SLUDGE ORGANICS BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. vailable data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. ludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical c...

  15. Gender and the hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Sharyn

    2011-02-01

    The hygiene hypothesis offers an explanation for the correlation, well-established in the industrialized nations of North and West, between increased hygiene and sanitation, and increased rates of asthma and allergies. Recent studies have added to the scope of the hypothesis, showing a link between decreased exposure to certain bacteria and parasitic worms, and increased rates of depression and intestinal auto-immune disorders, respectively. What remains less often discussed in the research on these links is that women have higher rates than men of asthma and allergies, as well as many auto-immune disorders, and also depression. The current paper introduces a feminist understanding of gender socialization to the epidemiological and immunological picture. That standards of cleanliness are generally higher for girls than boys, especially under the age of five when children are more likely to be under close adult supervision, is a robust phenomenon in industrialized nations, and some research points to a cross-cultural pattern. I conclude that, insofar as the hygiene hypothesis successfully identifies standards of hygiene and sanitation as mediators of immune health, then attention to the relevant patterns of gender socialization is important. The review also makes clear that adding a feminist analysis of gender socialization to the hygiene hypothesis helps explain variation in morbidity rates not addressed by other sources and responds to a number of outstanding puzzles in current research. Alternative explanations for the sex differences in the relevant morbidity rates are also discussed (e.g., the effects of estrogens). Finally, new sources of evidence for the hygiene hypothesis are suggested in the form of cross-cultural and other natural experiments. PMID:21195519

  16. Wastewater sludge - the challenges. What are the potentials of utilising the resources in sludge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, Helmut

    2003-07-01

    The actual best practice of urban water management has developed during the last 200 years and consists of: safe and reliable drinking water supply, sewerage to prevent hygienic problems and flooding in the settlements, mechanical -biological waste water treatment for receiving water protection. The hygienic and environmental goals of the urban water system have to be attained with a minimum of costs. Most of the drinking water supplied is used for the transport of pollution originating from human metabolism, washing and cleaning. Waste water contains all the substances which enter human metabolism as food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, a great variety of household chemicals and the substances discharged from trade and industry to the sewer system. Rain water is already contaminated by air pollution when it reaches the soil or other surfaces. Whatever material the rainwater gets into contact can be found in the waste water. As a consequence the composition of the waste water is a mirror of our civilisation and of human and urban metabolism. Waste water treatment results in two products which are closely related in their chemical composition: (1) treated waste water to be discharged to the receiving water, (2) wastewater sludge to be treated and disposed or (re)used without creating new (environmental) problems. All the compounds entering the waste water which are not completely degraded can be found in both products. The transfer coefficients between water and sludge differ widely and depend on physical and chemical equilibriums. The potentially hazardous compounds in the effluent and in the sludge belong to these compounds. Source control therefore is necessary for water protection and at the same time for low concentrations of potentially hazardous compounds in the sludge. It is also clear that improved biological treatment efficiency (longer sludge age) also results in lower loads of organic pollutants in the sludge, while physical-chemical treatment steps result

  17. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  18. Hand hygiene among laboratory workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Haverkate, D.; Voss, A.

    2006-01-01

    We performed a study to measure the compliance of laboratory personnel with different components of hand hygiene. The level of compliance at the end of duty was 100%; however, 36.7% of subjects wore a ring, 46.9% wore a watch, and 6.1% wore a bracelet. Pathogenic microorganisms were exclusively foun

  19. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  20. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  1. Food hygiene on the wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-09-13

    A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food

  2. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  3. Heavy metals and its chemical speciation in sewage sludge at different stages of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytła, Malwina; Widziewicz, Kamila; Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metal concentrations and forms in sewage sludge constitutes an important issue in terms of both health and environmental hazards the metals pose. The total heavy metals concentration enables only the assessment of its contamination. Hence the knowledge of chemical forms is required to determine their environmental mobility and sludge final disposal. Heavy metals speciation was studied by using four-stage sequential extraction BCR (Community Bureau of Reference). This study was aimed at determining the total concentration of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) and their chemical forms (except for Hg) in sludge collected at different stages of its processing at two municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in southern Poland. Metals contents in sludge samples were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). This study shows that Zn and Cu appeared to be the most abundant in sludge, while Cd and Hg were in the lowest concentrations. The sewage sludge revealed the domination of immobile fractions over the mobile ones. The oxidizable and residual forms were dominant for all the heavy metals. There was also a significant difference in metals speciation between sludges of different origin which was probably due to differences in wastewater composition and processes occurring in biological stage of wastewater treatment. The results indicate a negligible capability of metals to migrate from sludge into the environment. Our research revealed a significant impact of thickening, stabilization and hygienization on the distribution of heavy metals in sludge and their mobility.

  4. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygien...

  5. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  6. Solid waste electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible applications of electron accelerators for solid waste treatment are discussed in the report. The elaborated technologies allow to recycle of materials (e.g. cellulosic materials in municipal waste), improve their hygienic standards (agricultural usage of sludge from municipal waste water treatment) and reduce harmful to environment chemical usage (cellulose degradation). These are environment friendly advanced technologies which meets demands waste recycling. (author)

  7. Dnepropetrovsk hygienic school: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents historical analysis of formation of hygiene school of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy over the 100 year period - from formation of Katerinoslav province sanitary district council, as a unique self-government social organization in XIX century to the present. The basic stages of its development, including foundation of Hygiene Courses at High Mining School, their transformation into department of general hygiene, social hygiene and hygiene of labor in Katerinoslav Medical Academy in 1922, foundation of separate departments of hygiene in 1940-1948, their reorganization at the end of XX – beginning of XXI centuries are outlined. It is established, that Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school during its existence formed a great number of outstanding scientists, more than 100 dissertations in different directions devoted to hygienic diagnostics of technogenically changing environment, its impact on human health as well as hygienic control levers and health strengthening of population of industrial areas were defended. Scientific contribution of prominent scientists and teachers, their achievements and discoveries in the field of preventive medicine, role in the formation of preventive world outlook of students are estimated. At the XIV hygienic congress 30 hygienists were recognized as leading scientists of Ukraine over XX century, seven of them are from Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school; this indicates its importance in the noble cause of serving public health.

  8. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  9. Reputational Incentives for Restaurant Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Ginger Zhe Jin; Phillip Leslie

    2009-01-01

    How can consumers be assured that firms will endeavor to provide good quality when quality is unobservable prior to purchase? We test the hypothesis that reputational incentives are effective at causing restaurants to maintain good hygiene quality. We find that chain affiliation provides reputational incentives and franchised units tend to free-ride on chain reputation. We also show that regional variation in the degree of repeat customers affects the strength of reputational incentives for g...

  10. Comparative bacteriological investigations of sewage sludge after treatment with gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial investigations of the hygienic effect of Gamma-irradiation on sewage sludge were carried out under practical conditions in a sewage plant of conventional construction, (mechanical-biological treatment), containing an irradiation-plant (Gamma-irradiation source Cobalt 60). - The mechanical-biological treatment reduces the bacterial-count by an average of 3 log, Enterococci by 1-2 log and Enterobacteria by 3-4 log. The following irradiation of the digested sludge further reduced surviving bacteria by 1-2 log for the bacterial count, 2-3 log for Enterococci and 5-6 log for Enterobacteria. - Salmonella were isolated from 32 of 34 raw sludge samples and from 128 samples of non-irradiated digested sludge 117 were positive. 27 out of 38 from drying-bed, containing non-irradiated digested sludge were Salmonelle positive. After treatment of digested sludge in the irradiation plant, with 300 krad for 75 min, of 55 sludge batches 165 samples were taken. 163 proved Salmonella negative. - After storage at 370C and 15-180C in different containers the irradiated digested sludge remained negative for Salmonella. During the storage of irradiated sludge in drying beds under practical conditions, from 2 out 28 samples, taken at different times of year, Salmonella were isolated. Repeat investigations proved negative. - Model experiments with 15 Salmonella pure-cultures produced - with irradiation in the plant of 300 krad/75 min - a reduction of the count by around 5.2 - 7.9 log (average 6.3 log). - The experimental results show not only an inadequancy of mechanical-biological treatment but also the good hygienic effect achieved by Gamma-irradiated under practical conditions. (orig.)

  11. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  12. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment. PMID:20392787

  13. Hot balls dry sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2004-01-01

    Each year some 25 million m3 of mineral sludge are dredged from rivers, canals and harbours in the Netherlands alone, twenty percent of which is polluted. The unpolluted sludge is usually dumped at sea. The remaining five million m3 may only be dumped in a few selected landfill locations, at conside

  14. Anaerobic sludge granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Castro Lopes, de S.I.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial stage

  15. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Sotnikova; Georgia Fasoi

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene...

  16. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  17. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods...... for stabilization and methods for further treatment of sludge and organic waste has been investigated. The most common methods for stabilization, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic stabilization, only reduce the indicator organisms by approximately 1 logarithmic decade. Methods for further treatment of sludge and organic...... waste have shown reductions of microorganisms allowing for unrestricted utilization in agriculture, meeting the product control:FS below 100/g and no Salmonella detected. The effect of storage of sludge at summer and winter temperatures respectively has been investigated. At temperatures (around 20°C...

  18. Dewatering of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  19. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena

    2016-10-01

    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues.

  20. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena

    2016-10-01

    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues. PMID:27620088

  1. [Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, L

    2001-03-01

    Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation.

  2. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-03-01

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 55/sup 0/C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities.

  3. Assessment of sewage sludge treatment processes for the purpose of determining technical operating parameters. Ueberpruefung von Verfahren der Klaerschlammentseuchung zur Festlegung von technischen Betriebsparametern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, H.; Lang, A.

    1989-01-01

    Using survey investigations for enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, salmonella, faecal streptococci, f-specific bacteriophagi, enteric virus and parasitic developmental studies the epidemic-hygienic consistency of crude and treated sludges from 24 conventionally operated sewage treatment plants was determined. The results of these studies also provided information about the frequency of occurrences of potential indicator organisms. The microorganisms found were examined for their temperature and ph-resistance to check their suitability as epidemic-hygienic indicators. In this fashion the following parameters were found which can serve for the epidemic-hygienic evaluation of sewage sludge: According to results of laboratory studies, sewage sludge can be considered harmless (1) if it contains not more than 1000 entero bacteriaceae/g, (2) if it contains no salmonella and (3) if it contains no contagious worm eggs. These parameters according to results of laboratory studies also apply to enteric viruses. The parameters also serve in concluding examinations to check some of the practically operated, generally accepted decontamination processes with respect to their epidemic-hygienic efficiency. In this respect it was ascertained that, if properly operated, the processes are basically able to produce epidemically and hygienically harmless sewage sludge. (orig./EF).

  4. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee hygiene. 416.5 Section 416.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene Education: Creating a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Dona E.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the meaning of baccalaureate dental hygiene education is the offering of upper-division courses in the theory and practice of dental hygiene itself. Restructuring the associate programs as strictly two-year, lower-division programs would require standardization of baccalaureate programs as strictly upper-division curricula. (MLW)

  6. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  7. Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahiluoto, H; Kuisma, M; Ketoja, E; Salo, T; Heikkinen, J

    2015-02-17

    Phosphorus (P) flow from deposits through agriculture to waterways leads to eutrophication and depletion of P reserves. Therefore, P must be recycled. Low and unpredictable plant availability of P in residues is considered to be a limiting factor for recycling. We identified the determinants for the plant-availability of P in agrifood residues. We quantified P in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and in field soil fractions with different plant availabilities of P as a response to manure and sewage sludge with a range of P capture and hygienization treatments. P was more available in manure and in sludge, when it was captured biologically or with a moderate iron (Fe)/P (1.6), than in NPK. Increasing rate of sludge impaired P recovery and high Fe/P (9.8) prevented it. Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduced plant-availability at relevant rates. The recovery of P was increased in AD manure via composting and in AD sludge via combined acid and oxidizer. P was not available to plants in the sludge hygienized with a high calcium/P. Contrary to assumed knowledge, the recyclability of P in appropriately treated residues can be better than in NPK. The prevention of P sorption in soil by organic substances in fertilizers critically enhances the recyclability of P. PMID:25569114

  8. Sludge treatment studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  9. Sludge treatment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na7(PO4)2F·19H2O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO2-H2O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO3 sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth

  10. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  11. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-10-04

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.

  12. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  13. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sotnikova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics and guidelines. Results: There are numerous studies that demonstrate the central role of hand hygiene of employees in transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Hand hygiene is a process, which should not be omitted or replaced by the use of antiseptics. The professionals position in the hospital, the workplace and staff shortages, in conjunction with the large number of hospitalized patients seem to be the main factors that negatively affect the compliance with hand hygiene. The staff working in the hospital, especially with high-risk patients (ICU, surgery should not wear artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry - rings and should not have inflammation or infection on their hands. Conclusions: Hand hygiene should be applied before and after contact with each patient. Nurses have to comply with these guidelines, in order for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

  14. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies reported herein have shown that a treatment of 550C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads γ radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron-beam (which, for all practical purposes, is equivalent to γ irradiation for a given absorbed dose) was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities

  15. Thickening methods in sludge processing

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of wastewater occur a large amount of sludge that contains high percentage of water and substances that provide a poor quality of wastewater (suspended organic and inorganic substances, substances that give unpleasant odors, bacteria, etc.). The high content of water in the sludge requires relatively large objects for sludge processing. This indicates the need for application procedures for treating sludge to volume reduce, stabilization of substances subject to decay and ...

  16. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Sleep Growing Healthy Healthy Children > Healthy Living > Oral Health > Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Healthy Living Listen Español Text ...

  17. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  18. Profits go hand in hand with hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Deanne

    2009-01-01

    In Zambia, where hygiene and safety are critical issues in food processing, researchers are using a new tool to get their message across: a coloring book for kids. 'Protect Yourself With Handwashing' features three smiling youngsters in a cartoon car of citrus, melons, and vegetables in vibrant hues. Though its target audience is children of employees at food processing and distribution centers in Lundazi and Mfuwe, the book also reminds parents that good hygiene begins at home. ME (Manage...

  19. Food hygiene practices in different food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Djekic, I; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, EP; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L; Pacheco, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene in different food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses were included in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. In parallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the...

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

  1. Hygienic requirements for changing wound dressings

    OpenAIRE

    Daeschlein, Georg; Chergui, Bettina; Kramer, Axel

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of changing wound dressings is to promote wound healing. To prevent wound infection or colonization with pathogens, hygienically correct wound care is necessary. Every change of dressing must be performed in accordance with aseptic or - if necessary - antiseptic principles. Following preparation of the dressing cart (or tray), the non-aseptic phase is performed, followed by the aseptic phase. The first rule of infection prevention is correct hand hygiene (hand disinfection, protec...

  2. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  3. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  4. Impacts of certain biofertilizers on cowpea plants in sludge amended sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge from El-Gabal EI-Asfer treatment plant was taken to minimize the population densities of certain microbial groups of hygienic significance throughout the treatments of gamma radiation and lime. Ten kGy dose level of gamma radiation and 20 percent lime were the optimum treatments to reduce the microbial load of sludge namely, total bacterial counts, total sporeformers, Enterococcus faecalis, total coliform, Aeromonas hydrophila and total fungi. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological agent in controlling certain soil borne diseases and reducing the toxicity of heavy metals comparing with 20 percent lime and 10 kGy gamma radiation using 4 percent sludge application and its effect on yield of cowpea components. treatments with gamma radiation, liming and biofertilizers reduced certain soil borne diseases, moreover liming and biofertilizers reduced the concentration of heavy metals in shoots and grains of cowpea plants. However, the application of lime at the rate of 20 percent with sludge exerted negative effect in all studied parameters as compared to control (NPK) or sludge alone. The greatest values of number and fresh weight of nodules were observed under biofertilizers and gamma radiation treatments. Results revealed that significant effects on dry weight of roots and shoots as well as grain yield production of cowpea plants treated biofertilizers and gamma radiation at dose level 10 kGy under sludge application

  5. Chemical conditioning of sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J T; Park, C

    2004-01-01

    With all the advances made in understanding the structure and composition of sewage sludges, chemical conditioning remains a trial and error process, both with regard to the type and dose of conditioner needed. Recent studies at Virginia Tech have found that biological floc consists of two types of biopolymer, material associated with iron and aluminium and material associated with calcium and magnesium. These materials behave differently when sludges undergo digestion. This results in very different material being released into solution during digestion and very different conditioning requirements. This study shows that the primary materials released during anaerobic digestion are proteins and coagulation of the colloidal protein fraction in solution is the primary mechanism for conditioning. For aerobically digested sludges, both proteins and polysaccharides make up the colloid fraction, which interferes with dewatering. This research also shows that the effectiveness of the digestion process as characterized by volatile solids destruction is directly related to the chemical dose required for conditioning. That is, as the solids destruction increases, the conditioning chemical requirement also increases. Well digested sludges dewater more poorly and require more conditioning chemical than those with less volatile solids destruction. PMID:15259940

  6. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  7. Sewage sludge treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  8. Oral hygiene status of Kuwaiti schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutawa, S A; Shyama, M; Al-Duwairi, Y; Soparkar, P

    2011-05-01

    A national epidemiological survey of children aged 5-14 years was conducted in all 5 governorates of Kuwait in 2001 to determine the oral hygiene status of Kuwait in schoolchildren. Clinical examinations were carried out by calibrated dentists according to World Health Organization criteria. The debris index simplified (DI-S) score was used to assess oral hygiene status. Of the 3294 children, 3.9% were judged to have good oral hygiene (DI-S score: 0.3-0.6), 67% fair (score 0.7-1.8) and 29.1% poor (score 1.9-3.0). The overall level of oral hygiene in the schoolchildren surveyed was fair (mean score 1.5). DI-S scores were significantly higher for boys than girls (mean score 1.6 versus 1.5) but DI-S did not vary much by age. There were variations in DI-S scores across different governorates. Oral hygiene measures need to be reinforced for the schoolchildren in Kuwait and should form part of the school curriculum.

  9. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  10. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A recommendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge

  11. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  12. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  13. Characterization of lorry washing sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Gómez-Rico Núñez de Arenas, María Francisca

    2014-01-01

    The sludge generated by washing lorry refuse and some fractions of municipal solid waste have been studied, to justify that washing sludge presents no danger and can therefore be managed adequately in a landfill, as well as other municipal solid waste fractions. One problem attributed to this type of sludge is its high level of sulfide content, which causes this waste to be considered hazardous. The determination of sulfide content in the studied samples was carried out according to environme...

  14. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling...... and filtration). It therefore is an important property related to process performance, including process economics. To account for this, rheological behaviour is being included in process design, necessitating its measurement. However, measurements and corresponding protocols in literature are quite diverse...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this....

  15. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pivotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of schoolstudent’s oral hygiene. Results: The study evaluated 202 schoolstudent. Regarding daily toothbrushing, 121 (59.9% reported that an adult is responsible for carrying out this procedure for the child and 81 (40.1% reported the own child performs brushing. Brushing frequency for 128 (63.4% children was three times a day and floss was not used by 137 (68% of them. In 114 (56.4% of the schoolchildren was found an OHI-S classified as reasonable hygiene (1.3 to 2. Regarding how to deal with the oral hygiene of children, 140 (69% parents stated having already received such information and the source cited by 118 (58.4% was the dentist. Conclusion: Schoolchildren presented oral hygiene habits with deficiency in dental plaque removal and flossing, resulting in a reasonable OHI-S. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p455

  16. Faecal Sludge Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Strande, Linda; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    "It is estimated that literally billions of residents in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation systems (e.g. various types of latrines and septic tanks). Until recently, the management of faecal sludge from these onsite systems has been grossly neglected, partially as a result of them being considered temporary solutions until sewer-based systems could be implemented. However, the perception of onsite or decentralized sanitation technolo...

  17. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome. PMID:26665632

  18. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  19. Activated Sludge Ozonation to Reduce Sludge Production in MBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-bing; XUE Gang; WANG Bao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The total experimental period was divided into two stages.At the first stage, a series of batch studies were carried out to get an understanding of the effect of ozonation on sludge properties. At the following stages, three MBRs with different amounts of activated sludge to be ozonated were run in parallel for a long period to evaluate the influence of sludge ozonation on sludge yield and permeate quality.Through batch study, it was found that ozone could disrupt the cell walls and caused the release of plasm from the cells,then the amounts of soluble organics in the solution increased with ozonation time. With the rise of soluble organics, the amount of soluble organics to be mineralized increased as well, which wonld reduce the soluble organics content. For the counteraction between these two aspects, a pseudo-balance could be achieved, and soluble organics would vary in a limited range. Sludge ozonation also increased the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in the solution. In addition, ozonation was effective in improving sludge settling property. On the basis of batch study, a suitable ozone dosage of 0.16 kgO3/kgMLSS wasdetermined. Three systems were run in parallel for a total period of 39 days, it was demonstrated that a part of activated sludge ozonation could reduce sludge production significantly, and biological performance of mineralization and nitrification would not be inhibited due to sludge ozonation. Experimental results proved that the combination of ozonation unit with MBR unit could achieve an excellent quality of permeate as well as a small quantity of sludge production, and economic analysis indicated that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and sludge was only 0.096Yuan (US $0.011,5)/m3 wastewater.

