WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam production

  1. Equipment for ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment has been designed to extend the scope of control of ion beam flux for an intensive ion beam source used for plasma injection in magnetic vessels. The control equipment is connected to the electromagnet power supply. A consumption regulator is fitted in the operating gas supply to the hollow cathode of the ion source. A circuit is also included for discharge voltage maintenance consisting of a control element and a discharge voltage pick-up. (M.D.). 1 fig

  2. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  3. Production and scattering of a positronium beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the field of positronium beam-production and scattering is reviewed. A useful beam of positronium is obtained in the energy range 10-250 eV by scattering positrons from H2 and N2. With such a beam, total positronium - atom/molecule scattering cross-sections and integrated and differential fragmentation cross-sections have been measured. Results are presented and compared with recent theoretical determinations. First results for the absolute differential positronium formation cross-sections are also presented

  4. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however...

  5. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V

    2002-01-01

    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  6. Production of ion micro-beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Isoya, Akira; Arakawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tanaka, Ryuichi [Ion Beam Irradiation Service Limited Company, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    This is a short summary on the test fabrication and performance testing. Here micro-beams are understood as beams in diameter smaller than 0.01 {mu} m. We had made a choice of the combination, of the focusing action with a single hole lens, and of the focusing and acceleration actions with a uniform electrostatic field between the electrodes. Measurements has been repeated of the beam radius with a moving knifedge. The spatial resolution now reaches 0.05 {mu} m. (M. Tanaka)

  7. Colliding beam physics at Fermilab: interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.K. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the colliding beams experment department at Fermilab was to bring about collisions of the stored beams in the energy doubler/saver and main ring, and construct experimental areas with appropriate detectors. To explore the feasibility of using the main ring as a storage device, several studies were carried out to investigate beam growth, loss, and the backgrounds in detectors at possible intersection regions. This range of developments constituted the major topics at the 1977 Summer Study reported here. Emphasis in part one is on interaction regions, beam storage, antiproton cooling, production, and colliding. 40 papers from this part are included in the data base. (GHT)

  8. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J

    2003-01-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  9. Electron Beam Production by Pyroelectric Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, J D; Brownridge, James D.; Shafroth, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Pyroelectric crystals are used to produce self-focused electron beams with energies greater than 170 keV. No high voltage power supply or electron gun is needed. The system works by simply changing the temperature of a crystal of LiNbO3 or LiTaO3 by about 100oC in dilute gas. Electron beam energy spectra as well as positive-ion-beam energy spectra and profiles are shown. A change in the crystal temperature of 100oC will cause a spontaneous change in polarization. The change in polarization will be manifested by a change in charge on the surface of the crystal. It is this uncompensated charge that produces the electric field, which accelerates the electrons, or the positive ions and gives rise to the plasma, which in turn focuses them. The source of the accelerated electrons or positive ions is gas molecules ionized near the crystal surface. When the crystal surface is negative electrons are accelerated away from it and positive ions are attracted to the surface. These positive ions reduce the net negative cha...

  10. Shielding calculations for a production target for secondary beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Back, B.B.; Jiang, C.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In order to estimate the amount of shielding required for a radioactive beam facility dose rate were performed. The calculations for production targets with different geometries were performed. The calculations were performed with the MSU shielding code assuming a 500-p{mu}A 200-MeV deuteron beam stopped in a thick Al target. The target and the ion-optical elements for beam extraction are located in a 2 m{sup 3} large volume at the center of the production cell. These dose rate calculations show that with a combination of Fe and concrete it is possible to reduce the dose rate expected at the surface of a 7-m-wide cube housing the production target to less than 2 mrem/hr.

  11. Production, Characterization, and Measurement of H(D) Beams on the ORNL Merged-Beams Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total cross section measurements of electron capture processes are being studied for low-energy, Aq++H(D) collisions using the Ion-Atom Merged-Beams apparatus at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). On this apparatus, a modified Faraday cup detector is used to measure the intensity of the neutral beam. The conversion of the measured electrical current to the true neutral particle beam current is necessary to accurately determine the true cross section values. Inherent in this conversion process is the number of secondary electrons (γ) emitted from the surface of the detector upon impact of an atom. The method employed to determine γ and its role in the absolute electron capture measurements at ORNL-MIRF are presented. With a recent upgrade to the apparatus, the neutral beam H(D) production technique has been improved and is discussed in detail in this paper.

  12. Production, Characterization, and Measurement of H(D) Beams on the ORNL Merged-Beams Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total cross section measurements of electron capture processes are being studied for low-energy, Aq++H(D) collisions using the Ion-Atom Merged-Beams apparatus at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). On this apparatus, a modified Faraday cup detector is used to measure the intensity of the neutral beam. The conversion of the measured electrical current to the true neutral particle beam current is necessary to accurately determine the true cross section values. Inherent in this conversion process is the number of secondary electrons (gamma) emitted from the surface of the detector upon impact of an atom. The method employed to determine gamma and its role in the absolute electron capture measurements at ORNL-MIRF are presented. With a recent upgrade to the apparatus, the neutral beam H(D) production technique has been improved and is discussed in detail in this paper

  13. Baseline ion production dedicated to beta-beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Beta-beams, a concept introduced in 1991, require a large facility that produces and accelerates to high energy electron neutrino and antineutrino beams for oscillation experiments. They are produced by b decay of radioactive ion beams in a dedicated ring directed towards underground detectors. This article addresses the production of the 6He and 18Ne baseline ions. Part of the results were obtained within EURISOL-DS, a design study for the next generation OnLine Isotope Separation facility for nuclear physics in Europe. 200 kW, 2 GeV protons on a solid neutron spallation source surrounded by a thick beryllium oxide target produce the required 6He rates, while 18Ne production falls short by more than an order of magnitude. A first alternative might fulfil the objectives with a 30 MeV 3He primary beam onto large solid oxide target disks at several MW. A second 18Ne production alternative is based on a 700 kW proton beam at medium energy (70-160 MeV) and a target made of a circulating molten salt loop.

  14. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe37+, 1 e μA of Xe43+, and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe44+. To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi31+, 22 e μA of Bi41+, and 1.5 e μA of Bi50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  15. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Döbrich, Babette; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-01-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments su...

  16. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-02-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in `dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  17. Production of {sup 6}He by bremsstrahlung of electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrebaev, V.I., E-mail: zagrebaev@jinr.ru; Teterev, Yu.G.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Zhemenik, V.I.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Belov, A.G.; Mitrofanov, S.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2014-10-01

    The possibility for the production of exotic {sup 6}He nuclei in the {sup 7}Li(γ, p){sup 6}He reaction with the use of the 22 MeV electron beam provided by the MT-25 microtron was studied. This method was found to be quite effective tool for the production of the short-lived {sup 6}He ions. Two species of lithium salt, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and LiF, were tested as target material. Maximal yield of {sup 6}He atoms was obtained at irradiation of the fine-dispersed LiF salt loaded into cylindrical vessel. At the temperature of 800 °C the yield of {sup 6}He was found to be (1.7±0.2)×10{sup 7}atoms/s per 1 μA of electron beam current. The use of the ECR source (with efficiency of about 8%) gave a possibility to obtain the beam of {sup 6}He ions with intensity of (1.4±0.2)×10{sup 6}ions/s per 1 μA of electron beam current. The application of this approach for the further production of a monochromatic beam of accelerated {sup 6}He ions with an intensity higher than 10{sup 8} pps (which can be easily reached already at 100 μA electron beam current) would make feasible a large number of experiments on investigating the structure of this nucleus and the mechanisms of nuclear reactions with its participation. This method for obtaining {sup 6}He nuclei may turn out to be one of the most optimal and inexpensive as compared with other methods using accelerated heavy ion projectiles.

  18. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703149; Kröll, Thorsten

    SOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10^11 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computanional techniques have been used.

  19. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Kishida, T; Shibata, M; Watanabe, H; Tsutsumi, T; Motomura, S; Ideguchi, E; Zhou, X H; Morikawa, T; Kubo, T; Ishihara, M

    1999-01-01

    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An sup 1 sup 6 O target in the compound form of CO sub 2 gas was used to produce a sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm beam by using an sup 1 sup 6 O( sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe, 7n) sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm sup 2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little.

  20. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10{sup 11} ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  1. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 1011 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  2. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  3. Positron production in crossed beams of bare uranium nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    U. Müller; Reus, T.; Reinhardt, J.; Müller, B.; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Positron creation in crossed-beam collisions of high-energy, fully stripped heavy ions is investigated within the coupled-channel formalism. In comparison with fixed-target collisions of highly stripped heavy-ion projectiles positron production probabilities are enhanced by more than one order of magnitude. The increase results from the possibility to excite electrons from the negative energy continuum into all bound states. The positron spectrum is shifted towards higher energies because of ...

  4. Production rate calculations for a secondary beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.L.; Back, B.B.; Rehm, K.E.

    1995-08-01

    In order to select the most cost-effective method for the production of secondary ion beams, yield calculations for a variety of primary beams were performed ranging in mass from protons to {sup 18}O with energies of 100-200 MeV/u. For comparison, production yields for 600-1000 MeV protons were also calculated. For light ion-(A < {sup 4}He) induced reactions at energies above 50 MeV/u the LAHET code was used while the low energy calculations were performed with LPACE. Heavy-ion-induced production rates were calculated with the ISAPACE program. The results of these codes were checked against each other and wherever possible a comparison with experimental data was performed. These comparisons extended to very exotic reaction channels, such as the production of {sup 100}Sn from {sup 112}Sn and {sup 124}Xe induced fragmentation reactions. These comparisons indicate that the codes are able to predict production rates to within one order of magnitude.

  5. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  6. Ion beam polarization in storage rings. Production, controlling and preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozorov, A. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). V.A. Fock Research Institute for Physics; Labzowsky, L. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). V.A. Fock Research Institute for Physics]|[St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Plunien, G. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Liesen, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Bosch, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Fritzsche, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.]|[Max-Planck Insitute of Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Surzhykov, A. [Max-Planck Insitute of Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The present paper reports on the actual status of the theoretical concepts for the production of polarized heavy ion beams in storage rings and for methods to control online the degree of polarization as well as investigations of the preservation of the polarization during the ion movement across the magnetic system of the ring. It is argued that for hydrogen-like ions beam polarization can be built up efficiently by optical pumping of the Zeeman sublevels of ground-state hyperfine levels and that the maximal achievable nuclear polarization exceeds 90%. Of special interest are polarized helium-like ions which can be produced by the capture of one electron, because in selected cases parity nonconservation effects are found to be of unprecedented size in Atomic Physics. The measurements of these effects require online-diagnostics of the degree of the ion beam polarization. It is shown that this can be accomplished by an online-detection of the linear polarization of the X-rays which are emitted with the capture of the electron. In order to investigate the preservation of the polarization of the ions stored in the ring, the concept of an instantaneous quantization axis is introduced. The dynamics of this axis and the behaviour of the polarization with respect to it are explored in detail. (orig.)

  7. Industrialization and production of neutral beam ion sources for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing LLNL designs of the 20 and 80kV deuterium fueled Neutral Beam Ion Source Modules (NBSM) have been industrialized and are being produced successfully for the MFTF. Industrialization includes value engineering, production engineering, cost reduction, fixturing, facilitation and procurement of components. Production assembly, inspection and testing is being performed in a large electronics manufacturing plant. Decades of experience in high voltage, high vacuum power tubes is being applied to the procedures and processes. Independent quality and reliability assurance criteria are being utilized. Scheduling of the various engineering, procurement and manufacturing task is performed by the use of a Critical Path Method (CPM) computer code, Innovative, computerized grid alignment methods were also designed and installed specifically for this project. New jointing and cleaning techniques were devised for the NBSMs. Traceability and cost control are also utilized

  8. Heavy Flavour Cascade Production in a Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    SHiP will use a 400~GeV/c proton beam impinging on a several interaction length long Molybdenum target. Heavy flavour hadrons produced in the dump can decay semi-leptonically, which can produce both the Heavy Neutral Leptons as signal, but also potential background from muons and neutrinos. The absolute rate of heavy flavour production is taken from measurements. Pythia is used to predict the phase space distribution of the charm and beauty hadrons which are produced both in the primary interaction of the 400~GeV/c proton and in interactions of the secondaries produced in the cascade. The full cascade production of both HNL and background is compared to that reported in the SHiP Technical Proposal, where only the primary $pN$ interactions were taken into account.

  9. Development, Production and Testing of 4500 Beam Loss Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, E B; Dehning, B; Ferioli, G; Grishin, V; Jimenez, T M; Koshelev, A; Kramer, Daniel; Larionov, A; Taborelli, M; Seleznev, V; Sleptsov, M; Sytin, A; Wevers, I

    2008-01-01

    Beam-loss monitoring (BLM) [1] is a key element in the LHC machine protection. 4250 nitrogen filled ionization chambers (IC) and 350 secondary emission monitors (SEM) have been manufactured and tested at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Protvino, Russia, following their development at CERN. Signal speed and robustness against aging were the main design criteria. Each monitor is permanently sealed inside a stainless-steel cylinder. The quality of the welding was a critical aspect during production. The SEMs are requested to hold a vacuum of $10^{-7}$ bar. Impurity levels from thermal and radiationinduced desorption should remain in the range of parts per million in the ICs. To avoid radiation aging (up to $2·10^{8}$ Gy in 20 years) production of the chambers followed strict UHV requirements. IHEP designed and built the UHV production stand. Due to the required dynamic range of $10^{8}$, the leakage current of the monitors has to stay below 2 pA. Several tests during and after production were ...

  10. Electron beam technology for production of preparations of immobilized enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of electron beam usage for proteases immobilization on 1,4-polyalkylene oxide (1,4-PAO) was studied to obtain biologically active complex for multi-purpose usage. It is shown that immobilization of Bacillus Subtilis protease is done due to free-radical linking of enzyme and carrier with formation of mycelium-like structures. Immobilization improves heat resistance of enzyme up to 60 centigrade without substrate and up to 80 centigrade in presence of substrate, widens range pH activity in comparison with non-immobilized forms. Immobilized proteases does not contain peroxides and long-live radicals. Our results permitted to create technologies for production of medical and veterinary preparations, active components for wool washing agents and leather fabrication technology

  11. Production of annular flat-topped vortex beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiannong Chen; Yongjiang Yu; Feifei Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ A model of an annular flat-topped vortex beam based on multi-Gaussian superimposition is proposed. We experimentally produce this beam with a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The power of the beam is concentrated on a single-ring structure and has an extremely strong radial intensity gradient. This beam facilitates various applications ranging from Sisyphus atom cooling to micro-particle trapping.%A model of an annular fiat-topped vortex beam based on multi-Gaussian superimposition is proposed. We experimentally produce this beam with a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The power of the beam is concentrated on a single-ring structure and has an extremely strong radial intensity gradient. This beam facilitates various applications ranging from Sisyphus atom cooling to micro-particle trapping.

  12. Study of electron beam production by a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary investigation of the electron beam produced by a plasma focus device using a current charged transmission line is described. Electron beam currents as high as 10 kA were measured. Interaction of the extracted beam and the filling gas was studied using open shutter photography

  13. Beam line shielding calculations for an Electron Accelerator Mo-99 production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the photon and neutron fields in and around the latest beam line design for the Mo-99 production facility. The radiation dose to the beam line components (quadrupoles, dipoles, beam stops and the linear accelerator) are calculated in the present report. The beam line design assumes placement of two cameras: infra red (IR) and optical transition radiation (OTR) for continuous monitoring of the beam spot on target during irradiation. The cameras will be placed off the beam axis offset in vertical direction. We explored typical shielding arrangements for the cameras and report the resulting neutron and photon dose fields.

  14. Specialty flat-top beam delivery fibers with controlled beam parameter product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollivet, C.; Farley, K.; Conroy, M.; Abramczyk, J.; Belke, S.; Becker, F.; Tankala, K.

    2016-03-01

    Beam delivery fibers have been used widely for transporting the optical beams from the laser to the subject of irradiation in a variety of markets including industrial, medical and defense applications. Standard beam delivery fibers range from 50 to 1500 μm core diameter and are used to guide CW or pulsed laser light, generated by solid state, fiber or diode lasers. Here, we introduce a novel fiber technology capable of simultaneously controlling the beam profile and the angular divergence of single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) beams using a single-optical fiber. Results of beam transformation from a SM to a MM beam with flat-top intensity profile are presented in the case of a controlled BPP at 3.8 mm*mrad. The scaling capabilities of this flat-top fiber design to achieve a range of BPP values while ensuring a flat-top beam profile are discussed. In addition, we demonstrate, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the homogenizer capabilities of this novel technology, able to transform random MM beams into uniform flat-top beam profiles with very limited impact on the beam brightness. This study is concluded with a discussion on the scalability of this fiber technology to fit from 50 up to 1500 μm core fibers and its potential for a broader range of applications.

  15. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-02-09

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R&D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have 5

  16. Intense ion beam production in a ballistic focusing diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental investigation of intense ion beam (IIB) production in a coaxial magnetic insulated diode are presented. The diode consists of a coaxial external anode of 94-120 mm diameter and internal cathode with longitudinal slits of 12 mm width. Two types of insulating magnetic fields: Bsub(Z)-field created by external solenoid and Bsub(o)-pulse field obtained in the course of current transmission from the external battery along the cathode. In the regime with Bsub(Z)=0,42 T the IID amplitudes for anodes from teflon, copper, lead have reached 3,7, 1, 1,3 kA and densities - 330 A/cm2, 87 A/cm2, 114 A/cm2, respectively. In the regime with Bsub(o)=1 T maximum IIB density on the cathode surface has reached 220 A/cm2, IIB maximum current constitutes 10 and 11 kA for the current getting to the cathode ribs and penetrating into slits, respectively. The production efficiency constitutes 67%

  17. AA, entrance of proton beam to antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Please look up 8010295 first. The intense proton beam from the 26 GeV PS arrives from the right, through the vacuum chamber. The big flange contains a thin window, after which the proton beam continues through free air. A beam transformer, affixed to the shielding block, measures its intensity, before it enters the hole in the concrete to hit the target behind it.

  18. Production of GW electron and ion beams by focused discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter attempts to determine how magnetized plasma structure and current distribution must vary with time in the pinch region to have a consistent picture. A method is presented to evaluate the total charge of a beam from a single discharge. Discusses the experimental system; an optimized mode of operation; ion beams; electron beams; the beam source; and plasmoid imaging by nuclear tracks in solids. The data support the existence of a fibrous structure for all stages of evolution of the current sheath (CS), from propagation in the interelectrodegap to axial-pinch collapse and at a later time when CS is fragmented

  19. Intense ion beams from laser plasma : production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of intense ion beams from plasma injectors using laser-induced plasma bundles are considered. Laser plasma bundles with quantity of ions about 10 sup 1 sup 5 - 10 sup 1 sup 6 imp sup -1 are created by interaction of laser irradiation ( q = 10 sup 9 - 10 sup 1 sup 3 W / cm sup 2, less than 'thermonuclear' intensities, lambda - 0.53 - 10.6 micro, E 0.1 - 10 J/ imp )with various solid targets in vacuum. By changing laser parameters and focusing conditions it is able to produce ions from very wide spectrum of chemical elements and of different charge. High density moving plasma gives the possibility to extract and to form in time up to 1 - 3 microsecond ion current equal 10-10 sup 3 A. Some types of such injector for radiation physics arrangements were elaborated. The main goals of the application of these equipment are the following : - acceleration of multiply charged ions in big accelerators; - ion implantation and material modification; - generation of intense pulse neutron fluxes; - vaporization of material and special layers creation. 4 refs., (author)

  20. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O7+ and 1.15 emA of O6+, more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar13+, Ca13+, Fe13+, Co14+ and Kr18+, and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr26+, Xe28+, Au35+, Bi34+ and U34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe36+, Au46+, Bi47+ and U48+. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  1. Production and Release of ISOL Beams from Molten Fluoride Salt Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonca, T M; Ghetta, V; Alibert, M; Heuer, D; Noah, E; Cimmino, S; Delonca, M; Gottberg, A; Kronberger, M; Ramos, J; Seiffert, C; Stora, T; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the Beta Beams study, a molten fluoride target has been proposed for the production of the required 1013 18Ne/s. The production and extraction of such rates are obtained on a circulating molten salt with proton beam energy beams at close to 1 MW power. As a most important step to validate the concept, a prototype has been designed and investigated at CERN-ISOLDE using a static target unit. The target material consisted of a binary fluoride system, NaF:LiF (39:61 % mol.), with melting point at 649ºC. The production of Ne beams has been monitored as a function of the target temperature and proton beam intensity. The prototype development and the results of the first online tests with 1.4 GeV proton beam are presented in this paper.

  2. Production of high current proton beams using complex H-rich molecules at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonin, A., E-mail: a.adonin@gsi.de; Barth, W.; Heymach, F.; Hollinger, R.; Vormann, H.; Yakushev, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    In this contribution, the concept of production of intense proton beams using molecular heavy ion beams from an ion source is described, as well as the indisputable advantages of this technique for operation of the GSI linear accelerator. The results of experimental investigations, including mass-spectra analysis and beam emittance measurements, with different ion beams (CH{sub 3}{sup +},C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +},C{sub 3}H{sub 7}{sup +}) using various gaseous and liquid substances (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and iodoethane) at the ion source are summarized. Further steps to improve the ion source and injector performance with molecular beams are depicted.

  3. Production of high current proton beams using complex H-rich molecules at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A.; Barth, W.; Heymach, F.; Hollinger, R.; Vormann, H.; Yakushev, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this contribution, the concept of production of intense proton beams using molecular heavy ion beams from an ion source is described, as well as the indisputable advantages of this technique for operation of the GSI linear accelerator. The results of experimental investigations, including mass-spectra analysis and beam emittance measurements, with different ion beams (CH3+,C2H4+,C3H7+) using various gaseous and liquid substances (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and iodoethane) at the ion source are summarized. Further steps to improve the ion source and injector performance with molecular beams are depicted.

  4. Improve large area uniformity and production capacity of laser interference lithography with beam flattening device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin-Kuang; Wu, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Te-Hsun; Yu, Chun-Wen; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2016-03-01

    Laser interference lithography (LIL) is a maskless lithography technique with many advantages such as simple optical design, inexpensive, infinite depth of focus, and large area patterning with single exposure. However, the intensity of normal laser beam is Gaussian distribution. In order to obtain large area uniform structure, we have to expand the laser beam much bigger than the wafer and use only the center part of the beam. Resulting in wasting lots of energy and the production capacity decrease. In this study, we designed a beam shaping device which consists of two parallel fused silicon optical window with different coating on both side. Two optical window form an air thin film. When the expanded laser beam pass through the device, the beam will experience many refraction and reflection between two optical window and interference with each other. The transmittance of laser beam will depend on the incident angle. The output intensity distribution will change from Gaussian distribution to a flat top distribution. In our experiment, we combined the beam shaping device with a Lloyd's mirror LIL system. Experiment results indicated that the LIL system with beam shaping device can obtain large area uniform pattern. And compare with the traditional Lloyd's mirror LIL system, the exposure time is shorten up to 4.5 times. In conclusion, this study design a beam flattening device for LIL system. The flat top beam can improve the large area uniformity and the production capacity of LIL. Making LIL more suitable for industry application.

  5. Bunch beam production and microwave generation in reditrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have discovered in our two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the oscillation of virtual cathodes in reditrons can produce a highly modulated electron beam. Full (100%) current modulation of the leakage electron beam was observed in our simulations. The modulation is at the frequency of the oscillating virtual cathode and the transverse magnetic mode generated by the reditron. The authors have further incorporated an inverse diode with a line impedance of 50 ohms in the reditron and showed that 28% of the kinetic energy of the modulated electron beam was converted into transverse electromagnetic waves with peak power of 1 GW

  6. Bunch beam production and microwave generation in reditrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Davis, H.A.; Fulton, R.D.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    We have discovered in our two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the oscillation of virtual cathodes in reditrons can produce a highly modulated electron beam. Full (100%) current modulation of the leakage electron beam was observed in our simulations. The modulation is at the frequency of the oscillating virtual cathode and the transverse magnetic mode generated by the reditron. We had further incorporated an inverse diode in the reditron and showed that the kinetic energy of the modulated electron beam was efficiently converted into transverse electromagnetic waves. Our simulations showed an efficiency of 26% and the time averaged microwave power was about 6 GW. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Bunch Beam Production And Microwave Generation In Reditrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Davis, Harold A.; Fulton, Robert D.; Sherwood, Eugene G.

    1989-07-01

    We have discovered in our two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the oscillation of virtual cathodes in reditrons can produce a highly modulated electron beam. Full (100%) current modulation of the leakage electron beam was observed in our simulations. The modulation is at the frequency of the oscillating virtual cathode and the transverse magnetic mode generated by the reditron. We had further incorporated an inverse diode with a line impedance of 50 ohms in the reditron and showed that 28% of the kinetic energy of the modulated electron beam was converted into transverse electromagnetic waves with peak power of 1 GW.

  8. Production of high-efficiency microsecond heavy-current beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative analysis of various constructions of diodes with magnetic insulation is reported. It is shown that the diode current leakage decrease results in increase of pulse duration of relativistic electron beam and diode efficiency. A ring high quality electron beam of 0.6 MeV energy, current - 3-4 kA, duration - 2.5 μs and ring width 0.8 - 1 mm is obtained

  9. CRIS: A new method in isomeric beam production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch K.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS experiment at ISOLDE, CERN, uses laser radiation to stepwise excite and ionize an atomic beam for the purpose of ultra-sensitive detection of rare isotopes, and hyperfine-structure measurements. The technique also offers the ability to purify an ion beam that is heavily contaminated with radioactive isobars, including the ground state of an isotope from its isomer, allowing decay spectroscopy on nuclear isomeric states to be performed. The isomeric ion beam is selected by resonantly exciting one of its hyperfine structure levels, and subsequently ionizing it. This selectively ionized beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station (DSS. This consists of a rotating wheel implantation system for alpha- and beta-decay spectroscopy, and up to three germanium detectors around the implantation site for gamma-ray detection. Resonance ionization spectroscopy and the new technique of laser assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy have recently been performed at the CRIS beam line on the neutron-deficient francium isotopes. Here an overview of the two techniques will be presented, alongside a description of the CRIS beam line and DSS.

  10. Development of over-production strain of saccharification enzyme and biomass pretreatment by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - The first year : Pre-treatment of biomass by proton beam irradiation and characterization of the pretreated biomass by IR and SEM - The second year : Strain development by proton beam irradiation for the production of cellulase and hemicellulase - The third year : Optimization of Saccharification process by cellulase and hemicellulase

  11. Production of high intensity heavy ion beams for the experiments on a gas-filled separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-filled separator of heavy ions induced reactions products permits a substantial suppression of the background from primary beam ions. This feature allows one to obtain an extremely intensive ion beam from the cyclotron U-400. Experimental studies were performed to investigate the operation of various stripping carbon foils. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  12. The production and use of ultralow energy ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R. D.; Armour, D. G.; van den Berg, J. A.; Cook, C. E. A.; Whelan, S.; Zhang, S.; Knorr, N.; Foad, M. A.; Ohno, H.

    2000-02-01

    An ion accelerator, purpose built to produce beams at energies down to 10 eV with current densities in the 10-100 μA cm-2 range, is described. Fitted with dual ion source assemblies, the machine enables ultralow energy ion implantation and the growth of films and multilayers to be carried out under highly controlled conditions. The accelerator delivers ion beams into an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, containing a temperature controlled target stage (range -120 to +1350 °C), where they are used to study the fundamental physics relating to the interaction of ultralow energy ions with surfaces. This knowledge underlies a wide range of ion-beam and plasma-based technologies and, to illustrate its importance, results are presented from investigations designed to determine the optimum conditions for the growth of diamond-like and aluminum films by ion-beam deposition and the formation of ultrashallow junctions in semiconductors by 2.5 keV As+ implantation. The later investigation shows how transient arsenic diffusion, which occurs during post-implant thermal processing, can be controlled by manipulating the substrate temperature during implantation.

  13. Electron beam-plasma ionizing target for the production of neutron-rich nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Fedorov, D.V; Ionan, A.M; Volkov, YU.M; Orlov, S.Yu; Moroz, F.V; Molkanov, P.L; Mezilev, K.A; Ivanov, V.S; Essabaa, S; Lau, C; Leroy, R; Lhersonneau, G; Villari, A.C.C; Stroe, L

    2008-01-01

    The production of neutron rich Ag, In and Sn isotopes from a UC target of high density has been investigate at the IRIS facility. An electron beam-plasma ion source has been used to ionize the species produced.

  14. Development of Cosmeceuticals from Natural Products using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, securing the plant material from the natural substance by irradiating of proton beam, development of the fittest combining and preparing technic for their development of the functional whitening cosmetics, examining the effect of cosmetics developed, safety test of cosmetics developed, stability test of cosmetics, safety test of cosmetics, cytotoxicity test of the cosmetic, and valuation of effect test as a Cosmeceuticals are included

  15. Production of heavy ion beams for atomic physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory for research in atomic physics of ions has been set up around a 2 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator designed and built indegenously. Mass analysed negatively charged heavy ion beams from a directly extracted duoplasmatron ion source are injected through various ion-optical elements into the accelerating tube. A gas stripper at the high voltage dome changes the negative ions into positive ions which are subsequently accelerated. The high energy end of the accelerator consists of quadrupole focussing magnets and an analysing magnet. A pair of insulated tantalum slits provide corona feedback and stabilize the energy of the accelerator. A beam resolution of 5 keV at 1 MeV proton energy has been measured. A number of experiments are presently being planned to utilize the accelerator in the field of basic research in atomic physics. These include beam-foil spectroscopic measurements involving detection of decay photon/electrons, ion-induced X-ray emission, analytical applications and radiation damage studies. Electron spectrometers which are in the stage of testing include cylindrical mirror analyser and parallel plate analyser. On the accelerator front, efforts are underway to develop a new sputter ion source and computer automation for improving stability and reliability. The salient features of the accelerator and the instrumentation developed for carrying out experiments in atomic physics are reported. (author). 14 refs., 17 figs

  16. A Method to Produce Intense Positron Beams via Electro Pair Production on Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Schoch, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Intense positron beams can be prepared via electro production with the reaction $e^{-} + e^{-} \\rightarrow e^{-}+e^{+}+e^{-}+e^{-}$ due to the availability of high current electron beams. Head on collisions inside of a magnetic field of a solenoid are used to produce unpolarized/polarized positrons via $e^{-}-e^{+}$ - pair production. A flux of unpolarized positrons, $N_{positron}=6.55 \\cdot 10^{11} s^{-1}$, has been obtained as a result of calculations for a special case of parameters with beam currents for both electron beams of $I_{e}$=10 mA and beam momenta of $p_{beam 1}$=0.63 MeV/c and $p_{beam 2}$=10.0 MeV/c. Intensities are an order of magnitude smaller in the case of polarized positrons due to a reduced current of one of the electron beams. Suitable cuts on momenta of the positrons allow to achieve a polarization transfer from electrons to positrons of $\\geq $ 85\\% reducing, however, the intensity to 27\\%

  17. Flexible assembly module for beam-shaping product families based on support structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Rübenach, Olaf; Beleke, Andreas; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Wenzel, Christian; Brecher, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Depending on the application, high-power diode lasers (HPDL) have individual requirements on their beam-shaping as well as their mechanical fixation. In order to reduce assembly efforts, laser system manufacturers request pre-assembled beam-shaping systems consisting of a support structure for adhesive bonding as well as one, two or more lenses. Therefore, manufacturers of micro-optics for HPDL need flexible solutions for assembling beam-shaping subassemblies. This paper discusses current solutions for mounting optical subassemblies for beam-shaping of high-power diode lasers and their drawbacks regarding quality and scalability. Subsequently, the paper presents a device which can be used for the sensor-guided assembly of beam-shaping systems based on bottomtab support structures. Results from test productions of several hundred modules are presented showing that repeatability in the range of 1 μm is feasible on an industrial level.

  18. Possible scheme of e-beam transverse modulation and high power CSR production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme for e-beam transverse modulation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown that such a new type of modulation can be produced by laser fields in a special undulator. The transverse modulated electron beams can be used for coherent spontaneous radiation (CSR) production in another undulator at a frequency which is twice as high as that of the modulating laser field. It is shown by numerical calculations that CSR of some orders higher power than the primary laser beam power can be obtained

  19. Proton beam production by a laser ion source with hydride target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M., E-mail: okamura@bnl.gov [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Stifler, C. [Engineering Physics Systems Department, Providence College, Providence, Rhode Island 02918 (United States); Palm, K. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Steski, D.; Kanesue, T. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Kumaki, M. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We studied proton beam production from a laser ion source using hydrogen rich target materials. In general, gas based species are not suitable for laser ion sources since formation of a dense laser target is difficult. In order to achieve reliable operation, we tested hydride targets using a sub nanosecond Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, which may help suppress target material consumption. We detected enough yields of protons from a titanium hydride target without degradation of beam current during the experiment. The combination of a sub nanosecond laser and compressed hydride target may provide stable proton beam.

  20. Optimization of Electron Beam Melting for Production of Small Components in Biocompatible Titanium Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also called 3D-printing, are technologies where parts are formed from the bottom up by adding material layer-by-layer on top of each other. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an AM technique capable of manufacturing fully solid metallic parts, using a high-intensity electron beam to melt powder particles in layers to form finished components. Compared to conventional machining, EBM offers enhanced efficiency for production of customized and patient specific parts such...

  1. Application of Ion Beam Processing Technology in Production of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola G. Bannikov, Javed A. Chattha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the applicability of Ion Beam Processing Technology for making catalysts has been inves-tigated. Ceramic substrates of different shapes and metal fibre tablets were implanted by platinum ions and tested in nitrogen oxides (NOx and carbon monoxide (CO conversion reactions. Effectiveness of the implanted catalysts was compared to that of the commercially produced platinum catalysts made by impregnation. Platinum-implanted catalyst having fifteen times less platinum content showed the same CO conversion efficiency as the commercially pro-duced catalyst. It was revealed that the effectiveness of the platinum-implanted catalyst has complex dependence on the process parameters and the optimum can be achieved by varying the ions energy and the duration of implantation. Investigation of the pore structure showed that ion implantation did not decrease the specific surface area of the catalyst.Key Words: Catalyst, Ion Implantation, Noble metals.

  2. Feasibility study of heavy-ion beams and compound target materials for muon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae Bum; Lee, Ju Hahn; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of using compound materials as targets for muon production by virtue of simulations using a GEANT4 toolkit. A graphite material and two thermostable compound materials, beryllium oxide (BeO) and boron carbide (B4C), were considered as muon production targets, and their muon production rates for a 600-MeV proton beam were calculated and compared. For the thermal analysis, the total heat deposited on the targets by the proton beams and the secondary particles was calculated with the MCNPX code; then, the temperature distribution of target was derived from the calculated heat by using the ANSYS code with consideration of heat transfer mechanisms such as thermal conduction and thermal radiation. In addition, we have investigated whether the heavy-ion beams can be utilized for muon production. For various beam species such as 3He2, 4He, 7Li, 10B and 12C, their muon production rates were calculated and compared with the rates experimentally-obtained for a proton beam.

  3. Feasibility study of heavy ion beams and compound target materials for muon production

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Jaebum; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of using compound materials as target for muon production by virtue of simulations using a GEANT4 toolkit. A graphite and two thermostable compound materials, beryllium oxide (BeO) and boron carbide (B4C) were considered as muon production targets and their muon production rates for 600-MeV proton beam were calculated and compared. For thermal analysis, total heat deposited on the targets by the proton beams and the secondary particles was calculated with a MCNPX code, and then the temperature distribution of target was derived from the calculated heat by using an ANSYS code with consideration for heat transfer mechanisms, such as thermal conduction and thermal radiation. In addition, we have investigated whether the heavy ion beams can be utilized for muon production. For various beam species such as 3He2, 4He, 7Li, 10B and 12C, their muon production rates were calculated and compared with that obtained for a proton beam.

  4. Power production experiments at the Test Beam Line in the CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Document Server

    Lillestøl, Reidar Lunde; Adli, Erik; Lundheim, Lars Magne

    2010-01-01

    CLIC is an international study of a future multi-TeV electron-positron linear collider, where the energy of a high-intensity drive beam is extracted and transferred to the main beam via Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) in the form of rf power. The study of power production is therefore essential for the feasibility of CLIC. Power production in PETS has been studied, and ex- periments have been performed in the decelerator Test Beam Line in the CLIC Test Facility 3. In particular, the correlation of the power production and the beam position inside the structure has been studied. It is shown that the total produced power is constant when the beam has a position offset through the PETS. In addition, the difference between the measured phases from each side is independent of the beam position, which allows for efficient combination of the fields. However, the ratio of the power on each side of the PETS unexpectedly shows a linear dependence on the horizontal offset, with a correlation value of 0.8...

  5. Low-energy electron beam proximity projection lithography (LEEPL): the world's first e-beam production tool, LEEPL 3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Uwe F. W.

    2004-06-01

    In June 2000 ago the company Accretech and LEEPL corporation decided to develop an E-beam lithography tool for high throughput wafer exposure, called LEEPL. In an amazing short time the alpha tool was built. In 2002 the beta tool was installed at Accretech. Today the first production tool the LEEPL 3000 is ready to be shipped. The 2keV E-beam tool will be used in the first lithography strategy to expose (in mix and match mode with optical exposure tools) critical levels like gate structures, contact holes (CH), and via pattern of the 90 nm and 65 nm node. At the SEMATECH EPL workshop on September 22nd in Cambridge, England it was mentioned that the amount of these levels will increase very rapidly (8 in 2007; 13 in 2010 and 17 in 2013). The schedule of the production tool for 45 nm node is mid 2005 and for the 32 nm node 2008. The Figure 1 shows from left to right α-tool, the β-tool and the production tool LEEPL 3000. Figure 1 also shows the timetable of the 4 LEEPL forum all held in Japan.

  6. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppert, W.J.C., E-mail: wkoppert@nikhef.nl [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bakel, N. van [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bilevych, Y. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Colas, P. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desch, K. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fransen, M.; Graaf, H. van der; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaminski, J. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Schmitz, J. [University of Twente, Mesa Institute for Nanotechnology, Enschede (Netherlands); Schön, R.; Zappon, F. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-21

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip.

  7. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppert, W. J. C.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Colas, P.; Desch, K.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N. P.; Kaminski, J.; Schmitz, J.; Schön, R.; Zappon, F.

    2013-12-01

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip.

  8. In-beam production and transport of radioactive 17F at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam currents of radioactive 17F(T1/2 = 65s) as high as 2 x 106 s-1 have been produced at the ATLAS facility and delivered to target for nuclear physics research. The d(16O, 17F)n and p(17O,17F)n reaction were used to produce the 17F in the energy range of 65-110 MeV with 17F intensities of up to 250 pnA. The target employed is a liquid nitrogen cooled H2 gas cell, with HAVAR windows, operating at up to 8 x 104 Pa pressure. A new beam optics geometry consisting of a superconducting solenoid immediately after the production target followed by a single superconducting resonator has significantly improved the total capture efficiency of the transport system. The superconducting solenoid captures the highly divergent secondary beam and refocuses it to improve the beam match into the remainder of the transport system. A single superconducting resonator then ''debunches'' the beam, reducing the energy spread by a factor of four. The beam energy can also be varied, using the resonant cavity, without changing the primary beam energy. Detailed discussion of the results, comparison to calculations, and further possible improvements will be presented

  9. Characteristics performance of production-worthy multiple e-beam maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. J.; Wang, W. C.; Chen, P. S.; Liu, C. Y.; Lo, T. N.; Chen, Jack J. H.; Krecinic, Faruk; Lin, Burn J.

    2010-03-01

    E-beam direct write (EBDW) is one of the potential solutions for technology nodes of 28-nm half-pitch (HP) and beyond. Throughput limitation confined its development mostly to small-volume prototyping. Recently, proposals have been made to achieve throughput greater than 10 wafers per hour (WPH) on a single column with >10,000 beams writing in parallel (MEBDW), or even greater than 100 WPH by further clustering multiple columns within a typical production-tool footprint. The MAPPER concept contains a CMOS-MEMS blanker array driven by high-speed optical data path architecture to simultaneously control >10,000 beams, switching them on and off independently. The MAPPER Pre-Alpha Tool with a 110-beam, 5-keV column and a 300-mm wafer stage has been installed in a semiconductor manufacturing cleanroom environment and is ready for imaging test. In this paper, the resist imaging results of 110-beam parallel raster-scan writing for 30-nm half-pitch (HP) dense hole on 300-mm wafer is shown. The challenges of implementing multiple e-beam maskless lithography (MEBML2) in mass production environment, including resolution, local variation, focusing, energy latitude, proximity effect correction and electron scattering model fitting of hole patterning are discussed. Similar to mask-error-enhanced-factor (MEEF), the new writing-error-enhanced-factor (WEEF) to describe the impact of writing error, is introduced.

  10. P.I.A.F.E. project: production of highly charged particles for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of a mono-charged ion beam into a multicharged ion beam is an important problem in the projects of radioactive beams acceleration. This transformation must be performed with the best possible efficiency and in the shortest possible time to avoid the loss of particles by radioactive degenerescence. A ionization method using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source is proposed. It consists in the fast capture by the ECR plasma of the radioactive elements injected inside this source in the form of a mono-charged ion beam. This method gives good results (2 to 6% efficiency to move from the 1+ to the 9+ charge state) for the ionization of alkaline elements, rare and metallic gases, with fast times of response allowing the ionization of radioactive products with a lifetime inferior to 1 s. (J.S.)

  11. Physics of intense light ion beams and production of high energy density in matter. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results obtained in 1994 within the FZK-program on 'Physics of intense ion beams and pulsed plasmas'. It describes the present status of the 6 MW, 2 TW pulsed generator KALIF-HELIA, the production and focussing of high power ion beams and numerical simulations and experiments related to the hydrodynamics of beam matter interaction. (orig.)

  12. The Role of Beam polarization for Radiative Neutralino Production at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Dreiner, H K; Langenfeld, U; Dreiner, Herbert K.; Kittel, Olaf; Langenfeld, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of electron and positron beam polarization on radiative neutralino production at the International Linear Collider (ILC). We focus on three different mSUGRA scenarios in turn at the Higgs strahlung threshold, the top pair production threshold, and at $\\sqrt{s} =500\\GeV$. In these scenarios at the corresponding $\\sqrt{s}$, radiative neutralino production is the only supersymmetric production mechanism which is kinematically allowed. The heavier neutralinos, and charginos as well as the sleptons, squarks and gluinos are too heavy to be pair produced. We calculate the signal cross section and also the Standard Model background from radiative neutrino production. For our scenarios, we obtain significances larger than 10 and signal to background ratios between 2% and 5%, if we have electron beam polarization $P_{e^-} = 0.0- 0.8$ and positron beam polarization $P_{e^+} = 0.0 - 0.3$. If we have electron beam polarization of $P_{e^-} = 0.9$, then the signal is observable with $P_{e^+} = 0.0$ but...

  13. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L., E-mail: sunlt@impcas.ac.cn; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω{sup 2} scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE{sub 01} and HE{sub 11} modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar{sup 12+}, 0.92 emA Xe{sup 27+}, and so on, will be presented.

  14. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  15. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented

  16. Recent progress of in-flight separators and rare isotope beam production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    New-generation in-flight separators are being developed worldwide, including the Super-FRS separator at the GSI Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the ARIS separator at the Michigan State University (MSU) Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB), and the BigRIPS separator at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF), each of which is aimed at expanding the frontiers of rare isotope (RI) production and advancing experimental studies on exotic nuclei far from stability. Here, the recent progress of in-flight separators is reviewed, focusing on the advanced features of these three representative separators. The RI beam production that we have conducted using the BigRIPS separator at RIKEN RIBF is also outlined.

  17. Production of intense highly charged ion beams with SERSE

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S; Ciavola, G; Castro, M; Chines, F; Marletta, S; Melin, G; Briand, P; Girard, A; Ludwig, P; Seyfert, P; Guillaume, D

    1999-01-01

    The source SERSE is operational at LNS since June 1998 and many improvements have been carried out in this period. The frequency has been increased from 14.5 GHz to 18 GHz and the use of two frequency heating has given positive results. Metallic ion production has been tested by means of a high temperature oven and the preliminary results are described. Tests of magnetic field scaling and frequency scaling have confirmed the results of previous tests with SC-ECRIS at lower frequency and seems to suggest that the upgrading of the source to higher frequency may be considered.

  18. Production of short lived radioactive beams of radium

    CERN Document Server

    Shidling, P D; van der Hoek, D J; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W; Onderwater, C J G; Sohani, M; Versolato, O O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2009-01-01

    Short lived $^{212,213,214}$Ra isotopes have been produced at the TRI$\\mu$P facility in inverse kinematics via the fusion-evaporation reaction $^{206}$Pb+$^{12}$C at 8 MeV/u. Isotopes are separated from other reaction products online using the TRI$\\mu$P magnetic separator. The energetic radium (Ra) isotopes at the exit of the separator were converted into low energy ions with a thermal ionizer. Ra isotopes have been identified by observing their $\\alpha$ decay and life times.

  19. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature isotope separator on-line (ISOL) production target. The suggested mechanical layout and technical parameters of the Hg-jet, ISOL target, horn and cooling system are discussed. The critical issues are identified and a description of the R and D program designed to provide experimental proof of the principle as well as providing engineering parameters is given

  20. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high-power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter-target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface Mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay-channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature ISOL production-target. The suggested mechani...

  1. E-beam data compaction method for large-capacity mask ROM production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemaru, Toyomi; Nakajima, Takashi; Igarashi, Tadanao; Masuda, Rika; Orita, Nobuyuki

    1991-03-01

    Mask ROMs are one of the most advanced devices commercially available today. 4 Mbit DRAMs are just coming to the market, where 32 Mbit and 64 Mbit Mask ROM products also are entering the market. The code mask of Mask ROM consists, of a random distribution of repeated cells on a constant grid, so it is difficult to use conventional e-beam data compaction techniques for the code mask level of a Mask ROM. As mask ROM capacity and their mask exposure data volumes increase, the e-beam data processing time for these devices also has increased even with enhanced computational speeds of new mainframe computers. To overcome this problem, we have adopted a new e-beam data compaction technique. With this ne technique of a data compaction, data conversion times on a mainframe computer (ACOS) are substantially shorted and data volume is reduced by as much as a factor of one hundred. Using this new data format, the data volume of a variable shaped vector scan e-beam exposure system became far smaller compared with a spot beam raster scan e-beam system.

  2. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) for cyclotrons and radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources are discussed. These improvements include improvements in the charge-state distribution to increase the fraction of high charge-state current, improvement in production of beams of metallic ions, and reduction of construction cost and energy consumption for such sources

  3. A novel beam-spin asymmetry in double-hadron inclusive lepto-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that a new beam-spin asymmetry appears in deep inelastic inclusive lepto-production at low transverse momenta when a hadron in the target fragmentation region is observed in association with another hadron in the current fragmentation region. The beam leptons are longitudinally polarized while the target nucleons are unpolarized. This asymmetry is a leading-twist effect generated by the correlation between the transverse momentum of quarks and the transverse momentum of the hadron emitted by the target. Experimental signatures of this effect are discussed.

  4. Radiative corrections to chargino production in electron-positron collisions with polarized beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Marco A.; King, Stephen F.; Ross, Douglas A.

    2001-07-01

    We study radiative corrections to chargino production at linear colliders with polarized electron beams. We calculate the one-loop corrected cross sections for polarized electon beams due to three families of quarks and squarks, working in the {ovr MS} scheme, extending our previous calculation of the unpolarized cross section with one-loop corrections due to the third family of quarks and squarks. In some cases we find rather large corrections to the tree-level cross sections. For example, for the case of right-handed polarized electrons and large tan{beta} the corrections can be of order 30%, allowing sensitivity to the squark mass parameters.

  5. The rare isotope beams production at the Texas A&M university Cyclotron Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Tabacaru, G.; May, D. P.; Ärje, Juha; Chubarian, G.; Clark, H.; Kim, G.J.; Tribble, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M is currently configuring a scheme for the production of radioactive-ion beams that incorporates a light-ion guide and a heavy-ion guide coupled with an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source constructed for charge-breeding. This scheme is part of an upgrade to the facility and is intended to produce radioactive beams suitable for injection into the K500 superconducting cyclotron. The current status of the project and details on the ion sources...

  6. Production of α-particle emitting 211At using 45 MeV α-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-01

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, 211At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of 211At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm-1, which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce 211At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions 209Bi(α,2n)211At. Production of the radionuclide 211At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an Eα, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of 210At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of 211At isotope.

  7. Identification of Degradation Products of Lincomycin and Iopromide by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yongbyoung; Ham, Hyunsun; Myung, Seungwoon [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Lincomycin and Iopromide are major species among the Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from four major rivers in Korea. The structure characterization of six lincomycin's and two iopromide's degradation products formed under the irradiation of electron beam was performed, and the degradation efficiency as a function of the various irradiation dose and sample concentration was investigated. Electron beam (10 MeV, 0.5 mA and 5 kW) experiments for the structural characterization of the degradation products, which is fortified with lincomycin, were performed at the dose of 10 kGy. The separation of its degradation products and lincomycin was carried by C18 column (2.1 {Chi} 100 mm, 3.5 {mu}m), using gradient elution with 20 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The structures of degradation products of lincomycin and iopromide were proposed by interpretation of mass spectra and chromatograms by LC/MS/MS, and also the mass fragmentation pathways of mass spectra in tandem mass spectrometry were proposed. The experiments of the degradation efficiency as a function of the irradiation dose intensity and the initial concentration of lincomycin in aqueous environment were performed, and higher dose of electron beam and lower concentration was observed the increased degradation efficiency.

  8. An ion guide for the production of a low energy ion beam of daughter products of {alpha}-emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tordoff, B. [Nuclear Physics Group, Schuster Laboratory, Brunswick Street, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bwt@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Elomaa, V.V. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Gulick, S. [Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hager, U. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Karvonen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kessler, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Lee, J. [Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2T8 (Canada); Moore, I. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Popov, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188350 (Russian Federation); Rahaman, S. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rinta-Antila, S. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sonoda, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Aystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    A new ion guide has been modeled and tested for the production of a low energy ({approx}40 kV) ion beam of daughter products of alpha-emitting isotopes. The guide is designed to evacuate daughter recoils originating from the {alpha}-decay of a {sup 233}U source. The source is electroplated onto stainless steel strips and mounted along the inner walls of an ion guide chamber. A combination of electric fields and helium gas flow transport the ions through an exit hole for injection into a mass separator. Ion guide efficiencies for the extraction of {sup 229}Th{sup +} (0.06%), {sup 221}Fr{sup +} (6%) and {sup 217}At{sup +} (6%) beams have been measured. A detailed study of the electric field and gas flow influence on the ion guide efficiency is described for two differing electric field configurations.

  9. An Ion Guide for the Production of a Low Energy Ion Beam of Daughter Products of $\\alpha$-Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Tordoff, B; Elomaa, V V; Gulick, S; Hager, U; Karvonen, P; Kessler, T; Lee, J; Moore, I; Popov, A; Rahaman, S; Rinta-Antila, S; Sonoda, T; Äystö, J

    2006-01-01

    A new ion guide has been modeled and tested for the production of a low energy ($\\approx$ 40 kV) ion beam of daughter products of alpha-emitting isotopes. The guide is designed to evacuate daughter recoils originating from the $\\alpha$-decay of a $^{233}$U source. The source is electroplated onto stainless steel strips and mounted along the inner walls of an ion guide chamber. A combination of electric fields and helium gas flow transport the ions through an exit hole for injection into a mass separator. Ion guide efficiencies for the extraction of $^{229}$Th$^{+}$ (0.06%), $^{221}$Fr$^{+}$ (6%), and $^{217}$At$^{+}$ (6%) beams have been measured. A detailed study of the electric field and gas flow influence on the ion guide efficiency is described for two differing electric field configurations.

  10. Condition for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge limit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2002-11-19

    Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge limit. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic conditions.

  11. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, M; Bagulya, A; Barr, G; Blondel, A; Bobisut, F; Bogomilov, M; Bonesini, M; Booth, C; Borghi, S; Bunyatov, S; Burguet-Castell, J; Catanesi, M G; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Chimenti, P; Coney, L; Di Capua, E; Dore, U; Dumarchez, J; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Ferri, F; Gastaldi, U; Giani, S; Giannini, G; Gibin, D; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Gößling, C; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Grant, A; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Grichine, V; Grossheim, A; Guglielmi, A; Howlett, L; Ivanchenko, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kirsanov, M; Kolev, D; Krasnoperov, A; MartíinAlbo, J; Meurer, C; Mezzetto, M; B Mills, G; Morone, M C; Novella, P; Orestano, D; Palladino, V; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Pastore, F; Piperov, S; Polukhina, N; Popov, B; Prior, G; Radicioni, E; Schmitz, D; Schroeter, R; Skoro, G; Sorel, M; Tcherniaev, E; Temnikov, P; Tereschenko, V; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tsenov, R; Tsukerman, I; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the double-differential pi+/- production cross-section in the range of momentum 100 MeV/c <= p <= 800 MeV/c and angle 0.35 rad <= theta <= 2.15 rad using pi+/- beams incident on beryllium, aluminium, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large acceptance HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 12.9 GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross-sections d2sigma/dpdtheta at six incident beam momenta. Data at 3 GeV/c, 5 GeV/c, 8 GeV/c, and 12 GeV/c are available for all targets while additional data at 8.9 GeV/...