  20. Hygiene aspects of cosmetic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kukułowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently beauty salons offer a wide range of services, from beauty treatments starting with skin cleansing, peeling or manicure, to permanent makeup and body piercing. During all these treatments, there is a risk of infection with different diseases caused most often by Fungi (Candida albicans, pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (herpes, hepatitis B and C, and therefore the staff should use disposable equipment and sterilized tools.Aim of research. The aim of the study was to assess the hygiene conditions in a selected beauty salon. Material and methods. The research was carried out in a selected Salon in the Tri-city. The subject of microbiological analysis were the hands of beauticians, the surface of the table, the uniform, the cover of the chair for treatments for the face, clean towels and bowls for soaking feet prior to pedicure treatment. The aim of the research was to establish the total number of microorganisms (OLD, the number of yeasts and moulds, and the presence of staphylococci. Results. In the analysed material, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus was not confirmed. Among the studied samples, only slightly above 8% were free of moulds, while 25% were free of the presence of yeasts. Staphylococci settled on about 14% of the evaluated surfaces, mostly occurring on the hands of beauticians and in bowls for soaking feet. The average number of microorganisms isolated from the tips of 5 fingers amounted to 32 cfu/25 cm2. Staphylococcus epidermidis was present on the hands in more than 60% of the samples. Only about 7% of the samples were found to exceed the limit for class D premises, amounting to 50 cfu/25 cm2, while on over 70% of the analysed surfaces the microorganisms reached the level of 1–25 cfu/25 cm2, which confirms high standard of provided services. Conclusions. 1 In the examined beauty salon the analyzed surfaces were clean and free of Staphylococcus aureus, but Staphylococcus

  1. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Pivotto; Luciane Campos Gislon; Maria Mercês Aquino Gouveia Farias; Beatriz Helena Eger Schmitt; Silvana Marchiori de Araújo; Eliane Garcia da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of scho...

  2. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  3. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2003-01-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material....... Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis...

  4. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  5. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues

  6. Oral hygiene behaviour change using motivational interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wynne, Leanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding a person's readiness to change could improve the way in which oral hygiene interventions and advice are given in the clinical setting. The aim of this article, therefore, is to provide a brief guide to behaviour change using motivational interviewing when discussing interdental cleaning.

  7. Epidemiology, occupational hygiene and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of radiation protection practices to the practice of occupational medicine and hygiene is discussed. For example, accurate studies of a number of biological systems were stimulated. It is suggested that an accurate epidemiological assessment of workers exposed at or below the recommended radiation dose limits be undertaken. (H.K.)

  8. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  9. North Seattle Community College Chemical Hygiene Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Seattle Community Coll., WA.

    The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…

  10. Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

  11. Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…

  12. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  13. A reformulation of the hygiene hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene hyp...

  14. Industrial hygiene protection for the podiatric physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.S.

    1987-07-01

    The podiatrist should remain alert to the potential for exposure to hazardous agents such as those discussed in this article. Exposures in the office or hospital may be evaluated by the methods of industrial hygiene. If control is needed, simple measures can frequently effect substantial reduction in exposure and afford protection to the physician, staff, and patient.

  15. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  16. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Floyd R.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient in…

  17. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…

  18. The correlation between sustainable development and home hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Hygiene refers to the science of the establishment and maintenance of (human) health. In everyday life, hygiene is closely associated with good housekeeping, This article will focus on home hygiene in relation to cleaning, on microorganisms, and on sustainable development of domestic technology. In

  19. Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

  20. Fabrication of new restorations with a consideration of oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Swati; Wicks, Russell; Selecman, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of adequate and effective oral hygiene is crucial for the long-term success of any dental therapy. This article discusses a case that failed due to the poor oral hygiene of the patient. Fabrication of uncomplicated restorations, patient education, motivation, maintenance and recall are important factors to be considered when treatment planning patients with poor oral hygiene. PMID:27621554

  1. Nitrogen availability of anaerobic swine lagoon sludge: sludge source effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amber D; Israel, Daniel W; Mikkelsen, Robert L

    2005-02-01

    Increased numbers of swine producers will be removing sludge from their anaerobic waste treatment lagoons in the next few years, due to sludge exceeding designed storage capacity. Information on availability of nitrogen (N) in the sludge is needed to improve application recommendations for crops. The objective of this study was to investigate possible effects of different companies and types of swine operations on the availability of N in sludge from their associated lagoons. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to quantify the availability of N (i.e. initial inorganic N plus the potentially mineralizable organic N) in the sludge. Nine sludge sources from lagoons of sow, nursery and finishing operations of three different swine companies were mixed with a loamy sand soil (200 mg total Kjeldahl N kg(-1) soil) and incubated at a water content of 0.19 g. water g(-1) dry soil and 25+/-2 degrees C for 12 weeks. Samples were taken at eight times over the 12-week period and analyzed for inorganic N (i.e. NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) to determine mineralization of organic N in the sludge. Company and type of swine operation had no significant effects (P incubation. While plant N availability coefficients were not measured in this study, the lack of significant company or type of swine operation effects on sludge N mineralization suggests that use of the same plant N availability coefficient for sludge from different types of lagoons is justifiable. The validity of this interpretation depends on the assumption that variation in other components of different sludge sources such as Cu and Zn does not differentially alter N uptake by the receiver crops. PMID:15474933

  2. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  3. Technical and economical feasibility study of a sewage sludge disinfection plants by irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical and economical evaluation for a disinfection plant of sewage sludge based on irradiation. The process starts after sludge stabilization which is achieved by anaerobic digestion. It includes two stages, plus an optional: the first corresponds to dewatering of sewage sludge up to a solids content between 20 and 25 %, the second stage corresponds to disinfection by gamma or electron beam irradiation, and the third, which is optional, corresponds to the drying of sewage sludge up to a water content of 50%, which allows to diminish significantly the volumes of solids to be transported. If this stage is not accomplished the final product corresponds to a sewage sludge with 25 % of dry solids, which can also be disposed in agricultural land. Process was designed to treat 60 tons per day of sewage sludge (dry matter basis). The report presents the design of process equipment, principal and auxiliary, the investment and operational cost estimations as well as the total cost of treatment per ton of sewage sludge. A sensitivity analysis is also included to determine the influence of operational process parameters in operational and investment costs. The results showed that a sewage sludge plant including dewatering and disinfection process through gamma irradiation, achieves a capital investment of about US$ 12.000.000 with a treatment cost per ton of dry sludge of US$140. Including the optional air-drying stage, the total cost of treatment is about US$148 per ton of dry matter. In the case of electron beam irradiation the capital investment achieves a value of US$ 11 millions with a total treatment cost of US$ 136 per ton of dry matter. These values resulted quite similar to the cost of alternative treatment, i.e., disposal in a dedicated landfill. (L.V.)

  4. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  5. Hygiene Knowledge of Food Staff in Catering Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Yardımcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317 employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores in personal hygiene knowledge test compared with female staff (p < .01. The staff receiving a hygiene training were determined to have higher mean scores in terms of hygiene knowledge tests compared with those who have not received, and the production staff had higher knowledge as to hygiene than the other groups (p < .01. The mean scores for hygiene knowledge tests were found to be increasing with age. Hygiene knowledge scores of the staff were quite lower than what must be taken. For that reason, periodical training programs should be organized to increase the awareness of the staff about hygiene.

  6. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBOURGEOIS, MONIQUE K.; GIANNOTTI, FLAVIA; CORTESI, FLAVIA; WOLFSON, AMY; HARSH, JOHN

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was observed between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples (Italians: R = .40; Americans: R = .46). Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that sleep hygiene accounted for significant variance in sleep quality, even after controlling for demographic and health variables (Italians: R2 = .38; Americans: R2 = .44). The results of this study suggest that there are cultural differences in sleep quality and sleep hygiene practices, and that sleep hygiene practices are importantly related to adolescent sleep quality. PMID:15251909

  7. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  8. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... with cleaning chemicals and cleaning procedures • Optimising design of production equipment • Development of environmentally friendly cleaning procedures for removal of biofilm The partners include food production/processing companies and producers of equipment for the food industry, cleaning chemicals...... approach is to focus on surface material hygienic lifetime. Test of this is made in an industrial test loop run by biotechnology researchers in co-operation with materials producers and a food producer to compare biofilm formation, cleanability and deterioration of different rubber and plastic materials...

  9. Romanian Consumers Habits regarding Dental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Cetinã Iuliana; Gârdan Daniel Adrian; Geangu Iuliana Petronela

    2011-01-01

    In the actual context, marketing in the dental care services field is confronting with more and more challenging demands. Among them one of the most important one is refering to the need to integrate consumers motivation in the field of marketing strategy. The present research aims to investigate the content and the different corelations of consumer habits regarding dental hygiene. The results are intended to be used in developing new promotional campaigns build on motivational techniques for...

  10. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  11. Sewage sludge drying and combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Mario Alejandro Heredia

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the paper pulp production process in order to understand the origin of the sewage sludge was performed. Then a general revision of the current treatment options for this type of waste was addressed. The thermal treatment by combustion was focused and a review of the state of the art of this process was performed. The high moisture content of sludge was identified as a major concern. Thus a revision of the state of the art regarding thermal drying of sewage sludge was perform...

  12. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AWARENESS AMONG RURAL UNMARRIED GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. Lack of menstrual hygiene was found to result in adverse outcomes like reproductive tract infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was done among rural unmarried girls of age group 18 - 25 years. Data collection was done by semi structured predesigned questionnaire. Data was entered in Microsoft excel and analyzed for frequency and percentage. RES ULTS: 24.33% of rural unmarried girls knew that normal age of menstruation was 14 years , 83.33% of them knew normal days of menstrual flow to be 3 - 5 days , most them knew that normal days between two cycles is 28 - 35 days while only 50% of them knew that the cause of menstruation is hormonal. All of them use pad during menstruation , however only 40% of them use sanitary napkin while 45% of them use old cloth. Among them 23.33% use both soap and water for washing genitalia while 60% of them used only water. CO NCLUSION: Knowledge regarding menstruation is unsatisfactory among the rural. So , the girls should be educated about the process of menstruation and also about the menstrual hygiene to maintain their proper health. They should also be clarified with their misconceptions.

  13. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  14. Hand hygiene knowledge of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001). PMID:20499532

  15. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 yearsex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  16. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming;

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared......Hydrophobic contaminants sorb to sludge in wastewater treatment plants and enter the soil environment when the sludge is applied to agricultural fields. The mineralization of pyrene was examined in soil, in sludge mixed homogeneously into soil, and in sludge-soil systems containing a lump of sludge...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  17. Behaviour of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in biogas production from sewage sludge and municipal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter-Matsui, R.; Seipp, M.

    With a grant from VW-Stiftung a project was investigated by the 'Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Hygiene, Philipps-Universitaet, Marburg' and the 'Faculty of Agriculture, Fayum, University Cairo'. The aim was to modify the biogas process to get an optimal amount of biogas and to kill the pathogen bacteria at the same time. The effect of different materials, for example, plant wastes, sewage sludge, cow dung and town refuse and their various amounts of dry matters (2% - 16%) were tested. Also the bactericidal effects of pH, Lactobacilli and higher temperatures were checked. It was found that only a pasteurisation before the fermentation decontaminate the sludge without declining amounts of biogas. It was also proved that the development of Schistosoma eggs was interrupted by the fermentation process.

  18. Use of irradiation for chemical and microbial decontamination of water, wastewater and sludge. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The co-ordinated research project (CRP) was established in order to focus the attention of appropriate technical experts in integrating the effects of ionizing radiation on refractory organic pollutants and pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in the treatment of water, waste water and sewage sludge. This publication describes the findings of the CRP in three subject areas: ground water remediation, decontamination of industrial and municipal waste water and sewage sludge hygienization. This publication contains 11 individual papers from participants; each of the papers was indexed separately

  19. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; CORTESI, FLAVIA; Wolfson, Amy; Harsh, John

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was o...

  20. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Srigley, Jocelyn A; Lightfoot, David; Fernie, Geoff; Gardam, Michael; Muller, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provi...

  1. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR; Murat Cengizhan YAŞ; SEPET, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as w...

  2. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  3. Adoption of hand hygiene practices among health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Archanalakshmi; Meriton Stanly A.; Christina Mary Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is the most important measure to avoid the transmission of harmful germs and prevent health care-associated infections. Hand washing with plain soap removes loose transient flora even though it does not remove pathogens from the hands of healthcare workers. Proper hand hygiene is cheap, most effective, easiest and foremost method of reducing health care associated infections. This study was carried out to know the present status of hand hygiene practices and the barri...

  4. Adoption of hand hygiene practices among health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Archanalakshmi

    2015-10-01

    Results: In PHC's there were 32 doctors, 61 nurses and 17 lab technicians which constitute to 110 heath care providers. Hand hygiene practices were satisfactory among 40 (36% Z = 9 and the difference is statistically significant p<0.05. Conclusions: Hand hygiene protocols will reduce the nosocomial infections. Hand hygiene is the most important measure to avoid the transmission of harmful germs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2807-2809

  5. Personal Hygiene and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002–2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygien...

  6. Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion of sewage sludge; Digestion aerobia termofila autosostenida de lodos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de las Heras, J. L.; Gutierrez, I.

    2002-07-01

    Auto heated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) is one of the most promising technologies for applying the digested sludge to soil amendment. The system was studied in the 60's and developed mostly in Europe since the 70's. The full-scale facilities improvement ran in parallel to the scientific and legislative worry about the presence of pathogenic organisms both in the raw and the digested sewage sludge. ATAD is usually a two stage aerobic process working in the thermophilic temperature range (40 to 80 degree centigree) without any external heat source; the heat produced by the biochemical exergonic reactions during the aerobic degradation of the organic sludge holds the desired temperature values. A comparison of this system with the existing anaerobic stabilisation processes shows as main advantages a high hygienization capacity, small reactor volume for the same organic loading, is resistant to overloading and temperature shocks, is easily manageable, and is economically feasible for small.medium size populations. This process is specially suitable to fulfill the law requirements imposed by the most demanding countries regarding the application of treated sewage sludge to soil improvement. (Author) 19 refs.

  7. Waldorf School - the Strategy of Education of Mental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    HORÁKOVÁ, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question, what is the strategy of mental hygiene education at the Waldorf school. The aim was to find out how mental hygiene at the Waldorf school is educated and then compare this strategy with the strategy of mental hygiene education at the school of traditional education system. Another aim of this study was to show whether the correct strategy of mental hygiene education in elementary schools has some influence on the development of the child. The research was m...

  8. Hand hygiene performance and beliefs among public university employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2015-10-01

    The workplace is an important location to access community members, and employers have a direct interest in employee well-being. A survey administered to a random sample of employees at a Midwestern US university tested the ability of a model informed by the theory of planned behavior to predict hand hygiene practices and beliefs using structural equation modeling. Questions demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Constructs predicted self-reported hand hygiene behaviors, and hand hygiene behaviors reduced the odds of reporting sickness from respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections. The findings support multi-modal hand hygiene improvement interventions. PMID:24265297

  9. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Tecchnical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Aemmaelae, A.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), Email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi

    2010-10-15

    Wastewater sludges contain valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aimed with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge were the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. The effects of wood based filter aids were studied on the dewatering properties of waste activated sludge. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.)

  10. Oral hygiene for the partially edentulous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, M A; Grant, A A

    1981-04-01

    THE EFFECTIVENESS of a proximal brush on the interdental hygiene for partially edentulous individuals was investigated. Nineteen partially edentulous adults participated in a crossover study. Three groups were instructed to use the toothbrush alone or a toothbrush combined with either toothpicks or proximal brush. The effectiveness of the cleansing devices was measured by the amount of plaque remaining on the examined surfaces. The results indicated that the cleaning efficiency of the proximal brush is greater than that of the toothpicks on the proximal surfaces of teeth adjacent to edentulous areas. On the other hand, the toothpicks were more effective on the proximal surfaces of teeth in contact. PMID:6939841

  11. Space for Hygiene in Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene—the bathroom. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time, urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well into the dwelling......, and in many dwellings, the bathroom has developed as the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today’s housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of “space for hygiene” in the 20th century will be...

  12. Dental Hygiene Program Directors' Perceptions of Graduate Dental Hygiene Education and Future Faculty Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S.; Mann, Ginger; Tishk, Maxine

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)

  13. Radiation method for hygienization food and agriculture products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of food and agriculture products have been used for several goals. That are: disinsectization, disinfection, sprout inhibition and retardation of mattering. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology). The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and and industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author)

  14. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  15. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often developing

  16. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  17. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  18. [Guidelines for hygienic classification of learning technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Teksheva, L M; Milushkina, O Iu

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of the educational environment under the present-day conditions has been in progress, by using learning techwares (LTW) without fail. To organize and regulate an academic process in terms of the safety of applied LTW, there is a need for their classification. The currently existing attempts to structure LTW disregard hygienically significant aspects. The task of the present study was to substantiate a LTW safety criterion ensuring a universal approach to working out regulations. This criterion may be the exposure intensity determined by the form of organization of education and its pattern, by the procedure of information presentation, and the age-related peculiarities of a pupil, i.e. by the actual load that is presented by the product of the intensity exposure and its time. The hygienic classification of LTW may be used to evaluate their negative effect in an educational process on the health status of children and adolescents, to regulate hazardous factors and training modes, to design and introduce new learning complexes. The structuring of a LTW system allows one to define possible deleterious actions and the possibilities of preventing this action on the basis of strictly established regulations. PMID:18592639

  19. Building health: The need for electromagnetic hygiene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isaac A.; Holdstock, Paul; ApSimon, Helen M.; Bell, J. Nigel B.

    2010-04-01

    Whilst the electromagnetic nature of the built environment has changed considerably over the past century, little thought is at present given to the possible advantages of creating electromagnetic microenvironments that more closely resemble those found in nature and/or developing biologically-friendly technology aligned more closely to its operating principles. This review paper examines how more natural exposures to a variety of electromagnetic phenomena could be re-introduced into the built environment, possible benefits that might arise, and discusses the extent to which there may be tangible benefits obtainable from introducing more rigorous properly considered electromagnetic hygiene measures. Amongst the matters discussed are: the effects of different materials, finishes and electrical items on charge generation (and the effects of excess charge on contaminant deposition); the possible benefits of suitably grounding conductive objects (including humans) in order to reduce excess charge and contaminant deposition; how the presence of vertical electric field regimes, similar to those found in nature, may enhance biological performance; and possible pitfalls to avoid when seeking to introduce appropriate electromagnetic hygiene regimes.

  20. Veterinary urban hygiene: a challenge for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Ghatak, S; Banga, H S; Gill, J P S; Singh, B

    2013-12-01

    India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems.

  1. Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyás, Z

    1978-01-01

    Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures.Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel.Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc.In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques.

  2. Hybrid Sludge Modeling in Water Treatment Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Sludge occurs in many waste water and drinking water treatment processes. The numeric modeling of sludge is therefore crucial for developing and optimizing water treatment processes. Numeric single-phase sludge models mainly include settling and viscoplastic behavior. Even though many investigators emphasize the importance of modeling the rheology of sludge for good simulation results, it is difficult to measure, because of settling and the viscoplastic behavior. In this thesis, a new method ...

  3. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Lousada-Ferreira, M

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of the sludge to be filtrated through a membrane, in a wastewater treatment system designated as Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). An MBR is a wastewater treatment system that combines an activated sludge proc...

  4. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  5. Fractionation and business potential from sludge (Pafrak)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P.; Kylloenen, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Niinimaeki, J.; Oksanen, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generation of potential business ideas which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Municipal waste activated sludge and deinking, primary, waste activated and tertiary sludge from pulp and paper industry are the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Dewatering properties, which are one of the key topics, have been studied with a novel flocculation/filtration device. Conventional fractionation equipment (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone. filter belt press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge could be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. One of the key issues in future research is how to affect the binding forces between different substances in sludge. (orig.)

  6. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Suopajaervi, T.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi

    2009-10-15

    Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractination to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge have been the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties, which is one of the key topics, have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydro cyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.)

  7. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  8. Pemeliharaan Oral Hygiene Dan Penanggulangan Komplikasi Perawatan Ortodonti

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuditha, Findya

    2011-01-01

    Perawatan ortodonti merupakan salah satu bentuk perawatan dalam bidang kedokteran gigi yang berperan penting untuk memperbaiki susunan gigi sehingga dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pengunyahan, berbicara, serta penampilan. Keberhasilan dari perawatan ortodonti dapat dipengaruhi oleh oral hygiene, pengetahuan tentang komplikasi, dan cara penanggulang selama pemakaian pesawat ortodonti, sehingga kerusakan yang parah dapat dihindarkan. Pemeliharaan oral hygiene merupakan faktor yang berperan un...

  9. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  10. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice. PMID:21368255

  11. Waterbehandeling en hygiene in hydrotherapie-baden. Fase 1. Inventarisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethe BM; Havelaar AH; Schijven JF; de Wit M

    1988-01-01

    N.a.v. het voornemen om de werkingssfeer van de Wet Hygiene en Veiligheid Zwemgelegenheden uit te breiden tot onder andere hydrotherapie-baden in instellingen voor de intramurale gezondheidszorg, werd met een onderzoek naar de waterbehandeling en hygiene in deze baden aangevangen. De eerste fase v

  12. The dangers of dirt: household hygiene and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging changes in hygiene practices are potentially one of the mosteffective means of reducing the global impact of diarrhoeal diseases, whichkill an estimated 3.3 million children a year. However, efforts to improve hygiene in the developing world have met with limited success. Some of thereas

  13. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  14. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9 School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  15. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  16. Changes in Generic and Degree Completion Dental Hygiene Student Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda

    1989-01-01

    A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)

  17. The Effect of Recent Trends on Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Chester W.

    1991-01-01

    Six trends affecting dental hygiene practice are discussed: demographic changes; disease pattern changes; higher societal expectations; financing and delivery system changes; technological advancement; and regulatory and legislative trends. It is argued that, though the trends reflect positively on dental hygiene, practitioners need to increase…

  18. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  19. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  20. Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

  1. Requirements and Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a guide for dental hygiene education program development, and to serve as a stimulus for improving established programs. The first section of the report discusses the function of the Council on Dental Education and the trends in hygiene program development. In section II the requirements for an accredited…

  2. General radiation hygiene and safety aspects in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation of all essential aspects concerning practical radiation hygiene in dental radiography is given. The report reflects the established opinion and practice of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene evolved through many years of experience in this field. The principal target group includes all dental staff members in Norway

  3. Dental Hygiene Curriculum Model for Transition to Future Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarmann, Carlene S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)

  4. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are perfec

  5. Hygienic Cleaning Products used in the kitchen; Exposure and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn MCH; Bremmer HJ; Zeilmaker MJ; Veen MP van; LBM

    1999-01-01

    In this study it was examined how people are exposed to compounds contained in hygienic cleaning products used in the kitchen. The products for which exposure was assessed are dishwashing liquids, hygienic cleaning napkins, spray cleaners and bleach containing products (abrasive, all purpose cleaner

  6. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  7. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  8. Sewage sludge and wastewater for use in agriculture. Proceedings of consultants meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, gamma rays and electron beams have been successfully used on sludges and wastewater to eliminate pathogenic organisms and some toxic chemicals. Sufficient technical data are available for gamma treatment of sludges, permitting its application on the demonstration or commercial scale, but gaps in our knowledge exist for the practical application of electron-beam technology. The IAEA's involvement in studies of radiation processing of sewage sludge dates back several years. A five-year Co-ordinated Research programme on Radiation Treatment of Sewage Sludge for Safe Reutilization, involving Canada, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and the United State of America, was completed in 1990. This programme laid a solid foundation on which future programmes can be built. However, at present, information is limited on the availability of nutrients from sewage sludges to crops, its benefits as an organic amendment to soil, and the harmful effects of heavy metals on crop growth. Isotope and radiation techniques are valuable tools of potential use in finding answers to some of these questions

  9. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety.