  12. Use of electrons beams for the production of radioactive nuclei by photofission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPN of Orsay decided to build a linear accelerator in order to produce an electron beam of 50 MeV energy and of 10 mA average intensity. It is the ALTO project (Linear Accelerator near the Tandem of Orsay). This project will be dedicated to the production of the radioactive ions using the photo-fission process. The central topic of this thesis is the study of the beam dynamics of the ALTO facility. The first part presents studies concerning the injector. The simulations made with the simulation code PARMELA allowed the optimization of the characteristics of pre-buncher (dephasing HF, accelerating field peak...) to obtain a good bunching factor at the entrance of the buncher and at the entrance of the accelerating section according to the distance separating the two systems. The second part of this thesis is related to measurements of transverse emittance of the beam at the buncher exit. The three gradients method has been selected and the optical system used is a solenoid. The results obtained are in good agreement with former measurements. Finally a calculation of the beam line was carried out to optimize the transport of the beam to the PARRNe target without degrading its characteristics. The calculation codes that have been used are BETA and TRACE-WIN. (author)

  13. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  14. Theoretical evaluation of induced radioactivity in food products by electron or X-ray beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate first the energy density for electrons or X-ray beams necessary to produce a reference level of 1 kilogray at the maximum of dose, as a function of energy, for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons, based on experimental data obtained on radio-therapy beams, from 4 to 32 MeV, and irradiation beams from production plant CARIC. Then from the production of neutrons on the tungsten target and from (γn) reactions on the deuterium content of the irradiated food, the slowing down and capture of these neutrons is estimated. Radioisotopes can be produced by (γn) reactions on iodine, and to a lesser extent on tin, lead, barium, etc., but the major contribution is neutron activation, where the more critical elements are sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium. Induced activity is compared to natural activity coming from potassium 40, carbon 14 and radium, contained in all foods. For electrons up to 1 Mrad the induced activity remains of the order of a few percent of natural activity, for energies below 10 to 11 MeV. Bremsstrahlung X-ray irradiations can give comparable levels as soon as the energy of the generating electron beam is above 3 MeV. The induced activity decays within a few days. (author)

  15. High Resolution Study of the Inclusive Production of Massive Muon Pairs by Intense Pion Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures with high resolution and large acceptance the inclusive production of massive muon pairs with the intense pion beam (up to 10|1|0 @p/pulse) in the experimental hall ECN3. The experiment explores extended M|2/s,x and transverse momentum ranges. The study of the departures of the lepton-pair production cross- section from scaling constitutes a good test of QCD ideas; in the framework of the 'Drell-Yan' process, the experiment allows a detailed study of the pion parton distribution functions. The detector consists of a beam dump, a pulsed toroidal a magnet, MWPC's and scintillator hodoscopes. Its @C3\\% mass resolution at 10 GeV is adequate for the substraction of resonances in the high-mass region.

  16. Photo-fission for the production of radioactive beams ALTO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, S. E-mail: essabaa@ipno.in2p3.fr; Arianer, J.; Ausset, P.; Bajeat, O.; Baronick, J.P.; Clapier, F.; Coacolo, L.; Donzaud, C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Gales, S.; Gardes, D.; Grialou, D.; Hosni, F.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Junquera, T.; Lau, C.; Le Blanc, F.; Lefort, H.; Le Scornet, J.C.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Perru, O.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J.; Pougheon, F.; Roussiere, B.; Rouviere, N.; Sauvage, J.; Sorlin, O.; Tkatchenko, A.; Verney, D.; Waast, B.; Rinolfi, L.; Rossat, G.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Muller, A.; Bienvenu, G.; Bourdon, J.-C.; Garvey, T.; Jacquemard, B.; Omeich, M

    2003-05-01

    In order to probe neutron rich radioactive noble gases produced by photo-fission, a PARRNe-1 experiment (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) has been carried out at CERN. The incident electron beam of 50 MeV was delivered by the LIL machine: LEP Injector Linac. The experiment allowed us to compare under the same conditions two production methods of radioactive noble gases: fission induced by fast neutrons and photo-fission. The obtained results show that the use of the electrons is a promising mode to get intense neutron rich ion beams. After the success of this photo-fission experiment, a conceptual design for the installation at IPN Orsay of a 50 MeV electron accelerator close to the PARRNe-2 device has been worked out: ALTO Project. This work has started within a collaboration between IPNO, LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) and CERN groups.

  17. Photo-fission for the production of radioactive beams ALTO project

    CERN Document Server

    Essabaa, S; Ausset, P; Bajeat, O; Baronick, J P; Clapier, F; Coacolo, J L; Donzaud, C; Ducourtieux, M; Galas, S; Gardes, D; Grialou, D; Hosni, F; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Ibrahim, F; Junquera, T; Lau, C; Le Blanc, F; Lefort, H; Le Scornet, J C; Lesrel, J; Müller, A C; Obert, J; Perru, O; Potier, J C; Proust, J; Pougheon, F; Roussière, B; Rouvière, N; Sauvage, J; Sorlin, O; Tkatchenko, A; Verney, D; Waast, B; Rinolfi, Louis; Rossat, G; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Bienvenu, G; Bourdon, J C; Garvey, Terence; Jacquemard, B; Omeich, M

    2003-01-01

    In order to probe neutron rich radioactive noble gases produced by photo-fission, a PARRNe-1 experiment (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) has been carried out at CERN. The incident electron beam of 50 MeV was delivered by the LIL machine: LEP Injector Linac. The experiment allowed us to compare under the same conditions two production methods of radioactive noble gases: fission induced by fast neutrons and photo-fission. The obtained results show that the use of the electrons is a promising mode to get intense neutron rich ion beams. After the success of this photo-fission experiment, a conceptual design for the installation at IPN Orsay of a 50 MeV electron accelerator close to the PARRNe-2 device has been worked out: ALTO Project. This work has started within a collaboration between IPNO, LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) and CERN groups.

  18. Synthesis of novel UCx nanomaterials for online production of exotic isotope ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) provide unique opportunities to study nuclear, atomic, surface and solid-state physics, astrophysics, nuclear forensics, medicine, and biology. The isotope separation online (ISOL) method is used at ISOLDE - CERN to create RIBs through the bombardment of thick high-temperature targets by an accelerated primary proton beam. As a result, radionuclides are generated in the target material via induced spallation, fragmentation and fission nuclear reactions. Once produced, the isotopes must first diffuse from the interior of the target to the surface and then evaporate from it, followed by ionization, acceleration, mass separation and further beam manipulation until delivered at the final user. From the experimental point of view, high intensity RIBs can be obtained by increasing the overall efficiencies, high isotope diffusion and short delay times, or by increasing the power of the primary beam. Minimum delay times can be achieved in targets with highly-permeable, low-density, open-structures operating at high temperatures. However, increased driver beam intensity might carry serious concerns for the target as thermal loads, radiation damage, or physical integrity under irradiation. Thus to find the ideal material for a thick target is a tremendous technological challenge for the ISOL technique. Nearly five decades after the first irradiation tests, micrometric uranium carbide-based materials are still the reference materials for radioactive ion-beam production. Nevertheless, it was recently proved that a significant increase of the release and yields of exotic isotopes can be obtained on submicron and nanostructured porous materials. The objective of this study is to produce submicron structured carbides of U to be tested as target materials at ISOLDE

  19. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of 202Hg29+ and 3.0 eμA of 202Hg31+ from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material

  20. Use of castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive in the production of glued laminated timber beams

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano dos Anjos Azambuja; Antonio Alves Dias

    2006-01-01

    Researchers from the Polymer Technology and Analytical Chemistry (LQATP) group at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, developed a polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil. In addition to deriving it from a renewable source, this adhesive is nonaggressive to humans and the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasible use of polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil in the production of 12 beams of Glulam, using the species Pinus caribea hon...

  1. Production of clinically useful positron emitter beams during carbon ion deceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, M.; Brahme, A.

    2011-03-01

    In external beam radiation therapy, radioactive beams offer the best clinical solution to simultaneously treat and in vivo monitor the dose delivery and tumor response using PET or PET-CT imaging. However, difficulties mainly linked to the low production efficiency have so far limited their use. This study is devoted to the analysis of the production of high energy 11C fragments, preferably by projectile fragmentation of a stable monodirectional and monoenergetic primary 12C beam in different absorbing materials (decelerators) in order to identify the optimal elemental composition. The study was performed using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT07. The track length and fluence of generated secondary particles were scored in a uniform absorber of 300 cm length and 10 cm radius, divided into slices of 1 cm thickness. The 11C fluence build-up and mean energy variation with increasing decelerator depth are presented. Furthermore, the fluence of the secondary 11C beam was studied as a function of its mean energy and the corresponding remaining range in water. It is shown that the maximum 11C fluence build-up is high in compounds where the fraction by weight of hydrogen is high, being the highest in liquid hydrogen. Furthermore, a cost effective alternative solution to the single medium initially envisaged is presented: a two-media decelerator that comprises a first liquid hydrogen section followed by a second decelerating section made of a hydrogen-rich material, such as polyethylene (C2H4). The purpose of the first section is to achieve a fast initial 11C fluence build-up, while the second section is primarily designed to modulate the mean energy of the generated 11C beam in order to reach the tumor depth. Finally, it was demonstrated that, if the intensity of the primary 12C beam can be increased by an order of magnitude, a sufficient intensity of the secondary 11C beam is achieved for therapy and subsequent therapeutic PET imaging sessions. Such an increase in the

  2. Design and optimization of a highly efficient optical multipass system for γ-ray beam production from electron laser beam Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupraz, K.; Cassou, K.; Delerue, N.; Fichot, P.; Martens, A.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Courjaud, A.; Mottay, E.; Druon, F.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Hovsepian, T.; Riou, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Mueller, A. C.; Palumbo, L.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.

    2014-03-01

    A new kind of nonresonant optical recirculator, dedicated to the production of γ rays by means of Compton backscattering, is described. This novel instrument, inspired by optical multipass systems, has its design focused on high flux and very small spectral bandwidth of the γ-ray beam. It has been developed to fulfill the project specifications of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure "Nuclear Pillar," i.e., the Gamma Beam System. Our system allows a single high power laser pulse to recirculate 32 times synchronized on the radio frequency driving accelerating cavities for the electron beam. Namely, the polarization of the laser beam and crossing angle between laser and electrons are preserved all along the 32 passes. Moreover, optical aberrations are kept at a negligible level. The general tools developed for designing, optimizing, and aligning the system are described. A detailed simulation demonstrates the high efficiency of the device.

  3. The Production of Negative Lithium Beams by Charge Exchange in Cesium Vapours

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Maurizio; Chines, Francesco; Cuttone, Giacomo; Menna, Mariano; Messina, Esteban; Stracener, Dan

    2005-01-01

    These measurements were carried out at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL-HRIBF) by researchers from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), Catania, Italy and local staff. The Charge Exchange Cell (CEC) consisted of a vacuum chamber containing cesium vapours at a variable temperature, T, in which positive ions accelerated from an ion source were transformed into negative ones by collisions with the Cs atoms. The main goal of this test was to measure the production efficiency for 7Li- ions at different operating conditions, such as 7Li+ beam energy (5 to 55 keV) and Cs temperature (190 to 300 °C). Moreover, the efficiency measurements performed with a 6Li+ projectile beam gave clear indications about the isotopic shift effect. These results are useful to estimate the charge exchange efficiency for 8, 9Li, which will be the first radioactive beams to be produced at the EXCYT facility (EXotics with CYclotro...

  4. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production

  5. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  6. Upgrade of the facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light Radioactive Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Production of in-flight Radioactive Ion Beams via two-body reactions. • Development of a cryogenic gas target. • Event-by-event tracking via Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs). -- Abstract: The facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) has been operating at INFN-LNL since 2004. RIBs are produced via two-body reactions induced by high intensity heavy-ion beams impinging on light gas targets and selected by means of a 30°-dipole bending magnet and a 1-m long Wien filter. The facility has been recently upgraded (i) by developing a cryogenic gas target, (ii) by replacing the power supplies of the middle lenses of the two quadrupole triplets, (iii) by installing two y-steerers and (iv) by placing two Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters upstream the secondary target to provide an event-by-event reconstruction of the position hit on the target. So far, RIBs of 7Be, 8B and 17F in the energy range 3–5 MeV/u have been produced with intensities about 3 × 105, 1.6 × 103 and 105 pps, respectively. Possible light RIBs (up to Z = 10) deliverable by the facility EXOTIC are also reviewed

  7. Purification of coal fired boiler flue gas and fertilizer production by using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam irradiation technology which is applied in electron accelerators is used in a variety of fields, including industry, medicine and etc.. In collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ebara Corporation has developed a novel flue-gas treatment process by making use of the electron beam for the purification of flue gas emitted from industrial plant such as thermal power station. The E-beam flue gas treatment process (EBA Process) is applied to clean flue gas generated in the combustion of coal containing sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are chemical pollutants responsible for acid rain. As a by-product of this process, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate mixture is obtained. This mixture can be recovered from the process as a valuable fertilizer to promote the growth of agricultural produce. The EBA process thus serves two important purposes at the same time: It helps prevent environmental pollution and produces a fertilizer that is vitally important for increasing food production to meet the world's future population growth. (J.P.N.)

  8. Use of castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive in the production of glued laminated timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano dos Anjos Azambuja

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from the Polymer Technology and Analytical Chemistry (LQATP group at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, developed a polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil. In addition to deriving it from a renewable source, this adhesive is nonaggressive to humans and the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasible use of polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil in the production of 12 beams of Glulam, using the species Pinus caribea hondurensis and Eucaliptus grandis. The structural performance of the beams of Glulam was evaluated through static bending tests. The results obtained enabled to conclude good efficiency of the polyurethane adhesive based on castor oil, for use in Glulam.

  9. Further Study of Prompt Neutrino Production in a Proton Beam Dump Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In previous beam dump experiments at CERN, the production of prompt @n^e and @n(@m) in proton-nucleus collisions has been established. A difference in the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes which would indicate new physics, cannot be ruled out on the basis of existing data.\\\\ \\\\ The main aim of this beam dump experiment is to check with much better accuracy the equality of the prompt @n^e and @n(@m) fluxes. The use of two copper dumps with average density 1 and 1/3 permits the separation of the prompt and conventional neutrino fluxes by extrapolation to infinite density. The dumps will be located at the downstream end of the decay tunnel of the SPS neutrino facility.

  10. Finish ion beam treatment of the longrange cylindrical products outer surface in automatic mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Yanin, S. N.; Asainov, O. Kh; Yurev, Yu N.

    2016-04-01

    The results of using of ion-beam technologies methods for finish treatment of metal products are presented. The experiments were performed at the installation ILUR-03, which allows the operation of cleaning, polishing and surface layers doping of the material of unlimited length cylindrical samples by radial Ar+ ions beam with energy up to 5 keV. The tubes from zirconium alloy E110 up to 500 mm length were used as samples for investigation. It is shown that selected automatic treatment modes reduce the surface roughness over the entire length of the samples and increase uniformity of the surface layer without observable effect on the bulk properties of material. Treatment promotes the formation of oxide films with improved defensive properties.

  11. Nonlinear Breit-Wheeler pair production in a tightly focused laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A

    2016-01-01

    The only available analytical framework for investigating QED processes in a strong laser field systematically relies on approximating the latter as a plane wave. However, realistic high-intensity laser beams feature much more complex space-time structures than plane waves. Here, we show the feasibility of an analytical framework for investigating strong-field QED processes in laser beams of arbitrary space-time structure by determining the energy spectrum of positrons produced via nonlinear Breit-Wheeler pair production as a function of the background field. A numerical evaluation of the angular resolved positron spectrum shows significant quantitative differences with respect to the analogous result in a plane wave, such that the present results will be also important for the design of upcoming strong laser facilities aiming at measuring this process.

  12. Electron-beam stimulation of the reactivity of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iller, Edward; Kukiełka, Aleksandra; Stupińska, Halina; Mikołajczyk, Włodzimierz

    2002-03-01

    New alternative technologies for manufacture of cellulose fibers are currently under development. The effect of electron beam irradiation on various types of cellulose pulps have been studied in order to improve the reactivity of raw material for production of cellulose derivatives. Three different types of textile pulps, Alicell (Canada), Borregaard (Norwegian), Ketchikan (USA) and Kraft softwood as well as Kraft hardwood pulps, have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/g linear accelerator with dose 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated pulps. Such parameters as viscosity, average degree of polymerization and α-cellulose contents were determinated by means of analytical methods. Results of there investigations are presented and discussed.

  13. Prospects for utilization of Electron Beam Accelerators (EBAs) for processing of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing using gamma radiation and high energy electron beams has been in practice for more than three decades in the industry. Since gamma radiation has the ability of higher penetration in the material, large scale irradiators (mainly based on mega curies of 60Co radioactive source) are successfully employed for treating bulk products in sterilization and food preservation applications. Electron beam, due to its low penetration, has been exploited exclusively for applications involving polymer modifications to irradiate thin finished end products like electrical cable insulations, heat shrinkable sheets, tubes, automobile tyres etc using high power EBAs (energies 0.5 MeV-4 MeV and powers around ∼100 kW). Out of around 2500 industrial EB units currently employed worldwide (with total installed power above 150 MWL 90% are in the low to medium energy range (0.5 MeV to 4 MeV) being used for polymer modifications. However, recent technological advances in the manufacturing sector of industrial high energy EBAs and product handling systems resulted in widening utilization of EB technology for applications involving bulk product irradiation

  14. Effects of R-Parity Violating Supersymmetry in Top Pair Production at Linear Colliders with Polarized Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation, the lepton number violating top quark interactions can contribute to the top pair production at a linear collider via tree-level u-channel squark exchange diagrams. We calculate such contributions and find that in the allowed range of these R-violating couplings, the top pair production rate as well as the top quark polarization and the forward-backward asymmetry can be significantly altered.By comparing the unpolarized beams with the polarized beams, we find that the polarized beams are more powerful in probing such new physics.

  15. Particle production in hadron-proton interactions at 250 GeV/c incident beam momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis several characteristic properties are described of π+p, K+p and pp collisions at an incident beam momentum of 250 GeV/c, and compared to characteristics of other energy. The experiment has been performed in the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) exposed to a tagged meson enriched beam. The rapid cycling bubble-chamber and the other detector elements which comprise EHS are described in Ch. 2. Events used for the analysis have been scanned, measured and merged with the electronic counter information. After the merge steps the data have been processed through a chain of reconstruction programs (Ch. 3). In Ch. 4 the multiplicity distributions and topological cross sections are presented. An introduction to the models (Monte Carlo programs) is given in Ch. 5. In Ch. 6 the characteristics of charged particle production in π+p, K+p and pp collisions at 250 GeV/c are presented. In Ch. 7 the forward π0 production is presented, a study of rho and omega resonance production in the forward hemisphere in Ch. 8. In Ch. 6, 7 and 8, the data are compared to predictions from the Monte Carlo programs described in Ch. 5. 117 refs.; 70 figs.; 23 tabs

  16. Development of a surface ionization source for the production of radioactive alkali ion beams in SPIRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: sceleon@triumf.ca; Jardin, P.; Gaubert, G.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Alcantara-Nunez, J.; Alves Conde, R.; Barue, C.; Boilley, D.; Cornell, J. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Delahaye, P. [3 CERN ISOLDE, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dubois, M.; Jacquot, B.; Leherissier, P.; Leroy, R.; Lhersonneau, G. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Marie-Jeanne, M. [3 CERN ISOLDE, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Maunoury, L. [CIRIL, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Pierret, C. [CIRIL, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    In the framework of the production of radioactive alkali ion beams by the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) method in SPIRAL I, a surface ionization source has been developed at GANIL to produce singly-charged ions of Li, Na and K. This new source has been designed to work in the hostile environment whilst having a long lifetime. This new system of production has two ohmic heating components: the first for the target oven and the second for the ionizer. The latter, being in carbon, offers high reliability and competitive ionization efficiency. This surface ionization source has been tested on-line using a {sup 48}Ca primary beam at 60.3 A MeV with an intensity of 0.14 pA. The ionization efficiencies obtained for Li, Na and K are significantly better than the theoretical values of the ionization probability per contact. The enhanced efficiency, due to the polarization of the ionizer, is shown to be very important also for short-lived isotopes. In the future, this source will be associated with the multicharged electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source NANOGAN III for production of multicharged alkali ions in SPIRAL. The preliminary tests of the set up are also presented in this contribution.

  17. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-08-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters.

  18. A method for the production of an intense negative 14C beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying low cross section nuclear reactions the method for the production of negative ion 14C beams with a current of some μA order by means of a cylindrical source with Fe3, 14C target sputtering is developed. The source target is fabricated in the following way: 100 mg of 14C black is mixed with a binder diluted by alcohol and acetone. The mixing is continued until the solvents do not evaporate and the mixture does not take the appearance of a slightly moistsand, small portions of the mixture are pressed in a substrate deepening the target is warmed up in the air during 1h at the temperature of 200 deg C, after cooling the target is thoroughly cleaned up by alcohol from surface impurities. The source configuration admits the passage of a part of cesium beam produced at the Van-de-Graaff accelerator near the target which later is reflected back and focused on the graphite surface. At 0.5 mA cesium current the 14C negative ions beam approximately 2 μA is produced. After 500 hrs of operation the source of surface contamination behined the target by 14C particles has not been found

  19. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO2, Nb, Ti, V,TiO2, CeOx, ThO2, C, ZrC4 and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target

  20. Direct Slicing Approach For The Production Of Perfused Components By Laser Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrt, Jan Torsten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, laser beam melting technology is applied to the manufacture of defined porous metal structures using the exposure strategies of the machine manufacturer. It turns out that specific filter characteristics such as density, permeability, pore size, porosity, and shear strength are comparable to conventionally-made porosities [1]. To overcome some restrictions imposed by the default settings of the machine manufacturer, and to manufacture ultra-lightweight products, our own investigations such as direct slicing lead to an alternative exposure strategy for the laser. Here unique exposure lines, with their corresponding start and end points, are individually designed according to their practical needs. Even though this procedure is very complex and time-consuming, it leads to new possibilities for the perfusion of liquid or gaseous fluids that run through metal walls. In summary, the adjustment of the functional porosity of laser beam melted parts made of metal material is the focus of this investigation; and with it, the variation and determination of the proper process parameters is essential. With the easily adjustable porosities and pore sizes that are investigated, combined with the geometric freedom of laser beam melting, very complex elements can be integrated into one part; and this also leads to new fields of application.

  1. Experimental facilities for quasimonochromatic polarized photon beam production in the Kharkov linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of equipment designed to obtain quasimonochromatic linearly polarized high-energy photons in a linear accelerator is described. A beam of quasimonochromatic linearly polarized photons was obtained by coherent bremsstrahlung of electrons in diamond monocrystals. The 1.4 GeV electron beam with a divergence of approximately 10-4 rad and intensity of 0.2-0.3 μA strikes monocrystalline diamond targets having a thickness of 0.3 and 0.08 mm. The targets are installed in a qoniometric device with an angle reading accuracy of 5x10-5 rad. A beam of linearly polarized photons with a collimation angle of approximately 10-4 rad shaped with the help of adjustable lead-baffled collimators strikes a liquid-hydrogen target located at the focal point of two magnetic spectrometers. The nuclear reaction products are analyzed in momentum and detected by scintillation counter telescopes. The total photon flux with an intensity from 108-1010 equiv. γ-quantum/s and corresponding polarization of 90-50% is measured by means of Wilson-type or secondary-emission quantometers

  2. Radioactive Ion Beam Production by Fast-Neutron-Induced Fission in Actinide Targets at EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, Adonai

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, the production of high-intensity RIBs of specific neutron-rich isotopes is obtained by inducing fission in large-mass actinide targets. In our contribution, the use of uranium targets is shown to be advantageous to other materials, such as thorium. Therefore, in order to produce fissions in U-238 and reduce the plutonium inventory, a fast neutron energy spectrum is necessary. The large beam power required to achieve these RIB levels requires the use of a liquid proton-to-neutron converter. This article details the design parameters of the converter, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target. Calculations performed with the ...

  3. Efficient accumulation of antiprotons and positrons, production of slow mono-energetic beams, and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress of ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) project, particularly the antiproton trapping and slow antiproton production, is discussed. An RFQD (Radio Frequency Quadrupole Decelerator) installed in the ASACUSA beam line has an excellent deceleration efficiency of 25% providing 10-130keV antiprotons, which improves the final accumulation efficiency at least one and half orders of magnitude. The decelerated antiprotons are then injected in a large volume multiring trap, stored, and electron-cooled. About 1 million antiprotons are successfully accumulated per one AD shot and 10-500eV antiprotons are extracted as a mono-energetic beam. A UHV compatible positron accumulation is newly developed combining electron plasma and an ion cloud, which yields an accumulation rate as high as 400e **+s/mCi, two and a half orders of magnitude higher than other UHV compatible schemes. A new scheme to synthesize a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam is also discussed, which will play a vit...

  4. Production of fully-stripped neon beam with the ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    states of the lighter isotope. Then the working gas was changed to the isotopically enriched 22Ne gas; the source was optimized to maximise the 22Ne8+ ion current. The analysed beam current (22Ne8+) increased by a factor of 1.3 compared to the 20Ne8+ current. The main goal was to produce fully-stripped neon beam, which was easily reached when the source was optimised for the 20Ne9+ production. Result: 20 electrical nA (i.e. 2 particle nA) of 22Ne10+ current appeared in the spectra. This value was then further increased up to 43 nA by tuning the plasma directly to 22Ne10+ and by mixing helium gas into the neon.

  5. Production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, P. Yu.; Ivanov, O. M.; Lizunov, N. E.; Mamonova, T. I.; Nechaev, A. N.; Olejniczak, K.; Vacik, J.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Ion track membranes (ITM) have attracted significant interest over the past two decades due to their numerous applications in physical, biological, chemical, biochemical and medical experimental works. A particular feature of ITM technology is the possibility to fabricate samples with a predetermined number of pores, including single-pore membranes. The present report describes a procedure that allowed for the production of multi-, oligo- and single-pore membranes using a continuous ion beam from an IC-100 cyclotron. The beam was scanned over a set of small diaphragms, from 17 to ∼1000 μm in diameter. Ions passed through the apertures and impinged two sandwiched polymer foils, with the total thickness close to the ion range in the polymer. The foils were pulled across the ion beam at a constant speed. The ratio between the transport speed and the scanning frequency determined the distance between irradiation spots. The beam intensity and the aperture diameters were adjusted such that either several, one or no ions passed through the diaphragms during one half-period of scanning. After irradiation, the lower foil was separated from the upper foil and was etched to obtain pores 6-8 μm in diameter. The pores were found using a color chemical reaction between two reagents placed on opposite sides of the foil. The located pores were further confirmed using SEM and optical microscopy. The numbers of tracks in the irradiation spots were consistent with the Poisson statistics. Samples with single or few tracks obtained in this way were employed to study fine phenomena in ion track nanopores.

  6. Comparison of methods to measure the rate of neutral free radical production by photo-deionization of negative ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Keiji E-mail: khayashi@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp; Konno, Hiroshi; Oseki, Takashi; Kojima, Hideki; Kanayama, Takuo

    2003-05-01

    Two measurement methods to determine the rate of neutral free radical production by the photo-deionization of negative ion beams (PDINIB) are introduced. These methods, namely, photoelectron-current measurement by low-frequency electro-modulation probe (PMMP) and measurement of decrease in the negative-ion beam current (DNIC) were employed to evaluate the production rate in a trial surface-processing apparatus developed in the author's laboratory utilizing a steady-flux refined beam of neutral free radicals (RBNR) produced by the PDINIB procedure. A {sup 63}Cu{sup -} negative ion beam of kinetic energy E{sub i} varied up to 15 keV was irradiated with a 514.5 nm visible light beam from a 25 W CW Ar{sup +} ion laser. The detection limit of the production rate by the PMMP setup was as high as 6 x 10{sup 9} s{sup -1} under the condition that E{sub i}=15 keV, the negative-ion beam current I{sub i}=4 {mu}A and the laser power P=6 W. The DNIC method is simpler but less reliable than the PMMP method owing to larger uncertainty resulting from the fluctuation of the negative-ion beam current.

  7. The external beam facility used to characterize corrosion products in metallic statuettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcia.rizzutto@dfn.if.usp.br; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, M.D.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Curado, J.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, W.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, S.C. [Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao, Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Prof. Almeida Prado, 1466, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Melo, H.G. [Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e CorroSao, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.380, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neiva, A.C. [Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e CorroSao, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.380, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-10-15

    To open new possibilities in nuclear applied physics research, mainly for the analysis of art objects in air, an external beam facility was installed at LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos) of University of Sao Paulo. PIXE measurements were made using an XR-100CR (Si-PIN) X-ray detector pointed to the sample mounted after an approximate 11 mm air path, hence with effective beam energy of 0.9 MeV. This setup was used to characterize the corrosion products of two ethnological metallic statuettes from the African collection of the Museum of Archaeology and Etnology. PIXE analysis of the corrosion free base of one statuette showed that Cu and Zn are the main components of the alloy, while Pb is present in smaller amount. The analysis of some corrosion products showed a Zn:Cu relationship higher than that of the base, evidencing selective corrosion. The main components of the other statuette were Cu and Pb, while S and Zn were found in smaller amounts.

  8. Reduction of isotopically enriched 50Ti-dioxide for the production of high-intensity heavy-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium-50 (50Ti) is an important and often requested ion beam for nuclear physics' experiments. While natural titanium of very high purity is available in different forms; enriched material can only be bought as the dioxide or the tetrachloride. These compounds cannot be processed from currently available ion sources with a sufficient beam quality and sufficient beam intensity for a long time. We describe here the process of converting titanium dioxide into the metal, the material analysis of the starting material as well as of the reduced material. Despite varying contamination levels of silicon, chlorine, and tin in the primary materials, we obtained high yields of metallic titanium with different contamination levels. The obtained metallic 50Ti was applied at the accelerator UNILAC for the production of a high intensity ion beam for several month of beam time. (author)

  9. Self-similarity of negative particle production from the Beam Energy Scan Program at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Tokarev, M V

    2015-01-01

    We present the spectra of negative charged particle production in Au+Au collisions from STAR for the first phase of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Program measured over a wide range of collision energy sqrt s{NN}=7.7-200 GeV, and transverse momentum of produced particle in different centralities at |eta|<0.5. The spectra demonstrate strong dependence on collision energy which enhances with pT. An indication of self-similarity of negative charged particle production in Au+Au collisions is found. The constituent energy loss as a function of energy and centrality of collisions and transverse momentum of inclusive particle was estimated in the $z$-scaling approach. The energy dependence of the model parameters - the fractal and fragmentation dimensions and "specific heat", was studied.

  10. The Role of Diffusion in ISOL Targets for the Production of radioactive Ions Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; Novgorodov, A F; Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    On line isotope separation techniques (ISOL) for production of ion beams of short-lived radionuclides require fast separation of nuclear reaction products from irradiated target materials followed by a transfer into an ion source. As a first step in this transport chain the release of nuclear reaction products from refractory metals has been studied systematically and will be reviewed. High-energy protons (500-1000MeV) produce a large number of radionuclides in irradiated materials via the nuclear reactions spallation, fission and fragmentation. Foils and powder of Re, W, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and C were irradiated with protons (600-1000MeV) at the Dubna synchrocyclotron and at the CERN PS-booster to produce different nuclear reaction products. The main topic of the paper is the determination of diffusion coefficients of the nuclear reaction products in the target matrix, data evaluation and a systematic interpretation of the data. The influence of the ionic radius of the diffusing species and the lattice...

  11. Wsup(+-) boson production at the e/sup +/e/sup -/,. gamma. e and. gamma gamma. colliding beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Panfil, S.L.; Serbo, V.G.

    1983-11-21

    Wsup(+-) boson production in e/sup +/e/sup -/->W/sup +/W/sup -/, ..gamma..e->W/sup +/W/sup -/, ..gamma..e->W, ..gamma gamma..->W/sup +/W/sup -/ reactions at the e/sup +/e/sup -/, ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. colliding beams is considered. What physical information can be extracted from such experiments, including those with polarized beams, is discussed. Conditions of observation, are considered together with the background problems.

  12. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams for spiral: studies and realization of the first target-ion source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the SPIRAL project, which concerns the production and the acceleration of a multicharged radioactive ions beam, the following part has been studied: production and ionization of the radioactive ions beam. A first target-source (nanogan II), devoted exclusively to the production of multicharged radioactive ions gas type beams, has been studied and tested. The diffusion efficiency has been deduced from the diffusion equations (Fick laws). This efficiency is governed by the following parameters: the temperature, the grains size of the target, the Arrhenius parameters and the radioactive period. Another study concerning the production targets is presented. It deals with the temperature distribution allowing an utilization of more than one month at a temperature of 2400 K. Another development (SPIRAL II) is devoted to the production of high neutron content radioactive atoms created by the uranium fission, from fast neutrons. The neutrons beam is produced by the ''stripping break-up'' of a deutons beam in a converter. (A.L.B.)

  13. Measurement of Production Cross Sections of Neodymium induced by Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sungchul; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Song, Taeyung; Lee, Youngouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Neodymium (Nd) which is the second most abundant rare earth elements is used as a cryocooler and the permanent magnet. In addition, it can be used as a target material for the production of medically important radioisotopes such as {sup 140}Nd and {sup 149}Pm as well as the research of biomedical filed via positron emission tomography. Thus, the characteristics of radionuclides produced from the Nd for application in various fields are necessary to study. In view of this, the production cross sections of the Nd induced by proton beam were determined by the well-known stacked-foil activation method. The {sup 149}Pm radionuclide in this research was measured using the proton energy of 45 MeV at the KIRAMS. Furthermore, the production cross section of {sup 149}Nd produced from the {sup nat}Nd reaction was also measured to understand the contribution for the production of {sup 149}Pm. Longer-lived {sup 149}Pm (53.08 h) is formed by both direct {sup nat}Nd reaction and the decay of {sup 149}Nd. The production cross sections of {sup 149}Pm and {sup 149}Nd from the present work in {sup nat}Nd reaction are compared with those from the literature and those calculated theoretically by TALYS 1.4 code. The production cross sections of {sup 149}Pm and {sup 149}Nd from the {sup nat}Nd reactions within the proton energies of 5.08 ∼ 44.72 MeV were determined from present work. It was found that the produced data show a good agreement with other measured data. However, it can be seen that there are slight differences in the high energy region. Moreover, in order to obtain the independent production cross sections of radionuclides, the contribution by a parent radionuclide needs to be researched.

  14. Study on application of the physical detection methods for electron beam-irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical detection methods, photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied to detect electron beam-irradiated agricultural products, such as red pepper, black pepper, raisin, walnut, beef seasoning and pistachio. The absorbed irradiation doses for representative samples were controlled at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy. PSL values for non-irradiated samples were 1) except beef seasoning, whereas those of irradiated samples were more than 5,000 photon counts, upper threshold (T2) in black pepper, raisin, and beef seasoning and intermediates values of T1-T2 in red pepper, walnut, and pistachio. Minerals separated from the samples for TL measurement showed that non-irradiated samples except pistachio (TL ratio, 0.12) were characterized by no glow curves situated at temperature range of 50 ∼ 400 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.01 ∼ 0.08), while irradiated samples except pistachio at only 1 kGy (TL ratio, 0.08) indicated glow curve at about 150 ∼ 250 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.28 ∼ 3.10). ESR measurements of irradiated samples any specific signals to irradiation. The samples of both red pepper ad pistachio were produced specific signals derived from cellulose radicals as well as single line signals for black pepper and walnut, and multiple signals derived from crystalline sugar radicals for raisin and beef seasoning. In conclusion, The ESR methods can apply for detection of pistachio exposed to electron beam but PSL and TL are not suitable methods. Furthermore, TL and ESR suggested that both techniques were more useful detection method than PSL to confirm whether red pepper, walnut and beef seasoning samples have been exposed to electron beam

  15. Dual-fission chamber and neutron beam characterization for fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Gooden, M.E., E-mail: megooden@tunl.duke.edu [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27605 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27605 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Arnold, C.W.; Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Moody, W.A.; Rundberg, R.S.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becker, J.A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.A.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-09-01

    A program has been initiated to measure the energy dependence of selected high-yield fission products used in the analysis of nuclear test data. We present out initial work of neutron activation using a dual-fission chamber with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and gamma-counting method. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energies from 0.5 to 15 MeV using the TUNL 10 MV FM tandem to provide high-precision and self-consistent measurements of fission product yields (FPY). The final FPY results will be coupled with theoretical analysis to provide a more fundamental understanding of the fission process. To accomplish this goal, we have developed and tested a set of dual-fission ionization chambers to provide an accurate determination of the number of fissions occurring in a thick target located in the middle plane of the chamber assembly. Details of the fission chamber and its performance are presented along with neutron beam production and characterization. Also presented are studies on the background issues associated with room-return and off-energy neutron production. We show that the off-energy neutron contribution can be significant, but correctable, while room-return neutron background levels contribute less than <1% to the fission signal.

  16. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yonghong; YANG Yingge; ZHENG Zhiming; LI Wen; WANG Peng; YAO Liming; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. Oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N+ implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 × 1015 ions/cm2. Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ~ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38~C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  17. Production of a thermal stress resistant mutant Euglena gracilis strain using Fe-ion beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding. PMID:27075598

  18. Nanoscale SiC production by ballistic ion beam mixing of C/Si multilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistig, G.; Zolnai, Z.; Németh, A.; Panjan, P.; Menyhárd, M.

    2016-05-01

    The ion beam-induced mixing process using Ar+, Ga+, and Xe+ ion irradiation has been used to form SiC rich layers on the nanometer scale at the interfaces of C/Si/C/Si/C multilayer structures. The SiC depth distributions were determined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling and were compared to the results of analytical models developed for ballistic ion mixing and local thermal spike induced mixing. In addition, the measured SiC depth distributions were correlated to the Si and C mixing profiles simulated by the TRIDYN code which can follow the ballistic ion mixing process as a function of ion fluence. Good agreement has been found between the distributions provided by AES depth profiling and TRIDYN on the assumption that the majority of the Si (C) atoms transported to the neighboring C (Si) layer form the SiC compound. The ion beam mixing process can be successfully described by ballistic atomic transport processes. The results show that SiC production as a function of depth can be predicted, and tailored compound formation on the nanoscale becomes feasible, thus leading to controlled synthesis of protective SiC coatings at room temperature.

  19. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W., E-mail: luwang@impcas.ac.cn; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhan, W. L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, B.; Ruan, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O{sup 7+}, 620 eμA of Ar{sup 11+}, 430 eμA of Ar{sup 12+}, 430 eμA of Xe{sup 20+}, and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper.

  20. Production and application of pulsed slow-positron beam using an electron LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    1997-03-01

    Slow-positron beam is quite useful for non-destructive material research. At the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL), an intense slow positron beam line by exploiting an electron linac has been constructed in order to carry out various experiments on material analysis. The beam line can generates pulsed positron beams of variable energy and of variable pulse period. Many experiments have been carried out so far with the beam line. In this paper, various capability of the intense pulsed positron beam is presented, based on the experience at the ETL, and the prospect for the future is discussed. (author)

  1. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T; Le Sage, G P; Barty, C P J; Rosenzweig, J B; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D B; Gibson, D J; Slaughter, D R; Anderson, S

    2002-10-14

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 {pi}mm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 10{sup 20} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  2. Two-Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions with Polarized Beam

    CERN Document Server

    El-Bary, S Abd; Bilger, R; Brinkmann, K -Th; Clement, H; Dietrich, M; Doroshkevich, E; Dshemuchadse, S; Erhardt, A; Eyrich, W; Filippi, A; Freiesleben, H; Fritsch, M; Geyer, R; Gillitzer, A; Hanhart, C; Hauffe, J; Haug, K; Hesselbarth, D; Jaekel, R; Jakob, B; Karsch, L; Kilian, K; Koch, H; Kress, J; Kuhlmann, E; Marcello, S; Marwinski, S; Meier, R; Möller, K; Morsch, H P; Naumann, Lutz; Ritman, J; Roderburg, E; Schoenmeier, P; Schulte-Wissermann, M; Schroeder, W; Steinke, M; Stinzing, F; Sun, G Y; Waechter, J; Wagner, G J; Wagner, M; Weidlich, U; Wilms, A; Wintz, P; Wirth, S; Zhang, G; Zupranski, P

    2008-01-01

    The two-pion production reaction $\\vec{p}p\\to pp\\pi^+\\pi^-$ was measured with a polarized proton beam at $T_p \\approx$ 750 and 800 MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The implementation of a delayed pulse technique for Quirl and central calorimeter provided positive $\\pi^+$ identification in addition to the standard particle identification, energy determination as well as time-of-flight and angle measurements. Thus all four-momenta of the emerging particles could be determined with 1-4 overconstraints. Total and differential cross sections as well as angular distributions of the vector analyzing power have been obtained. They are compared to previous data and theoretical calculations. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing power values up to $A_y$ = 0.3.

  3. Near-threshold pion production with radioactive beams at the Rare Isotope Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, B A; Zuo, W; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zuo, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model we study near-threshold pion production in heavy-ion collisions induced by radioactive beams at the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). We revisit the question of probing the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ using the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio. It is found that both the total and differential $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratios remain sensitive to the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ when the momentum-dependence of both the isoscalar and isovector potentials are consistently taken into account. Moreover, the multiplicity and spectrum of $\\pi^-$ mesons are found more sensitive to the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ than those of $\\pi^+$ mesons. Finally, effects of the Coulomb potential on the pion spectra and $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio are also discussed.

  4. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  5. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  6. Sensitive in situ method to measure the rate of neutral free radical production by photodeionization of negative ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectron-current measurement by low-frequency electromodulation probe (PMMP) is proposed as a sensitive method to determine the rate Gr of neutral free radical production by the photodeionization of negative ion beams (PDINIB). The PMMP method was employed to evaluate the production rate in a trial surface-processing apparatus developed in the author's laboratory utilizing a steady-flux refined beam of neutral free radicals produced by the PDINIB procedure. A 63Cu- negative ion beam of kinetic energy Ei varied up to 15 keV was irradiated with a 514.5 nm visible light beam from a 25 W cw Ar+ ion laser. The detection limit of the production rate by the measurement setup was 6x109/s under the conditions that Ei=15 keV, the negative ion beam current Ii=4 μA, and the laser power P=6 W. Based on the results of these basic experiments, furthermore, the photodeionization efficiency defined by eGr/Ii where e is the elementary electric charge was estimated to be 27±6% under the conditions that Ei=15 keV, Ii=40 μA, and P=18 W

  7. Production of a sub-10 fs electron beam with 107 electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jang-Hui

    2011-05-01

    We study the possibility to produce a 1.6 pC electron beam (107 electrons) with a bunch length of less than 10 fs and a beam energy of a few MeV. Such a short, relativistic beam will be useful for an electron diffraction experiment with a 10 fs time resolution. An electron beam with 107 electrons will allow a single-shot experiment with a laser pulse pump and an electron beam probe. In this design, an S-band photocathode gun is used for generating and accelerating a beam and a buncher consisting of two S-band four-cell cavities is used for temporally compressing the beam. Focusing solenoids control the beam transverse divergence and size at the sample. Numerical optimization is carried out to achieve a beam with a 4 fs full-width-at-half-maximum length, a 26 microradian root-mean-square divergence, and a 2 nm transverse coherence length at a 3.24 MeV beam energy. When state-of-the-art rf stability is considered, beam arrival time jitter at the sample is calculated to be about 10 fs.

  8. STUDY OF BEAM SPIN ASYMMETRY IN EXCLUSIVE Π° PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howley, I.; Avagyan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Describing and understanding atomic nuclei is a puzzle that has intrigued scientists for decades. Approximately ten years ago, a description of nucleon structure, referred to as Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD), was introduced. GPDs are a way of describing scattering and production processes in a single framework. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is a process that scatters a photon from a proton and detects a scattered electron, a proton, and one photon in the fi nal state. From DVCS, GPDs can be extracted in order to lead us to a more complete picture of nucleon structure. The focus of this study is to understand the beam spin asymmetry (BSA) of the neutral π° meson, a main source of background during the DVCS process. To calculate the BSA, the number of π° events with positive helicity (spin) and negative helicity were counted by integrating histograms with Gaussians fi ts. It is shown that there is a signifi cant non-zero BSA in production of exclusive π°, namely 0.0655±0.0022. In the analysis of previous experiments, the BSA of π° was assumed to be zero and therefore ignored. Now, future analyses of DVCS data may incorporate this evidence of BSA. A deeper understanding of background processes (π°) in the DVCS will allow precision measurements of GPDs, providing new insight concerning the structure of nucleons.

  9. Dose indices in dental cone beam CT and correlation with dose–area product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, K; Patil, S; Endo, A; Okano, T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In the 2011 project “Safety and efficacy of a new and emerging dental X-ray modality (SEDENTEXCT)”, it was suggested that dose index (DI) and dose–area product (DAP) could be easily measured and used as diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), which would help in the management of radiation doses to patients in optimum exposure settings. Such indices could be directly related to effective dose. The purposes of this study, therefore, were to measure and calculate the DI and DAP in cone beam CT (CBCT) machines and to evaluate the correlation between the two. Methods: Dose measurements were performed on three-dimensional cone beam CT (3D-CBCT) machines [3D Accuitomo (J. Morita Mfg. Corp., Kyoto, Japan), Veraviewepocs (J. Morita Mfg. Corp.) and CS9300 (Carestream, New York, NY)] by exposing a cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom using a CT ionization chamber. These dose measurements were used for the calculation of Dose Indices 1 and 2, according to the methodology suggested by SEDENTEXCT. The DAP was measured using a DAP meter that was attached to the detector to cover the entire irradiated area. Results: The DI1 ranged from 53.6 mR to 216.6 mR, the DI2 ranged from 77.1 mR to 325.0 mR and the DAP ranged from 101.1 mGy cm2 to 457.9 mGy cm2, depending on the machines and exposure settings. Index 2 had a better correlation with the DAP than Index 1. Conclusions: The DIs and DAP proposed by SEDENTEXCT may be useful for establishing DRLs for dental CBCT machines; however, further studies are necessary to determine which of these indices provide accurate dose estimates proportionally relating to the effective dose. PMID:23520392

  10. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Tellander, Felix

    2016-01-01

    H2 beam line of SPS North Area is a high energy, high resolution and multipurpose particle beam line. It is able to transport secondary hadron and pure electron beams with momenta between 10 and 400 GeV/c to be exploited by several different experiments. In this work, tertiary particle production from a secondary target placed in the line is studied. The introduction of this “filter” target enhances the middle to low momentum hadron (20 - 60 GeV/c) and electron production. In this work, a systematic Monte Carlo simulation study using a GEANT 4 based package, G4beamline, has been performed in order to investigate the tertiary particle production from several different targets. More specifically, Cu, W and polyethylene targets with different thicknesses have been studied. The proton over pi+ ratio is of particular interest, as well as the optimal electron production for several momenta. The present work will act as a reference to be used by the future test-beam users of the line as an indication of the expe...

  11. Multi-Agent Based Beam Search for Real-Time Production Scheduling and Control Method, Software and Industrial Application

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Shu Gang

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Agent Based Beam Search (MABBS) method systematically integrates four major requirements of manufacturing production - representation capability, solution quality, computation efficiency, and implementation difficulty - within a unified framework to deal with the many challenges of complex real-world production planning and scheduling problems. Multi-agent Based Beam Search for Real-time Production Scheduling and Control introduces this method, together with its software implementation and industrial applications.  This book connects academic research with industrial practice, and develops a practical solution to production planning and scheduling problems. To simplify implementation, a reusable software platform is developed to build the MABBS method into a generic computation engine.  This engine is integrated with a script language, called the Embedded Extensible Application Script Language (EXASL), to provide a flexible and straightforward approach to representing complex real-world problems. ...

  12. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons, A Proposal for the 50-GeV Beam in the FFTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Alexander; P. Anthony; V. Bharadwaj; Yu.K. Batygin; T. Behnke; S. Berridge; G.R. Bower; W. Bugg; R. Carr; E. Chudakov; J.E. Clendenin; F.J. Decker; Yu. Efremenko; T. Fieguth; K. Flottmann; M. Fukuda; V. Gharibyan; T. Handler; T. Hirose; R.H. Iverson; Yu. Kamyshkov; H. Kolanoski; T. Lohse; Chang-guo Lu; K.T. McDonald; N. Meyners; R. Michaels; A.A. Mikhailichenko; K. Monig; G. Moortgat-Pick; M. Olson; T. Omori; D. Onoprienko; N. Pavel; R. Pitthan; M. Purohit; L. Rinolfi; K.P. Schuler; J.C. Sheppard; S. Spanier; A. Stahl; Z.M. Szalata; J. Turner; D. Walz; A. Weidemann; J. Weisend

    2003-06-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of future linear colliders such as the JLC, NLC, and TESLA will require the development of polarized positron beams. In the proposed scheme of Balakin and Mikhailichenko [1] a helical undulator is employed to generate photons of several MeV with circular polarization which are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. This experiment, E-166, proposes to test this scheme to determine whether such a technique can produce polarized positron beams of sufficient quality for use in future linear colliders. The experiment will install a meter-long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 50-GeV electron beam passing through this undulator will generate circularly polarized photons with energies up to 10 MeV. These polarized photons are then converted to polarized positrons via pair production in thin targets. Titanium and tungsten targets, which are both candidates for use in linear colliders, will be tested. The experiment will measure the flux and polarization of the undulator photons, and the spectrum and polarization of the positrons produced in the conversion target, and compare the measurement results to simulations. Thus the proposed experiment directly tests for the first time the validity of the simulation programs used for the physics of polarized pair production in finite matter, in particular the effects of multiple scattering on polarization. Successful comparison of the experimental results to the simulations will lead to greater confidence in the proposed designs of polarized positrons sources for the next generation of linear colliders. This experiment requests six-weeks of time in the FFTB beam line: three weeks for installation and setup and three weeks of beam for data taking. A 50-GeV beam with about twice the SLC emittance at a repetition rate of 30 Hz is required.

  13. Measurement of neutral current coherent neutral pion production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    OpenAIRE

    Kurimoto, Y; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Brice, S J; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D. A.; Franke, A. J.; C. Giganti; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Guzowski, P.; Hanson, A.

    2010-01-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of neutral current coherent neutral pion production on carbon by a muon neutrino beam with average energy 0.8 GeV. The separation of coherent from inclusive neutral pion production has been improved by detecting recoil protons from resonant neutral pion production. We measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent neutral pion production to total charged current cross sections to be (1.16 +/- 0.24) x 10-2. The ratio of charged current cohere...

  14. Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, A.; Umeda, N.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Akino, N.; Komata, M.; Mogaki, K.; Sasaki, S.; Seki, N.; Nemoto, S.; Shimizu, T.; Endo, Y.; Ohasa, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Grisham, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    Significant progress in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams has been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long-pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long-pulse production of high-current negative ions for the JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the caesium coverage in the large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long-pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high transmission of negative ions. A long-pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW m-2 (683 keV, 100 A m-2) which has reached the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW m-2. No degradations of the voltage holding capability of the acceleration voltage and the beam optics due to the distortion of the acceleration grids have been observed in this power density level. These results are the longest pulse durations of high-current and high-power-density negative ion beams in the

  15. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A. [SHI Accelerator Service Ltd., 1-17-6 Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-0032 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  16. Study of the production, the propagation and the focusing of an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron beam (500 keV, 30 kA, 100 ns) of the RKA (Relativistic Klystron Amplifier) generator is used to study materials under shocks at low fluences (≤ 10 cal/cm2). Their response depends on the beam characteristics at the impact location, mainly in terms of spatial homogeneity. We have used electrical diagnostics as well as an optical diagnostics where the visible photons produced by Cerenkov emission in a silica target are collected by fast cameras. Beam homogeneity has been studied in the vacuum diode as a function of the materials used for the cathode and the anode. Beam propagation and focusing in a chamber filled with a low-pressure gas has also been investigated. Each part of the installation has been optimized during this work. We found that, among the tested materials, a velvet cathode with well-aligned fibers is the best emitter. An anode of thickness about ten micrometers improves the beam homogeneity by scattering of electrons. Next, we focused on beam propagation and focusing in the chamber. For example, a 400 keV, 4.2 kA electron beam can be propagated at constant radius in argon at 0.7 mbar. We performed simulations with the Monte Carlo code Geant4 in order to compute the beam interaction with the Cerenkov target as well as with the anode. Beam emission and propagation were simulated with the PIC code Magic. The good agreement with the experimental results allows us to estimate the electron distributions at any position along the beam path in order to initialize correctly the computation of the beam-material interaction. (author)

  17. Optimizing production of Pb beams for 205,210Pb analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookdeo, Adam; Cornett, Jack; Kieser, William E.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of rare radioactive lead isotopes (205Pb or 210Pb) by AMS requires the production of strong Pb negative molecular anion beams from the ion source. This paper summarizes the results of tests of different target composition on the strength and stability of 208PbF3- currents and 210Pb counts. In an 834 SIMS-type Cs+ sputter source, the superhalogen, PbF3- had the largest current or ionization efficiency from a survey of Pb molecular anions. The target matrix that produced the largest current of PbF3- was composed of PbF2, AgF2 and CsF. The ratio of AgF2 and CsF does not affect the ionization efficiency of PbF3-. Chemically refluxed targets of PbF2, AgF2 and CsF increased the ionization efficiency of PbF3-. The count rate of the rare isotope, 210Pb, was increased with the addition of microgram quantities of stable PbF2 to the targets. In an SO-110 type Cs+ sputter source the ionization efficiency of PbF3- was increased with lower rather than higher Cs+ fluence.