  10. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    the cultural perceptions of hygiene and sanitation which inform everyday hygiene practices did not differ substantially and were similar to hygiene explanations found in the rural majority population elsewhere in Vietnam. However, the difficult living conditions, particularly in highland communities, reinforce......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...... a sense of marginalization among the EMGs, which had great impact on how they perceive and respond to government sanitation interventions. The enclosed latrines promoted by authorities are met with reluctance by the EMGs due to cultural perceptions of the body as permeable and therefore, vulnerable...

  11. Relating admissions criteria to dental hygiene student retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Tammy R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to identify preadmission variables that relate to dental hygiene student retention. METHODS. An online survey was sent by email to 309 dental hygiene chairs/program directors. The survey comprised 18 questions to collect program demographic information, program admissions requirements, and program student retention rates. RESULTS. There were 139 respondents who participated in the survey for a 45% return rate. The mean for program retention of participating accredited dental hygiene programs was 91%. Stepwise regression analysis discovered three independent variables (aE=0.15) that relate to dental hygiene program retention rates. These independent variables include interviews (p=0.054), overall college GPA (p=0.029), and overall high school GPA (p=0.141). CONCLUSION. Preadmission requirements that include overall high school GPA, overall college GPA, and interviews can be used by admissions committees to predict dental hygiene student retention. PMID:25433188

  12. Importance of Oral Hygiene Habits in Mentally Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    JP, Beena; Reddy, Divya

    2010-01-01

    Background The main factor related to gingival/periodontal problems in disabled individuals is the inadequacy of the plaque removal from the teeth. Motor coordination problems and muscular limitation in neuromuscularly disabled individuals along with the difficulty in understanding the importance of oral hygiene in mentally disabled individuals have resulted in the progression of inflammatory diseases. Case report This report describes a case of cerebral palsy child who developed gingival hyperplasia due to poor oral hygiene practices which remarkably improved by proper motivation and adaptation of oral hygiene measures. Conclusion It is important that the caretakers especially mother is informed about the importance of maintaining proper oral hygiene and the harmful effects of not doing so. It forms our duty to guide them towards maintaining good oral hygiene and thereby help in improving overall health of these children.

  13. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Maureen EC; Sargeant, Jan M.; Weese, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygien...

  14. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.;

    2004-01-01

    /solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  15. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts...... cleaning action of fluid flow and the interaction between flow characteristics and soil attached to surfaces. Ideally, such information can be contained in fluid dynamics models or rules of thumb which can be used to assist in design of process equipment and when optimising cleaning procedures. Extending...... of the process plant. In turn the adhesion mechanisms between the soil and the surface of the process equipment must be overcome. In closed processes validation proves rather difficult, as inspection often is not possible. Hence, we benefit from a greater basic understanding of the influence of the mechanical...

  16. Manager's guide to reducing dental hygiene turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, C

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of dental hygiene turnover and provide managers with strategies for preventing and reducing turnover. Employee turnover is a problem which affects dental health care delivery and the health of the public. Employee turnover is costly to work settings and creates a stressful working environment which has an impact on professional-client relationships. To reduce or prevent turnover in a private practice setting, office managers must be informed about the causes and effects of this problem and be able to implement solutions. Some strategies managers can use to reduce turnover are hiring employees who have the same goals as the organization; improving the working climate; rewarding longevity; encouraging the active participation of all staff members in office management; improving office communication; and providing opportunities for self-growth, recognition, and greater responsibilities.

  17. Abstracts of 14th radiation hygiene days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 90 abstracts of submitted papers and posters. All have been inputted in INIS. They concern radiation hygiene and radiation protection, this both in general terms and in terms of occupational hazards; they inform on natural radioactivity measurement; on radon levels in buildings; the assessment and monitoring of escapes of radioisotopes into the environment (especially following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident). The questions are discussed of building monitoring networks in the environs of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste burial sites. Some presentations deal with dose measurement and spectrum evaluation; the organisation of the national personnel dosimetry service; tests of radiopharmaceuticals purity and activity; dosimetry work during dismantle of a shutdown reactor; medical radiology risks; and other problems. (M.D.)

  18. Comparison of membrane fouling during short-term filtration of aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated adopting internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor. The contradistinctive experiment about short-term membrane fouling between aerobic granular sludge system and activated sludge system were investigated. The membrane foulants was also characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The results showed that the aerobic granular sludge had excellent denitrification ability; the removal efficiency of TN could reach 90%. The aerobic granular sludge could alleviate membrane fouling effectively. The steady membrane flux of aerobic granular sludge was twice as much as that of activated sludge system. In addition, it was found that the aerobic granular sludge could result in severe membrane pore-blocking, however, the activated sludge could cause severe cake fouling. The major components of the foulants were identified as comprising of proteins and polysaccharide materials.

  19. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  20. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  1. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (peducational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.

  2. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices. PMID:24882769

  3. Solidification process for sludge residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-09-10

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria.

  4. Quantification of wastewater sludge dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Samuel J; Studer, Lindsay J; Dixon, David R; Hillis, Peter; Rees, Catherine A; Wall, Rachael C; Cavalida, Raul G; Usher, Shane P; Stickland, Anthony D; Scales, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Quantification and comparison of the dewatering characteristics of fifteen sewage sludges from a range of digestion scenarios are described. The method proposed uses laboratory dewatering measurements and integrity analysis of the extracted material properties. These properties were used as inputs into a model of filtration, the output of which provides the dewatering comparison. This method is shown to be necessary for quantification and comparison of dewaterability as the permeability and compressibility of the sludges varies by up to ten orders of magnitude in the range of solids concentration of interest to industry. This causes a high sensitivity of the dewaterability comparison to the starting concentration of laboratory tests, thus simple dewaterability comparison based on parameters such as the specific resistance to filtration is difficult. The new approach is demonstrated to be robust relative to traditional methods such as specific resistance to filtration analysis and has an in-built integrity check. Comparison of the quantified dewaterability of the fifteen sludges to the relative volatile solids content showed a very strong correlation in the volatile solids range from 40 to 80%. The data indicate that the volatile solids parameter is a strong indicator of the dewatering behaviour of sewage sludges. PMID:26003332

  5. [Guidelines on hand hygiene in health care institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenić, Smilja; Budimir, Ana; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Acketa, Lorena; Belina, Drazen; Benko, Ivan; Bosnjak, Danica; Culo, Marija; Jajić, Ines; Kis, Marina; Kos, Karmela; Koscák, Darko; Kuzman, Ilija; Lekić, Dusica; Prugovecki, Danijela; Juraga, Ana Tomić

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) are huge problem all over the world, and 5-10% of all hospitalized patients will develop infection during hospitalization. From the times of I. P. Semelweiss we know that clean hands are the most important single factor that can decrease the number of HCAI. World Health Organization (WHO) has recognised this problem and developed Guidelines for hand hygiene in healthcare institutions. This also was the reason of developing Croatian national Guidelines. The main goal of the Guidelines was to decrease number of HCAI associated with the hands of healthcare workers. These Guidelines are meant for all healthcare workers and other hospital staff who come to the direct contact with patients. An interdisciplinary team of experts developed these Guidelines using WHO Guidelines, other existing guidelines and literature reviews for hand hygiene. Grades of evidence for specific recommendations were determined using CDC/HICPAC grading system. Categorization is based on existing data, theoretical basis, applicability and economic impact. After a broad discussion in different professional societies, Guidelines were accepted. Guidelines include recommendations for hand hygiene indications, hand hygiene technique, surgical hand preparation, choosing hand hygiene preparations, skin care, nails, glove use, patients and visitors hand hygiene, role of education, as well as role of healthcare institution and role of government. Furthermore, in the Guidelines the concept of "Five moments for hand hygiene" is explained in detail, and main literature data are presented. PMID:21888080

  6. Oral Hygiene Level Maintenance among Dental Medicine Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kocovski, Darko; Toneva, Verica; Dimova, Cena; Apostoloski, Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral hygiene is one of the most important measures for the preservation and promotion of oral health. Not proper maintenance of oral hygiene leads to create dental plaque. Dental plaque of the teeth and gums is the major cause of diseases of the tissues such as tooth decay, sensitivity of teeth and tooth necks, sore gums, gum recession, loosening of the teeth as a result of periodontitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of maintenance of oral hygiene am...

  7. COCA Call: New Frontiers in Hand Hygiene Practices

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-11

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call, "New Frontiers in Implementation and Measurement of Hand Hygiene Practices." CDC's Katherine Ellingson discusses recent challenges in applying hand hygiene recommendations and identifies global and national campaign activities and resources that support hand hygiene in the reduction of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).  Created: 5/11/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID/DHQP) and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  8. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  9. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  10. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A Scheinemann

    Full Text Available Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%, the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45% is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  11. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  12. Performance of wastewater sludge ecological stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yubo; SUN Tieheng; ZHAO Lihui; JIANG Tingliang; ZHANG Liping

    2008-01-01

    In this article,wastewater sludge ecological stabilization (WWSES) was presented for sludge dewatering,mineralization,and stabilization,as well as for percolate treatment.Two years of pilot scale experimental results indicated that sludge volatile solid,triphenylteuazolium chloride (TTC)-dehydrogenase aetivity(DHA),and moisture content as indicators showed the process and degree of sludge stabilization.The observation on dewatering process showed that dried sludge reached a content of 20%-50% total solid after two years of system operation.Sludge TTC-DHA in the first year was obviously lower than that of the second year,and TTC-DHA tended to decrease with an increase in the drying time of the sludge.Total nitrogen,total phosphorus,and organic contents of sludge decreased gradually from the top to the bottom of dried sludge layer.In comparison with natural stands on stands treated with sewage sludge,individual shoot was significantly higher,and coarse protein,coarse fat,and coarse fiber contents in reed roots,stems,and leaves in the system were higher than that of wild reed,especially coarse protein contents of reed roots in the system(7.38%)were obviously higher than that of wild reeds(3.29%).

  13. Effects of hygiene guidance associated or not to provision of hygiene devices on habits of denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferruzzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate hygiene of dentures contributes to the maintenance of oral and systemic health. However, most of denture wearers had never been instructed on how to perform daily oral/denture care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of a guidance material associated or not to the provision of hygiene devices and its effect on the habits of denture wearers. Forty- eight complete denture wearers were randomly divided into three groups. Group N received no guidance on how to clean and wear their dentures, group G received an illustrated leaflet and verbal complementary instructions and group GK received the same guidance as group G and a hygiene kit for denture cleaning. After a six to ten week period they responded to a ‘hygiene and wearing habits’ questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis considering p < 0.05. Brushing was the most frequent cleaning method, the majority of groups N and G used toothpaste. Participants of group G and GK presented low percentages of individuals with hygiene and wearing routine considered improper. The differences between groups in hygiene and wearing routine were statistically significant (p < 0.001. The proposed guidance material yielded better results when associated to provision of hygiene devices for denture cleaning.

  14. Biosorption of fluoroquinolones by activated sludge and aerobic granules sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vanessa R. A.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Cravo, Sara M.; Tiritan, Maria E.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Afonso, Carlos M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral communication Antibiotic residues have been detected in various environmental matrices, such as surface water and even drinking water. Although present at low levels (μg/L, ng/L), many antibiotics are bioaccumulative, pseudo-persistent and can promote resistance/alterations in bacterial populations [1]. Recent studies on antibiotics removal by activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granules (AGS) show biosorption as the dominant process, determining the fate of these micropollutants [2-3]....

  15. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  16. Use of Distance Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed dental hygiene programs to determine the prevalence of distance education use. Found that 22 percent have distance education, and that most were satisfied with it as an adequate alternative to traditional approaches. (EV)

  17. Task Force on Innovation in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The background, origins, functions, and recommendations of the American Association of Dental Schools' task force investigating improvement of access to dental hygiene training programs and of curriculum and program design are presented. (MSE)

  18. Assessing Interdisciplinary Education in U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lorie; Bray, Kimberly; Mayberry, Bill; Overman, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)

  19. Paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene: a Japanese mothers' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the views of 20 Japanese mothers concerning paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene. In Japan, routine male circumcision has never been implemented for newborns and children, and adult males are mostly circumcised at aesthetic clinics. However, media reports indicate a trend of Japanese mothers willing to have their sons circumcised. In discussing penile hygiene and male circumcision, the construct of a 'sexual script' becomes relevant to understanding how linguistic and gender barriers made references to male genitalia and penile hygiene largely appear as 'vulgar' and 'unfeminine' in daily life conversations. Peers were often identified as the main source of information and only mothers who have struggled with their children's penile infections have learnt about male genital hygiene, a domain of knowledge largely transmitted by men. Male circumcision becomes a double-edged sword that could help prevent penile infections but also an embarrassing conversational topic that could elicit discrimination because most Japanese children are uncircumcised. PMID:24152018

  20. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  1. The influence of sewage sludge treatment on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge amended soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kouloumpos, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the current work were a) to identify the correlation between sewage sludge conditioning / dewatering processing and fate of a major sludge organic pollutant (Nonylphenol, NP) in sludge-amended soils and b) to provide, if possible, clues about the mechanism driving this correlation. In view was a contribution to predicting and controlling the fate of organic xenobiotics in the soil-sludge environment, by examining an until now not adequately studied, but nevertheless potentia...

  2. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  3. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  4. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  5. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  6. Radiation hygienization of poultry processing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hygienization has been standardized as an essential step in the preparation of value added products such as protein hydrolysates using proteolytic enzymes from chicken intestine. The total bacterial count and coliform count of the intestine were 1± 0.54 X 107 and 9.7 ± 2.36 X 106 cfu/g tissue respectively. A dose dependent decrease in bacterial count was observed when chicken intestine was exposed to gamma radiation. The total bacterial count was reduced by 4 log cycles and 6 log cycles at 5 kGy and 10 kGy respectively. During post irradiation storage for 20 days at 4 degC, the total bacterial count was found to increase by 2 log cycles in these samples. A radiation dose of 25 kGy rendered the samples sterile, which remained so during the entire period of storage. Exposure to ionizing radiation did not cause any significant change in the activities of tissue proteases. Nearly 90% of the activities of cathepsin D and aminopeptidase were retained in samples exposed to 25 kGy even after storage for 20 days. (author)

  7. AIR AS A FACTOR AFFECTING FOOD HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Jomová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The air is the most endangered component of the environment. The air pollution has not only got various economical and ecological consequences but also has various negative effects on human health, animals, plants and food hygiene. Elevated anthropogenic SO2 emissions can also have negative influences upon the environmental conditions, human health, and ecosystems. The most emissions come from industrial chimneys, heavy traffic emissions and population density. It is inevitable to monitor the state of the air pollution. Submitted work includes the summary of the sulphur dioxide pollution and its impact on the environment in the area of chemical factory Duslo Šaľa, Inc. Monitoring anthropic impacts help us to predict what requirements on space particular industry requires and how they act in the area. The basis of our evaluation was observing diversity monitoring and types of negative anthropogenic features in monitored area: concentrations of SO2 in air, real sources of air pollution from the vehicles and other mechanisms and real sources of air pollution from local town residential area sources.

  8. Community Participation & Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudip Joshi. Community Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal. Language: English. Jarvenpaa, Autumn 2011, 79 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The study specifically intends to assess the situation of community ownership of sanitation and hygiene in rural communities of Western Nepal through a community development perspective. The present study provides an overview of the Rural Wate...

  9. Water, sanitation and hygiene: The missing link with agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tsegai, Daniel; McBain, Florence; Tischbein, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate access to safe water and sanitation services coupled with poor hygiene practices continues to kill, sicken and diminish opportunities of millions of people in developing countries. Various interventions to improve drinking water quality and service levels, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) have been applied, albeit in isolated approaches. Relevant literature focused on assessing the cost and health effectiveness of such approaches. In parallel, irrigation in agriculture, which affects a...

  10. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite consider...

  11. Assessment of hand hygiene levels among healthcare professionals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rameswarapu, Rohin; K, Surendranath Sai; Valsangkar, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionHand hygiene, either by hand disinfection or hand washing remains to be most pivotal in controlling infection in healthcare settings. Simple preventive measures have been proven effective to contain infections. The exiguity on studies done in healthcare settings in India has galvanized us to undertake this study on hand hygiene assessment among nurses in a healthcare setting in IndiaMaterials and methodsA cross sectional study was done in one of leading organization in preventive ...

  12. An exploration of consultant doctors' hand hygiene: practice and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Westbury, J

    2012-01-01

    Hand hygiene is considered the cornerstone of infection prevention practice, but previous studies demonstrate one group of healthcare professionals, doctors, have not achieved good levels of compliance in comparison to other staff groups. The aim of the research was to examine consultant doctors? practice and perspectives of hand hygiene, exploring their perceptions as leaders and role models, so as to identify strategies to improve compliance. The study design was based on naturalistic i...

  13. A survey on oral hygiene practices among Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Esa, R.; Razak, I. A.; Jallaudin, R. L.; Jaafar, N.

    1992-01-01

    A survey on oral hygiene practices was conducted on 537 dentate adult patients aged 15 years and over. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in dental behavior with regards to socio-demographic factors, namely age, sex, ethnicity, income, education and occupational status. Patients attending nine randomly selected government dental clinics were interviewed on their daily oral hygiene practices. The majority (89.7) of the subjects reported that they brushed their teeth, 68 use...

  14. Oral Health and Hygiene Content in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonski, Rita A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published pri...

  15. Hygiene and good manufacturing practice in terms of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel CEVİZCİ; Ayşe Emel ÖNAL

    2009-01-01

    With globalization, presenting service and product which have good quality and conformity with hygienic regulations, have become more important in health, pharmacy and food sectors. That’s why the quality control and documentation systems which are also considerable in terms of public health, were about to change. Today, lots of companies especially in health sector, prefer “Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)”- including a developed quality-hygiene control and documentation method - that they...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video (Short Version)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 4/26/2010.

  17. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  18. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabe Saquib Abullais; Nitin Dani; Priyanka Ningappa; Kapil Golvankar; Amit Chavan; Nikhil Malgaonkar; Anup Gore

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patien...

  19. An Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined.

  20. Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined

  1. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...

  2. Using Boiling for Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this work we investigated the feasibility of using short time, low superheat boiling to treat biological sludge. The treated sludge exhibited reduced filterability and enhanced settleability. The boiling treatment released a large amount of extra-cellular polymers (ECPs) from the solid phase and reduced the microbial density levels of the total coliform bacteria and the heterotrophic bacteria. A diluted sludge is preferable for its high degree of organic hydrolysis and sufficient reduction in microbial density levels.

  3. Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    C. Elicker; P. J. Sanches Filho; K. R. L. Castagno

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering...

  4. Cations and activated sludge floc structure

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul

    2002-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effect of cations on activated sludge characteristics and also to determine their influence on digestion performance. For this purpose, cations in solution and in floc were evaluated along with various activated sludge characteristics and the collected waste activated sludge underwent both anaerobic and aerobic digestion. It was found that large amounts of biopolymer (protein + polysaccharide) remained in the effluent of WWTP that received high in...

  5. Sludge Properties, Sellafield, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the preparation for decommissioning pond facilities, it will be necessary to characterize wastes. However, it should be recognized that it is difficult to fully characterize wastes that are dispersed over large areas. The design of retrievals and treatment techniques needs to include provisions to make the techniques robust to variations in properties. It may be necessary to engage experts with specific experience to help understand sludge wastes (e.g. rheologists, microbiologists and experts from other industries that handle sludge). The output of all characterization work should be compiled into a single point of reference that is used to underpin all work on the project. During the preparation of project schedules, allowance should be made for these activities. This approach will be beneficial in removing the opportunity for inconsistence use of data or protracted debate about which data sources to use

  6. Effect of good hygiene practices intervention on food safety in senior secondary schools in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ababio, Patricia; Taylor, Tony; Swainson, Mark; Daramola, Bukola

    2016-01-01

    Eleven schools in three different hygiene categories were given hygiene training as an intervention to reported low hygiene standards. Staff hygiene knowledge scores, food temperature, food service time and microbiological quality of jollof rice (cooked rice in tomato sauce and fish) were measured before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon’s Signed- Rank Test for repeated measures on SPSS were used to evaluate the effect of GHP intervention. Staff hygiene knowledge...

  7. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  8. Process of Waste Sludge Facultative Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茵

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory- scale experiments were conducted to determine new technology of waste sludge facultative metabolism . 10-L laboratory-scale facultative reactors were operated during 24-hour sludge residence time (SRT) and in room temperature . Results show that the organic matter in waste sludge after hydrolysis acidification will be reduced by 75.39%, the removal rate of CODer above 85% . Advantage of the process is hydrolysis-acidification in ambient air temperature as there is no need for facilities to be sealed or heated. In addition, the sludge will be recycled into the wastewater treatment system and finally towards zero-discharge.

  9. Thickness monitor for floated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, J.; Grecu, G.M.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes apparatus for determining the thickness of a layer of aerated sludge floating on a layer of a heavier liquid in a tank. It comprises: a frame means which can be positioned to extend vertically into the tank; horizontally-extending indicator means supported by and moveable vertically with respect to a portion of the frame means extending vertically into the tank. The indicator means being selectively positionable at the highest level of sludge in the tank; horizontally-extending lower base means attached to the frame means at or near the bottom thereof; horizontally-extending upper base means attached to the frame means at or near the top thereof; and a line carrying a float means. The line being movable secured at the upper base means and the lower base means. The float means being floatable on the liquid and including a horizontally-extending portion presenting an upwardly directed generally planar surface, which surface will be parallel to the interface of the sludge and liquid.

  10. Convective drying of sludge cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  11. Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörsing, Maritha; Ledin, Anna; Grabic, Roman;

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentr......Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal...

  12. Effects of hygiene guidance associated or not to provision of hygiene devices on habits of denture wearers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Ferruzzi; Júlio César Leonard Sabzack Martins; Giovani Oliveira Corrêa; Eduardo Kurihara; Sérgio Sábio

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate hygiene of dentures contributes to the maintenance of oral and systemic health. However, most of denture wearers had never been instructed on how to perform daily oral/denture care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of a guidance material associated or not to the provision of hygiene devices and its effect on the habits of denture wearers. Forty- eight complete denture wearers were randomly divided into three groups. Group N received no guidance on how to c...

  13. 'My five moments for hand hygiene': a user-centred design approach to understand, train, monitor and report hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, H; Allegranzi, B; Uçkay, I; Larson, E; Boyce, J; Pittet, D

    2007-09-01

    Hand hygiene is a core element of patient safety for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Its promotion represents a challenge that requires a multi-modal strategy using a clear, robust and simple conceptual framework. The World Health Organization First Global Patient Safety Challenge 'Clean Care is Safer Care' has expanded educational and promotional tools developed initially for the Swiss national hand hygiene campaign for worldwide use. Development methodology involved a user-centred design approach incorporating strategies of human factors engineering, cognitive behaviour science and elements of social marketing, followed by an iterative prototype test phase within the target population. This research resulted in a concept called 'My five moments for hand hygiene'. It describes the fundamental reference points for healthcare workers (HCWs) in a time-space framework and designates the moments when hand hygiene is required to effectively interrupt microbial transmission during the care sequence. The concept applies to a wide range of patient care activities and healthcare settings. It proposes a unified vision for trainers, observers and HCWs that should facilitate education, minimize inter-individual variation and resource use, and increase adherence. 'My five moments for hand hygiene' bridges the gap between scientific evidence and daily health practice and provides a solid basis to understand, teach, monitor and report hand hygiene practices. PMID:17719685

  14. [Barriers to the enforcement of hygiene requirements in dental practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1986-12-01

    In a psychological exploration study 40 dentists were interviewed on the basis of an attitude-orientated decision-making model; 20 of them also made dental units in their consulting rooms available to M. Borneff (10) for analysis and examination. Both subsamples are comparable in terms of structure; differences in the way of answering were not detected. The study focuses on the analysis of complex psychological barriers which would permit us to explain and predict unsatisfactory hygienic behavior in dental practice. The following major results deserve attention: Hygiene and infection prophylaxis in dental practice are questions of relatively high current relevance and sensitivity. The dealing with hygienic hazards and related prophylactic measures is relatively varied and indicates that dentists are willing to further receive and absorb information. But the elimination of possible risk factors is impaired by a variety of psychological barriers which do not exist independently from each other and which also tend to reciprocally intensify one another: Barriers for lack of knowledge While interviewees attribute increasing significance to hygiene in the study of dentistry, the compulsory subject hygienics plays a rather minor role within one's individual education. Knowledge in the field of hygiene and hygienic behavior are essentially a question of further training. But sources of information providing additional continued training are used rather sporadically and judged diversely. Incomprehensibilities and inconsistencies in scientific publications, unsatisfactory effectiveness and practicability of possible hygienic measures do not contribute to a coherent, systematic formation of opinion relevant to behaviour. Deficiencies in terms of knowledge also occur in dental assistants who play a crucial role in carrying out hygienic measures in dental practice. Barriers on account of probability Being aware of the essential hygienic risk factors (dental staff and patients

  15. Home oral hygiene revisited. Options and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Alberto; Arregui, Ignacio; Gallego, Montserrat; Cabezas, Blanca; Cuesta, Susana

    2003-01-01

    In regard to the limited literature on the subject, and the contradictions observed, we can not conclude that the types of manual brushes produce clinically important effects on the patients' gingival health, or that these effects can be detected consistently. However, the best results have been obtained with new brush designs, and future studies are necessary to clarify the existing contradictions. There is a clear need of long-term studies which comparatively evaluate the ability to reduce gingivitis and plaque with the newly designed brushes. On the other hand, there is evidence that supports the use of powered toothbrushes in the general population, especially those of the oscillating-rotating and counter-rotational type, as they have shown their ability to reduce gingival bleeding or inflammation, and dental plaque with greater efficacy than manual brushes. There is a clear need of long-term trials on the efficacy of powered brushes in orthodontic patients. With the existing studies we can conclude that there is limited evidence that orthodontic patients using a powered toothbrush show a slight, but significant, reduction of bleeding, compared with users of manual brushes. No conclusion can be made concerning the type of brush to be used. The techniques of interproximal oral hygiene, fundamentally the use of dental floss and interproximal brushes, appear to add additional benefits, in terms of plaque reduction, when they are associated with conventional manual brushes. Further long-term studies are necessary to confirm their efficacy in the reduction of gingival bleeding or inflammation. The choice of the type of technique must be made in relation to the characteristics of the patient: dental floss could be indicated in individuals with closed interdental spaces, and inter-proximal brushes in periodontal patients, or in those with open embrasures.

  16. Home oral hygiene revisited. Options and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Alberto; Arregui, Ignacio; Gallego, Montserrat; Cabezas, Blanca; Cuesta, Susana

    2003-01-01

    In regard to the limited literature on the subject, and the contradictions observed, we can not conclude that the types of manual brushes produce clinically important effects on the patients' gingival health, or that these effects can be detected consistently. However, the best results have been obtained with new brush designs, and future studies are necessary to clarify the existing contradictions. There is a clear need of long-term studies which comparatively evaluate the ability to reduce gingivitis and plaque with the newly designed brushes. On the other hand, there is evidence that supports the use of powered toothbrushes in the general population, especially those of the oscillating-rotating and counter-rotational type, as they have shown their ability to reduce gingival bleeding or inflammation, and dental plaque with greater efficacy than manual brushes. There is a clear need of long-term trials on the efficacy of powered brushes in orthodontic patients. With the existing studies we can conclude that there is limited evidence that orthodontic patients using a powered toothbrush show a slight, but significant, reduction of bleeding, compared with users of manual brushes. No conclusion can be made concerning the type of brush to be used. The techniques of interproximal oral hygiene, fundamentally the use of dental floss and interproximal brushes, appear to add additional benefits, in terms of plaque reduction, when they are associated with conventional manual brushes. Further long-term studies are necessary to confirm their efficacy in the reduction of gingival bleeding or inflammation. The choice of the type of technique must be made in relation to the characteristics of the patient: dental floss could be indicated in individuals with closed interdental spaces, and inter-proximal brushes in periodontal patients, or in those with open embrasures. PMID:15655973

  17. Hygiene assessment of sheep slaughter cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyz-Łukasik Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III. No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6% samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5% samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively. There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.

  18. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS.

  19. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS. PMID:27453288

  20. Effects of total solids content on waste activated sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion and its sludge dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfeng; Chen, Jie; Shen, Honglang; An, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The role of total solids content on sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was investigated in batch reactors. A range of total solids content from 2% to 10% was evaluated with two replicates. The lowest inhibitory concentration for free ammonia and total ammonia of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was 110.9-171.4mg/L and 1313.1-1806.7mg/L, respectively. The volumetric biogas production rate increased with increasing of total solids content, but the corresponding biogas yield per gram volatile solid decreased. The result of normalized capillary suction time indicated that the dewaterability of digested sludge at high total solids content was poor, while solid content of sediment obtained by centrifuging sludge at 2000g for 10min increased with increasing of total solids content of sludge. The results suggest that thickened sludge mixed with dewatered sludge at an appropriate ratio could get high organic loading rate, high biogas yield and adequate dewatering effort. PMID:26897469

  1. Bessel Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  2. BEHAVIOUR OF METALS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emission of toxic metals from sewage sludge incinerators can present a risk to human health and the environment. ignificant base of data on the behaviour of metals in sludge incinerators has been compiled. hese data were examined in detail to identify the mechanisms responsib...

  3. Pathogen reduction in sludges by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is international interest in the use of ionizing radiation in waste water and sludge treatment. Results of programs to study effects of radiation on disease-causing microbes commonly found in wastewater sludges will be discussed. Although emphasis will be on the work conducted at Sandia Laboratories, the discussion will include work in progress in West Germany, France, South Africa, and other countries

  4. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  5. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent vis

  6. [Hygienic problems in dumping, composting and incineration of urban refuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, K H

    1983-09-01

    Hygiene of waste disposal embraces all preventive measures which ensure an unobjectionable and, wherever possible final elimination of all sorts of urban refuse. As the hazards to our environment largely result from unsolved waste disposal problems in residential areas and congested industrial zones, such disposal measures are increasingly given priority. In view of the decreasing resources, the methods of waste disposal must also allow for the possibility of recycling of waste material. With respect to what is objectionable hygienically, differences exist in infectiousness and toxicity between solid and sludy refuse. For this reason the necessary treatment methods and the procedures for collection, treatment, elimination, and exploitation must comply with the various requirements of hygiene. From the hygienic point of view, waste disposal commences already with the collection of refuse and ends with its final elimination. Such a complete appreciation of hygienic parameters necessarily leads to waste disposal procedures which are innocuous to our environment. The importance of innocuous waste disposal is, however, not restricted to the prevention of epidemics and infectious diseases. Even abiogenous noxa in urban refuse are likely to threaten the environment in a direct or indirect manner.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6649992

  7. [Hand hygiene in hospital environments: use of conformity indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Thaíne Cristina Romualdo; Roseira, Camila Eugenia; Piai-Morais, Thaís Helena; de Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

    2014-03-01

    An exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach whose objective was to use indicators to evaluate the frequency and infrastructure for hand hygiene, as well as the nursing team's knowledge about the subject. Systematized observation was carried out at hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil of the routine activities of 33 participating professionals (nurses and technicians) as well as the application of an individual questionnaire about the subject. 1206 opportunities for hand hygiene were identified, though it was effected in only 481 (39.9%) of them. Alcohol solution was not used at any opportunity. The infrastructure indicatorfor hand hygiene was close to the ideal value (83.30%). The professionals reported a high frequency of hand hygiene, demonstrating knowledge in relation to its importance, yet contradicting the findings of the observation. It was concluded that, despite the adequate infrastructure, hand hygiene was below that expected, requiring actions and strategies to overcomes these barrier and increase the use of alcohol solution.

  8. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Badawi, Karima; El-Fedawy, Sanaa

    2005-11-01

    Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14-18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through an anonymous, self-administered, open-ended questionnaire during class time. The significant predictors of use of sanitary pads were availability of mass media at home, high and middle social class and urban residence. Use of sanitary pads may be increasing, but not among girls from rural and poor families, and other aspects of personal hygiene were generally found to be poor, such as not changing pads regularly or at night, and not bathing during menstruation. Lack of privacy was an important problem. Mass media were the main source of information about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers, but a large majority of girls said they needed more information. Instruction in menstrual hygiene should be linked to an expanded programme of health education in schools. A supportive environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school and sanitary pads made more affordable.

  9. Reactivity Studies of Sludge and Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T Afzal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sludge and biomass are wastes with energy value. Both can provide a renewable energy in the form of gaseous fuels through thermal conversion processes. Proper understanding of the thermal properties and reaction kinetic of sludge and biomass is important for efficient design, operation and modeling of the conversion process. This study was carried out to obtain the kinetics data of the sludge and biomass in pure oxygen atmosphere at 30 mlmin-1 with the combustion temperature ranging from 50 to 900oC. The effect of sample size and heating rate on thermal degradation were studied and kinetic parameters of sludge, bagasse and sawdust combustion were described using Arrhenius equation. Two distinct reaction zones were observed for sludge, bagasse and sawdust samples. The activation energy and pre-exponential factors, in the first zone were found to be significantly higher than that of the second zone where as the opposite way for sawdust.

  10. Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which ∼ 3.3 x 106 L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP)

  11. [Social hygiene aspects of abortion in Odessa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, E M; Popov, V E

    1988-02-01

    The birth rate is a major concern in contemporary society today. Socialist countries having the material wherewithal and cultural wealth to maintain their populations have a genuine interest in population growth and maternity is therefore encouraged. The decision to have children lies with each individual family and does not involve society directly, except for the significant number of women who regulate their family size by having an abortion. In connection with the severity of such an intervention, a study of social and hygienic aspects of induced abortion was conducted in Odessa. The information was gathered anonymously among women who came to the gynecological department of a city hospital. 6.1% of the women were under age 20 and this figure may increase in the future. In the U.S. that figure already constitutes 1/3 of all abortions. 47.5% said they had had 3 previous abortions. 13.4% had no children, and 48.8% had 1 child. None of the women with no children thought of that as being the ideal. As reason for the abortion 31.7% gave irregular housing and living conditions, 12.2% unsatisfactory material well-being, 17.1% health reasons, 7.3% enough children already in the family, and 7.3% sickness of children and husband. In 24.4% of cases the husband was indifferent, and in 35.4% insisted on, and in 40.1% was against the woman having an abortion. 60% were thus probably poorly informed about the harmfulness of the operation. 39% of women did not use any contraception. Only 20% had received any information regarding contraceptives. Only 1/3 of obstetricians regularly instruct their patients about the use of contraceptives. Half of the nurses do not touch upon the subject due to lack of time and since instruction in birth control methods is not considered obligatory. Nevertheless it is important for women's health that during clinical examinations risk factors of abortion and the purposefulness of contraception are pointed out. PMID:3367727

  12. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  13. [Brief analysis of the characteristics of hygienic law system of the Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Liang, Jun; Yan, Xiao-yu

    2009-01-01

    The Qing dynasty, the last feudal dynasty of Chinese history, the social formation of which had changed many times as well as the hygienic law formation changed accordingly. The legislative principles of consulting the hygienic law system of the Han and the Jin dynasty, the hygienic law with thoughts of concentration of authority and the rules of rites, the customary law with supplementary functions, the colonial nature of late hygienic law constituted the characteristics of hygienic law system of the Qing dynasty, which had certain reference values to current construction of hygienic law system. PMID:19824356

  14. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

  15. Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.

  16. Sleep hygiene use in a psychiatry outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, J

    2012-02-01

    Non-pharmacological measures are recommended prior to use of hypnotics in the latest NICE guidance. This study investigated if non-pharmacological measures are utilised prior to hypnotic prescribing in a general adult psychiatry outpatient setting, and further reviewed patient\\'s sleep quality following implementation of sleep hygiene education. Interviews were conducted with 85 patients, and poor adherence with NICE guidance was found among the 74 (87%) patients previously prescribed a hypnotic. Just five (6.8%) patients recalled use of non-pharmacological measures prior to hypnotic prescription, 47 (63.5%) indicated non-pharmacological measures had not been discussed, while a further 22 (29.7%) could not remember. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores following implementation of sleep hygiene education was also noted (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that increased awareness of sleep hygiene education for clinicians may be beneficial.

  17. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively. PMID:23197385

  18. Activated Sludge and other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunying; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show increase in activity in 2015. These include, fate and effect of xenobiotics, industrial wastes treatment with sludge, and pretreatment for the activated sludge. These topics are referred to the degradation of constituents in activated sludge. Other sections include population dynamics, process microbiology give an insight into the activated sludge. The subsection in industrial wastes: converting sewage sludge into biogases was also mentioned. PMID:27620082

  19. Hand hygiene and aseptic technique in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Damouk, M; Pudney, E; Bleetman, A

    2004-02-01

    Hand hygiene and simple aseptic measures before invasive procedures are effective in reducing rates of healthcare-associated infection. The perceived urgency of a clinical situation in the emergency department, however, may influence medical staff's compliance with good practice in infection control. The aims of this prospective, single-blinded, observational study were twofold. First, to assess doctors' compliance with good practice in hand hygiene between patient episodes and asepsis during invasive procedures in the emergency department. Second, to assess the effect of clinical urgency on compliance with good practice in hand hygiene and asepsis during invasive procedures. Good practice standards for asepsis in invasive procedures and hand hygiene between patient episodes were compiled from a literature search. Doctors' compliance with these standards was observed in two emergency departments (UK and New Zealand). Observed clinical cases were classified as immediate, urgent and non-urgent based on the triage system. There was poor compliance with good practice guidelines for asepsis in invasive procedures in both centres. Staff achieved high compliance with the guidelines in only 27% of cases in the UK and 58% of cases in New Zealand. Clinical urgency did not appear to adversely affect compliance with aseptic good practice. Hand hygiene between patient consultations was very low at 14% in the UK and 12% in New Zealand. Asepsis and hand hygiene was poor in both the UK and New Zealand emergency departments. There may be a need for some compromise in standards of asepsis in very sick patients due to the urgency of the clinical situation. Compliance in all situations especially non-urgent procedures needs to be improved.

  20. [A photographic competition on hand hygiene in a nursing home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, Graziella; Aho-Glele, Ludwig-Serge; Astruc, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is often considered as the attribute of caregivers. However, it is the patient who is increasingly targeted by improved communication around hygiene in care notably in the framework of the "Clean Hands Mission". In this sense, the French regional centres for the fight against nosocomial infections in Burgundy has proved itself innovative on two levels by organising a photo competition in nursing homes. The aim was to show residents how to prevent care-related infections through the simple act of handwashing. PMID:26976317

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS)

    OpenAIRE

    Storfer-Isser, A; LeBourgeois, MK; Harsh, J.; Tompsett, CJ; Redline, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19 years; 17.7±0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Self-reports of sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness, caretaker-reports of behavior, and sleep-wake estimation on ...

  2. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  3. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven...... as a tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing equipment was discussed based on modelling the flow in a valve house, an up-stand and various...

  4. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  5. Keeping oral hygiene while taking complex care of seniors

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚCHOVÁ, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is Keeping oral hygiene while taking complex care of seniors. Count of seniors that have dental problems or don't have teeth at all increases according to specialized literature (Pacovský, 1994). The most frequent causes of that are growing motoric and cognitive issues at the old age but also increasing dependency of the hospitalized seniors on the nursing staff. Oral hygiene is also often done incorrectly (Kubíčková, 2012), or in a minimal scale only. Having...

  6. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  7. Modelling the structure of sludge aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczyński, Lech; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Kosobucka, Marta; Smoczyński, Michał; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kvaal, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The structure of sludge is closely associated with the process of wastewater treatment. Synthetic dyestuff wastewater and sewage were coagulated using the PAX and PIX methods, and electro-coagulated on aluminium electrodes. The processes of wastewater treatment were supported with an organic polymer. The images of surface structures of the investigated sludge were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The software image analysis permitted obtaining plots log A vs. log P, wherein A is the surface area and P is the perimeter of the object, for individual objects comprised in the structure of the sludge. The resulting database confirmed the 'self-similarity' of the structural objects in the studied groups of sludge, which enabled calculating their fractal dimension and proposing models for these objects. A quantitative description of the sludge aggregates permitted proposing a mechanism of the processes responsible for their formation. In the paper, also, the impact of the structure of the investigated sludge on the process of sedimentation, and dehydration of the thickened sludge after sedimentation, was discussed. PMID:26549812

  8. Bio THELYS: A new sludge reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauzy, Julien; Cretenot, Didier; Patria, Lucie; Fernandes, Paulo; Sauvegrain, Patrick; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    New technologies for reducing the sludge production of municipal or industrial WWTP have been appeared during the last few years. One of these innovative processes, Bio THELYS, consists in enhancing the biodegradability of sludge by a stage of thermal hydrolysis. The hydrolysed sludge could then be sent upstream to a biological step either aerobic or anaerobic. The objective is to increase the global mineralisation of the pollution entering the WWTP in order to decrease the waste leaving it, i.e. mainly the sludge. A 2500 population equivalent prototype was installed on a WWTP, in Champagne - France. Thermal hydrolysis is carried out under a temperature of 150-185{sup o}C, a pressure of 10-15 bar with an hydraulic retention time of 30-60 minutes. Thermal hydrolysis is implemented on a secondary recycling loop on the biological basin. Trials started in 1999 and are still on operation. A close monitoring of the WWTP was set up focusing especially on sludge characteristics, treated water quality, yield of sludge production reduction and plant operation. Bio THELYS could achieve a reduction in sludge production up to 70% on the plant. (author)

  9. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  10. Membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor with focus on surface properties and interactions of cake sludge and bulk sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Lin, Hongjun; Zhang, Meijia; Hong, Huachang; He, Yiming; Wang, Fangyuan; Zhao, Leihong

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the fouling behaviors and surface properties of cake sludge and bulk sludge in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated and compared. It was found that the specific filtration resistance (SFR) of cake sludge was about 5 times higher than that of bulk sludge. Two types of sludge possessed similar extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content, particle size distribution (PSD) and zeta potential. However, their surface properties in terms of surface tensions were significantly different. Further analysis showed that cake sludge was more hydrophilic and had worse aggregation ability. Moreover, cake sludge surface possessed more hydrocarbon, less oxygen and nitrogen moieties than bulk sludge surface. It was suggested that, rather than EPS and PSD differences, the differences in the surface composition were the main cause of the great differences in SFR and adhesion ability between cake sludge and bulk sludge.