  18. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O7+ and 1.15 emA of O6+, more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar13+, Ca13+, Fe13+, Co14+, and Kr18+, and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr26+, Xe28+, Au35+, Bi34+, and U34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe36+, Au46+, Bi47+, and U48+. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. Two-pion production in proton-proton collisions with a polarized beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bary, S. Abd; El-Samad, S. Abd; Bilger, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Filippi, A.; Freiesleben, H.; Fritsch, M.; Geyer, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Hanhart, C.; Hauffe, J.; Haug, K.; Hesselbarth, D.; Jaekel, R.; Jakob, B.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Koch, H.; Kress, J.; Kuhlmann, E.; Marcello, S.; Marwinski, S.; Meier, R.; Möller, K.; Morsch, H. P.; Naumann, L.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schönmeier, P.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Schroeder, W.; Steinke, M.; Stinzing, F.; Sun, G. Y.; Wächter, J.; Wagner, G. J.; Wagner, M.; Weidlich, U.; Wilms, A.; Wintz, P.; Wirth, S.; Zhang, G.; Zupranski, P.

    2008-09-01

    The two-pion production reaction pp → ppπ+π- was measured with a polarized proton beam at T p ≈ 750 and 800MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The implementation of a delayed-pulse technique for Quirl and central calorimeter provided positive π+ identification in addition to the standard particle identification, energy determination as well as time-of-flight and angle measurements. Thus all four-momenta of the emerging particles could be determined with 1-4 overconstraints. Total and differential cross-sections as well as angular distributions of the vector analyzing power have been obtained. They are compared to previous data and theoretical calculations. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing-power values up to A y = 0.3. The data taken in the energy region of the excitation of the Roper resonance confirm that its dominant ππ decay channel is N * → Nσ.

  20. Two-pion production in proton-proton collisions with a polarized beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Bary, S.; Abd El-Samad, S.; Wintz, P. [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Cairo (Egypt); Bilger, R.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Haug, K.; Kress, J.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G.J.; Weidlich, U. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Brinkmann, K.T. [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Dshemuchadse, S. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Rossendorf (Germany); Eyrich, W.; Hauffe, J.; Schroeder, W.; Stinzing, F.; Waechter, J.; Wagner, M.; Wirth, S. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Filippi, A.; Marcello, S. [University of Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Freiesleben, H.; Jaekel, R.; Jakob, B.; Karsch, L.; Kuhlmann, E.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Sun, G.Y. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Fritsch, M. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Geyer, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Hanhart, C.; Hesselbarth, D.; Kilian, K.; Marwinski, S.; Morsch, H.P.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Koch, H.; Steinke, M.; Wilms, A. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Moeller, K.; Naumann, L. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Rossendorf (Germany); Schoenmeier, P. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Zhang, G. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Zupranski, P. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-09-15

    The two-pion production reaction pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} was measured with a polarized proton beam at T{sub p}{approx}750 and 800 MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. The implementation of a delayed-pulse technique for Quirl and central calorimeter provided positive {pi}{sup +} identification in addition to the standard particle identification, energy determination as well as time-of-flight and angle measurements. Thus all four-momenta of the emerging particles could be determined with 1-4 overconstraints. Total and differential cross-sections as well as angular distributions of the vector analyzing power have been obtained. They are compared to previous data and theoretical calculations. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing-power values up to A{sub y}=0.3. The data taken in the energy region of the excitation of the Roper resonance confirm that its dominant {pi}{pi} decay channel is N{sup *}{yields}N{sigma}. (orig.)

  1. Disinfestation of agricultural products with electron beams and their radiation tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Some agricultural products contaminated with insect pests are fumigated with methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. However, the use of methyl bromide is preferably restricted because of its ozone depleting effect. Therefore, establishing alternative quarantine techniques is highly desirable; one such technique is exposure to ionizing radiation. Few data are available on the effects of radiation on insect pests other than fruit flies and stored-product insects and on the radiation tolerance of host commodities. Radiation technology as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation will be used to inactivate not only insects but also mites, spider mites, thrips, nematodes, scales, mealybugs and thrips contaminating fruits, grains, cut flowers, vegetables, timbers, seedlings and seeds. In order to collect data on the effects of irradiation on pests and host commodities, IAEA and FAO have conducted an international project, `FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly` since 1992. The project determines the minimum doses necessary to inactivate pests and the maximum doses host commodities tolerate. All pests except nematodes can be inactivated at doses 400Gy or lower. Various varieties of cut flowers and herbs are tolerant to 400Gy of radiation, although some flowers and herbs such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, anthurium, sweet pea, iris, dill, basil and arugula are intolerant to 200Gy of radiation. Japanese research project on treatment of cut flowers with electron beams carried out mainly by Yokohama Plant Protection Station greatly contributes to these conclusions. Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose or maltose prevents radiation-induced detrimental effects of radiation on chrysanthemums. Sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums. (author)

  2. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, T.; Tsubota, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M.

    2016-06-01

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  3. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.;

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...

  4. Production of Inorganic Thin Scintillating Films for Ion Beam Monitoring Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Maurizio; Cosentino, Luigi; Cuttone, Giacomo; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Hermanne, Alex; Lojacono, Pietro A; Ma, YingJun; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jurgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Volckaerts, Bart; Vynck, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    In this work we present the development of beam monitoring devices consisting of thin CsI(Tl) films deposited on Aluminium support layers. The light emitted by the scintillating layer during the beam irradiation is measured by a CCD-camera. In a first prototype a thin Aluminium support layer of 6 micron allows the ion beam to easily pass through without significant energy loss and scattering effects. Therefore it turns out to be a non-destructive monitoring device to characterize on-line beam shape and beam position without interfering with the rest of the irradiation process. A second device consists of an Aluminium support layer which is thick enough to completely stop the impinging ions allowing to monitor at the same time the beam profile and the beam current intensity. Some samples have been coated by a 100 Å protective layer to prevent the film damage by atmosphere exposition. In this contribution we present our experimental results obtained by irradiating the samples with proton beams at 8.3 and 62 Me...

  5. Drift distance survey in direct plasma injection scheme for high current beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between a laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme, which uses a laser ion source and a radio frequency quadrupole linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration such as several tens of milliamperes, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C6+ beam was accelerated. We confirmed that matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  6. Concept of Powerful Multistage Coaxial Cyclotron for Pulsed and Continuous Beam Production

    CERN Document Server

    Tumanyan, A R; Guiragossian, Z G T; Akopov, N Z

    1999-01-01

    The concept of large-radius multistage coaxial cyclotrons having separated orbits is described, to generate proton beams of 120-2000 MeV energy at tens of GW pulsed and hundreds of MW in continuous beam power operation. Accelerated beam losses must be less than 0.1 W/m for the intercepted average beam power linear density. The concept is inherently configured to actively compensate the longitudinal and transverse space charge expansion in beam bunches. These are based on (1) actively varying the bunch acceleration equilibrium phase while maintaining isochronism, independently for each cyclotron turns; (2) independently changing the acceleration voltage for each turn together with orbit corrections that preserve isochronism; (3) independently changing the transverse betatron oscillation tune shift, to assure non-resonant operation. Also, (4) sextupole lenses are included to compensate for chromaticity effects. Moreover, the concept is based on optimum uses of practical successful results so far achieved in bea...

  7. Shaping of intensive secondary pulsed molecular beam and production of accelerated molecules and radicals in it

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, G N

    2001-01-01

    The method is described for shaping the intensive secondary pulsed molecular beam, wherein the molecules kinetic energy may be controlled through the powerful IR laser radiation by means of the molecules oscillatory excitation in the source itself. The thickening jump (the shock wave), which is formed by interaction of the intensive pulsed supersonic molecular beam (or flux) with a solid surface, is used as the secondary beam source. The intensive (>= 10 sup 2 sup 0 molecules/stere. s) beams of the SF sub 6 and CF sub 3 I molecules with the kinetic energy correspondingly equal to approximately 1.5 eV and 1.2 eV without gas-carrier and molecular SF sub 6 beams with kinetic energy approx = 2.5 eV are obtained. The spectral and energy characteristics of the SF sub 6 molecules acceleration in the secondary beam are studied. The possibility of obtaining the accelerated radicals in the secondary molecular beam is indicated

  8. Theoretical evaluation of induced radioactivity in food products by electron — or X-ray beam sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboutet, H.; Aucouturier, J.

    We evaluate first the energy density for electrons or X-ray beams necessary to produce a reference level of 1 kilogray at the maximum of dose, as a function of energy, for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons ( BX rays), based on experimental data obtained on radio-therapy beams, from 4 to 32 MeV, and irradiation beams from production plant CARIC. Then from the production of neutrons on the tungsten target and from (γ n) reactions on the deuterium content of the irradiated food, the slowing down and capture of these neutrons is estimated. Radioisotopes can be produced by (γ n) reactions on iodine, and to a lesser extent on tin, lead, barium, etc., but the major contribution is neutron activation, where the more critical elements are sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium. Induced activity is compared to natural activity coming from potassium 40, carbon 14 and radium, contained in all foods. We conclude that for electrons up to 1 Mrad the induced activity remains of the order of a few percent of natural activity, for energies below 10-11 MeV. Bremsstrahlung X-ray irradiations can give comparable levels as soon as the energy of the generating electron beam is above 3 MeV. The induced activity decays within a few days. There is only a small increase of induced activity as the energy changes from 5 to 10 MeV, for the same total applied dose.

  9. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  10. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the tertiary particle yield from secondary targets of different materials placed at the ‘filter’ position of the H2 beam line of SPS North Area are presented. The production is studied for secondary beams of different momenta in the range of 50-250 GeV/c. More specifically, we studied six different targets: two copper cylinders with a radius of 40 mm and lengths of 100 and 300 mm, one solid tungsten cylinder with a radius of 40 mm and a length of 150 mm and three polyethylene cylinders with radius of 40 mm and lengths of 550, 700 and 1000 mm. Eight different momenta of the secondary beam (50, 60, 70, 100, 120, 150, 200 and 250 GeV/c) as well as two different physics lists (QGSP_BIC and FTFP_BERT) have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is (a) to optimize (using the appropriate filter target) the particle production from the secondary targets as demanded by the experiments (b) investigate the proton production (with respect to the pion production) in the produced tertiary bea...

  11. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  12. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H. Y., E-mail: zhaohy@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, W.; Wang, G. C. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  13. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  14. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm−2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications

  15. Production of an intense microsecond electron beam with large cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the investigation of the shaping of a high-current rectangular electron beam whose current is of the order of maximum diode current, in the absence of a guiding magnetic fields as well as 'fast' storage in the power supply circuit. Numeric calculations and experiments were carried out to produce a microsecond electron beam with 500-600 keV electron energy, 50-70 kA current and 25x100 cm2 cross section in a vacuum diode. The obtained results points to a possible successful development of microsecond high-current diodes to be used for generating electron beams of large cross section

  16. Electron beam sterilization of medical products. The effects of irradiation on surgical rubber gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage of five commercially produced rubber gloves using electron beam and γ- rays from Cobalt-60 have been investigated in relation to radiation sterilization. Samples were irraadiated up to 100 kGy. The radiation damage of rubber gloves was ssmaller in electron beam than γ- rays. Good retention in tensile strength (T sub b) and elongation at break (E sub b) were observed even after six months storage. Higher beam currents (higher dose rate) above 5 mA was favourable for sterilization of rubber gloves because of smaller degradation. The tensile strength and elongation of the irradiated rubber gloves is still withinAM/N

  17. Plasma and Beam Production Experiments with HYBRIS, a Microwave-assisted H- Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage ion source concept had been presented a few years ago, consisting of a proven H- ion source and a 2.45-GHz Electron Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) type ion source, here used as a plasma cathode. This paper describes the experimental development path pursued at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, from the early concept to a working unit that produces plasma in both stages and creates a negative particle beam. Without cesiation applied to the second stage, the H- fraction of this beam is very low, yielding 75 micro-amperes of extracted ion beam current at best. The apparent limitations of this approach and envisaged improvements are discussed

  18. Production of polarized negative deuterium ion beam with dual optical pumping in KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsho, M.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Y.

    1997-02-01

    To obtain highly nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam, a dual optically pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source has been developed at KEK. It is possible to select a pure nuclear-spin state with this scheme, and negative deuterium ion beam with 100% nuclear-spin vector polarization can be produced in principle. We have obtained about 70% of nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam so far. This result may open up a new possibilities for the optically pumped polarized ion source. (author)

  19. Associated vector boson production with b-jets at LHCb and Beam-Gas Vertexing at LHC for beam instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00287090

    This thesis presents the cross-section measurements of associated vector bosons production with bottom quarks jets at 7 and 8 TeV of centre-of-mass energies. The first channel for cross-section measurement is the Z+b-jet with $Z/\\gamma^* \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt s = \\text {7 TeV}$ using data collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011. The second channel is the $W + b\\overline b$, requiring two b-jets and one lepton. Apart from cross-section measurement this channel is also used to calculate limits of the Higgs boson produced in association with a vector boson and decaying into a pair of bottom or charm quarks. One of the main source of systematic errors in these analyses is the jet energy resolution and correction. Reduction of this error is achieved by performing a calibration of the neutral jet energy component, named neutral recovery, where empirical functions of the ratio between the charged particle energy of the jet and the particle momentum are determined. This method improv...

  20. Progress in the production of intense ion beams and the formation of proton layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results on ion sources and the application of ion beams to the formation of proton layers and rings are presented. Ion beams have been produced on three different generators. Some results from the experiments performed on the Gamble 2 generator are presented. The Gamble 2 generator with coaxial anode-cathode configuration, hollow beam cross-section produces power levels of 0.6-1.2 MV with peak ion current of 200 kA. The number of protons in the beam 4x1016. Peak ion currents is excess 200 kA, energy 1 MeV, ion current density 1 kA/cm2. Magnetic field configuration to provide formation of strong proton layers is shown

  1. Production of multicharged metal ion beams on the first stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Shogo; Nagaya, Tomoki; Nishiokada, Takuya; Otsuka, Takuro; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi

    2016-02-01

    Multicharged metal ion beams are required to be applied in a wide range of fields. We aim at synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene by transporting iron ion beams from the first stage into the fullerene plasma in the second stage of the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). We developed new evaporators by using a direct ohmic heating method and a radiation heating method from solid state pure metal materials. We investigate their properties in the test chamber and produce iron ions on the first stage of the tandem-type ECRIS. As a result, we were successful in extracting Fe+ ion beams from the first stage and introducing Fe+ ion beams to the second stage. We will try synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene on the tandem-type ECRIS by using these evaporators.

  2. Production of multicharged metal ion beams on the first stage of tandem-type ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Shogo, E-mail: hagino@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagaya, Tomoki; Nishiokada, Takuya; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Multicharged metal ion beams are required to be applied in a wide range of fields. We aim at synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene by transporting iron ion beams from the first stage into the fullerene plasma in the second stage of the tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). We developed new evaporators by using a direct ohmic heating method and a radiation heating method from solid state pure metal materials. We investigate their properties in the test chamber and produce iron ions on the first stage of the tandem-type ECRIS. As a result, we were successful in extracting Fe{sup +} ion beams from the first stage and introducing Fe{sup +} ion beams to the second stage. We will try synthesizing iron-endohedral fullerene on the tandem-type ECRIS by using these evaporators.

  3. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  4. Preliminary consideration of a double, 480 GeV, fast cycling proton accelerator for production of neutrino beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We propose to build the DSF-MR (Double Super-Ferric Main Ring), 480 GeV, fast-cycling (2 second repetition rate) two-beam proton accelerator in the Main Ring tunnel of Fermilab. This accelerator design is based on the super-ferric magnet technology developed for the VLHC, and extended recently to the proposed LER injector for the LHC and fast cycling SF-SPS at CERN. The DSF-MR accelerator system will constitute the final stage of the proton source enabling production of two neutrino beams separated by 2 second time period. These beams will be sent alternately to two detectors located at {approx} 3000 km and {approx} 7500 km away from Fermilab. It is expected that combination of the results from these experiments will offer more than 3 order of magnitudes increased sensitivity for detection and measurement of neutrino oscillations with respect to expectations in any current experiment, and thus may truly enable opening the window into the physics beyond the Standard Model. We examine potential sites for the long baseline neutrino detectors accepting beams from Fermilab. The current injection system consisting of 400 MeV Linac, 8 GeV Booster and the Main Injector can be used to accelerate protons to 45 GeV before transferring them to the DSF-MR. The implementation of the DSF-MR will allow for an 8-fold increase in beam power on the neutrino production target. In this note we outline the proposed new arrangement of the Fermilab accelerator complex. We also briefly describe the DSF-MR magnet design and its power supply, and discuss necessary upgrade of the Tevatron RF system for the use with the DSF-MR accelerator. Finally, we outline the required R&D, cost estimate and possible timeline for the implementation of the DSF-MR accelerator.

  5. Measurement of the \\Sigma\\ beam asymmetry for the \\omega\\ photo-production off the proton and the neutron at GRAAL

    CERN Document Server

    Vegna, V; Bartalini, O; Bellini, V; Boquet, J P; Capogni, M; Casano, L E; Castoldi, M; Curciarello, F; De Leo, V; Didelez, J P; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Lapik, A; Sandri, P Levi; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Moricciani, D; Mushkarenkov, A; Nedorezov, V; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Zonta, I

    2013-01-01

    We report on new measurements of the beam asymmetry for \\omega\\ photo-production on proton and neutron in Hydrogen and Deuterium targets from the GRAAL collaboration. The beam asymmetry values are extracted from the reaction threshold (E_{\\gamma} = 1.1 GeV in the free nucleon kinematics) up to 1.5 GeV of incoming photon energy. For the first time both the radiative and the three-pion decay channels are simultaneously investigated on the free proton. Results from the two decay channels are in agreement and provide important constraints for the determination of resonant state contributions to the \\omega\\ production mechanism. First experimental results on the deuteron allow the extraction of the \\Sigma\\ beam asymmetry on quasi-free nucleons. Comparison of the results for free and quasi-free kinematics on the proton shows a generally reasonable agreement, similar to the findings in pseudo-scalar meson photo-production reactions. For the first time measurements on quasi-free neutrons are available, showing that b...

  6. Measurement of neutral current coherent neutral pion production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kurimoto, Y; Brice, S J; Bugel, L; Catala-Perez, J; Cheng, G; Conrad, J M; Djurcic, Z; Dore, U; Finley, D A; Franke, A J; Giganti, C; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Guzowski, P; Hanson, A; Hayato, Y; Hiraide, K; Jover-Manas, G; Karagiorgi, G; Katori, T; Kobayashi, Y K; Kobilarcik, T; Kubo, H; Louis, W C; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Mahn, K B M; Mariani, C; Masuike, S; Matsuoka, K; McGary, V T; Metcalf, W; Mills, G B; Mitsuka, G; Miyachi, Y; Mizugashira, S; Moore, C D; Nakajima, Y; Nakaya, T; Napora, R; Nienaber, P; Orme, D; Otani, M; Russell, A D; Sanchez, F; Shaevitz, M H; Shibata, T -A; Sorel, M; Stefanski, R J; Takei, H; Tanaka, H -K; Tanaka, M; Tayloe, R; Taylor, I J; Tesarek, R J; Uchida, Y; Van de Water, R; Walding, J J; Wascko, M O; White, H B; Wilking, M J; Yokoyama, M; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2010-01-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of neutral current coherent neutral pion production on carbon by a muon neutrino beam with average energy 0.8 GeV. The separation of coherent from inclusive neutral pion production has been improved by detecting recoil protons from resonant neutral pion production. We measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent neutral pion production to total charged current cross sections to be (1.16 +/- 0.24) x 10-2. The ratio of charged current coherent pion to neutral current coherent pion production is calculated to be 0.14+0.30 -0.28, using our published charged current coherent pion measurement.

  7. Measurement of neutral current neutral pion production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Kurimoto, Y

    2009-01-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration has measured neutral current neutral pion production by the muon neutrino beam at a polystyrene target (C8H8). We obtained (7.7+- 0.5(stat.)+0.4-0.5 (sys.)) x 10^-2 as cross section ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section at the mean neutrino energy of 1.16 GeV. This result is consistent with the Monte Carlo prediction based on the Rein-Sehgal model

  8. Production and diagnosis of krypton ion beam using a freeman ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work investigates the processes and phenomena occur in a Freeman heavy ion source system using krypton gas. The ion source parameters are adjusted in order to obtain the desired beam current with highest efficiency. The relations between the discharge current Id and the ion beam current Ib are obtained at constant pressures and for various accelerating voltages. The curves indicate a linear dependence of ion current from plasma density. Optimization of the ion source required adjustment of the cathode current and gas pressure. The dependence of ion beam currents on the accelerating voltage is given at constant discharge current (la = 0.8 A) and for various pressures. The ion beam current reaches 3m A at 45 KV and at a pressure of 2 x 105 Torr, and a cathode current equal to 130 A. An analysis has been made for an implanted Krypton ion beam in a zinc specimen using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Photographs show the examined zinc specimen are presented. The depth profile shows that the highest concentration of Krypton ion under the surface of the zinc specimen is located at about 10 nm

  9. Production of a high-current microsecond electron beam with a large cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obtaining high-current wide-aperture electron beams is an important problem in the development of laser technology for controlled nuclear fusion and for solving ecological and technological problems. The main scheme for producing such beams involves the use of generators with intermediate energy storage devices and burst-emission vacuum diodes. Beam pinching is prevented by using an external magnetic field or sectioning the diode into magnetically insulated diodes with currents lower than the limiting current. The length of the electron-current pulse varies from tens to hundreds of nano-seconds and is limited by the parameters of the intermediate storage device. Here the authors study the formation of a high-current electron beam with a square cross section and a current of the order of the limiting current of the diode in the absence of an external magnetic field as well as a 'fast' storage device in the power supply circuit. These conditions as a whole correspond to a simpler electron-source circuit, but the beam forming becomes more complicated. The reason for this is that there is no external magnetic field and that the role of plasma processes in the diode is enhanced by the greater length of the electron-current pulses

  10. Production of uniform ion beam of large area in a magnetically-insulatd diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental investigation of a magnetically insulated diode generating a powerful ribbon ion beam with 100x10 cm cross section are presented. Modification of the known diode designs allowed to provide the constancy of the electric and magnetic field by the anode length and uniform generation of the ion beam over the larger part of its length. At the same time these measures have decreased considerably electron losses in the anode up to 1-2 A/cm2 that reduces the efficiency of anode plasma formation during the first part of a high-voltage pulse. At 500 kV anode voltage the ion current amplitude is 18 kA, the beam-out energy - 460 J, the efficiency of ion generation - 85%

  11. Production of slow positron beam with small diameter using electron linac in Osaka University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Yoshihide; Sawada, Junichi; Yamada, Masaki; Maekawa, Masaki; Okuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Yoichi; Isoyama, Goro; Tagawa, Seiichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Yamamoto, Takayoshi

    1997-03-01

    A slow positron facility using an electron linac was designed and constructed. The specifications were mainly decided by numerical calculations. The slow positrons are transported along magnetic field line. The cross sectional size of slow positron beam is 1-2cm and the maximum conversion rate from electron to positron is about 1.5 x 10{sup -6}. This value is about 1/4 of ideal case in our system. Extraction of slow positron beam from magnetic field region was made and preliminary brightness enhancement experiment was also performed. (author)

  12. Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with $\\gamma$ Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in $(\\gamma,x{\\rm n}+y{\\rm p})$ photonuclear reactions or ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) photoexcitation reactions with high flux [($10^{13}-10^{15}$)$\\gamma$/s], small diameter $\\sim (100 \\, \\mu$m$)^2$ and small band width ($\\Delta E/E \\approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}$) $\\gamma$ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,$x$n$ + y$p) reactions with (ion=p,d,$\\alpha$) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,$\\gamma$) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow $\\gamma$ beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ isomer production via specially selected $\\gamma$ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground st...

  13. Investigation of multi-charged heavy ion production in an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of multi-charged heavy ions produced in an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) were carried out with a test model ion source 20 cm in length. This test model utilized an electron gun placed external to the bore of the focusing solenoid in order to achieve electrostatically focussed electron beams and isolation of the vacuum surrounding the electron gun from the vacuum in the ionization region within the solenoid bore. An ultrahigh vacuum system utilizing liquid nitrogen (770K) cryopumping was used to achieve the low pressures needed in the ionization region for the operation of this ion source. Several technical problems limited the operation of this test model and prevented a thorough investigation of the ionization processes in the ion source, but the experimental results have shown qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations for the operation of this type of ion source. Even with the problems of an insufficient vacuum and electron beam focussing field, measurable currents of C+5 and A+8 ions were produced. The present experimental results suggest that the approach taken in this work of using an external electron gun and cryopumping in the EBIS to achieve the large electron beam current density and low vacuum necessary for successful operation is a viable one. Such an ion source can be used to create highly-charged heavy ions for injection into a cyclotron or other type of particle accelerator

  14. Investigation of multi-charged heavy ion production in an electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, R.W.