  11. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

  12. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  13. A comparison of the OHI-S and the PHP in an oral hygiene program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, R L; Stokes, T F

    1986-01-01

    This study examined two critical measurement properties of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and the Patient Hygiene Performance method (PHP). Both scales proved to be sufficiently sensitive to decreases in plaque.

  14. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  15. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  16. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  17. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melmed, L.N.; Comninos, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    Disinfection of sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, thermoradiation, and radiation combined with oxygenation was investigated in experimentation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova was used as the criterion of disinfection. Experimentation and methodology are explained. Complete inactivation could be obtained when 0.5 kGy radiation was applied at 50..cap alpha..C to a sludge containing 3% solids and when 0.4 kGy radiation was applied at 55..cap alpha..C to a sludge with 20% solids. (1 drawing, 5 graphs, 4 photos, 4 tables)

  18. Performance of Anammox granular sludge bed reactor started up with nitrifying granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ping; LIN Feng-mei; HU Bao-lan; CHEN Jian-song

    2004-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation(Anammox) granular sludge bed reactor was started up successfully withnitrifying granular sludge. During the operation, the nitrifying granular sludge was gradually converted into Anammoxgranular sludge with good settling property and high conversion activity. The Anammox reactor worked well with theshortest HRT of 2.43 h. Under the condition that HRT was 6.39 h and influent concentration of ammonia and nitritewas 10 mmol/L, the removal of ammonia and nitrite was 97.17% and 100.00%, respectively. Corresponding

  19. Sewage sludge disintegration by high-pressure homogenization: A sludge disintegration model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxuan Zhang; Panyue Zhang; Boqiang Ma; Hao Wu; Sheng Zhang; Xin Xu

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) technology was applied as a pretreatment to disintegrate sewage sludge.The effects of homogenization pressure,homogenization cycle number,and total solid content on sludge disintegration were investigated.The sludge disintegration degree (DDCOD),protein concentration,and polysaccharide concentration increased with the increase of homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number,and decreased with the increase of sludge total solid (TS) content.The maximum DDCOD of 43.94% was achieved at 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles for a 9.58 g/L TS sludge sample.A HPH sludge disintegration model of DDcoo=kNaPb was established by multivariable linear regression to quantify the effects of homogenization parameters.The homogenization cycle exponent a and homogenization pressure exponent b were 0.4763 and 0.7324 respectively,showing that the effect of homogenization pressure (P) was more significant than that of homogenization cycle number (N).The value of the rate constant k decreased with the increase of sludge total solid content.The specific energy consumption increased with the increment of sludge disintegration efficiency.Lower specific energy consumption was required for higher total solid content sludge.

  20. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R.; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...

  1. DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ifesanya, Joy U.; Adeleke O Ifesanya; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and preg...

  2. An index developed for the determination of oral hygiene motivation success

    OpenAIRE

    Taner Arabaci; Turgut Demir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to develop a new index system to identify the individual oral hygiene score (OHS) and the level of the motivation success by using some scales, which are an indicator of the individual oral hygiene status. In this way, the level of personal oral hygiene would be determined and a standard motivation success scale would be presented by comparing the oral hygiene levels measured before and after the motivation application. The Hypothesis: In this hypo...

  3. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India – a Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The ...

  4. BATHROOM TRANSFORMATION: FROM HYGIENE TO WELL-BEING?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study...

  5. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  6. Hygienic assessment of persistent organochlorine pesticides in milk products

    OpenAIRE

    NORMATOVA SHAKHNOZA ANVAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    In this article the hygienic assessment of averages entering the body in the milk and milk products daily doses of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the towns of the Ferghana valley (Ferghana, Andijan, Namangan region). According to a special formula has been determined the actual level of pesticides and on the results of the study made the appropriate conclusions.

  7. Rhizopus Keratitis Associated with Poor Contact Lens Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Warner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Rhizopus keratitis in a young woman with poor contact lens hygiene. The mold was highly sensitive to treatment with amphotericin 0.15% drops, after a relatively prompt diagnosis. Obtaining cultures of both corneal infiltrates and presumably infected contact lenses may help to avoid a delay in proper treatment.

  8. Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Hygiene in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of the technical assistance (TA) Scaling Up Rural Sanitation and Hygiene in Indonesia, carried out by the World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). It was developed in consultation with the Directorate of Environmental Health, Directorate General of Public Health and Centre for Health Promotion of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and with key institutions in t...

  9. Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: What Needs to Be Done?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Cairncross; Jamie Bartram; Oliver Cumming; Clarissa Brocklehurst

    2010-01-01

    In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

  10. Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: Forgotten Foundations of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Bartram; Sandy Cairncross

    2010-01-01

    As the first article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers.

  11. [Hygienic evaluation of risk factors on powder metallurgy production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors.

  12. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  13. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  14. The Use of Gaming in a Dental Hygiene Review Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Charlotte A.; Mauriello, Sally M.; Caplan, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of gaming to create an interactive, stimulating learning environment as a review format for the Dental Hygiene National Board examination. Students (n=28) participated in either the gaming or a lecture review format. The gaming group scored higher on the exam on eight of 12 topics as well as on the case-based learning…

  15. Promoting oral hygiene behavior in recruits in the Dutch army.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Yvonne A. B.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Wal, Henk; Basic, Nina; Loomans, Steven A.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van der Meer, Brig-Gen Rob

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To make practical recommendations for improving oral hygiene behavior (OHB) potential predictors based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were assessed. Measurements of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected social effect for having healthy teeth were included. Methods: 216 re

  16. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  17. Cross-contamination in the kitchen: effect of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Nauta, M.J.; Jonge, de R.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effect of hygiene measures on cross-contamination of Campylobacter jejuni at home and to select a safe tracer organism for C. jejuni. Methods and Results: Comparative tests were conducted with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei and L. casei was chosen as th

  18. International trends in education and training in occupational hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries occupational hygiene has become an indispensable discipline in managing long-term risks to the health of workers. The international collaboration on education and training started with a workshop in Luxembourg in 1986 (sponsored by the EC and WHO). This meeting provided

  19. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  20. [Oral hygiene in Moroccan school children and their mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimi, Sihame; Tajmouti, Rhita; Ennibi, Oum Keltoum

    2016-06-01

    Low rates of toothbrush use were observed in this population and the brushing method was very inefficient. The correlation between the plaque index of mothers and their children suggests that mother’s oral hygiene behaviours influence their children’s oral health.. PMID:27392059

  1. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallionpaa, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Oling, Viveka; Harkonen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Ilonen, Jorma; Landesmaki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Ryhanen, Samppa; Siljander, Heli; Hamalainen, Anu-Maaria; Ormisson, Anne; Peet, Aleksandr; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svettana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Ilonen, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Hanna; Hyoty, Heikki; Kondrashova, Anita; Oikarinen, Sami; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjalt; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Korhonen, Tuuli; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood

  2. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…

  3. 75 FR 61119 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Food Hygiene AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public... 42nd Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex... established to draft basic provisions on food hygiene applicable to all food; to consider, amend if...

  4. Relationship between udder health and hygiene on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, W.; Neijenhuis, F.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Poor hygiene is an important risk factor for reduced udder health. Because the teat cleaning process is done automatically on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), hygiene management might differ. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hygiene and udder health on far

  5. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  6. The Effect of Teaching Experience on Service-Learning Beliefs of Dental Hygiene Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in the United States. Dental hygiene educators from entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the United States completed the Web-based…

  7. Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Bette A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…

  8. Optical response of the cultured bovine lens; testing opaque or partially transparent semi-solid/solid common consumer hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W; Sivak, J G; Moran, K L

    2003-01-01

    This study determines the relative ocular lens irritancy of 16 common partially transparent or non-transparent consumer hygiene products. The irritancy was found by measuring the changes in the sharpness of focus [referred to as the back vertex distance (BVD) variability] of the cultured bovine lens using a scanning laser In Vitro Assay System. This method consists of a laser beam that scans across the lens, and a computer, which then analyses the average focal length (mm), the BVD variability (mm), and the intensity of the beam transmitted. Lenses were exposed to the 16 hygiene products and the lens' focusing ability was monitored over 192 h. The products are semi-solids or solids (e.g. gels, lotions, shampoos). They are categorized into six groups: shampoos, body washes, lotions, toothpastes, deodorant, and anti-perspirant. Damage (measured by > 1 mm BVD variability) occurred slower for the shampoos, especially in the case of baby shampoo. The results indicate that shampoos exhibit the lowest level of ocular lens toxicity (irritability) while the deodorant is the most damaging.

  9. Fermentation of algae sludge. Fermentering av algeslam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, J.F. (Norges Landbrugshoegskole, Aas (NO). Mikrobiologisk institutt)

    1989-01-01

    Marine brown algae are used for production of alginate. In Norway Protan A/S, Drammen harvest Laminaria sp. and Ascophyllum nodosum along the Norwegian western coast for production of alginate. About 160000 tons fresh weight per year are harvested. The amount of precipitation and flotation sludges from the alginate production is estimated to 14000 ton dry weight per year. The sludges from the alginate production contain a high fraction of organic matter (75-80 % VS). Since the sludges from the alginic acid extraction process are considered as bulky wastes with a high pollution load a research programme on anaerobic digestion of these residues has been started. Preliminary results have shown that the sludges can be digested with a high yield of methane (0.15-0.30 m{sup 3}/kg VS added).

  10. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:27240231

  11. Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Elicker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering an electrolyte flow-rate of 1.34 L.h-1 at a voltage of 20 V, the removal rate of all the metals accompanied was over 50%; the highest removal efficiency was for Pb, with 72.49%. The results show the feasibility of using the electrochemical technique of electrokinetic remediation for metal removal from a sludge sewage treatment station.

  12. Determination of heavy metals in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of heavy metals in sludge has been investigated. The sludge was separated from waste water sewage by precipitation. The heavy metals analysis has been done using neutron activation (NAA) and x-ray fluorescence. The existence of some metals (Cu, Fe, Ca, K, and Ti) is very important for plants. Otherwise, Pb and Cr had polluted the environment. The results are compared with sheep dung, rubbish and cow dung that are used as natural fertilizer. It is found that the sludge has a low concentration of heavy metals than other. Tow standard samples derived from IAEA have been analyzed with our samples. It is found that our sludge contains some concentration of heavy metals less than the standard. It is found that the increase of Cu and Zn concentration due to uses of pesticides. (author)

  13. Application of Chitosan Flocculant to Conditioning Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李步祥; 陈亮; 陈东辉; 张印堂

    2003-01-01

    The dewaterability of activated sludge conditioned by chitosan fiocculant was studied. The effects of chitasan characteristics such as molecular weight,degree of deacetylation, and dose on the dewaterability were investigated. The sludge dewaterability is evaluated in terms of specific resistance to filtration, residual turbidity of supernatant, moisture content of cake, and settling rate. Sludge dehydrating behaviors conditioned with CTS, PAM and PAC fiocculants were compared. The conditioning was also carried out with dual flocculants in two stages. It is found that the sludge conditioned with CTS has better dewaterability than that with PAC. The optimum conditions with chitosan are: dose 0.8~1.2 g per 100 g dry cake, molecular weight 300,000, and degree of deacetylation 70%. The conditioning in two stages with dual flocculants is found to be more effective than that with single flocculant.

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  16. Can theoretical intervention improve hand hygiene behavior among nurses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghaei R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rahim Baghaei,1 Elham Sharifian,1 Aziz Kamran2 1Inpatient Safety Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 2Public Health Department, Khalkhal Faculty of Medical Sciences, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IranBackground: Hand washing is the best strategy to prevent known nosocomial infections but the nurses' hand hygiene is estimated to be poor in Iran.Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of BASNEF (Behavior, Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Enabling Factors model on hand hygiene adherence education.Methods: This controlled quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 hemodialysis unit nurses (35 case and 35 control in the health and educational centers of the University of Medical Sciences of Urmia, Iran. To collect the data, a six-part validated and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS version18, using Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. The significance level was considered P<0.05.Results: The mean age was 38.4±8.1 years for the intervention group and 40.2±8.0 years for the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups for any demographic variables. Also, before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups for any components of the BASNEF model. Post-intervention, the attitude, subjective norms, enabling factors, and intention improved significantly in the intervention group (P<0.001, but hand hygiene behavior did not show any significant change in the intervention group (P=0.16.Conclusion: Despite the improving attitudes and intention, the intervention had no significant effect on hand hygiene behavior among the studied nurses.Keywords: hand hygiene, adherence, education nurse, behavior

  17. HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PUDUCHERRY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an swered the pre - designed questionnaires. Data was collected by face to face interview. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was done by using EPI INFO 3. RESULTS: Hygiene practice of hand washing before eating was 95.33%. Only 81.31% students used sli ppers/chappals during use of toilet. Around 58.41% of students went to open field for defecation and 6.07% of students did not wash their hands after defecation. Regarding the frequency of hygiene practice, only 62.15% and 68.22% of students brushed their teeth and bathed every day respectively. The study finding also showed that only 68.69% students washed their face twice daily where as 3.27% students washed their face weekly. As regards to the materials used for hygiene practice, 93.86% of students used tooth brush & paste for brushing of teeth, 85.98% of students used soap while taking bath and 25.70% of students did not use soap for hand wash after defecation. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest the need for more hygiene practice education in rural schoo ls. Such healthy practices may help to decrease the burden of communicable diseases in rural school settings.

  18. Poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections: any relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3-12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was determined by using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Greene and Vermillion. The scores of 0-1 were classified as low, and of 2-3 as high oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The low OHI-S was taken as the control group (30 patients). The high OHI-S was taken as the study group (29 patients). The effusion scores, the compliance values and the middle ear pressure values in the two groups were compared. The difference between the effusion score values of the control and study groups was found to be statistically meaningful (p = 0.338, and the χ(2) = 2.167). The compliance values of the control and study groups did not differ meaningfully statistically (p = 0.671). However, there was a statistically meaningful low middle ear pressure (p = 0.044, χ(2) = 4.069) in the control group. Since this finding is expected in the study group, instead of the control group, we did not make an issue of this result. We conclude from these clinical results that there is no statistically meaningful relation between the oral hygiene index and the middle ear.

  19. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin; Herri Susanto; Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis), this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been ...

  20. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-800C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  1. Sanitisation of faecal sludge by ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fidjeland, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Faecal sludge contains valuable plant nutrients and can be used as a fertiliser in agriculture, instead of being emitted as a pollutant. As this involves a risk of pathogen transmission, it is crucial to inactivate the pathogens in faecal sludge. One treatment alternative is ammonia sanitisation, as uncharged ammonia (NH₃) inactivates pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study how the pathogen inactivation depends on treatment factors, mainly NH₃ concentration, temperature and storage tim...

  2. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative bacteriological studies of sewage sludge in a sewage plant have demonstrated that mechanical-biological sewage treatment reduced the total bacterial count and those of Enterococces by 2 log and the Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 log. Frequently Salmonella could be isolated from sewage sludge. A further reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge (60Co, gamma-radiation, 260 krad, 210 min). This reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count, and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 40 samples investigated after irradiation, two contained Salmonella. The hygienic effects of the irradiation unit were demonstrated by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Micro-organisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their sensitivity to irradiation. Parasitological experiments with eggs of Ascaris suum were carried out to test the inhibitory or killing ability of the gamma rays on the developing stages of parasites

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule; Preparation des radiopharmaceutiques dans le respect des regles d'hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand-Barat, J.; Rogues, A.M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brunet-Desruet, M.D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 38 - Grenoble (France); Couret, I. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 34 - Montpellier (France). Hopital Lapeyronnie; Fraysse, M. [Hopital-CHG, 03 - Montlucon (France); Saurat, S.; Tafani, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France); Bounaud, M.P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Jean Bernard, 86 - Poitiers (France); Fialdes, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France). Hopital Salengro

    1999-03-01

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  5. Parental Smoking and Smoking Status of Japanese Dental Hygiene Students: A Pilot Survey at a Dental Hygiene School in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Naito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the frequency of smoking and to explore factors associated with the smoking habits of female students at a dental hygiene school in Japan. Questionnaires regarding cigarette smoking were given to 168 female students. The response rate was 97.6%. The prevalence of smoking, including current and occasional smokers, was 20.3%. Among family members, only the smoking status of their mother significantly influenced the smoking status of the students. The odds ratio for smoking among dental hygiene students whose mothers were smokers in comparison to students whose mothers were not smokers was 5.1 (95% confidence interval 2.1-12.2, p=0.000. Decision tree analysis showed that the smoking habit of dental hygiene students was correlated with their mothers’ smoking history, as well as the smoking status of junior high school teachers, the smoking habits of close friends and a history of participating in a smoking prevention program when in elementary school. The increased smoking rate of young females, including dental hygienists, is a growing problem in Japan. The smoking statuses of dental hygiene students might be closely influenced by their mothers' smoking status.

  6. Mesophilic anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge. Mesophile anaerobe Klaerschlammstabilisierung mit aerober Folgebehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, U.

    1988-01-01

    Sludges treated in two stages in experiments - 7 days of anaerobic treatment and 2 days of aerobic-thermophilic treatment - can be judged to be completely stabilized because of the stabilization parameters BOD/sub 5//COD ratio and respiratory activity. The degradation results obtained are comparable to or better than those of the 20-day digestion (reference process). For all aerobic processes under investigation a clear temperature increase in the aerobic reactor was measured because of the exothermal metabolic processes of the aerobic biocenosis. There was a temperature rise of 15/sup 0/C in the tests in the aerobic reactor even after longer digestion times of 15 and 20 days. The results of the epidemics and hygiene investigations show that a secondary aerobic-thermophilic stage after the mesophilic digestion with adequate marginal conditions - germ retention time of 23 hours in the aerobic reactor at process temperatures higher than 50/sup 0/C as well as charging in batch quantities - leads to a safe and complete decontamination. Under these process and operation conditions all salmonellae were killed and the number of the enterobacteriaceae in 1 g of sludge was always less than 1.000. (orig./EF).

  7. Reclamation of acid waters using sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, W; Reynolds, C S; Tipping, E; Needham, R F

    1989-01-01

    An exhausted sand quarry which had filled with acid water (pH 3) from the oxidation of pyrite was treated with calcium hydroxide to neutralize the water (pH 8), and sewage sludge to prevent further ingress of acid. The water remained neutral for 2 years, an appreciable quantity of base being generated by the reduction of sulphate to sulphide in the anoxic sediment formed by the sewage sludge. After this time the water reverted to acid conditions, chiefly because the lake was too shallow to retain the sewage sludge over a sufficiently large area of its bed. Incubation experiments showed that the sewage sludge had a large capacity for sulphate reduction, which was equally efficient in acid or neutral waters and that the areal rate of consumption was sufficiently fast to neutralize all incoming acid, if at least 50% of the lake bed was covered with sludge. Throughout the course of the field investigations there was no foul smell and the lake was quickly colonized by phytoplankton, macrophytes and insects. Although nutrients associated with the sewage sludge stimulated photosynthesis and so caused the generation of additional organic matter, they were exhausted within two years. To ensure permanent reclamation, phosphate fertilizer could be added once the initial supply has been consumed. Neutralization removed trace metals from the system, presumably due to formation of insoluble oxyhydroxide and carbonates. The solubility of aluminium was apparently controlled by a basic aluminium sulphate (jurbanite).

  8. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  9. Leachability of barium-radium sulphate sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from the first phase of a research program designed to examine the leachability of radium-226 from barium-radium sulphate sludges. Batch leaching tests were performed. Results showed that liquid:solid contact time was relatively unimportant; radium in the sludge was stable in the presence of deionized water with a slight increase in the amount leached per gram of sludge occurring at higher liquid:solid ratios. Not unexpectedly, low and high values of leachant pH increased radium leaching. Both monovalent and divalent salt solutions also increased leaching; however, dissolved radium-226 activity levels in the leachate decreased as leachant molarity increased. For divalent salts this can be explained by the common ion effect; for monovalent salts it is opposite to results expected from solubility considerations. The interpretation of all results is complicated by the fact that in most tests, the amount of radium-226 present in the leachate was lower than the calculated contribution from the mother liquour present with the sludge. This apparent ability of the sludge to absorb radium from solution may be related to dissolution and reprecipitation of the sludge during the leaching tests

  10. Extracellular polymers of ozonized waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Lee, C H; Lai, J Y; Wang, K C; Hsu, Y C; Chang, B V

    2001-01-01

    Effect of ozonation on characteristics of waste activated sludge was investigated in the current study. Concentrations of cell-bound extracellular polymers (washed ECPs) did not change much upon ozonation, whereas the sum of cell-bound and soluble extracellular polymers (unwashed ECPs) increased with increasing ozone dose. Washed ECPs in original sludge as divided by molecular weight distribution was 39% 10,000 Da (high MW). It was observed that the low-MW fraction decreased, and the high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The unwashed ECPs were characterized as 44% in low MW, 30% in medium MW, and 26% in high MW. Both low-MW and medium-MW fractions of unwashed ECPs decreased while high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The dewaterability of ozonized sludge, assessed by capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), deteriorated with ozone dose. The optimal dose of cationic polyelectrolyte increased with increasing ozone dose. The production rate and the accumulated amount of methane gas of ozonized sludge were also higher.

  11. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  12. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)--from a hygiene aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia; Diener, Stefan; Magri, Maria Elisa; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lindström, Anders; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate and lacking sanitation and wastewater treatment systems can lead to the spreading of diarrhoeal diseases. One contributing factor in the lack of such treatment systems is the lack of economic incentives for stakeholders throughout the service chain. However, the organic fraction of the waste is high in valuable plant nutrients and could be reused in agriculture and as animal feed. For example, grown larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), make an excellent protein source in animal feed, while the feeding activity of the larvae substantially reduces the dry mass of the treated material. This study examined the effect of black soldier fly larvae on the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in human faeces and found a 6 log10 reduction in Salmonella spp. in human faeces in eight days, compared with a spp., bacteriophage ΦX174 or Ascaris suum ova. PMID:23669577

  13. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit;

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... was 78.1±0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration. The maximum power density generated from raw sludge reached 190±5 mW/m2. Dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The power density was saturated at sludge...

  14. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  15. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; K Niranjani; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygi...

  16. Microbial diversity differences within aerobic granular sludge and activated sludge flocs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; de Bruin, L M M; Verheijen, P J T; Abbas, B; Habermacher, J; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we investigated during 400 days the microbial community variations as observed from 16S DNA gene DGGE banding patterns from an aerobic granular sludge pilot plant as well as the from a full-scale activated sludge treatment plant in Epe, the Netherlands. Both plants obtained the same wastewater and had the same relative hydraulic variations and run stable over time. For the total bacterial population, a similarity analysis was conducted showing that the community composition of both sludge types was very dissimilar. Despite this difference, general bacterial population of both systems had on average comparable species richness, entropy, and evenness, suggesting that different bacteria were sharing the same functionality. Moreover, multi-dimensional scaling analysis revealed that the microbial populations of the flocculent sludge system moved closely around the initial population, whereas the bacterial population in the aerobic granular sludge moved away from its initial population representing a permanent change. In addition, the ammonium-oxidizing community of both sludge systems was studied in detail showing more unevenness than the general bacterial community. Nitrosomonas was the dominant AOB in flocculent sludge, whereas in granular sludge, Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira were present in equal amounts. A correlation analysis of process data and microbial data from DGGE gels showed that the microbial diversity shift in ammonium-oxidizing bacteria clearly correlated with fluctuations in temperature. PMID:23064482

  17. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

  18. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using on

  19. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. PMID:16570625

  20. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

  1. Knowledge of and Adherence to Hygiene Guidelines among Medical Students in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena G. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.

  2. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water

  3. Preparation of ferric-activated sludge-based adsorbent from biological sludge for tetracycline removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Xu, Guoren; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Ferric activation was novelly used to produce sludge-based adsorbent (SBA) from biological sludge through pyrolysis, and the adsorbents were applied to remove tetracycline from aqueous solution. The pyrolysis temperature and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) greatly influenced the surface area and pore characteristics of SBA. Ferric activation could promote the porous structure development of adsorbents, and the optimum preparation conditions were pyrolysis temperature 750°C and mass ratio (activator/dried sludge) 0.5. In batch experiments, ferric-activated SBA showed a higher adsorption capacity for tetracycline than non-activated SBA, because the enhanced mesoporous structure favored the diffusion of tetracycline into the pores, the iron oxides and oxygen-containing functional groups in the adsorbents captured tetracycline by surface complexation. The results indicate that ferric activation is an effective approach for preparing adsorbents from biological sludge to remove tetracycline, providing a potential option for waste resource recovery. PMID:27038265

  4. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  5. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  6. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 μm, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1. PMID:26086084

  7. Motivational interviewing in dental hygiene education: curriculum modification and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Kimberly Krust; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Liston, Robin; Williams, Karen B

    2013-12-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a person-centered, goal-directed method of communication for eliciting and strengthening intrinsic motivation for behavior change. Originally developed in the field of addiction therapy, MI has been increasing applied in the health professions with a growing body of successful outcomes for tobacco cessation and diabetic control, which can significantly impact oral health. MI has shown preliminary value for impacting oral behaviors that reduce early childhood caries, plaque, and gingival inflammation. While the training in and use of MI by oral health providers is emerging, full integration into dental and dental hygiene curricula has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the full implementation of MI in the classroom and clinic of a dental hygiene curriculum.

  8. Certain methodical aspects of hygienic regulation of hazardous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of hygienic regulation of hazardous radiation and chemical factors is considered. Differences in reliability of some standards for radioactive and chemical substances are determined in experiments on animals (mices, rats). The differences were established for 60Co, sup(89, 90)Sr, 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra and for 7 chemical substances (corrosive sublimate, lead, methyl mercury, chlorine compounds, strontium, hexamethylenediamine, beryllium). Maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides are shown to be superfluously over estimated; standards for toxic chemical substances are not strictly substantiated that is dangerous for human beings and environmental objects. Necessity of unique methodological and methodical approaches to hygienic standardization on the base of cost-benefit analysis is emphasized

  9. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-03-14

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

  10. CONTROL OF OPERATIONAL HYGIENE IN FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomír Lopašovský; Simona Kunová; Alica Bobková; Lucia Zeleňáková; Marek Bobko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was control of operational hygiene in fast-food restaurants. Control was carried out in three fast food restaurants. Samples were collected from ten sampling places, in cycles of morning, afternoon and evening. Sanitation process was also controlled in each operation. Grown colonies of microorganisms were counted after incubation in a thermostat. Samples were collected using a 3M ® plates PetrifilmTM - modern detection methods. Presence of coliform bacteria was determi...

  11. HACCP system in radiation-hygiene control of pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Radosav; Kljajić Ranko R.; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents instructive methodology for introducing and realizing the HACCP system in pig production, as a typical representative of intensive breeding, with the objective of establishing radiation-hygiene supervision. Attention was focused on the type of pig diet as the key link in the production chain, in fact the selection of the raw material components necessary in the production of pig feed concentrates for intense breeding conditions, and on the establishment of a certain radiati...

  12. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Raquel I.; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence ...

  13. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac CH; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Ever since John Snow’s intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. Methods We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta di...

  14. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquak...

  15. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do we Stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Piers; Coombes, Yolande

    2013-01-01

    "The Third African Sanitation and Hygiene Conference was held in Kigali, Rwanda in July 2011. It was hosted by the Government of the Republic of Rwanda, and the African Minister s Council on Water. The meeting attracted extraordinary interest: over 1000 people registered and nearly 900 people attended from a total of 67 countries, including representatives of 42 African countries. The content of AfricaSan 3 was aligned with the needs of countries as defined in country preparation meeting...

  16. Association Between Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among...

  17. ORAL HYGIENE OF PROSTHETIC DENTURE USER IN KODINGARENG ISLAND

    OpenAIRE

    NUR, NURUL KUSUMADEWI S.KG

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:to determine the level of oral hygiene for prosthetic denture user, especially for full-denture in Kodingareng Island. This researchincluded the distribution level of prosthetic denture user based on age and education.Methods: the method that used in this research is observational descriptive withcross sectional-studyas the research design. Variable result of the research determined in to 3, those are bad, middle, and good. Result:the highest percentage o...

  18. Standards for the hand hygiene of food handlers / Sanette Klingenberg

    OpenAIRE

    Klingenberg, Sanette

    2008-01-01

    Globally, investigations into food-borne illnesses show that the majority of cases involve poor hand hygiene of the food handler. The challenge of providing safe food therefore requires new strategies for evaluating cross-contamination of pathogenic micro-organisms on the food handler's hands, which might be detrimental or hazardous to the health of the patient Although food-borne diseases may be multifactorial in aetiology, no standards or evaluation systems, such as an occupational health s...

  19. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    OpenAIRE

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A t...

  20. [Knowledge of oral hygiene amongst adolescents in Lombardy, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoni, Nicole; Arpesella, Marisa; Cutti, Sara; Livieri, Monica; Lanati, Niccolò; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated oral hygiene knowledge among a group of 12-year-old students in Lombardy, Italy (n=182). Two different questionnaires were administered, respectively to adolescents and to their parents. Results indicate a low level of general knowledge on this topic. Factors influencing knowledge include the number of learning sources and yearly access to a dental clinic. The described situation highlights the need to implement school-based educational interventions. PMID:26722825

  1. Oral hygiene status and practices among rural dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C Azodo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the oral hygiene status and practices among rural dwellers in Delta and Edo States of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and fifty-four participants (45 males and 109 females between the ages of 5 and 88 years with mean age of 33.44΁2.34 years selected among individuals attending Children Evangelism Ministry Free Medical Outreach in five rural communities in both Delta and Edo State of Nigeria were studied. Data were collected through clinical examinations and the use of interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results: Of the 154 participants studied, 22.1% participants had one or more carious teeth, 11.7% participants had at least one missing tooth and 0.6% participants had fillings. Toothache (33.1% and gingival bleeding (27.3% were reported oral health problems among the participants. One third (33.8% of the participants had poor oral hygiene status. Oral hygiene status was significantly associated with age, gender, and educational status, but there was no significant variation among the various communities. Majority of the participants cleaned their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste-133 (86.4%, indulged in once-daily tooth cleaning-115 (74.7%, and have never visited the dentist-145 (94.2%. There existed significant association between daily tooth cleaning frequency, age, gender, location and level of education. Conclusion: The oral hygiene and oral health practices among rural dwellers were suboptimal. There is need to develop and implement community-oriented oral health promotion programs targeting oral health practices to control preventable oral diseases among rural dweller.

  2. Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Richard John

    2016-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Richard Macey for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy entitled “Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists”, February 2016.Many adult patients that attend NHS dental practices on a regular basis are asymptomatic and do not need any further treatment other than a routine dental examination (“check-up”). As the oral health of the adult population is predicted to improve further, using the General Dental Practitioner to und...

  3. Ensuring Maintenance of Oral Hygiene in Persons with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Lisa V

    2016-07-01

    Patients with special needs often must rely on inadequately trained caregivers for oral health maintenance. Consequently, full compliance is often not achieved. It is crucial that dentists carefully consider restorative materials and restoration design to maximize durability and facilitate cleansing in these challenging circumstances. This article discusses materials selection, prosthetic design, and oral hygiene techniques for caregivers to ensure longevity and maintenance of oral health in the special needs population. PMID:27264852

  4. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Its Inconvenient Truths about Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Neima; Weatherhead, Jill; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  5. U.S. Dental Hygiene Students' Perceptions of Interprofessional Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickis, Marie A; Mathieson, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    Patients with complex medical conditions require collaboration among multiple health care providers, and dental hygienists must be prepared to communicate effectively with medical providers to provide comprehensive quality patient care. The aim of this study was to assess U.S. dental hygiene students' attitudes about interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and identify any differences based on age, year in program, and program location. Participants were limited to students enrolled in dental hygiene associate degree programs across the United States. In response to an email soliciting participation sent to all dental hygiene program directors, 504 students completed the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) online (response rate could not be calculated). The IEPS is a validated survey that measures attitudes about interprofessional collaboration. The majority of the respondents were female (97%) and under 30 years of age (74.6%). Their mean scores indicated positive attitudes about IPC. There were no statistically significant differences in scores by age (p=0.700) or program location (p=0.527). There were also no statistically significant differences between first- and second-year students for total mean scores (p=0.106); for the competency and autonomy subscale (p=0.125); and for the perception of actual cooperation subscale (p=0.890). There was a statistically significant difference between first- and second-year students on the perception of actual cooperation subscale, with first-year students scoring higher than second-year students (p=0.016). This study's findings of positive attitudes about IPC and that age and program location had little bearing on the responses suggest that associate degree dental hygiene students may welcome the interprofessional education that will prepare them for practice in the future. PMID:27587571

  6. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board. PMID:24385532

  7. Vaginal hygiene and douching: perspectives of Hispanic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Diane; Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

    2009-02-01

    Vaginal douching is widely practised by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City. Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed.

  8. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. PMID:26838891

  9. Oral Health and Hygiene Content in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A. Jablonski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the quantity and quality of oral hygiene content in a representative sample of before-licensure nursing fundamentals textbooks. Seven textbooks were examined. Quantity was operationalized as the actual page count and percentage of content devoted to oral health and hygiene. Quality of content was operationalized as congruency with best mouth care practices. Best mouth care practices included evidence-based and consensus-based practices as published primarily by the American Dental Association and supported by both published nursing research and review articles specific to mouth care and published dental research and review articles specific to mouth care. Content devoted to oral health and hygiene averaged 0.6%. Although the quality of the content was highly variable, nearly every textbook contained some erroneous or outdated information. The most common areas for inaccuracy included the use of foam sponges for mouth care in dentate persons instead of soft toothbrushes and improper denture removal.

  10. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644

  11. Variety in dustiness and hygiene quality of peat bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Sanna; Heiskanen, Minna-Liisa; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Laitinen, Juha; Laitinen, Sirpa; Linnainmaa, Markku; Rautiala, Sirpa

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to organic dust induces chronic pulmonary diseases both in farmers and horses. The aim of this study was to examine the variation of dustiness and hygiene quality of peat moss bedding. Materials studied were weakly decomposed sphagnum peat (A), weakly decomposed sphagnum peat warmed up in storage (> 30 degrees C) (B) and two more decomposed few-flowered sedge peats (C and D). The geometric mean of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinomycetes were determined from the material. Samples of inhalable dust and endotoxins were collected with IOM samplers and respirable dust with 10M foam samplers when the peat was rotated in a cylinder. The number of particles was detected with an optical particle counter. An LAL assay was used for analysing endotoxins from the filter samples. There were differences in the hygiene quality and dustiness between peat materials (p particles were smaller in the few-flowered peats (C-D) than in the sphagnum peats (A-B). It is concluded that there are differences in the dustiness and hygiene quality of peat bedding. PMID:16028867

  12. Chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste: As novel oral hygiene product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohire Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present work was to develop chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste and evaluate its plaque-reducing potential and efficacy in reduction of dental pathogens. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts against dental pathogens were performed by using disk diffusion method. The pharmaceutical evaluation of toothpaste was carried out as per the US Government Tooth Paste Specifications. A 4-week clinical study was conducted in patients with oro-dental problems to evaluate the plaque removing efficacy of chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v mouthwash as positive control. Total microbial count was carried out to determine the percentage decrease in the oral bacterial count over the period of treatment. Result: Herbal extracts were found to possess satisfactory antimicrobial activity against most of the dental pathogens. Chitosan-containing polyherbal toothpaste significantly reduces the plaque index by 70.47% and bacterial count by 85.29%, and thus fulfills the majority of esthetic and medicinal requirements of oral hygiene products. Conclusion: Chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste proves itself as a promising novel oral hygiene product as compared with currently available oral hygiene products. A further study to confirm the exact mechanism and active constituents behind antiplaque and antimicrobial activity of chitosan-based polyherbal toothpaste and its efficacy in large number of patient population is on high demand.

  13. Hygiene and good manufacturing practice in terms of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel CEVİZCİ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, presenting service and product which have good quality and conformity with hygienic regulations, have become more important in health, pharmacy and food sectors. That’s why the quality control and documentation systems which are also considerable in terms of public health, were about to change. Today, lots of companies especially in health sector, prefer “Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP”- including a developed quality-hygiene control and documentation method - that they can easily adapt to their operation system. Food industry is the first application area and contains hygiene and quality management systems. In recent years, conscious of prevention of human health started to reflect on every stages of production of goods and services. In conclusion, GMP came into use in different sectors and demanded in international business trade as a reference. The aim of this review is to present some information about importance and concept of GMP to prevent of public health and to examine its use of areas in various sectors.

  14. Beam Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  15. Utilization of sewage sludge in the manufacture of lightweight aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Franus, Małgorzata; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on the possibility of sewage sludge management in a sintered ceramic material such as a lightweight aggregate. Made from clay and sludge lightweight aggregates were sintered at two temperatures: 1100 °C (name of sample LWA1) and 1150 °C (name of sample LWA2). Physical and mechanical properties indicate that the resulting expanded clay aggregate containing sludge meets the basic requirements for lightweight aggregates. The presence of sludge supports t...

  16. The characteristics of organic sludge/sawdust derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing

    2011-05-01

    A fundamental study of the characteristics of a sludge refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and the combustion behaviors were done. The test data demonstrate good results for the development of energy recovery technology of organic sludge or waste. The ash deposit formation propensity has been based on pretreatment, temperature and the ratio of organic sludge to sawdust. The usage of organic sludge and waste as an alternative fuel is cost effective and has environmental benefits. PMID:21129953

  17. Effects of storage on water treatment plant sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Cumbie, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of in-basin storage of sludge on the iron, manganese, and TOC removal of water treatment plant (WTP) clarifiers and on the dewatering characteristics of sludge were examined. The use of chlorine dioxide as a preoxidant to retard observed detrimental effects was also investigated. Sludge samples that were stored over a period of 120 days were found to release up to ten times the original supernatant concentration of iron and manganese from the sludge into the o...

  18. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    OpenAIRE

    Lamrani Sanae; Ben Allal Laïla; Ammari Mohammed; Boutamou Sara; Azmani Amina

    2014-01-01

    This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C). The pozzolanic activity was evaluate...

  19. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Basim Yalda; Farzadkia Mahdi; Jaafarzadeh Nematollah; Hendrickx Tim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahva...

  20. Utilisation of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Vesel, Nejc

    2011-01-01

    In this diploma I will present the possibilities of using sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatmentplant. The initial part of the diploma are the official documents and various literature to describe what should be the future application of this type of waste and uses. The following thesis has described some common options of sewage sludge, and products that can be extracted from the sewage sludge. In addition I described restrictions on the parameters of sludge from wastewater tr...

  1. An Investigation into the Mechanisms of Sludge Reduction Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, David John

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been the preferred method for reducing and stabilizing waste sludge from biological wastewater treatment for over a century; however, as sludge volumes and disposal costs increase, there has been a desire to develop various methods for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated, improving the performance of the digesters, and increasing the energy value of the sludge. To this end, there have been numerous pretreatment and side-stream systems studied and developed ove...

  2. Recovery of phosphorus from sewerage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuilova, Anastasia

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a review of the current state of technologies for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater and sludge, and the recovery and re-use of phosphorus. It explains the need for phosphorus removal and describes the current removal processes. Focus is given to phosphorus crystallisation processes and to the processes which treat sewage treatment sludges into potential sources of phosphorus. An interesting possibility to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge by use of Psenner fractionation is also discussed. By this method, the following phosphate fractions of technological significance may be distinguished: (1) redox sensitive phosphates, mainly bound to Fe(OH){sub 3}; (2) phosphate adsorbed to surfaces (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), exchangeable against OH{sup -}, and alkali-soluble phosphate; (3) phosphate bound to CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3} and in apatite; and (4) organically bound phosphate. The basic removal mechanisms, process schemes and treatment results are described. Two experiments with three different types of sludges from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant in Stockholm were performed in the laboratory. It was shown that the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid cause the significant release of phosphate (about 80%) for all types of sludges. If a whole Psenner fractionation was performed the phosphate release is approximately 100%.

  3. Sewage Sludge Gasification for CHP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCahey, S.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.

    2003-07-01

    Many routes previously available for sewage sludge disposal within the European Union are now prohibited or constrained by environmental legislation. Meanwhile, sewage sludge production increases annually as more rigorous treatment processes are used. This paper introduces an ongoing project, supported by the European Commission FP5 Programme, which seeks to examine the key technical environmental and economic issues relating to the gasification of sewage sludge for utilisation in CHP applications and ultimately to establish the commercial viability of the process. Sewage sludge treatment data has been collected by country and region and a database compiled. Laboratory and pilot plant scale gasification trials are underway and two small engines and a generator have been installed and commissioned. This paper discusses the concurrent development of ECLIPSE process simulation models for the three selected gasification processes, namely fluidised bed, spouted bed and fixed bed. These models have been validated and are being used to predict the behaviour of appropriately sized commercial scale plant, enabling informed decisions regarding technical suitability. The next step in this project is to determine capital costs and economic performance. Process routes will be identified that offer the most cost effective routes to reducing environmental burdens by using sewage sludge in CHP applications. (author)

  4. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  5. Parasite ova in anaerobically digested sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arther, R.G.; Fitzgerald, P.R.; Fox, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    The Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago produces anaerobically digested wastewater sludge from a 14-day continuous-flow process maintained at 35 degrees Celcius. Some of the sludge is ultimately applied to strip-mined lands in Central Illinois (Fulton County) as a soil conditioner and fertilizer. Parasitic nematode ova were isolated from freshly processed samples, as well as from samples collected from storage lagoons, using a system of continuous sucrose solution gradients. The mean number of ova per 100 g of dry sludge was 203 Ascaris spp., 173 Toxocara spp., 48 Toxascaris leonina, and 36 Trichuris spp. An assessment of the viability of these ova was determined by subjecting the ova to conditions favorable for embryonation. Recovered ova were placed in 1.5% formalin and aerated at 22 degrees Celcius for 21 to 28 days. Development of ova isolated from freshly digested sludge occurred in 64% of the Ascaris spp., 53% of the Toxocara, 63% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 20% of the Trichuris spp. Viability was also demonstrated in ova recovered from sludge samples held in storage lagoons for a period of up to 5 years; embryonation occurred in 24% of the Ascaris spp., 10% of the Toxocara spp., 43% of the Toxascaris leonina, and 6% of the Trichuris spp. (Refs. 24).

  6. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate nearby groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Performance assessment (PA) calculations must be carried out prior to closing the tanks. This requires developing radionuclide release models from the sludges so that the PA calculations can be based on credible source terms. These efforts continued to be hindered by uncertainties regarding the actual nature of the tank contents and the distribution of radionuclides among the various phases. In particular, it is of vital importance to know what radionuclides are associated with solid sludge components. Experimentation on actual tank sludges can be difficult, dangerous and prohibitively expensive. The research funded under this grant for the past three years was intended to provide a cost-effective method for developing the needed radionuclide release models using non-radioactive artificial sludges. Insights gained from this work will also have more immediate applications in understanding the processes responsible for heel development in the tanks and in developing effective technologies for removing wastes from the tanks

  7. Observing and Improving Hand Hygiene Compliance: Implementation and Refinement of an Electronic-Assisted Direct-Observer Hand Hygiene Audit Program

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Luke F.; Carriker, Charlene; Staheli, Russell; Isaacs, Pamela; Elliott, Brandon; Miller, Becky A.; Anderson, Deverick J.; Moehring, Rebekah W.; Vereen, Sheila; Bringhurst, Judie; Rhodes, Lisa; Strittholt, Nancy; Sexton, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    We implemented a direct-observer hand hygiene audit program that used trained observers, wireless data entry devices, and an intranet portal. We improved the reliability and utility of the data by standardizing audit processes, regularly retraining auditors, developing an audit guidance tool, and reporting weighted composite hand hygiene compliance scores.