    1977-12-01

    Measurements of multi-charged heavy ions produced in an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) were carried out with a test model ion source 20 cm in length. This test model utilized an electron gun placed external to the bore of the focusing solenoid in order to achieve electrostatically focussed electron beams and isolation of the vacuum surrounding the electron gun from the vacuum in the ionization region within the solenoid bore. An ultrahigh vacuum system utilizing liquid nitrogen (77/sup 0/K) cryopumping was used to achieve the low pressures needed in the ionization region for the operation of this ion source. Several technical problems limited the operation of this test model and prevented a thorough investigation of the ionization processes in the ion source, but the experimental results have shown qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations for the operation of this type of ion source. Even with the problems of an insufficient vacuum and electron beam focussing field, measurable currents of C/sup +5/ and A/sup +8/ ions were produced. The present experimental results suggest that the approach taken in this work of using an external electron gun and cryopumping in the EBIS to achieve the large electron beam current density and low vacuum necessary for successful operation is a viable one. Such an ion source can be used to create highly-charged heavy ions for injection into a cyclotron or other type of particle accelerator.

  15. Voluminous D2 source for intense cold neutron beam production at the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, K.; Mezei, F.;

    2014-01-01

    target for the complementary needs of certain fundamental physics experiments. To facilitate experiments depending on the total number of neutrons in a sizable beam, the option of a voluminous D2 moderator, in a large cross-section extraction guide is discussed and its neutronic performance is assessed....

  16. Studies on the production of high energy densities in matter by intense heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the present thesis the interaction of an intense heavy-ion beam with a small, but macroscopical amount of matter is studied. Thereby high energy densities in the target matter are produced. For this experiment it was for the first time possible to heat matter with ion beams from conventional heavy-ion accelerators up to plasma conditions. A KR+-ion beam was first accelerated with the heavy-ion accelerator MAXILAC to 45 keV/u and then focussed by a fine-focusing lens to a closed xenon gas target. The light emitted from the target was space- and time resolved taken up by a spectrometer as well as by a streak and CCD camera. Thereby the radial development of the plasma and the penetration behaviour of the ion beam was observed. The free electron density of the plasma was determined from the Stark broadening of emission lines (ne ≅ 4x1016 cm-3). The temperature could be determined by different methods (shock-wave velocity, degree of ionization, line ratios). The electron temperature amounted in the center of the pipe to kT ≅ 0.75 eV. For the opacity of the target by which the emitted light power is determined under the assumption of the two-dimensional model (equilibrium between emitted and absorbed energy) the value κp ≅ 7700 cm2/g resulted. (orig./HSI)

  17. Photostop: Production of zero-velocity molecules by photodissociation in a molecular beam

    CERN Document Server

    Trottier, Alexandre; Wrede, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated a new, accessible and economical technique, dubbed photostop, for producing high densities of trappable molecules. Direct measurements are presented of NO molecules produced with a narrow velocity distribution centered at zero in the laboratory frame. NO2, initially cooled in a pulsed molecular beam, is photodissociated such that the recoil velocity of the NO photofragments cancels out the velocity of the beam. NO(X^2Pi_3/2, v=0, J=1.5) molecules are observed up to 10 mircoseconds after the dissociation event in the probe volume at an estimated density of 1E7 cm-3 per quantum state and at a translational temperature of 1.6 K. Through the choice of suitable precursors, photostop has the potential to extend the list atoms and molecules that can be slowed or trapped. It should be possible to accumulate density in a trap through consecutive loading of multiple pulses.

  18. Production of beams from solid materials at Center for Nuclear Study electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Y.; Yamaka, S.; Watanabe, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kotaka, Y.; Nishimura, M.; Kase, M.; Muto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimoura, S.

    2014-02-01

    Two methods for the feed of vapor from solid materials in the Center for Nuclear Study ECR ion source are described. A rod placed near the wall of the plasma chamber, operating up to a melting point of 2600 °C, has been used for CaO, SiO2, and FeO. An oven with a number of openings, operating up to 800 °C, has been used for P2O5, Li, and S. Typical ion beam intensities of 7Li2+, 6Li3+, 40Ca12+, and 56Fe15+ are achieved 280, 75, 28, and 7 eμA, respectively. High intensity heavy ion beams are stably supplied into the azimuthally varying field cyclotron.

  19. Laser ion beam production at CERN-ISOLDE: New features - More possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, S.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Rossel, R. E.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Veinhard, M.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2016-06-01

    This article summarizes the current specifications and the latest features of the CERN-ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This includes a description of the optical layout and the newly designed reference system. The ionization schemes for the laser ionized beams at ISOLDE are tabulated, including six new elements. All RILIS schemes are also made publicly available in the RILIS elements on-line database. Finally, we announce a paradigm shift in RILIS operation - the combination of a machine protection and a monitoring and control system has enabled on-call operation of the laser ion source for selected beams in 2014 and has become the standard mode of operation in 2015.

  20. Off-line production of intense {sup 7,10}Be{sup +} beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. E-mail: ulli.koster@cern.ch; Argentini, M.; Catherall, R.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Jonsson, O.C.; Weinreich, R

    2003-05-01

    {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be were produced by 590 MeV proton bombardment of a graphite target at PSI. Parts of this graphite target were transferred into an ISOLDE target and ion source unit and ionized with the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source. Thus intense radioactive ion beams of 300 nA of {sup 7,10}Be{sup +} were produced off-line.

  1. Off-line production of intense $^{7,10}Be^{+}$ beams

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Gäggeler, H W; Jonsson, O C; Weinreich, R

    2003-01-01

    $^7$Be and $^{10}$Be were produced by 590~MeV proton bombardment of a graphite target at PSI. Parts of this graphite target were transferred into an ISOLDE target and ion source unit and ionized with the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). Thus intense radioactive ion beams of 300~nA of $^{7,10}$Be$^+$ were produced off-line.

  2. Ab initio molecular orbital characterization of dimethyl group-III azides as sources for photolytic production of free radical beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of a beam of biradicaloid such as dialkyl group-III nitrene produced by the method of photodissociation of energetic compound beams (PDECB) is expected to be advantageous to the low-temperature thin-film growth of stoichiometric group-III nitride. Through the clarification of fundamental processes involved in pyrolysis as well as photolysis of dimethylgallium azide [(CH3)2GaN3], dimethylaluminum azide [(CH3)2AlN3], and dimethylboron azide [(CH3)2BN3] based on post-self-consistent field ab initio molecular orbital methods, we discuss the suitability of these possible source compounds for the production of beams of dimethylgalliumnitrene [(CH3)2GaN], dimethylaluminumnitrene [(CH3)2AlN], and dimethylboronnitrene [(CH3)2BN] by the PDECB method. The theoretical results suggested that (CH3)2GaN3 is a promising PDECB source material in that this molecule possesses the nature of unimolecular metastable dye

  3. First Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in $\\Delta$ Resonance Production by $Q_{\\rm weak}$

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry ($B_{\\rm n}$) is generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nuclei. The asymmetry arises from the interference of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange with the one-photon exchange amplitude. The $Q_{\\rm weak}$ experiment has made the first measurement of $B_{\\rm n}$ in the production of the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance, using the $Q_{\\rm weak}$ apparatus in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, is $B_{\\rm n}$ = 43 $\\pm$ 16 ppm at beam energy 1.16 GeV at an average scattering angle of about 8.3 degrees, and invariant mass of 1.2 GeV. The measured preliminary $B_{\\rm n}$ agrees with a preliminary theoretical calculation. $B_{\\rm n}$ for the $\\Delta$ is the only known observable that is sensitive to the $\\Delta$ elastic form-factors ($\\gamma$*$\\Delta\\Delta$) in addition to the generally studied transition form-factors ($\\gamma$*N...

  4. Production of Dynamic Frozen Waves: Controlling shape, location (and speed) of diffraction-resistant beams

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Tárcio A; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, we experimentally realized a quite efficient modeling of the shape of diffraction-resistant optical beams; thus generating for the first time the so-called Frozen Waves (FW), whose longitudinal intensity pattern can be arbitrarily chosen, within a prefixed space interval of the propagation axis. Such waves possess a host of potential applications: in medicine, biomedical optics, optical tweezers, atom guiding, remote sensing, tractor beams, optical communications or metrology, and other topics in photonic areas. In this work, we extend our theory of FWs -- which led to beams endowed with a static envelope -- through a dynamic modeling of the FWs, whose shape is now allowed to evolve in time in a predetermined way. And we experimentally create such dynamic FWs in Optics, via a computational holographic technique and a spatial light modulator. Experimental results are here presented for two cases of dynamic FWs, one of the zeroth and the other of higher order, the last one being the most intere...

  5. Annular electron beam production on gamble II using a magnetically insulated splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annular electron beams have been tested using a post-hole convolute or magnetically insulated splitter (MIS) to feed current to both sides of a ring cathode. Beams were produced on the BLACKJACK 3 generator using a coaxial feed and from BLACKJACK 5 with a triplate feed. On BLACKJACK 3, annular cathodes with 5 cm and 10 cm mean diameters were tested. The cathodes were fed in four places by a MIS. The cathodes were 1.2 cm wide made from stainless steel or brass. Typical anode/cathode gap spacings were 0.6 cm. Experiments were performed at power levels of about 0.6 TW and energies of 30-40 kJ. Typical voltages were 0:6-1 MV with currents of about 0.8 MA. Diagnostics were diode voltage, diode current, and an X-ray pinhole camera. For the 10 cm cathode, current was measured before and after the MIS. The current on each side of the ring was measured separately. The beam voltage was determined from the diode voltage by an inductive correction. The annular beams had a linear current density of about 30 kA/cm and about 60 kA/cm for the 10 cm and 5 cm, respectively. The beam diameter at the cathode could be varied by changing the inductance on each side of the ring cathode and thereby the current balance. The impedance behavior could be modeled using the critical current formulation with a closure velocity of 3.5-4.5 cm/us. The BLACKJACK 5 geometry was a triplate feed. The ring cathode was fed by generators of 0.5 and 0.75 Ω, respectively. The MIS was used to combine the power before the cathode. The cathode had a mean diameter of 25 cm and width of 1.5-3 cm. Experiments were performed at power levels up to about6 TW and energies greater than or equal to200 kJ. Typical operating parameters were about 2 MV and 3 MA

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on the production and use of intense radioactive beams at the Isospin Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J.D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    These proceedings report the deliberations of a 3 1/2 day workshop on the Production and Use of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams at the Isospin Laboratory, which was held at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1992. The purpose of this workshop was not to duplicate the programs of other recent radioactive ion beam workshops or international conferences that have focused on the scientific concepts which radioactive beams can, and in fact already are, addressing. Instead, the intent was to address the technical problems associated with the construction of the next generation ISOL facility and to initiate a discussion of the type of experimental equipment that should be developed for such a facility. We have tried to bring together in Oak Ridge the world`s experts in radioactive targets/ion sources, light and heavy-ion accelerators, and detection systems. After 1 1/2 days of overview presentations, the participants divided into three discussion groups (Experiments with Radioactive Beams, Target Ion Sources and Mass Separation, and Accelerators-Primary and Secondary) for 1 1/2 days of detailed discussions of the most pertinent issues. The final session was devoted to reports from each of the discussion groups and a general discussion of where to go from here. An outgrowth of these discussions was the establishment of working groups to coordinate future technical developments associated with the pertinent issues. The proceedings include the text of all the overview presentations, reports from each discussion group, as well as contributions from those participants who chose to provide the text of their presentations in the discussion groups and the Concluding Remarks. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on the production and use of intense radioactive beams at the Isospin Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings report the deliberations of a 3 1/2 day workshop on the Production and Use of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams at the Isospin Laboratory, which was held at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1992. The purpose of this workshop was not to duplicate the programs of other recent radioactive ion beam workshops or international conferences that have focused on the scientific concepts which radioactive beams can, and in fact already are, addressing. Instead, the intent was to address the technical problems associated with the construction of the next generation ISOL facility and to initiate a discussion of the type of experimental equipment that should be developed for such a facility. We have tried to bring together in Oak Ridge the world's experts in radioactive targets/ion sources, light and heavy-ion accelerators, and detection systems. After 1 1/2 days of overview presentations, the participants divided into three discussion groups (Experiments with Radioactive Beams, Target Ion Sources and Mass Separation, and Accelerators-Primary and Secondary) for 1 1/2 days of detailed discussions of the most pertinent issues. The final session was devoted to reports from each of the discussion groups and a general discussion of where to go from here. An outgrowth of these discussions was the establishment of working groups to coordinate future technical developments associated with the pertinent issues. The proceedings include the text of all the overview presentations, reports from each discussion group, as well as contributions from those participants who chose to provide the text of their presentations in the discussion groups and the Concluding Remarks. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  8. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation; Production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs chimiquement reactifs par separation en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joinet, A

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO{sub 2}, Nb, Ti, V,TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}, ThO{sub 2}, C, ZrC{sub 4} and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target.

  9. Production of a high energy beam of multiply charged Cn+60 ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time fullerene ions have been accelerated to high energy (14-50 MeV). Negative ions of C-60 were produced in the ion source with a Cs gun and injected into the tandem accelerator. The change of charge from negative to positive was achieved in a N2 gas cell at the high voltage terminal before the second acceleration. To identify the accelerated molecular ions, the injected beam was pulsed, and time of flight measurements were performed. Unambiguous mass and charge assignments were obtained

  10. Production of highly charged argon ions from a room temperature electron beam ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tie-Shan; PENG Hai-Bo; Ovsyannikov V P; Kentsch U; Ullmann F; CHENG Rui; Zschornack G

    2008-01-01

    In this work.highly charged ions have been extracted from the advanced Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS-A) developed in a scientific cooperation between the Dresden University of Technology and the DREEBIT GmbH Dresden.The charge state distributions of ions extracted from the EBIS-A are measured in and extracted in the leaky mode.3×105 Ar18+ ions per pulse are extracted in the pulse mode.The ion charge state distribution is a function of the ionization time.

  11. Ion-beam therapy: from electron production in tissue like media to DNA damage estimations

    CERN Document Server

    Scifoni, Emanuele; Solov'yov, Andrey; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Radiation damage induced by ion beams is traditionally treated at different levels of theoretical approaches, for the different scales and mechanisms involved.We present here details of a combined approach that, from a method at a nanoscopic scale, attempts to merge with higher scales existing results, by tuning the analytical method employed when extended to larger scale and so yielding a consistent picture of the entire process. Results will show the possibility to get a good agreement with macroscale methods and, on the other hand, to produce a reliable electron energy spectra to be used for DNA damage estimations.

  12. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  13. Measurement of D*± production at low Q2 with the beam-pipe calorimeter of ZEUS at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic ep-scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The total D* production cross-section and the differential cross-sections as functions of Q2, y, pt(D*) and η(D*) have been measured at low Q2. The data sample used was collected during the period 1998-2000 and amounts to an integrated luminosity of 82.2 pb-1. The low Q2 region could be reached using the beam-pipe calorimeter which measures the scattered electron at very small angles. Therefore special emphasis was put on the calibration of the BPC in order to reconstruct events in the kinematic range 0.05 2 2 and 0.02 *+→K-π+π- and the charged conjugated decay in the kinematic region 1.5t(D*)2 in agreement with the corresponding perturbative QCD predictions. (orig.)

  14. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  15. Ion beam production with sub-milligram samples of material from an ECR source for AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.; Bauder, W.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2016-02-01

    Current accelerator mass spectrometry experiments at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility at Argonne National Laboratory push us to improve the ion source performance with a large number of samples and a need to minimize cross contamination. These experiments can require the creation of ion beams from as little as a few micrograms of material. These low concentration samples push the limit of our current efficiency and stability capabilities of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. A combination of laser ablation and sputtering techniques coupled with a newly modified multi-sample changer has been used to meet this demand. We will discuss performance, stability, and consumption rates as well as planned improvements.

  16. Production and crosslinking of multi-layer tubes (PE & metal) by E-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyball, Alfred

    2000-03-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of PE-tubes has been used for heating floors for about 25 years. Such tubes are also used today for drinking water supply. A further development has been the coating of such tubes with Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol-Copolymers (EVAL), in order to prevent oxygen diffusion into the water through the PE tube. For about 15 years composite tubes made of PE and aluminum have been available. These tubes are crosslinked with electron beams. The energy of the accelerated electrons must be adjusted for the particular tube configuration, so that the inner PE-layer will be crosslinked. This paper will concern itself with the manufacture and the crosslinking of composite tubes.

  17. The production of dense lead-ion beams for the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; Chanel, M; MacCaferri, R; Molinari, G; Maury, S; Möhl, D; Tranquille, G

    2000-01-01

    To reach the design luminosity for lead-ions in the LHC, the present Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) has to be converted into a Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). Since the present ECR lead-ion source does not provide sufficient intensity, the main goal of LEIR is to act as a low-energy (4.2MeV/u) accumulator where the ion beam is stacked and cooled (with the help of an electron-cooler) to reach the required intensity and emittances. An experimental program has been carried out at LEAR in recent years in order to test the cooling and stacking process with the present electron-cooler. A variety of results have been reported at previous conferences. This paper will focus on the electron cooling aspects resulting from the afore mentioned experiments. Taking into account the experience

  18. Ion beam production with sub-milligram samples of material from an ECR source for AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R., E-mail: scott@phy.anl.gov; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R. [Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bauder, W. [Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nuclear Structure Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Current accelerator mass spectrometry experiments at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility at Argonne National Laboratory push us to improve the ion source performance with a large number of samples and a need to minimize cross contamination. These experiments can require the creation of ion beams from as little as a few micrograms of material. These low concentration samples push the limit of our current efficiency and stability capabilities of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. A combination of laser ablation and sputtering techniques coupled with a newly modified multi-sample changer has been used to meet this demand. We will discuss performance, stability, and consumption rates as well as planned improvements.

  19. Distribution of products in polymer materials induced by ion-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Masaki; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hama, Yoshimasa; Hamanaka, Ken-ichi; Matsumoto, Hideya

    1997-03-01

    The depth profile of double bond formed in low density polyethylene (LDPE) sheet by ion beams irradiation was observed by a micro FT-IR spectrometer in order to investigate the linear energy transfer (LET) dependency on radiation effects to polymer materials. The distribution of double bond formation in LDPE by irradiation of light ions as H+ was found to be same with the dose distribution calculated from TRIM code, and the yield was also same with that by gamma-rays irradiation, which means that the LET dependency is very small. However, the distribution of double bond to depth was much different from the calculated depth-dose in heavy ions irradiation as Ar and Kr. Then, the dose evaluation was difficult from the TRIM code calculation for heavy ions. (author)

  20. Production of shower particles from various beam collisions with different emulsion targets

    CERN Document Server

    Elnagdy, M S

    2003-01-01

    The reaction cross sections for 4.5 A GeV/cP, d, sup 4 He, sup 6 He, sup 6 Li, sup 7 Li, sup 1 sup 2 C, sup 1 sup 6 C, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 4 Mg, sup 2 sup * Si and sup 3 sup 2 S beams with different chemical components of emulsion nuclei are studied with high statistics, and compared with the calculations according to Glauber model. The multiplicity distributions of shower produced particles from the interactions with light and heavy emulsion nuclei are analyzed in terms of the negative binomial and Poisson laws. Some of the present negative binomial parameters agree with the corresponding ones obtained from the propane bubble chamber.

  1. Production and detection of neutral molecular beams : from single amino acids to biomolecular complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a laser desorption source for neutral organic molecules and clusters as well as the first exploration of a superconducting single photon detector for the detection of massive neutral particles. Whereas the source can produce beams of biomolecules for various gas-phase applications, the detector can be used to overcome the current post- ionization detection mass limit of neutral molecules. The aim of our work is to produce and detect neutral molecular gas-phase beams, ranging from small amino acids overlarge polypeptides to massive complexes. The purpose of creating these beams is to use them for quantum optics experiments, like near field matter wave interference and its applications in metrology. Standard effusive sources usually lack the ability to cool the evaporated organic molecules fast enough to prevent fragmentation. In contrast to that, the presented laser desorption source cools the initially evaporated molecules by embedding them into a supersonic seed gas beam. The mixing of the seed gas and the desorbed molecules is implemented both in free expansion as well as inside a closed mixing channel. The desorbed neutral molecules are detected by photo-ionization using UV (266 nm) and FUV (157 nm) light followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For the amino acid tryptophan (204amu) and for the antibiotic polypeptide gramicidin (1884amu) the ion yields for both photo-ionization wavelengths are examined and the ionization cross sections for the UV wavelength are measured. In case of tryptophan the ionization yield is comparable for both wavelengths, whereas gramicidin is detected fifteen times more efficiently under VUV ionization than for UV ionization at equal intensity. Desorption of heavier molecules than gramicidin never resulted in a detectable ion yield, which confirms the known inefficiency for the post-ionization of isolated large organic molecules [1-3]. The desorption source is also used for the formation of large neutral

  2. Enhancement of Gongronella sp. JG Chitosanase Production by Ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hang; ZHOU Wei; WANG Jun; ZHANG Shuqing; YAO Jianming

    2007-01-01

    Gongronella sp. JG was a fungal strain which expressed extracellular chitosanase of about 800 U/L during its growth in production medium. To improve its enzyme production, low energy N+ implantation was employed to mutate spores of JG. The implantation condition was optimized and the parameters of 15 keV and 60 × 2.6 × 1013 ions/cm2 were selected for further breeding experiments. A mutant designated as SG was obtained. It showed increased chitosanase production (1800 U/L) and shortened cultivation period (from 72 h to 60 h). Five-generation cultivation of SG indicated that its chitosanase production was stable at about 1800 U/L.

  3. "DIAGNOSTIC" PULSE FOR SINGLE-PARTICLE-LIKE BEAM POSITION MEASUREMENTS DURING ACCUMULATION/PRODUCTION MODE IN THE LOS ALAMOS PROTON STORAGE RING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolski, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bjorklund, Eric A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Gerald O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hall, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Sung I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Martin P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prokop, Mark S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shelley, Fred E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torrez, Phillip A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-14

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are the primary diagnostic in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). When injecting one turn, the transversemotion is approximated as a single particle with initial betatron position and angle {rvec x}{sub 0} and {rvec x}'{sub 0}. With single-turn injection, we fit the betatron tune, closed orbit (CO), and injection offset ({rvec x}{sub 0} and {rvec x}'{sub 0} at the injection point) to the turn-by-turn beam position. In production mode, we accumulate multiple turns, the transverse phase space fills after 5 injections (horizontal and vertical fractional betatron tunes {approx}0.2) resulting in no coherent betatron motion, and only the CO may be measured. The injection offset, which determines the accumulated beam size and is very sensitive to steering upstream of the ring, is not measurable in production mode. We describe our approach and ongoing efforts to measure the injection offset during production mode by injecting a 'diagnostic' pulse {approx}50 {micro}s after the accumulated beam is extracted. We also study the effects of increasing the linac RF gate length to accommodate the diagnostic pulse on the production beam position, transverse size, and loss.

  4. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Gong, Guohong; Wu, Hefang; Liu, Hongxia; Tan, Mu; Li, Zhemin

    2015-02-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h.

  5. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h. (plasma technology)

  6. $K^0 \\Lambda$ and $D^- \\Lambda_c^+$ production induced by pion beams off the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Hosaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the pion induced production of $K^0 \\Lambda$ and $D^- \\Lambda_c^+$ off the nucleon. A hybrid framework is utilized by combining an effective Lagrangian method with a Regge approach. We consider the $t$-channel process in a plannar diagram by vector-meson Reggeon exchanges and the $u$-channel one in a non-planar diagram by baryon Reggeon exchanges. The present model reproduces the $K^0 \\Lambda$ production data well with a few parameters. Having fixed them, we predict the $D^- \\Lambda_c^+$ production, which turns out to be about $10^4-10^6$ times smaller than the strangeness one, depending on the kinematical regions.

  7. Neutrino Trident Production: A Powerful Probe of New Physics with Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Pospelov, Maxim; Yavin, Itay

    2014-01-01

    The production of a mu+mu- pair from the scattering of a muon-neutrino off the Coulomb field of a nucleus, known as neutrino trident production, is a sub-weak process that has been observed in only a couple of experiments. As such, we show that it constitutes an exquisitely sensitive probe in the search for new neutral currents among leptons, putting the strongest constraints on well-motivated and well-hidden extensions of the Standard Model gauge group, including the one coupled to the difference of the lepton number between the muon and tau flavor, L_mu-L_tau. The new gauge boson, Z', increases the rate of neutrino trident production by inducing additional $(\\bar\\mu \\gamma_\\alpha \\mu)(\\bar\

  8. New electron beam facility for R and D and production at acsion industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R and D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper

  9. Neutrino trident production: a powerful probe of new physics with neutrino beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Pospelov, Maxim; Yavin, Itay

    2014-08-29

    The production of a μ+ μ- pair from the scattering of a muon neutrino off the Coulomb field of a nucleus, known as neutrino trident production, is a subweak process that has been observed in only a couple of experiments. As such, we show that it constitutes an exquisitely sensitive probe in the search for new neutral currents among leptons, putting the strongest constraints on well-motivated and well-hidden extensions of the standard model gauge group, including the one coupled to the difference of the lepton number between the muon and tau flavor, Lμ-Lτ. The new gauge boson Z', increases the rate of neutrino trident production by inducing additional (μγαμ)(νγ(α)ν) interactions, which interfere constructively with the standard model contribution. Existing experimental results put significant restrictions on the parameter space of any model coupled to muon number Lμ, and disfavor a putative resolution to the muon g-2 discrepancy via the loop of Z' for any mass mZ'≳400  MeV. The reach to the models' parameter space can be widened with future searches of the trident production at high-intensity neutrino facilities such as the LBNE. PMID:25215977

  10. Proton Beam Energy Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Marus, Lauren A.; Engle, J.W.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is actively engaged in the development of isotope production technologies that can utilize its 100 MeV proton beam. Characterization of the proton beam energy and current is vital for optimizing isotope production and accurately conducting research at the IPF. Motivation In order to monitor beam intensity during research irradiations, aluminum foils are interspersed in experimental stacks. A theoretical yield of 22Na from...

  11. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Katsuki; /Kyoto U.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub x} oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance ({nu}{sub {mu}}N {yields} {mu}{sup -} N{pi}{sup +}) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus ({nu}{sub {mu}}A {yields} {mu}{sup -} A{pi}{sup +}), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, {nu}{sub {mu}} {sup 12}C {yields} {mu}{sup -12}C{pi}{sup +}, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 10{sup 20} protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged

  12. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Katsuki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for vμ → vx oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance (vμN → μ-+) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus (vμA → μ-+), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, vμ 12C → μ-12+, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 1020 protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 1020 protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio

  13. Influence of the transverse dimensions of colliding beams on processes of bremsstrahlung and production of e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotkin, G.L.; Polityko, S.I.; Serbo, V.G.