  8. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  9. 4. Annual meeting of the Society of Hygiene, Environment and Public Health Sciences. Abstracts; 4. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft fuer Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Praeventivmedizin (GHUP). Zusammenfassungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the 4th annual meeting of the Society of Hygiene, Environment and Public Health Sciences. The contributions cover the following issues: hygiene, environment and preventive medicine; children' health and prevention; climatic change and health; human biomonitoring; mold fungus and bioaerosols; local and supraaregional infection prevention; free topics: water, land air.

  10. Behavior of inorganic elements during sludge ozonation and their effects on sludge solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Pengzhe; Nishimura, Fumitake; Nagare, Hideaki; Hidaka, Taira; Nakagawa, Yuko; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of inorganic elements (including phosphorus, nitrogen, and metals) during sludge ozonation was investigated using batch tests and the effects of metals on sludge solubilization were elucidated. A decrease of ∼ 50% in the ratio of sludge solubilization was found to relate to a high iron content 80-120 mgFe/gSS than that of 4.7-7.4 mgFe/gSS. During sludge ozonation, the pH decreased from 7 to 5, which resulted in the dissolution of chemically precipitated metals and phosphorus. Based on experimental results and thermodynamic calculation, phosphate precipitated by iron and aluminum was more difficult to release while that by calcium released with decrease in pH. The release of barium, manganese, and chrome did not exceed 10% and was much lower than COD solubilization; however, that of nickel, copper, and zinc was similar to COD solubilization. The ratio of nitrogen solubilization was 1.2 times higher than that of COD solubilization (R(2)=0.85). Of the total nitrogen solubilized, 80% was organic nitrogen. Because of their high accumulation potential and negative effect on sludge solubilization, high levels of iron and aluminum in both sewage and sludge should be considered carefully for the application of the advanced sewage treatment process with sludge ozonation and phosphorus crystallization. PMID:21215984

  11. Effect of sludge retention time on sludge characteristics and membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ke; LIU Junxin

    2009-01-01

    Three identical membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated over 2 years at different sludge retention times (SRT) of 10, 40 d and no sludge withdrawal (NS), respectively, to elucidate and quantify the effect of SRT on the sludge characteristics and membrane fouling. The hydraulic retention times of these MBRs were controlled at 12 h. With increasing SRT, the sludge concentrations in the MBRs increased, whereas the ratio of volatile suspended solid to the total solid decreased, and the size of sludge granule diminished in the meantime. A higher sludge concentration at long SRT could maintain a better organic removal efficiency, and a longer SRT was propitious to the growth of nitrifiers. The performance of these MBRs for the removal of COD and NH4+-N did not change much with different SRTs. However, the bioactivity decreased as SRT increased. The measurements of specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes testified that SOUR and the proportion of the bacteria-specific probe EUB338 in all DAPI-stainable bacteria decreased with increasing SRT. The concentrations of total organic carbon, protein, polysaccharides and soluble extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in the mixed liquor supernatant decreased too with increasing SRT. The membrane fouling rate was higher at shorter SRT, and the highest fouling rate appeared at a SRT of 10 d. Both the sludge cake layer and gel layer had contribution to the fouling resistance, but the relative contribution of the gel layer decreased as SRT increased.

  12. Agriculture reuse feasibility studies of sludges for the sewage sludge irradiation plant in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project, conceived by CNEA in 1992, decided the construction of an industrial-scale irradiation plant for disinfection of liquid sludges coming from a sewerage treatment plant and their recycling as fertilizers. This plant is being constructed and installed in Tucuman City in an agricultural zone of North Western Argentina. It is based on a gamma radiation process by batches of six cubic metres and using Argentine made Cobalt-60 sources. The feasibility studies on the Tucuman's Sewage Treatment Plant sludges involves: Technical parameters and chemical characterization of the sludges; Microbiological test to verify disinfection by irradiation; Toxic elements evaluation, both inorganic elements (heavy metals) and organic compounds (pesticide traces). These pollutant concentrations should meet the criteria set by the environmental regulations. Many of these experiments have been conducted within two Research Coordinated Programmes organized by the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. Another important aspect is the bioavailability of soil nutrients (N and P) from the sludges: it will determine the real economic value of sludges as fertilizers. Further studies on the behaviour of toxic elements accumulation on soil and plants, and also the capability of sludges to improve soil properties, will lead to the environment impact assessment of the application on land

  13. An innovative sludge management system based on separation of primary and secondary sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, G; Braguglia, C M; Ramadori, R; Tomei, M C

    2004-01-01

    An innovative sludge management system based on separation of treatment and disposal of primary and secondary sludge is discussed with reference to a sewage treatment plant of 500,000 equivalent person capacity. Secondary sludge, if treated separately from primary sludge, can be recovered in agriculture considering its relatively high content of nitrogen and phosphorus and negligible presence of pathogens and micropollutants. One typical outlet for primary sludge is still incineration which can be optimised by rendering the process auto thermal and significantly reducing the size of the incineration plant units (dryer, fluidised bed furnace, boiler and units for exhaust gas treatment) in comparison with those required for mixed sludge incineration. Biogas produced in anaerobic digestion is totally available for energy conversion when sludge treatment separation is performed, while in the other case a large proportion may be used as fuel in incineration, thus reducing the net electric energy conversion from 0.85-0.9 to 0.35-0.4 MW for the plant considered. PMID:15581006

  14. Innovative strategies for the reduction of sludge production in activated sludge plant: BIOLYSIS O and BIOLYSIS E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleris, Stephane; Larose, A.; Geaugey, V.; Lebrunn, Thierry

    2003-07-01

    Management of the excess sludge production resulting from biological wastewater treatment is one of the most important economic and environmental issues for the next decade. New stringent regulations regarding sludge treatment and disposal imposed in several countries as well as social and environmental concerns, have resulted in an increasing interest in processes allowing the reduction of excess sludge production. Following a 5 years research program, Ondeo-Degremont has developed two processes, Biolysis O and Biolysis E, designed to reduce sludge production during biological wastewater treatment. Experiment performed with Biolysis technologies confirmed that high (up to 80%) reduction of excess sludge production can be reached while good treatment performances are maintained, in agreement with regulation standards. Economical data demonstrate the competitiveness of Biolysis processes. Such processes appear to be a valuable alternative to solve the problem of sludge treatment, to protect operators from the evolution of legislation of sludge treatment and from risks inherent to final sludge disposal.

  15. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  16. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit;

    2011-01-01

    chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1±0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L...

  17. Technology for improving sludge concentration; Odei noshukusei kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Sludge generating in a sewage treatment plant is disposed through the processes such as concentration, dehydration, and incineration in sludge disposal facilities. In recent years, there has been a trend that this sludge increases in volume as well as worsens in the concentration. A case is predictable where the sludge load to the dehydrating process is so large that the sludge can no longer be processed in sufficient quantity. In the meantime, if sludge is ozone-treated, viscous substance on the surface of sludge particles can be separated with a comparatively small amount of ozone, with sludge concentration enhanced. At Meidensha, an experimental plant was set up for the ozone treatment of sludge in a sludge intensive treatment plant of a metropolis, with a verification experiment carried out for a sludge concentration improving system by ozone. As a result of comparison of the treatment performance between an assessment system for performing ozone treatment and a reference system for not performing, the average value of the sludge concentration of a gravity concentration tank was 1.9% of the reference system against 1.7% of the assessment system in a continuous treatment experiment in the summer, while the solid collection ratio was 65.8% of the reference system against 95.5% of the assessment system, enabling a superior improving effect to be obtained. (NEDO)

  18. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the applica

  19. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries

  20. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Electrochemical methods produce less amount of residual sludge as compared with chemical procedures. → Wastewater sludge contains a large amount of water. → The residual sludge is used to prepare cylinder specimen concrete. → There are improvements in the elastic modulus of the concrete when is prepared with residual sludge. - Abstract: Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete.

  1. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, Carlos, E-mail: cbd0044@yahoo.com [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Martinez-Barrera, Gonzalo [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km.12, San Cayetano C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Gencel, Osman [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, 74100 Bartin (Turkey); Bernal-Martinez, Lina A. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Brostow, Witold [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized Materials (LAPOM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology (CART), University of North Texas, 1150 Union Circle 305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electrochemical methods produce less amount of residual sludge as compared with chemical procedures. {yields} Wastewater sludge contains a large amount of water. {yields} The residual sludge is used to prepare cylinder specimen concrete. {yields} There are improvements in the elastic modulus of the concrete when is prepared with residual sludge. - Abstract: Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete.

  2. The role of lipids in activated sludge floc formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liza Kretzschmar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is widely used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater globally and the formation of activated sludge flocculates (flocs underpins the ability to separate sludge from treated water. Despite the importance of activated sludge flocs to human civilization there have been precious few attempts to rationally design fit for purpose flocs using a bottom-up approach based on a solid scientific foundation. Recently we have been developing experimental models for activated sludge floc formation based on the colonization and consumption of particulate organic matter (chitin and cellulose. In this study we lay the foundation for investigation of activated sludge floc formation based on biofilm formation around spheres of the lipid glycerol trioleate (GT that form spontaneously when GT is introduced into activated sludge incubations. Sludge biomass was observed to associate tightly with the lipid spheres. An increase in extracellular lipase activity was associated with a decrease in size of the colonized lipid spheres over a 25 day incubation. Bacterial community composition shifted from predominantly Betaproteobacteria to Alphaproteobacteria in GT treated sludge. Four activated sludge bacteria were isolated from lipid spheres and two of them were shown to produce AHL like quorum sensing signal activity, suggesting quorum sensing may play a role in lipid spheres colonization and biodegradation in activated sludge. The development of this experimental model of activated sludge floc formation lays the foundation for rational production of flocs for wastewater treatment using lipids as floc nuclei and further development of the flocculate life-cycle concept.

  3. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance. PMID:26853369

  4. Interventions to improve patient hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Furness, C D; Gardam, M

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands, but there has been relatively little emphasis on patient hand hygiene as a tool for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of patient hand hygiene interventions in reducing HCAIs and improving patient hand hygiene rates compared to usual care. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched to August 2014. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they evaluated a patient hand hygiene intervention conducted in an acute or chronic healthcare facility and included HCAI incidence and/or patient hand hygiene rates as an outcome. All steps were performed independently by two investigators. Ten studies were included, most of which were uncontrolled before-after studies (N=8). The majority of interventions (N=7) were multi-modal, with components similar to healthcare worker hand hygiene programmes, including education, reminders, audit and feedback, and provision of hand hygiene products. Six studies reported HCAI outcomes and four studies assessed patient hand hygiene rates; all demonstrated improvements but were at moderate to high risk of bias. In conclusion, interventions to improve patient hand hygiene may reduce the incidence of HCAIs and improve hand hygiene rates, but the quality of evidence is low. Future studies should use stronger designs and be more selective in their choice of outcomes. PMID:27262906

  5. Audit of hand hygiene at Broadmoor, a high secure psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, K

    2010-06-01

    Increased security measures at high secure psychiatric hospitals can complicate hand hygiene. This audit assessed the availability of appropriate hand hygiene equipment and the practice of good hand hygiene at Broadmoor Hospital using the local hand hygiene policy as the standard for comparison. A data collection tool used to audit the hand hygiene equipment on 23 wards in the hospital showed that there were significant deficits in the supply of hand hygiene equipment on the wards. In addition, a staff survey was conducted using a questionnaire designed to assess awareness, training and hand decontamination practice among nursing staff. This survey identified a need to increase awareness of the hand hygiene policy and the appropriate timing of hand decontamination procedures. As a result of the audit, appropriate equipment was ordered and the duties of infection prevention link nurses on each ward were made more explicit; namely, to check and order equipment for hand hygiene as necessary, to conduct regular reminder sessions of the hand decontamination procedure and to raise awareness of hand hygiene policy. Posters were also placed on wards in patient areas to increase awareness of hand hygiene among patients, and alcohol gel dispensers were introduced into nursing stations. Similar audits may prove beneficial at other psychiatric hospitals. PMID:20304525

  6. Parental Smoking and Smoking Status of Japanese Dental Hygiene Students: A Pilot Survey at a Dental Hygiene School in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Naito; Koichi Miyaki; Mariko Naito; Masahiro Yoneda; Takao Hirofuji; Nao Suzuki; Takeo Nakayama

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of smoking and to explore factors associated with the smoking habits of female students at a dental hygiene school in Japan. Questionnaires regarding cigarette smoking were given to 168 female students. The response rate was 97.6%. The prevalence of smoking, including current and occasional smokers, was 20.3%. Among family members, only the smoking status of their mother significantly influenced the smoking status of the students. The odds ratio for...

  7. Survey of oral hygiene behaviour, knowledge and oral hygiene status among Hong Kong adults : a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kwan-pui; Hui, Yiu-man; Ip, Cheuk-yin; Kwan, Pui-hang, Stephen; Liang, Betty; Ng, Man-yi; Ng, Yuk-kee, Brian; Wu, On-ki; Yung, Chun-yuen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between oral health behaviour and knowledge with respect to the oral hygiene status of Hong Kong Chinese adults. Materials and methods: Subject selection was by convenience sampling. A total of four outreach visits were arranged in March 2015. The participants’ oral health behavior and knowledge were evaluated through a self-reported questionnaire, while existing oral conditions were recorded following clinical examination using Visible Plaque In...

  8. Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal K; Harris, Julie R; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2012-10-01

    School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention.

  9. Impact of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Erica J; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrogen, are known to be present in the aquatic environment at concentrations that negatively affect fish and other wildlife. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major contributors of EDCs into the environment. EDCs are released via effluent discharge and land application of biosolids. Estrogen removal in WWTPs has been studied in the aqueous phase; however, few researchers have determined estrogen concentration in sludge. This study focuses on estrogen concentration in wastewater sludge as a result of secondary treatment types and sludge handling processes. Grab samples were collected before and after multiple treatment steps at two WWTPs receiving wastewater from the same city. The samples were centrifuged into aqueous and solid phases and then processed using solid phase extraction. Combined natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) purchased from a manufacturer. Results confirmed that activated sludge treatments demonstrate greater estrogen removal compared to trickling filters and mass concentration of estrogen was measured for the first time on trickling filter solids. Physical and mechanical sludge treatment processes, such as gravity thickeners and centrifuges, did not significantly affect estrogen removal based on mass balance calculations. Dissolved air flotation thickening demonstrated a slight decrease in estrogen concentration, while anaerobic digestion resulted in increased mass concentration of estrogen on the sludge and a high estrogen concentration in the supernatant. Although there are no state or federally mandated discharge effluent standards or sludge application standards for estrogen, implications from this study are that trickling filters would need to be exchanged for activated sludge treatment or followed by an aeration basin in order to improve estrogen removal. Also, anaerobic digestion may need to be replaced

  10. Utilization of irradiated sludge for fish feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to study the use of irradiated sludge pellet for fish feed, namely pellet A consisting of irradiated sludge and shrimp waste (1:3); pellet B consisting of irradiated sludge and commercial pellet (1:2). Pellet C, which is a commercial fish feed, was used as control. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was used in this experiment. The feed pellet with a dose of 5% of total body weight was given 3 times per day. The results of the experiments showed that based on food conversion for the relative growth of the catfishes, and heavy metal content, pellet A was the best. No contamination of Salmonella or Shigella bacteria was detected in each pellet. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs, 1 fig

  11. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue. PMID:23007373

  12. Sludge incineration: good practice and environmental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguglia, C.M.; Mininni, G.; Marani, D.; Lotito, V.

    2003-07-01

    Growing difficulties in the sludge utilization in agriculture or landfill make incineration an attractive alternative for sludge disposal. Capital and operating costs and concern about gaseous emissions may however limit convenience and acceptance. In this paper a model is presented for optimisation of the cake concentration before the furnace, allowing an autogenous operation with a minimization of exhaust gas production. As far as emissions of heavy metals and organic micropollutants at the stack is concerned, results of tests on a demonstrative plant, including a fluidised bed and a rotary kiln furnace, are presented. The tests were carried out in different feeding (sludge alone or spiked with chlorinated hydrocarbons) and operating conditions (temperature of the afterburning chamber). (author)

  13. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.;

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase activity...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  14. Electron beam treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics so that it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge. By electron beam (EB) irradiation, any kinds of organics in water can be oxidized to biodegradable organic acids. We studied the treatment of supernatant by application of this effect. The direct irradiation of the original supernatant was found not to be so effective to decrease COD. In order to increase the irradiation effect, supernatant was pretreated biologically to decrease the biodegradable organics in it. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were decreased from 800 and 910 mg/L to 78 and 5 mg/L by this pretreatment, respectively. This pretreated supernatant was irradiated by EB of 2 MeV using a batch type reactor. The COD was gradually decreased with dose. In contrast, BOD was increased markedly, indicating increase in biodegradability. The irradiated sample water was treated biologically again. After the final biological treatment, COD was decreased below 30 mg/L in the case of 10 - 12 kGy irradiation. Finally, the initial COD of 800 mg/L was decreased below 30 mg/L by the combination of EB irradiation and biological treatment. The cost of irradiation for this process was evaluated preliminarily. (author)

  15. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. PMID:22951329

  16. Modelling Analysis of Sewage Sludge Amended Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Carlsen, L.; Vikelsøe, J.;

    The topic is risk assessment of sludge supply to agricultural soil in relation to xenobiotics. A large variety of xenobiotics arrive to the wastewater treatment plant in the wastewater. Many of these components are hydrophobic and thus will accumulate in the sludge solids and are removed from...... for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES). It is shown how the fraction of substance mass, which is leached, from the top soil is a simple function of the ratio between the degradation half lifetime and the adsorption coefficient. This model can be used in probabilistic risk assessment of agricultural soils...

  17. Environmental sustainability of wastewater sludge treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer-Souchet, Florence; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    technology is used for the environmental comparison. Emissions from the treatment of the sludge as well as energy consumption and production, chemical consumption, infrastructures and transport are taken into account. This poster will present the results of LCA’s performed on different inertisation......The European Water Framework Directive addresses the issue of pollution from urban waste water and is thereby changing the scope of sewage treatment. As part of this process, the Neptune project (EU, FP6) focuses on developing new and upgrading existing technologies of waste water and sludge...

  18. Irradiation-composing of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residual sludge, generated as sub product of water treatment plants, is considered a commendable material of agronomic quality that it can be used as soil conditioner, organic fertilizer, in floriculture, forestation or in parks and gardens. However, its use is limited by its big pathogen contents, toxic chemical compound and heavy metals. The National Institute of Nuclear Research and the Mexico's State University are developing a research work for evaluate a process on laboratory scale: irradiation-sludge treatment moreover and to determine its use, handling and final disposal of this material. (Author)

  19. Hygiene improvement: essential to improving child health in remote Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross

    2010-09-01

    It is generally recognised that poor living conditions and poor hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) children living in remote communities. There has been little research on this topic. Taking an ecological approach, our study aimed to identify the key factors contributing to poor hygiene in one remote Aboriginal community and to determine appropriate approaches for improving hygiene and reducing the burden of infection among children. Key findings include that multifaceted interventions are required to ensure that household water and sanitation technology are functional, hygiene behaviour change is achieved and environments that enable good hygiene behaviour are created. Many of the factors contributing to the problem of poor living conditions and poor hygiene in these communities are outside the control of the health system. Intersectoral collaboration and action is required to identify acceptable, effective and sustainable solutions. PMID:20854319

  20. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India – a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The mean Debris Index and Plaque Index scores of dentate elderly were 2.87±0.22 and 3.17±0.40, respectively, the mean Denture Plaque and Denture Stomatitis scores were 3.15±0.47 and 1.43±0.68, respectively. Conclusion The dental hygiene was inadequate. This study emphasizes the care demand and the need for help in oral hygiene procedures for the dependent institutionalized elderly. PMID:26180560

  1. PENERAPAN ELEKTROOSMOSIS UNTUK PENGERINGAN SLUDGE DARI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Darmawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APPLICATION OF ELECTROOSMOSIS FOR DEWATERING OF SLUDGE FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT. Wastewater treatment produces semi-solid residue (sludge that must be handled carefully during dumping and discharge to avoid polluting the environment. A low cost and easy treatment of dewatering is needed. This research aimed to apply electroosmosis technique for dewatering sludge in order to seek for parameters that can efficiently reduce water content of sludge, including range of voltage, type of electrodes, and distance between electrodes; and to determine the effect of electroosmosis processes on changes of chemical characteristics of sludge. The results showed that: (1 electroosmosis dewatering occurred on the sludge taken from waste water treatment of landfill but not on sludge from water purification plant (PDAM, (2 direct current voltage of 30 volts was the optimum voltage, (3 copper rod cathode provided electroosmosis process as good as stainless steel cathode and both were better than the woven stainless steel cathode, (4 the dewatering time to reduce 1200% (w/w water content to about 400% was about 40 hours for sludge of 2500 cm3 in volume (laboratory bench scale, (5 the anode need to reinserted gradually approaching the cathode due to current lost when the water content at the anode point reached 400% and sludge at the point shrink, and (6 some chemical elements in the sludge decreased significantly after treatment. Pengolahan limbah cair menghasilkan residu berupa bahan semi padat yang dikenal sebagai sludge. Sludge tersebut juga perlu dikelola penyimpanan dan pembuangannya agar tidak mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu pengelolaan sludge yang perlu dilakukan adalah pengeringan (dewatering. Salahsatu teknik dewatering yang mungkin diterapkan ialah teknik elektroosmosis, yaitu teknik yang memanfaatkan adanya pergerakan air pada media poros di dalam medan istrik searah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari parameter sistem dewatering secara

  2. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  3. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine.Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers.Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare

  4. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha S Patil; Pallavi Pujar; Subbareddy, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above) were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group). There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene me...