    1985-09-01

    For high energies of colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/, ep, and ..gamma..e beams in processes of bremsstrahlung and production of e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs, an important role is played by impact parameters much greater than the transverse dimensions of the beams. This leads to a decrease of the number of observed events in comparison with the standard calculations. Exact formulas and a number of convenient approximate formulas are obtained for the number of events in an arbitrary reaction with allowance for the finite dimensions of the beams. Concrete calculations are given for production of e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs.The deviations from the standard calculations for e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions under the conditions of LEP, SLC, and VLEPP are 1, 4, and 15%, respectively, and for ..gamma..e collisions under the conditions of SLC and VLEPP they are 20 and 35%, respectively.

  14. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  15. Feasibility studies on the potential of employing electron beam machine for non-medical products irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Malaysia, two 10 MeV irradiators were installed by private companies as part of in-house manufacturing or as third party sterilization service provider. At the same time, the 3 MeV EPS 3000 machine at Nuclear Malaysia is providing irradiation services for various purposes and products. With the current increase in demand in automotive manufacturing for better quality harnesses and components, the irradiation service at Nuclear Malaysia had to provide extended time to cope with the requests. This paper looks at the potential of setting up a commercial irradiation facility to cater for non-medical products such as automotive wires and tubing, food, fruits, cosmetic and semiconductors. Intensive interviews with related industries were carried out throughout Malaysia to evaluate the potential of installing electron beam machine for commercial irradiation. The results show that a majority of non-medical industries are not aware of the irradiation service provided by Nuclear Malaysia, although many understand the need for it. A multipurpose irradiator is desired in order to optimize the usage since a single dedicated machine may be too costly to sustain. (author)

  16. Programmatic Assessment of Potential Induced Radioactivity in Electron Beam Sterilization of Healthcare Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark; Logar, John; Montgomery, Alan; Vrain, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    ISO 11137-1:2006 Sterilization of Healthcare Products-Radiation requires that the potential for induced radioactivity be evaluated for medical devices irradiated with electrons with energy more than 10 MeV. For a manufacturing operation where new devices are being developed, a practical program for making such an evaluation should be engrained in the process, including the device design phase, where selection of materials can make a difference in the potential for activation to occur as a result of the irradiation process. The program, which is based on general assumptions as to the likely activation processes and generalized process assessments is being implemented in three phases: (1) incorporating materials consideration in the design phase, (2) evaluating potential activation empirically, including measurement at the point of irradiation, and (3) implementing routine procedures for the program, including developing a data base of results for consideration in future design efforts. PMID:27356164

  17. Programmatic Assessment of Potential Induced Radioactivity in Electron Beam Sterilization of Healthcare Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark; Logar, John; Montgomery, Alan; Vrain, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    ISO 11137-1:2006 Sterilization of Healthcare Products-Radiation requires that the potential for induced radioactivity be evaluated for medical devices irradiated with electrons with energy more than 10 MeV. For a manufacturing operation where new devices are being developed, a practical program for making such an evaluation should be engrained in the process, including the device design phase, where selection of materials can make a difference in the potential for activation to occur as a result of the irradiation process. The program, which is based on general assumptions as to the likely activation processes and generalized process assessments is being implemented in three phases: (1) incorporating materials consideration in the design phase, (2) evaluating potential activation empirically, including measurement at the point of irradiation, and (3) implementing routine procedures for the program, including developing a data base of results for consideration in future design efforts.

  18. Beam Energy Dependence of Dielectron Production in Au+Au Collisions from STAR at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Huck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present the energy-dependent study of dielectron production in 0-80% minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ energies of 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV in STAR. Invariant mass ($M_{ee}$) and transverse momentum ($p_T$) differential measurements of dielectron yields are compared to cocktail simulations of known hadronic sources and semi-leptonic charmed decays. The enhancement (excess yield) prominent in the Low-Mass Region (LMR) over the cocktail at all energies, is further compared to calculations of $\\rho$ in-medium modifications. Within statistical and systematic uncertainties, we find that the model consistently describes this enhancement from SPS up to top RHIC energies in its $M_{ee}$- as well as $p_T$-dependence. Dielectron measurements drive the statistics for the future BES Phase-II program, which promises to improve our understanding of the LMR enhancement's trend with total baryon densities.

  19. Measurement of Neutral Current Neutral Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the π0 production via neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for the neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a study of neutral current π0 production from muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE experiment. All neutrino beam data corresponding to 0.99 × 1020 protons on target have been analyzed. We have measured the cross section ratio of the neutral current π0 production to the total charge current interaction and the π0 kinematic distribution such as momentum and direction. We obtain [7.7 ± 0.5(stat.) ± 0.5(sys.)] × 10-2 as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein- Sehgal model, which is generally used for the Monte Carlo simulation by many neutrino oscillation experiments. We achieve less than 10 % uncertainty which is required for the next generation search for νµ → νe oscillation. The spectrum shape of the π0 momentum and the distribution of the π0 emitted angle agree with the prediction, which means that not only the Rein-Sehgal model but also the intra-nuclear interaction models describe our data well. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (1.17 ± 0.23 ) × 10-2 based on the Rein and Sehgal model. The result gives the evidence for non-zero coherent pion production via neutral current interaction at the mean neutrino energy of 1.0 GeV.

  20. Production of cold beams of ND3 with variable rotational state distributions by electrostatic extraction of He and Ne buffer-gas-cooled beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the rotational state distribution of a velocity-selected, buffer-gas-cooled beam of ND3 is described. In an apparatus recently constructed to study cold ion-molecule collisions, the ND3 beam is extracted from a cryogenically cooled buffer-gas cell using a 2.15 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide with three 90° bends. (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra of molecules exiting the guide show that beams of ND3 can be produced with rotational state populations corresponding to approximately Trot = 9–18 K, achieved through manipulation of the temperature of the buffer-gas cell (operated at 6 K or 17 K), the identity of the buffer gas (He or Ne), or the relative densities of the buffer gas and ND3. The translational temperature of the guided ND3 is found to be similar in a 6 K helium and 17 K neon buffer-gas cell (peak kinetic energies of 6.92(0.13) K and 5.90(0.01) K, respectively). The characterization of this cold-molecule source provides an opportunity for the first experimental investigations into the rotational dependence of reaction cross sections in low temperature collisions

  1. Production of high-energy colliding. gamma gamma. and. gamma. e beams with a high luminosity at VLEPP accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1981-11-05

    Colliding ..gamma gamma.. and ..gamma..e beams with an energy and luminosity of the same order of magnitude as for e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams can be produced by scattering a laser light at the accelerators with colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams with an energy > or approx. =100 GeV. Such accelerators are currently in the design stage.

  2. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  3. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell modeling of relativistic electron beam production and transport for KrF laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of diode geometry and externally applied magnetic fields on electron beam production and transport for KrF laser pumping has been studied using two and three dimensional particle-in-cell models. The efficiency with which electrons may be transported through the foil support structure depends critically on the size of the openings in the structure as well as the magnitude of the applied magnetic fields. As the electron diodes become larger the current which can be produced becomes limited by the self-magnetic field of the beam. Simulations show the diode current is limited to slightly more than the usual ''critical current.'' However this electron flow is found to be unstable. The application of strong guide fields not only increases the current from the diode but tends to stabilize the electron beam. 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. Report for muon production target with the 300-kW proton beam operation at MUSE/MLF/J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most intense pulsed muon beam will be generated by a 3-GeV 333-microA proton beam on a muon target made of 20-mm thick isotropic graphite (IG-430) in J-PARC/MUSE (Muon Science Establishment). The energy deposited by a 1-MW proton beam is estimated to be 3.9 kW on the muon target. The first muon beam was successfully generated on September 26th, 2008. Gradually upgrading the beam intensity, continuous 300-kW proton beam operation was started in January of 2013. The temperatures of the principle components have been measured and recorded through thermocouples and a control system. The lifetime of the muon target is determined by a proton-irradiation damage of the graphite. Even in the 300-kW operation to July of 2013, the radiation damage was anticipated to surpass the lifetime. Therefore, the position of the proton beam has been moved to eight surrounding positions every three weeks to distribute the radiation damage uniformly to a wider area. The position-control is named EXILE operation. The variation of the temperatures at the muon target has been monitored. In this report, the status of proton beam operation and the lifetime extension of the muon target will be described. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided. PMID:26581762

  6. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided.

  7. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, T., E-mail: T.Dupuis@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G., E-mail: Gregoire.Chene@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Mathis, F., E-mail: Francois.Mathis@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); and others

    2011-12-15

    The 'IPNAS' laboratory, in collaboration with the 'Centre Europeen d'Archeometrie' is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To Z Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  8. Research on Metallic Ion Beam Production at IMP%近物所在产生金属离子束方面的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹云; 李锡霞; 郭晓虹; 卢旺; 冯玉成; 李锦钰; 王辉; 马宝华; 孙良亭; 赵环昱; 尚勇; 张雪珍

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998,many experiments for metallic ion production have been done on LECR2(Lanzhou ECR ion source NO.2),LECR3(Lanzhou ECR ion source NO.3)and SECRAL(Superconductiong ECR ion source Advanced design in Lanzhou)at Institute of Modern Physics.The very heavy metallic ion beams such as those of uranium were also produced by the plasma sputtering method,and supplied for HIRFL(Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou)accelerators successfully.During the test,11.5eμAU28+,9eμAU24+were obtained. Some ion beams of the metal having lower melting temperature such as Ni and Mg ion beams were produced by oven method on LECR3 too.The consumption rate was controlled to be lower for 26Mg ion beams production,and the minimum consumption was about 0.3mg per hour.In this paper,the main experimental results are given.Some discussions are made for some experimental phenomena and results,and some conclusions are drawn.

  9. Novel method for the production of spin-aligned RI beams in projectile fragmentation reaction with the dispersion matching technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Y., E-mail: yuichikawa@phys.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Ishii, Y. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A. [Okayama University, Research Core for Extreme Quantum World (Japan); Kameda, D.; Watanabe, H.; Aoi, N. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Balabanski, D. L. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (Bulgaria); Chevrier, R.; Daugas, J. M. [CEA, DAM, DIF (France); Fukuda, N. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Georgiev, G. [CSNSM, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-sud (France); Hayashi, H.; Iijima, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Inabe, N. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Inoue, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Ishihara, M.; Kubo, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); and others

    2013-05-15

    A novel method to produce spin-aligned rare-isotope (RI) beam has been developed, that is the two-step projectile fragmentation method with a technique of dispersion matching. The present method was verified in an experiment at the RIKEN RIBF, where an RI beam of {sup 32}Al with spin alignment of 8(1) % was successfully produced from a primary beam of {sup 48}Ca, with {sup 33}Al as an intermediate nucleus. Figure of merit of the present method was found to be improved by a factor larger than 50 compared with a conventional method employing single-step projectile fragmentation.

  10. Study of {lambda} hyperon production in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam energy with the HADES spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaki, K.

    2007-03-15

    The HADES spectrometer is a high resolution detector installed at the SIS/GSI, Darmstadt. It was primarily designed for studying dielectron decay channels of vector mesons. However, its high accuracy capabilities make it an attractive tool for investigating other rare probes at these beam energies, like strange baryons. Development and investigation of Multiwire Drift Chambers for high spatial resolution have been provided. One of the early experimental runs of HADES was analyzed and the {lambda} hyperon signal was successfully reconstructed for the first time in C+C collisions at 2 AGeV beam kinetic energy. The total {lambda} production cross section is contrasted with expectations from simulations and compared with measurements of the {lambda} yield in heavier systems at the same energy. In addition, the result is considered in the context of strangeness balance and the relative strangeness content of the reaction products is determined. (orig.)

  11. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  12. Nuclear physics with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive beam production through two different mechanisms: acceleration of radioactive nuclei, and production of secondary beams from projectile fragmentation is overviewed. Some topics of the applications of radioactive beams in nuclear physics, such as identification and study of exotic nuclei, neutron halos, nuclear astrophysics and medical applications are discussed. (K.A.). 24 refs., 8 figs

  13. Optimization studies of photo-neutron production in high- metallic targets using high energy electron beam for ADS and transmutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah; H C Soni; S Kotaiah

    2007-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed using MCNP code to study the optimization of photo-neutron yield for different electron beam energies impinging on Pb, W and Ta cylindrical targets of varying thickness. It is noticed that photo-neutron yield can be increased for electron beam energies ≥ 100 MeV for appropriate thickness of the target. It is also noticed that it can be maximized by further increasing the thickness of the target. Further, at higher electron beam energy heat gradient in the target decreases, which facilitates easier heat removal from the target. This can help in developing a photo-neutron source based on electron LINAC by choosing appropriate electron beam energy and target thickness to optimize the neutron flux for ADS, transmutation studies and as high energy neutron source etc. Photo-neutron yield for different targets, optimum target thickness and photo-neutron energy spectrum and heat deposition by electron beam for different incident energy is presented.

  14. Hyperon beam physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews the present status and recent results in hyperon physics concentrating on results from high energy hyperon beam experiments performed at Fermilab over the past several years. The report focuses on hyperon production polarization, precision hyperon magnetic moment measurements and radiative decay studies. Modern charged hyperon beam experiments are characterized by {approx}100m long apparatus and hyperon beams with {gamma}{sub Y}{approx}100 and hyperon fluxes in the 1-100 kHz range.

  15. Use of electron beams for the production of radioactive nuclei through photo-fission; Utilisation de faisceaux d'electrons pour la production des noyaux radioactifs par photo-fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' garrech, Slah

    2004-09-01

    The IPN (institute of nuclear physics) of Orsay decided to build a linear accelerator in order to produce an electron beam of 50 MeV energy and of 10 {mu}A average intensity. It is the ALTO project (Linear Accelerator near the Tandem of Orsay). This project will be dedicated to the production of the radioactive ions using the photo-fission process. The central topic of this thesis is the study of the beam dynamics of the ALTO facility. The first part presents studies concerning the injector. The simulations made with the simulation code PARMELA allowed the optimization of the characteristics of pre-buncher (dephasing HF, accelerating field peak...) to obtain a good bunching factor at the entrance of the buncher and at the entrance of the accelerating section according to the distance separating the two systems. The second part of this thesis is related to measurements of transverse emittance of the beam at the buncher exit. The three gradients method has been selected and the optical system used is a solenoid. The results obtained are in good agreement with former measurements. Finally a calculation of the beam line was carried out to optimize the transport of the beam to the PARRNe target without degrading its characteristics. The calculation codes that have been used are BETA and TRACE-WIN. (author)

  16. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  17. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, T.; Shang, Y.; Zhan, W. L.; Wei, B. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6T at injection, 2.2T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5kW by two 18GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810eμA of O7+, 505eμA of Xe20+, 306eμA of Xe27+, and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  18. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007. PMID:18315105

  19. CP asymmetries with Longitudinal and Transverse Beam Polarizations in Neutralino Production and Decay into the Z^0 Boson at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Bartl, Alfred; Kernreiter, T; Kittel, O

    2007-01-01

    We study neutralino production at the linear collider with the subsequent two-body decays ~chi^0_i -> ~chi^0_n Z^0 and Z^0 -> l^+ l^-, with l=e, mu, tau, or Z^0 -> q q- with q=c,b. We show that transverse electron and positron beam polarizations allow the definition of unique CP observables. These are azimuthal asymmetries in the distributions of the final leptons or quarks. We calculate these CP asymmetries and the cross sections in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with complex higgsino and gaugino parameters mu and M_1. For final quark pairs, we find CP asymmetries as large as 30%. We discuss the significances for observing the CP asymmetries at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Finally we compare the CP asymmetries with those asymmetries which require unpolarized and/or longitudinally polarized beams only.

  20. Single source sound production and dynamic beam formation in echolocating harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Beedholm, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    actuation of the left pair. It is demonstrated that porpoises, despite actuation of only one sound source, can change their output and sound beam probably through conformation changes in the sound-producing soft tissues and nasal sacs, and that the coupling of the phonic lips and the melon acts...

  1. Bessel Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  2. Identified particle production and freeze-out properties in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC Beam Energy Scan program

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The first phase of Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) was started in the year 2010 with the aim to study the several aspects of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram. The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) detector has taken data at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = $ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV in Au+Au collisions in the years 2010 and 2011 as part of the BES programme. For these beam energies, we present the results on the particle yields, average transverse mass and particle ratios for identified particles in mid-rapidity ($|y|$ < 0.1). The measured particle ratios have been used to study the chemical freeze-out dynamics within the framework of a statistical model.

  3. Identified particle production and freeze-out properties in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC Beam Energy Scan program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sabita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first phase of Beam Energy Scan (BES program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC was started in the year 2010 with the aim to study the several aspects of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD phase diagram. The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR detector has taken data at √sNN = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV in Au+Au collisions in the years 2010 and 2011 as part of the BES programme. For these beam energies, we present the results on the particle yields, average transverse mass and particle ratios for identified particles in mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1. The measured particle ratios have been used to study the chemical freezeout dynamics within the framework of a statistical model.

  4. Interfacial reaction product and mechanical properties of the electron beam brazed K465 Ni-based superalloy joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang; Zhang Binggang; He Jingshan; Feng Jicai; Wu Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    Ni-based superalloy K465 is brazed with BNi-2 filler metal by vacuum electron beam brazing (VEBB). In process of VEBB, effects of processing primary parameters on shear strength of joints are investigated. Microstructure of the brazed joint with BNi-2 filler metal is studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the structure of brazed seam consists of a large amount of Ni-based γ solid solution, Ni3Al (γ′), Ni3B, WB, CrB, and a small quantity of WC, NbC. The maximum shear strength of the joint is 398 MPa when the beam current of welding is 2.6 mA, heating time is 480 s and focused current is 1 800 mA.

  5. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen

  6. Porous silicon carbide and aluminum oxide with unidirectional open porosity as model target materials for radioisotope beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Czapski, M; Tardivat, C; Stora, T; Bouville, F; Leloup, J; Luis, R Fernandes; Augusto, R Santos

    2013-01-01

    New silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) of a tailor-made microstructure were produced using the ice-templating technique, which permits controlled pore formation conditions within the material. These prototypes will serve to verify aging of the new advanced target materials under irradiation with proton beams. Before this, the evaluation of their mechanical integrity was made based on the energy deposition spectra produced by FLORA codes. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L.; Lee, C.-J

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  8. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  9. Production and study of pulsed heavy-ion beams of highest phase-space density in the GSI experimental storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of the present thesis was the production of intense, bunched heavy-ion beams for the high temperature measurement place of the GSI. The main topics layed hereby both on the study of collective effects in space-charge dominated, stationary bunches in the ESR, and on the implementation of a procedure for the compression of weakly bunched beams. All considerations concentrated hereby exclusively on the longitudinal phase space with the attempt to minimize the pulse duration of the beams available for target experiments. By means of the experimental results the flattening of the external RF potential in space-charge dominated bunches predicted by the analytical model of the envelope equation could be confirmed. Especially the evaluation of longitudinal Schottky spectra permitted the observation of the reduced, incoherent synchrotron frequency, as well as the splitting of the coherent multipole modes. Furthermore it could be shown that the separation of the synchrotron satellites is farly independent on the shape of the considered distribution function and represents a direct measure for their phase-space density

  10. Production of a fluorescence probe in ion-beam radiolysis of aqueous coumarin-3-carboxylic acid solution-2: Effects of nuclear fragmentation and its simulation with PHITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeyama, Takuya [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yamashita, Shinichi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Baldacchino, Gerard [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, UMR 3299 CEA-CNRS SIS2M, Laboratoire de Radiolyse, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Sihver, Lembit [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Department of Roanoke College, Salem, VA 24153 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Murakami, Takeshi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke, E-mail: katsu@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The G(OH) values in aqueous coumarin-3-carboxylic-acid (3-CCA) solutions irradiated with {sup 12}C{sup 6+} beams having the energies of 135, 290 and 400 MeV/u were measured by a fluorescent method around the Bragg peak, with 0.6 mm intervals, and quartz cells of 1 cm optical lengths, at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). For each ion, the G(OH) has been calculated as a function of dose average LET and position. The calculated results have been compared to measurements, and the results, reproducibility and reliability of the calculations are discussed in the paper. - Highlights: > Therapeutic ion beam has energy of several hundred MeV/u because it is necessary for a few tens cm range. > With such high energy, nuclear fragmentations of carbon ions occur resulting in production of lighter ions. > In this study, OH yield in water radiolysis near the Bragg peak of therapeutic ion beams was measured. > Measured yields are discussed considering nuclear fragmentation by PHITS code.

  11. Thorium silicate compound as a solid-state target for production of isomeric thorium-229 nuclei by electron beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Borisyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss an idea of the experiment for excitation of the isomeric transition in thorium-229 nuclei by irradiating with electron beam targets with necessary physical characteristics. The chemical composition and bandgap of ThSi10O22 were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy. It was found that the energy gap is equal to 7.7 eV and does not change when the target is exposed to a medium energy electron beam for a long time. This indicates that the compound possesses high electron-beam resistance. A quantitative estimation of the output function of isomeric thorium-229 nuclei generated by interaction of nuclei with the secondary electron flow formed by irradiating the solid-state ThSi10O22-based target is given. The estimation shows that ThSi10O22 is a promising thorium-containing target for investigating excitation of the nuclear low-lying isomeric transition in the thorium-229 isotope using medium-energy electrons.

  12. Thorium silicate compound as a solid-state target for production of isomeric thorium-229 nuclei by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Vasilyev, O. S.; Lebedinskii, Y. Y.; Krasavin, A. V.; Tkalya, E. V.; Troyan, V. I.; Habibulina, R. F.; Chubunova, E. V.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss an idea of the experiment for excitation of the isomeric transition in thorium-229 nuclei by irradiating with electron beam targets with necessary physical characteristics. The chemical composition and bandgap of ThSi10O22 were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy. It was found that the energy gap is equal to 7.7 eV and does not change when the target is exposed to a medium energy electron beam for a long time. This indicates that the compound possesses high electron-beam resistance. A quantitative estimation of the output function of isomeric thorium-229 nuclei generated by interaction of nuclei with the secondary electron flow formed by irradiating the solid-state ThSi10O22-based target is given. The estimation shows that ThSi10O22 is a promising thorium-containing target for investigating excitation of the nuclear low-lying isomeric transition in the thorium-229 isotope using medium-energy electrons.

  13. Measurement of charm and beauty-production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and test beam studies of ATLAS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libov, Vladyslav

    2013-08-15

    A measurement of charm and beauty production in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA is presented. The analysis is based on the data sample collected by the ZEUS detector in the period from 2003 to 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 354 pb{sup -1}. The kinematic region of the measurement is given by 5production of charm and beauty quarks. Secondary vertices due to decays of charm and beauty hadrons are reconstructed, in association with jets. The jet kinematics is defined by E{sup jet}{sub T}>4.2(5) GeV for charm (beauty) and -1.6<{eta}{sup jet}<2.2 for both charm and beauty, where E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, respectively. The significance of the decay length and the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with the secondary vertex are used as discriminating variables to distinguish between signal and background. Differential cross sections of jet production in charm and beauty events as a function of Q{sup 2}, y, E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are measured. Results are compared to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) predictions from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the fixed flavour number scheme. Good agreement between data and theory is observed. Contributions of the charm and beauty production to the inclusive proton structure function, F{sup cbar} {sup c}{sub 2} and F{sup b} {sup anti} {sup b}{sub 2}, are determined by extrapolating the double differential cross sections using NLO QCD predictions. Contributions to the test beam program for the Insertable B-Layer upgrade project of the ATLAS pixel detector are discussed. The test beam data analysis software package EUTelescope was extended, which allowed an efficient analysis of ATLAS pixel sensors. The USBPix DAQ system was integrated into the EUDET telescope allowing test beam

  14. Measurement of fragment production DDX of 72 and 144 MeV 12C beam induced reaction on carbon using Bragg Curve Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double differential cross section (DDX) data of fragment production for 72 (6 MeV/nucleon) and 144 MeV (12 MeV/nucleon) 12C beam induced reaction on carbon were measured using a Bragg Curve Counter (BCC). The DDX data were obtained for fragments of He, Li, Be, B, C, N and O at 30 degree emission angle. Theoretical calculation using PHITS code with QMD+GEM model represents the DDX well except for components from reactions of direct process and α particle clustering process. (author)

  15. Optimization of L-lactic Acid Production of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RLC41-6 by Ion Beam Implantation at Low-Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain an industrial strain with a higher L(+)-lactic acid yield, the strain Rhizopus oryzae RF3608 was mutated by means of nitrogen ion beam implantation and the mutant strain RLC41-6 was isolated. Under optimal conditions the yield of L(+)-lactic acid produced in a shake-flask reached 133 g/L~137 g/L after 36 h cultivation, indicating that the It was almost a 115% increase in lactic acid production compared with the original strain RF3608.

  16. Production of Sigma{\\pm}pi?pK+ in p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Boehmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Destefanis, T Christ M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonza'lez-Di'az, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kr'asa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kuehn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lalik, R; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Morinie're, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2012-01-01

    We study the production of Sigma^+-pi^+-pK^+ particle quartets in p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy. The data were taken with the HADES experiment at GSI. This report evaluates the contribution of resonances like Lambda(1405$, Sigma(1385)^0, Lambda(1520), Delta(1232), N^* and K^*0 to the Sigma^+- pi^-+ p K+ final state. The resulting simulation model is compared to the experimental data in several angular distributions and it shows itself as suitable to evaluate the acceptance corrections properly.

  17. Comparison of hard x-ray production from various targets in air using a short pulse kHz laser with photon production from a high power multifilament laser beam from the same targets in air

    CERN Document Server

    Ledingham, K W D; McCanny, T; Melone, J J; Spohr, K; Schramm, U; Kraft, S D; Wagner, A; Jochmann, A

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been much interest in the production of hard X-rays from various targets using a kHz short pulse laser at intensities above 1014Wcm-2 (A). Most of these studies have been carried out in vacuum and very many fewer studies have been carried out in air. Recently this lack has been partially addressed with the development of femtosecond laser micromachining. Another similar although apparently unconnected field (B) deals with the channelling of high power laser beam in filaments after passage through long distances in air. This has been largely driven by the construction of a mobile terawatt laser beam (Teramobile) for atmospheric studies. The laser beams in these two cases (A and B) have very different pulse energies (mJ against J) although the filaments in (B) have similar energies to (A) and are clamped at intensities less than 1014 Wcm-2. This paper has been written to compare the production of hard X-rays in these two cases. The conclusion is interesting that a focused sub T...