  5. Knowledge of Oral Hygiene among Hemophilic Patients Referred to Iranian Hemophilia Society

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Hemophilic patients are faced with poor oral hygiene due to concerns about their dental care. The present study assessed the knowledge of hemophilic patients about oral hygiene and the effect of oral hygiene instruction in patients referred to Iranian Hemophilia Society. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 hemophilic patients randomly selected from volunteer patients referred to Iran Hemophilia Center. The study was performed by means of ...

  6. Infection Control in Child Day Care Centres: Development and evaluation of a hand hygiene intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zomer, Tizza

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children attending child day care centres are at increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections compared to children cared for at home. Hand hygiene is known to be an effective measure to prevent infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is generally low. In order to develop successful interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance and reduce gastrointestinal and respiratory infections among children attending day care...

  7. Oral hygiene and periodontal status among Terapanthi Svetambar Jain monks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Jain; Anmol Mathur; Santhosh Kumar; Prabu Duraiswamy; Suhas Kulkarni

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the oral hygiene levels and periodontal status among Jain monks attending a Chaturmass in Udaipur, India. To date, no study has been conducted on Jain monks. The study comprises of 180 subjects and the overall response rate was 76% among them. Oral hygiene status was assessed by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) of Greene, Vermillion14 (1964), and periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index. Additional information...

  8. Oral hygiene and periodontal status of teenagers with special needs in the district of Nalgonda, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ameer, Nazia; Palaparthi, Rajababu; Neerudu, Madhukar; Palakuru, Sunil Kumar; Singam, Harinath Reddy; Durvasula, Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and periodontal status among 14-17-year-old visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled and physically challenged and normal teenagers in the district of Nalgonda, South India. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and fifty teenagers in the age group of 14-17 years, constituting visually impaired, deaf and dumb, intellectually disabled, physically challenged and normal teenagers, were studied. Oral hygiene status ...

  9. Knowledge of hand hygiene in undergraduate medical, dental, and nursing students: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Thakker, Vaishnavi S.; Jadhav, Pradeep R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is of paramount importance for the prevention of healthcare associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. There is a need to explore the concept of hand hygiene among the cross-disciplinary undergraduate healthcare students. Aim: To evaluate and compare the knowledge of hand hygiene among medical, dental, and nursing undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 84 medical, 74 dental, and 40 nursing und...

  10. Needs assessment for emerging oral microbiome knowledge in dental hygiene education

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, R. Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett

    2015-01-01

    The curricula of dental hygiene education reflect the knowledge gained through research and clinical advances. Emerging knowledge is often complex and tentative. The purpose of this study is to assess dental hygiene students' confidence in their knowledge about the oral microbiome and to conduct a knowledge needs assessment for expanding their exposure to emerging knowledge about the oral microbiome. Sixty dental hygiene students were surveyed, using a Likert-type scale about their confidence...

  11. Culture change in infection control: applying psychological principles to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbler, Ethan; Castillo, Leilani; Satorie, Laura; Ford, Deborah; Hagman, Jan; Hodge, Therese; Price, Lisa; Wald, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Hand hygiene occurs at the intersection of habit and culture. Psychological and social principles, including operant conditioning and peer pressure of conforming social norms, facilitate behavior change. Participatory leadership and level hierarchies are needed for sustainable patient safety culture. Application of these principles progressively and significantly improved hand hygiene compared with the hospital aggregate control. Changes to hand hygiene auditing and response processes demonstrate ability to improve and sustain adherence rates within a clinical microsystem. PMID:23669615

  12. Motivation to oral hygiene with the donation of toothbrushes to schoolars of Curitiba

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Cristina da Cruz SILVA; Karyn Roberta LOPES; João César ZIELAK

    2006-01-01

    More and more the market offers toothbrushes with the most varied and attractive infantile designs. The question is if the simple presentation of the commercial product (brush) can generate anincentive to the oral hygiene, and therefore, buccal health of children. Thus, this work had as objective to evaluate the children’s motivation to the oral hygiene with the donation of toothbrushes, through the survey of the modified Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (m-SOHI), only for anterior superior teet...

  13. Oral Hygiene Facilitators and Barriers in Greek 10 Years Old Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Angelopoulou, Matina; Kavvadia, Katerina; Oulis, Constantine; Reppa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oral hygiene facilitators and barriers for 10 years old Greek children, via a questionnaire and clinical examination. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 266, 10 years old, children recruited from schools in 3 locations in Greece. Data were collected via questionnaires and clinical examination. Questionnaires referred to Children’s oral hygiene knowledge, behavior and attitude as well as parents’ oral hygiene beha...

  14. Determinants for oral hygiene and periodontal status among mentally disabled children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar S; Sharma J; Duraiswamy P; Kulkarni S.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the impact of socio-demographic and clinical variables on the oral hygiene and periodontal status in a sample of mentally disabled subjects. Materials and Methods: Study sample comprised of 171 mentally disabled subjects attending a special school in Udaipur, India. Oral hygiene status was assessed by Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and periodontal status by Community Periodontal Index. Results: Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the best predictors in...

  15. The status of oral hygiene in cleft lip, palate patients after surgical correction

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey S; Pandey R

    2005-01-01

    The cleft lip and palate patients usually present a number of problems viz. altered oral anatomy leading to changes in oral physiology diminishing the self-cleansing ability of individual. The handicapped children are unable to maintain their oral hygiene properly. The present study was formulated with the aim that does normalization of oral anatomy have its effect on improvement of oral hygiene? An assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified was performed between preoperative and postoperati...

  16. Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge thermal drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Huanxin; Dai, Zhixin; Ji, Zhongqiang; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-04-15

    The release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during sludge drying is a major environmental problem because of its toxicity to human health. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms and factors controlling the H2S release. Results of this study show that: 1) the biomass and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sludge were the major factors controlling the amount of H2S release, 2) the sludge drying temperature had an important effect on both the extent and the timing of H2S release from the sludge, and 3) decreasing sludge pH increased the H2S release. Based on the findings from this study, a new system that integrates sludge drying and H2S gas treatment was developed to reduce the amount of H2S released from sludge treatments.

  17. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian;

    Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows...... that the compressibility has a high influence on the drainage process especially during the start-up phases where the volumetric load on the sludge bed is critical. The load has to be low in order to ensure that the drainage properties of the bed are not destroyed. The data also shows that transport of activated sludge...

  18. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  19. [The making of hygienic modernity in Meiji Japan, 1868-1905].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-06-01

    This article is based on conceptual and methodological understanding of hygienic modernity in the nineteenth-century Western countries: one is the concept of modern hygiene in the context of modern state and the other is methodological relation of modern hygiene to scientific theory of germ . While modern state calls for the institutionalization of medical police as an administrative tool for consolidating the governmentality what Michel Foucault calls, scientific 'invention' of germ may be considered as 'logical, philosophical and historiographical'. Furthermore, the Meiji medicine men preferred Koch's to Pasteur's laboratory framework, not because the former was scientific than the latter but because Koch's programs were more compatible with imperial needs. The objective of this paper is to investigate four ways in which hygienic modernity had been established in Meiji Japan; (i) how Meiji imperialists perceived and managed to control Japanese hygienic condition, (ii) how Meiji-leading doctors learned about the German modern system of hygiene to consolidate Meiji empire; (iii) how modern germ theory functioned as the formation of imperial bodies in Meiji period; and (iv) how modem military hygiene contributed to Japanese defeat of Russia. Although I try to contend that modern hygiene was adopted as one of the most significant strategies for intensifying and extending the Meiji empire, this paper has some limits in not identifying how Japanese perception of infectious diseases were culturally adaptive to science-based hygienic programs the Meiji administrators had installed. PMID:14565202

  20. The status of oral hygiene in cleft lip, palate patients after surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleft lip and palate patients usually present a number of problems viz. altered oral anatomy leading to changes in oral physiology diminishing the self-cleansing ability of individual. The handicapped children are unable to maintain their oral hygiene properly. The present study was formulated with the aim that does normalization of oral anatomy have its effect on improvement of oral hygiene? An assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified was performed between preoperative and postoperative values in the same patient at KGMU and KGDU. A total of 50 cases were recorded in two groups of 25 each: (i < 6 years old and (ii > 6 years. The observations are statistically analyzed by paired ′t′ test to get the significance of results. Results: The data analyzed showed the significant decrease in oral hygiene indices observed in both groups. A relative significance in oral hygiene status following surgery was observed. Both groups expressed greater significance when compared pre and postoperatively which is indicative of considerable improvement of oral hygiene after surgical correction. The study concludes that oral hygiene improves more in older cleft lip-palate cases following reconstruction of palatal vault, premaxilla and anterior lip seal by secondary bone grafting method when compared with oral hygiene indices results in primary periosteoplasty cases. The surgical correction of cleft lip palate enhances self-cleaning ability and better compliance to maintain oral hygiene in children as the age advances.

  1. Oral hygiene and periodontal status among Terapanthi Svetambar Jain monks in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to determine the oral hygiene levels and periodontal status among Jain monks attending a Chaturmass in Udaipur, India. To date, no study has been conducted on Jain monks. The study comprises of 180 subjects and the overall response rate was 76% among them. Oral hygiene status was assessed by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S of Greene, Vermillion14 (1964, and periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index. Additional information was collected regarding food habits, education level and oral hygiene habits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Chi Square Test and Step-wise multiple linear regression analysis were carried out using SPSS Software (11.0. The results showed that the oral hygiene status of Jain monks was poor and only 5.6% of the subjects had good oral hygiene. Overall periodontal disease prevalence was 100% with bleeding and shallow pocket contributing a major part (72.8% among all the age groups (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that oral hygiene habits, caloric intake and education level explained a variance of 11.7% for the Oral hygiene index collectively. The findings confirmed that Jain monks have poor oral hygiene and an increased prevalence of periodontal disease compared to that of the similarly aged general population because, as a part of their religion, many Jain individuals avoid brushing their teeth especially during fasting, keeping in mind not to harm the microorganisms present in the mouth.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE HABITS IN CHILDREN 6 TO 12 YEARS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Doichinova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral hygiene is an essential element of health education programs for schoolchildren. AIM: The study aims to assess the skills when conducting oral hygiene of a group of schoolchildren and to conduct training in its rules. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study covers 30 children aged 6-12 years. The training was conducted by the methods of the visual pedagogy and implementation of the technique “Say, show, do”. The assessment of the oral-hygiene status was held by the simplified oral hygiene index-Greene & Vermillion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The children do not have proper oral hygiene habits. The daily oral care is inadequate. The number of cleaned tooth surfaces during oral hygiene practice is small. Children have no developed proper oral hygiene skills, and brush only the vestibular surfaces of the teeth (80%, 13.3% the vestibular and the occlusal, and 6.7% only cover lingual surfaces too. The unsatisfactory oral hygiene status is also a result of using only one type of toothbrush movements. The improvement of children's health knowledge should play key role in correcting their oral hygiene technique.

  3. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  4. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships.

  5. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekkalale Chikkalingaiah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menstruation has often been dealt with secrecy in many cultures. Such perceptions coupled with poor and inadequate sanitary facilities have often kept girls from not attending schools especially during periods of menstruation. There is gross lack of information on menstrual management among adolescent girls; most of these girls seek information about menstruation from their peers who do not know better. Adolescence being a time of tremendous opportunity, and at the same time also a time of heightened vulnerabilities, it is imperative to empower adolescent girls with adequate information and skills on crucial issues like menstrual hygiene and its management. AIM: To know the knowledge and menstrual hygiene practices of adolescent girls. MATERIAL & METHODS: Across sectional study was conducted among 210 adolescent girls in a rural field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital. Data on socio-economic variables and menstrual characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. RESULTS: 87.6% of the girls were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Mothers were the first informants in about 56.5% girls. Overall 51.5% adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 45.6% were using used cloths. Regarding practices, for cleaning of used cloths 88.9% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 97.6% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. CONCLUSION: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  6. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  7. Improved Performance of Membrane Bioreactor by Sludge Ozonation for Reduction of Excess Sludge Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi-feng; HE Sheng-bing; CHEN Jian-meng

    2009-01-01

    To seek for an alternative solution for the treatment and disposal of excess activated sludge, a hybrid system of membrane bioreactor ( MBR) coupled with ozonation process (i.e., ozonation run) was set up to treat the domestic wastewater. A reference run without ozonation was also preformed as a control. The optimal ozone dose of solubilization in the ozonation run was firstly determined through the batch sludge ozonation tests. A 40-day continuous operation of the two parallel systems demonstrated that circulation of ozonized sludge as lysate did not impact the performance of MBR in terms of organic and ammonia removal. On the contrary, an improvement in TN removal (by 7.7%) and sludge reduction (by 54%) was observed in the ozonation-combined MBR, and it was furthermore illustrated by the calculation of the mass balance based on the COD and TN substances. In addition,ozonation did not deteriorate the sludge activities for the ozonation run, indicating that not much inert organic materials built up in the bioreactor. Decreased VSS/SS ratio and lower amount of filamentous bacteria after ozonation treatment on the other hand improved the sludge settleability, as lower and constant Sluge Volume Index (SVI) values were detected in the ozonation run.

  8. Bacterial regrowth potential in alkaline sludges from open-sun and covered sludge drying beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, U.; Topac, F.O.; Birden, B.; Baskaya, H.S. [Uludag University, Gorukle (Turkey). Dept. of Environmnetal Engineering

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the regrowth potentials of wastewater sludges dried in two pilot-scale drying processes namely, Open-Sun Sludge Drying Bed (OSDB) and Covered Sludge Drying Bed (CSDB). Quicklime and/or coal fly ash were added to raw sludge samples prior to drying processes in order to enhance bacterial inactivation. Following three drying cycles (March-April, June-July and August-October), sludge samples were taken from the beds for the regrowth experiments. Addition of alkaline materials prevented the regrowth of faecal coliforms in all rewetted samples except for the samples obtained after the rainfall events in OSDB. Rewetting of these samples in the regrowth experiments increased faecal coliform numbers by 3.5-7 log units. In contradiction, the observed bacterial numbers in rewetted alkaline samples from CSDB were below the EPA Class B criterion (2 million MPN g{center_dot} 1) dry sludge). The combination of additional heat from solar collectors, protection from the rain and the unfavourable living conditions owing to alkaline materials appeared to inactivate bacteria more effectively in CSDB and hence eliminated regrowth potential more efficiently.

  9. Bacterial composition of activated sludge - importance for floc and sludge properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Thomsen, Trine R.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2003-07-01

    Activated sludge flocs consist of numerous constituents which, together with other factors, are responsible for floc structure and floc properties. These properties largely determine the sludge properties such as flocculation, settling and dewaterability. In this paper we briefly review the present knowledge about the role of bacteria in relation to floc and sludge properties, and we present a new approach to investigate the identity and function of the bacteria in the activated sludge flocs. The approach includes identification of the important bacteria and a characterization of their physiological and functional properties. It is carried out by use of culture-independent molecular biological methods linked with other methods to study the physiology and function maintaining a single cell resolution. Using this approach it was found that floc-forming properties differed among the various bacterial groups, e.g. that different microcolony-forming bacteria had very different sensitivities to shear and that some of them deflocculated under anaerobic conditions. in our opinion, the approach to combine identity with functional analysis of the dominant bacteria in activated sludge by in situ methods is a very promising way to investigate correlations between presence of specific bacteria, and floc and sludge properties that are of interest. (author)

  10. Biogas recovery from microwave heated sludge by anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biogas generated from sewage sludge,livestock waste,and food waste by anaerobic digestion is a valuable renewable energy resource.However,conventional anaerobic digestion is not an efficient process.A long hydraulic retention time and low biogas recovery rate hinder the applications of those resources.An effective pretreatment method to destroy sludge microbial cells has been one of the major concerns regarding improvement of the biogas production.This article focuses on the effects of microwave heating on sludge anaerobic digestion.Volatile suspended solid(VSS) and chemical organic demand solubilization of heated sludge were investigated.Microwave heating was found to be a rapid and efficient process for releasing organic substrates from sludge.The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min with microwave heating.The effect of the VSS solubilization was primarily dependent on heating temperature.The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio,36.4%,was obtained at 170°C for 30 min.The COD dissolving ratio was about 25% at 170°C.Total organic carbon of treated sludge liquor was 1.98 and 2.73 g/L at 150°C and 170°C for 5 min,respectively.A biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of excess sludge and a mixture of primary and excess sludge demonstrated an increase in biogas production.The total biogas from microwave treated mixture sludge increased by 12.9% to 20.2% over control after 30 days of digestion.Biogas production was 11.1% to 25.9% higher for excess sludge than for untreated sludge.The VS removal ratios of mixture sludge and excess sludge were 12% and 11% higher,respectively,compared to the untreated sludge.

  11. Effects of various pretreatments on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO BenYi; LIU JunXin

    2009-01-01

    The sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant is a kind of biomass which contains many organics,mainly carbohydrates and proteins. Four pretreatments, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment,thermal pretreatment and ultrasonic pretreatment, were used to enhance biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the four pretreatments could all increase the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge and decrease the dry solid (DS) and volatile solid(VS) because the pretreatments could disrupt the floc structure and even the microbial cells of sludge.The results of batch anaerobic fermentation experiments demonstrated that all of the four pretreat-ments could select hydrogen-producing microorganisms from the microflora of sludge and enhance the hydrogen production. The hydrogen yield of the alkaline pretreated sludge at initial pH of 11.5 was the maximal (11.68 mL H2/g VS) and that of the thermal pretreated sludge was the next (8.62 mL H2/g VS).The result showed that the hydrogen yield of pretreated sludge was correlative with its SCOD. The hydrogen yields of acid pretreated sludge and alkaline pretreated sludge were also influenced by their initial pH. No methane could be detected in the anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge and thermal pretreated sludge, which suggested that these pretreatments could fully inhibit the activity of methanogens. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) production in anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge was the maximum and the next is that of thermal pretreated sludge.

  12. Technologies with electron beam use worked out at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron accelerators have been used in several radiation technologies elaborated at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw. Some of them are being working now in designed production cycle at INCT on elsewhere. That are: pilot and industrial plants for thermoshrinkable plastic materials manufacturing; pilot plant for sterilization of medical supplies; pilot plant for radiation preservation of food, pilot plant for SO2 and NOx removal from combustion flue gases. The concept of the radiation station of municipal sewage sludge hygienization has been worked out. 7 figs, 1 tab

  13. Principles of occupational health and hygiene an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tillman, Cherilyn

    2007-01-01

    Today's workplaces are full of materials and processes which are potentially hazardous to our health. Industry depends on a large range of naturally occurring and synthetic materials, many of which can adversely affect the health of the workers. Even some non-industrial workplaces can contain hazardous materials or cause exposure to physical or biological agents that can be harmful to health. Principles of Occupational Health and Hygiene offers a systematic and comprehensive overview of occupational health hazards and hazardous environments encountered in a range of industries and organisatio

  14. Striving for success in sanitation, hygiene, and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 people do not have access to improved water sources, and 2.5 billion are without access to improved sanitation. As a result, an estimated 1800 children under 5 years of age die every day from preventable diseases related to water, sanitation & hygiene; more are ill or stunted. To sustainably improve people's health, actors in the water sector at all levels should use flexible, integrated approaches focused on behavior change and service delivery. Approaches and technologies should be as simple as possible while still protecting human health and the environment. Remember, it's not just about the toilet. PMID:24566351

  15. Hand hygiene is crucial to combat Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can contaminate the environment with spores that are able to survive for months. A previous room occupant with CDI is a significant risk factor for developing the infection. Room cleaning with commonly used disinfectants will not kill spores. Sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide are effective but correct concentration and contact time are important. Hand hygiene is a crucial element in preventing infection. In the UK, there is a clear recommendation for handwashing, rather than alcohol-based hand rub, when caring for patients with CDI. PMID:25258234

  16. Sociodemographic factors associated with oral hygiene habits in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, MDCM; Sheiham, A.; Bino, Y. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the oral hygiene habits of Brazilian adolescents and their relation with gender and socioeconomic status. Methods: Secondary data analyzed were from a cross-sectional study using self-completion questionnaires among 664 15-year-old schoolchildren randomly selected from public and private schools and their mothers, in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Results: 51.8% of the sample comprised girls and 48.2% boys; 48.9% were from a high social class and 51.1% from a low social class. ...

  17. Oral hygiene profile of subjects on renal dialysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Atassi F; Almas K

    2001-01-01

    The study was designed to assess the level of oral home-care among subjects on renal dialysis. The study included 90 subjects, 37 (41.1%) male and 53 (58.9%) female, on renal dialysis. The mean age was 45.63 +/- 16.77. Four indices were used; the plaque index (PI); the debris index (DI); the calculus index (CI) and the gingival index (GI). Results showed that all subjects did not have optimal oral hygiene, means of PI, DI, CI and GI., were 2.0444, 1.9556, 1.8944 and 1.816...

  18. Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    J Hamissi; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; A Davalloo

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...

  19. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  20. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Christensen, Nina; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2008-01-01

    Sewage sludge has been used as fertilizer for agricultural land over a long time. This is part of a sustainable practice utilizing and recycling the macronutrients back to land. During the last decades, questions have been raised concerning the risks related to heavy metals and xenobiotic organic...