  18. Study of the production of neutron-rich isotope beams issuing from fissions induced by fast neutrons; Etude de la production de faisceaux riches en neutrons par fission induite par neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ch

    2000-09-15

    This work is a contribution to the PARRNe project (production of radioactive neutron-rich isotopes). This project is based on the fission fragments coming from the fission of 238-uranium induced by fast neutrons. The fast neutron flux is produced by the collisions of deutons in a converter. Thick targets of uranium carbide and liquid uranium targets have been designed in order to allow a quick release of fission fragments. A device, able to trap on a cryogenic thimble rare gas released by the target, has allowed the production of radioactive nuclei whose half-life is about 1 second. This installation has been settled to different deuton accelerators in the framework of the European collaboration SPIRAL-2. A calibration experiment has proved the feasibility of fixing an ISOL-type isotope separator to a 15 MV tandem accelerator, this installation can provide 500 nA deutons beams whose energy is 26 MeV and be a valuable tool for studying fast-neutron induced fission. Zinc, krypton, rubidium, cadmium, iodine, xenon and cesium beams have been produced in this installation. The most intense beams reach 10000 nuclei by micro-coulomb for 26 MeV deutons. An extra gain of 2 magnitude orders can be obtained by using a more specific ion source and by increasing the thickness of the target. Another extra gain of 2 magnitude orders involves 100 MeV deutons.

  19. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  20. 用于产生放射性离子束ECR离子源%ECR Ion Sources for Radioactive Ion Beam Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Jardin; F.Lemagnen; R.Leroy; J.Y.Pacquet; M.G.Saint Laurent; A.C.C.Villari; C.Canet; J.C.Cornell; M.Dupuis; C.Eleon; J.L.Flambard; G.Gaubert; N.Lecesne; P.Leherissier

    2007-01-01

    ECRIS's dedicated to radioactive ion production must be as efficient as those used for production of stable elements,but in addition they are subject to more specific constraints such as radiation hardness,short atom-to-ion transformation time,beam purity and low cost.Up to now,different target/ion-source systems(TISSs)have been designed,using singly-charged ECRISs,multi.charged ion sources or an association of singly-to-multi-charged ECRISs.The main goals,constraints and advantages of different existing ECR setups will be compared before a more detailed description is given of the one designed for the SPIRAL Ⅱ project and its future improvements.

  1. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA.

  2. Study of Prompt Dimuon and Charm Production with Proton and Heavy Ion Beams at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Cicalo, C

    2002-01-01

    The NA60 detector complements the muon spectrometer and zero degree calorimeter previously used in NA50 with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, placed in the target region. A radiation hard beam tracker, made of silicon microstrip detectors operated at 130 K, is placed on the beam line, upstream of the target system. It gives the transverse coordinates of the interaction point on the targets with a precision around 20 micron, allowing us to measure the offset of the muon tracks, and tag events where a pair of D mesons was produced. Downstream of the target system, and inside a dipole magnetic field of 2.5 T, we have a silicon tracking telescope, that tracks the charged particles and allows us to identify which one of them provides the best match to the muon measured in the muon spectrometer, placed behind a 5.5m silicon microstrip planes complemented by pixel planes. For the ion runs, the very high multiplicity of charged particles imposes the exclusive use of radiation tolerant pixel detectors.

  3. Measurements of yields of fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with high-energy p, d and n beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, J.A.; Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    An experiment was performed at the Michigan State University cyclotron to determine the yields of neutron-rich fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with 100-MeV neutrons, 200-MeV deuterons and 200-MeV protons. Several 1-mm-thick {sup 238}U foils were irradiated for 100-second intervals sequentially for each configuration and the ten spectra were added for higher statistics. The three successive spectra, each for a 40 s period, were accumulated for each sample. Ten foils were irradiated. Successive spectra allowed us to determine approximate half-lives of the gamma peaks. Several arrangements, which were similar to the setup we plan to use in our radioactive beam proposal, were used for the production of fission products. For the high-energy neutron irradiation, U foils were placed after a 5-inch-long, 1-inch-diameter Be cylinder which stopped the 200-MeV deuteron beam generating 100-MeV neutrons. Arrangements for deuteron irradiation included direct irradiation of U foils, placing U foils after different lengths of (0.5 inch, 1.0 inch and 1.5 inch) 2-inch diameter U cylinder. Since the deuteron range in uranium is 17 mm, some of the irradiations were due to the secondary neutrons from the deuteron-induced fission of U. Similar arrangements were also used for the 200-MeV proton irradiation of the {sup 238}U foils. In all cases, several neutron-rich fission products were identified and their yields determined. In particular, we were able to observe Sn in all the runs and determine its yield. The data show that with our proposed radioactive device we will be able to produce more than 10{sup 12} {sup 132}Sn atoms per second in the target. Assuming an overall efficiency of 1 %, we will be able to deliver one particle nanoampere of {sup 132}Sn beam at a target location. Detailed analysis of the {gamma}-ray spectra is in progress.

  4. Production of intense highly charged ion beams by IMP 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source has been constructed over the last two years. The source was designed and tested by making use of the latest results from ECR ion source development, such as high mirror magnetic field, large plasma volume, and biased probe. 140μA of O7+, 185μA of Ar11+ and 50 μA of Xe26+ could be produced with a RF power of 800 W. The intense beams of highly charged metallic ions are produced by means of the method of a metal evaporation oven and volatile compound through axial access. The test results are 130μA of Ca11+, 70μA of Ca12+ and 65μA of Fe10+. The ion source has been put into operation for the cyclotron at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP).

  5. Beam-spin asymmetry of pion, kaon, proton and antiproton production in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam-spin asymmetries in the azimuthal distribution of pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) extracted from 2000-2007 HERMES data are presented. The asymmetries were measured in the kinematic region Q2>1 GeV2, W2 > 10 GeV2, 0.1

  6. Energy release, beam attenuation radiation damage, gas production and accumulation of long-lived activity in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubin, Yu.N. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-06-01

    The calculation and analysis of the nuclei concentrations and long-lived residual radioactivity accumulated in Pb, Pb-Bi and Hg targets irradiated by 800 MeV, 30 mA proton beam have been performed. The dominating components to the total radioactivity of radionuclides resulting from fission and spallation reactions and radiative capture by both target nuclei and accumulated radioactive nuclei for various irradiation and cooling times were analyzed. The estimations of spectral component contributions of neutron and proton fluxes to the accumulated activity were carried out. The contributions of fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products to the targets activity and partial activities of main long-lived fission products were evaluated. The accumulation of Po isotopes due to reactions induced by secondary alpha-particles were found to be important for the Pb target as compared with two-step radiative capture. The production of Tritium in the targets and its contribution to the total targets activity was considered in detail. It is found that total activities of both targets are close to one another.

  7. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations.

  8. Search for Charged Current Coherent Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, K.; /Kyoto U.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J.L.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Brice, S.J.; /Fermilab; Bugel, Leonard G.; /MIT; Catala-Perez, J.; /Valencia U.; Cheng, G.; /Columbia U.; Conrad, J.M.; /MIT; Djurcic, Zelimir; /Columbia U.; Dore, U.; /Banca di Roma /Frascati; Finley, David A.; /Fermilab; Franke, A.J.; /Columbia U. /Banca di Roma /Frascati

    2008-11-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration has performed a search for charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, nu{sub {mu}}{sup 12}C- {yields} {mu}{sup 12}Cpi{sup +}, with two distinct data samples. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged current coherent pion production to the total charged current cross section at 0.67 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 1.1 GeV and 1.36 x 10{sup -2} at mean neutrino energy 2.2 GeV.

  9. Laser beam quality metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, T Sean

    2013-01-01

    This book is geared toward engineers and laser physicists involved in the development of laser-based systems, especially laser systems for directed energy applications. It begins with a review of basic laser properties and moves to definitions and implications of the various standard beam quality metrics such as [i]M[/i][sup]2[/sup], power in the bucket, brightness, beam parameter product, and Strehl ratio. The practical aspects of beam metrology, which have not been sufficiently addressed in the literature, are amply covered here.

  10. Production of intense metallic ion beams in order of isotopic separations; Production de faisceaux intenses d'ions metalliques en vue de la separation des isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrouy, J.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    We describe an isotope separator with magnetic sector of 60 deg that permits, with a process of neutralization of the space charge, to use efficiently intense ion beams. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. This present work deals who to obtain intense ion beams (10 to 15 mA), different processes of ion currents measurement, as well as the study of the phenomenon of space charge neutralization. The second part of this memory will be on the survey and the adaptation on the source of various type of oven permitting to spray and to ionize metals directly. By order of increasing difficulty of vaporization, we reached the chromium. (M.B.) [French] 0n decrit un separateur d'isotope a secteur magnetique de 60 deg qui permet, grace a un procede de neutralisation de la charge d'espace, d'utiliser efficacement des faisceaux d'ions intenses. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Ce present travail porte sur l'obtention de faisceaux d'ions faisceaux d'ions intenses (10 a 15 mA), des differents procedes de mesures des courants d'ions, ainsi que l'etude du phenomene de neutralisation de charge d'espace. La deuxieme partie de ce memoire portera sur l'etude et l'adaptation sur la source de divers type de four permettant de vaporiser et d'ioniser directement les metaux. Par ordre de difficulte croissantes de vaporisations, nous avons atteint le chrome. (M.B.)

  11. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  12. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  13. Production of neutron deficient rare isotope beams at IGISOL; on-line and off-line studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huikari, J. E-mail: jussi.huikari@phys.jyu.fi; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Popov, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on recent on-line yield measurements employing the light-ion and heavy-ion reaction-based ion guide systems and new results on {alpha}-recoil ion transport properties in ion guides with and without electric fields. In addition, the presently used ion guide designs for fusion evaporation reactions are introduced. The present study investigated different schemes for ion extraction from the gas cell. The addition of an extra ring electrode between the traditional skimmer electrode and the exit hole led to transmission independent of the primary beam intensity as opposed to strong intensity dependence observed earlier with the plain skimmer only. Furthermore, the mass resolving power of the IGISOL mass separator was increased to 1100 as compared to 250 with the skimmer system when using the RF-sextupole for the extraction from the heavy-ion ion guide. As a new method, the possibility to increase the ion guide efficiency by injecting electrons into the stopping volume is introduced. The efficiency of the electron emitter ion guide was a factor of ten higher in off-line conditions. Also, the influence of the buffer gas purity on the ion survival is discussed.

  14. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, James, E-mail: alessi@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  15. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Collisions of $^{16}$O Beams with Emulsion Nuclei at 13-200 A GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .SK 2\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to study, on an event by event basis, multiplicities of produced charged particles, pseudo-rapidity density distributions globally and in selected regions of pseudo-rapidity, density fluctuations, multiplicity and angular distributions of nuclear fragments and recoiling protons (30-400~A~MeV) and cross sections for production and interation of light and medium (Z=2-8) projectile fragments. \\\\ \\\\ The detectors are emulsion chambers as well as conventional emulsion stacks. The emulsion chambers consist of several layers of a plastic substrate, each coated with nuclear emulsion on both sides. Since the best measurement accuracy is obtained for the particles with the smallest emission angles, this design is especially suited for the pseudo-rapidity determination. The emulsion stacks, of both high and low sensitivity, have been exposed in the conventional way, with the beam parallel to the emulsion sheets. These stacks are used to study the fragmentation of the interaction n...

  16. Analyzing power in inclusive π+ and π- production at high xF with a 200 GeV polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in χF is observed in which AN increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing χF for the π+ data and decreases from 0 to -0.38 with increasing χF for π- data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2≤χF≤0.9 and 0.2≤pT≤2.0 GeV/c. In a simple model our data indicate that at large χF the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents. (orig.)

  17. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzolaro, M., E-mail: mattia.manzolaro@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Meneghetti, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Vivian, G.; D’Agostini, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  18. Inclusive dielectron production in proton-proton collisions at 2.2 GeV beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Balanda, A; Bassini, R; Böhmer, M; Bokemeye, H; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ierusalimov, A; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krizek, F; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Maier, L; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Münch, M; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Cavalcanti, T Perez; Pietraszko, J; Pospisil, V; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Sánchez, M; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Toia, A; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y; Zumbruch, P

    2012-01-01

    Data on inclusive dielectron production are presented for the reaction p+p at 2.2 GeV measured with the High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES). Our results supplement data obtained earlier in this bombarding energy regime by DLS and HADES. The comparison with the 2.09 GeV DLS data is discussed. The reconstructed e+e- distributions are confronted with simulated pair cocktails, revealing an excess yield at invariant masses around 0.5 GeV/c2. Inclusive cross sections of neutral pion and eta production are obtained.

  19. Molecular beam scattering investigation of the oxidation of CO on Rh(111). II. Angular and velocity distributions of the CO/sub 2/ product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.S.; Sibener, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    Molecular beam and time of flight methods have been used to examine the angular distributions and velocity distributions of the CO/sub 2/ product molecules formed in the catalytic oxidation of CO on a Rh(111) single crystal in the surface temperature range 700--1000 K. The angular distribution was sharply peaked about the surface normal, and cannot be described by a simple cos/sup n/ theta expression. No temperature dependence was observed in the angular distribution over the range of temperatures studied here. Observed velocity distributions were clearly non-Maxwellian and had average translational energies in excess of those expected at the surface temperatures. Furthermore, the average velocity depended strongly on the desorption angle. Molecules desorbing along the surface normal had an average translational energy of approx.8 kcal/mol. The average energy decreased with increasing angle, reaching a value of approx.4 kcal/mol at an angle of 60/sup 0/. All of the observed velocity distributions were narrower than Maxwellian distributions with the same average energies. Product velocity distributions did not appear to vary with surface temperature. The observed excess energies are believed to arise from the crossing of the activation barrier to reaction, with a fraction of the reaction energy being carried away from the surface by the product molecules.

  20. Measurement of D{sup *{+-}} production at low Q{sup 2} with the beam-pipe calorimeter of ZEUS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrgang, P.

    2004-12-01

    The production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic ep-scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The total D* production cross-section and the differential cross-sections as functions of Q{sup 2}, y, p{sub t}(D*) and {eta}(D*) have been measured at low Q{sup 2}. The data sample used was collected during the period 1998-2000 and amounts to an integrated luminosity of 82.2 pb{sup -1}. The low Q{sup 2} region could be reached using the beam-pipe calorimeter which measures the scattered electron at very small angles. Therefore special emphasis was put on the calibration of the BPC in order to reconstruct events in the kinematic range 0.05 < Q{sup 2} < 0.7 GeV{sup 2} and 0.02 < y < 0.85. The D* mesons have been identified via the decay into lighter mesons D{sup *}+{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and the charged conjugated decay in the kinematic region 1.5production measurements could be extended towards lower values of Q{sup 2} in agreement with the corresponding perturbative QCD predictions. (orig.)

  1. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  2. Spin asymmetries in one-jet production at RHIC with polarized proton beams the effects of a hadrophilic Z

    CERN Document Server

    Taxil, P

    1996-01-01

    We show that the measurement of some parity violating asymmetry in the production of a large ET jet could reveal the presence of a new hadrophilic Z' such as the one recently introduced to interpret possible departures from the Standard Model predictions both at LEP and at CDF. Such a measurement could be perform within a few years by the RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC) using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a polarized proton-proton collider.

  3. Operational beams for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Manglunki, D

    2014-01-01

    The variety of beams, needed to set-up in the injectors as requested in the LHC, are reviewed, in terms of priority but also performance expectations and reach during 2015. This includes the single bunch beams for machine commissioning and measurements (probe, Indiv) but also the standard physics beams with 50 ns and 25 ns bunch spacing and their high brightness variants using the Bunch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) scheme. The required parameters and target performance of special beams like the doublet for electron cloud enhancement and the more exotic 8b$\\oplus$4e beam, compatible with some post-scrubbing scenarios are also described. The progress and plans for the LHC ion production beams during 2014-2015 are detailed. Highlights on the current progress of the setting up of the various beams are finally presented with special emphasis on potential performance issues across the proton and ion injector chain.

  4. Measurement of transverse energy production with Si and Au beams at relativistic energy: Towards hot and dense hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic study of transverse energy (ET) production in collisions of 11.4A GeV/c Au and 14.6A GeV/c Si ions with targets of Al, Au, and Pb. Comparison of data for Au+Au and Si+Al indicates that, for the heavier system, there is an increase in the amount of stopping which is accompanied by a decrease in the width of the dET/dη distribution. The ratio of the maximum ET observed for the two systems is significantly greater than the ratio of the total energy available in the center of mass frame

  5. Beam Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  6. A BEAM PROFILE MONITOR USING THE IONIZATION OF RESIDUAL-GAS IN THE BEAM PIPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPERS, JM; KIEWIET, HH; ZIJLSTA, J

    1991-01-01

    A beam profile monitor for high energy beams, which has no intercepting parts in the beam pipe, is described. It makes use of the ionization of the residual gas, which is still present in the vacuum chamber of the beam guiding system. The detection of the ionization products is performed with microc

  7. Propagation of an ultra intense laser pulse in an under dense plasma: production of quasi monoenergetic electron beams and development of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)

  8. Cross-Sections of Large-Angle Hadron Production in Proton- and Pion-Nucleus Interactions V: Lead Nuclei and Beam Momenta from +/-3 Gev/c to +/-15 Gev/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, A; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Kroumchtein, Z; Nefedov, Yu; Nikolaev, K; Zhemchugov, A; Dydak, F; Wotschack, J; De Min, A; Ammosov, A; Gapienko, V; Koreshev, V; Semak, A; Sviridov, Yu; Usenko, E; Zaets, V

    2010-01-01

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, charged pions, and deuterons, in the interactions with a 5% nuclear interaction length thick stationary lead target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from +/-3 GeV/c to +/-15 GeV/c. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles 20 to 125 degrees. Cross-sections on lead nuclei are compared with cross-sections on beryllium, copper, and tantalum nuclei.

  9. A measurement of hadron production cross sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the delta m**2 about equals 1-eV**2 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, David W.; /Columbia U.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of hadron production cross-sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the {Delta}m{sup 2} {approx} 1 eV{sup 2} region. This dissertation presents measurements from two different high energy physics experiments with a very strong connection: the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment located at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (Mini-BooNE) located at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois.

  10. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmogorov, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ritter, J.; Stupishin, N.; Zelenski, A.

    2014-02-01

    The RHIC polarized H- ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H2 gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ˜0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce "geometrical" beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  11. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  12. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  13. Inclusive production of protons, anti-protons, neutrons, deuterons and tritons in p+C collisions at 158 GeV/c beam momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatar, B.; Kolesnikov, V.; Malakhov, A.; Melkumov, G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Barr, G.; Tinti, G. [Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bartke, J.; Kowalski, M.; Rybicki, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Betev, L.; Fischer, H.G.; Karev, A.; Wenig, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Chvala, O.; Dolejsi, J. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Eckardt, V.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Fodor, Z.; Vesztergombi, G. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Makariev, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Mateev, M. [Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Atomic Physics Department, Sofia (Bulgaria); Stock, R. [Fachbereich Physik der Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Varga, D. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-04-15

    The production of protons, anti-protons, neutrons, deuterons and tritons in minimum bias p+C interactions is studied using a sample of 385 734 inelastic events obtained with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS at 158 GeV/c beam momentum. The data cover a phase space area ranging from 0 to 1.9 GeV/c in transverse momentum and in Feynman x from -0.8 to 0.95 for protons, from -0.2 to 0.3 for anti-protons and from 0.1 to 0.95 for neutrons. Existing data in the far backward hemisphere are used to extend the coverage for protons and light nuclear fragments into the region of intra-nuclear cascading. The use of corresponding data sets obtained in hadron-proton collisions with the same detector allows for the detailed analysis and model-independent separation of the three principle components of hadronization in p+C interactions, namely projectile fragmentation, target fragmentation of participant nucleons and intra-nuclear cascading. (orig.)

  14. Carbon beams, production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation, test and working conditions of a new negative-ion facility of the Salazar EN tandem are briefly described. Carbon is the material used for the test and the heavy ion stripping phenomenon is reviewed. (author)

  15. Beam combining of quantum cascade laser arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin G; Kansky, Jan; Goyal, Anish K; Pflügl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Belkin, Mikhail A; Sanchez, Antonio; Capasso, Federico A

    2009-08-31

    Wavelength beam combining was used to co-propagate beams from 28 elements in an array of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs). The beam-quality product of the array, defined as the product of near-field spot size and far-field divergence for the entire array, was improved by a factor of 21 by using wavelength beam combining. To demonstrate the applicability of wavelength beam combined DFB-QCL arrays for remote sensing, we obtained the absorption spectrum of isopropanol at a distance of 6 m from the laser array.

  16. 铁路货车制动梁检修生产线在昆明北车辆段中的应用%Application of Railway Truck Brake Beam Overhaul Production Line in North Kunming Car Depot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树生; 陆明; 王浩然; 邰俊勇

    2014-01-01

    Through analysis of railway truck brake beam overhaul production line, this article expounds the equipment composition, technical indicators, and related equipment, and analyzes the control system in detail, thus providing reference for the application of railway truck brake beam overhaul production line in north Kunming car depot.%本文通过对铁路货车制动梁检修生产线进行分析,阐述设备的组成、技术指标,以及相关的设备等,并详细分析了控制系统,进而为铁路货车制动梁检修生产线在昆明北车辆段中的应用提供参考依据。

  17. Radioactive Ion Beam Development at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, Dan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Blackmon, Jeff C; Carter, Ken; Dowling, Darryl; Juras, Raymond; Kawai, Yoko; Kronenberg, Andreas; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha; Müller, Paul; Spejewski, Eugene H; Tatum, A

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive beams are produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) technique. Radioactive nuclei are produced in a thick target via irradiation with energetic light ions (protons, deuterons, helium isotopes) and then post-accelerated to a few MeV/nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. An overview of radioactive beam development at the HRIBF will be presented, including ion source development, improvements in the ISOL production targets, and a description of techniques to improve the quality (intensity and purity) of the beams. Facilities for radioactive ion beam development include two ion source test facilities, a target/ion source preparation and quality assurance facility, and an in-beam test facility where low intensity production beams are used. A new test facility, the High Power Target Laboratory, will be available later this year. At this facility, high intensity production beams will be available t...

  18. Production of fast neutrons from deuteron beams in view of producing radioactive heavy ions beams; Etude de la production de neutrons rapides a partir de faisceaux de deutons en vue de la mise en oeuvre de faisceaux d'ions lourds radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, N

    2000-11-01

    This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable {sup 238}U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)

  19. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  20. 14. Euro summer school on exotic beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This school is intended for thesis students and young post-docs working in areas related to radioactive beams. It consists of several lecture courses given by specialists in their field, starting from a basic level. This document gathers only the slides of the following presentations: 1) clusters in nuclei, 2) the production of radioactive ion beams - in-flight methods, 3) ab-initio calculations for light nuclei, 4) the production of radioactive ion beams - ISOL methods, 5) neutrons for science, and 6) the production of radioactive ion beams - charge breeding.

  1. Cross-sections of large-angle hadron production in proton– and pion–nucleus interactions VII: tin nuclei and beam momenta from ±3 GeV/c to ±15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, A; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Elagin, A; Emelyanov, D; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Kroumchtein, Z; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Zhemchugov, A; Dydak, F; Wotschack, J; De Min, A; Ammosov, V; Gapienko, V; Koreshev, V; Semak, A; Sviridov, Y; Usenko, E; Zaets, V

    2011-01-01

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, charged pions, and deuterons, in the interactions with a 5% λint thick stationary tin target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from ±3 GeV/c to ±15 GeV/c. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles theta 20 to 125 degrees. Cross-sections on tin nuclei are compared with cross-sections on beryllium, carbon, copper, tantalum and lead nuclei.

  2. Cross- sections of large-angle hadron production in proton- and pion-nucleus interactions III: tantalum nuclei and beam momenta from $\\pm$ 3 GeV/c to $\\pm$ 15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, A; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Kroumshtein, Z; Nefedov, Yu; Nikolaev, K; Zhemchugov, A; Dydak, F; Wotschack, J; De Min, A; Ammosov, V; Gapienko, V; Koreshev, V; Semak, A; Sviridov, Yu; Usenko, E; Zaets, V

    2009-01-01

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, charged pions, and deuterons, in the interactions with a 5% $\\lambda_{abs}$ thick stationary tantalum target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from $\\pm{3} GeV/c to \\pm{15} GeV/c$. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles 20° &lt; heta &lt; 125° . They are of particular relevance for the optimization of the design parameters of the proton driver of a neutrino factory.

  3. Cross-sections of large-angle hadron production in proton- and pion-nucleus interactions VII: tin nuclei and beam momenta from +/- 3 GeV/c to +/- 15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, A; Elagin, A; Nikolaev, K; Wotschack, J; Gostkin, M; Kroumchtein, Z; De Min, A; Nefedov, Y; Usenko, E; Dedovitch, D; Dydak, F; Koreshev, V; Boyko, I; Zaets, V; Chelkov, G; Sviridov, Y; Ammosov, V; Guskov, A; Zhemchugov, A; Semak, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, charged pions, and deuterons, in the interactions with a 5\\% lambda(int) thick stationary tin target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from +/- 3 GeV/c to +/- 15 GeV/c. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles 20 degrees < theta < 125 degrees. Cross-sections on tin nuclei are compared with cross-sections on beryllium, carbon, copper, tantalum and lead nuclei.

  4. Cross-sections of large-angle hadron production in proton- and pion-nucleus interactions VI: carbon nuclei and beam momenta from ±3 GeV/c to ±15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, A; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Elagin, A; Emelyanov, D; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Kroumchtein, Z; Nefedov, Yu; Nikolaev, K; Zhemchugov, A; Dydak, F; Wotschack, J; De Min, A; Ammosov, V; Gapienko, V; Koreshev, V; Semak, A; Sviridov, Yu; Usenko, E; Zaets, V

    2010-01-01

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, charged pions, and deuterons, in the interactions with a 5% nuclear interaction length thick stationary carbon target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from ±3 GeV/c to ±15 GeV/c. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles between 20 and 125 degrees. Cross-sections on carbon nuclei are compared with cross-sections on beryllium, copper, tantalum and lead nuclei.

  5. Cross-sections of large-angle hadron production in proton-- and pion--nucleus interactions VIII: aluminium nuclei and beam momenta from $\\pm$ 3 GeV/c to $\\pm$ 15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, A; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Elagin, A; Emelyanov, D; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Kroumchtein, Z; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Zhemchugov, A; Dydak, F; Wotschack, J; De Min, A; Ammosov, V; Gapienko, V; Koreshev, V; Semak, A; Sviridov, Y; Usenko, E; Zaets, V

    2012-01-01

    We report on double-differential inclusive cross-sections of the production of secondary protons, charged pions, and deuterons, in the interactions with a 5\\% $\\lambda_{\\rm int}$ thick stationary aluminium target, of proton and pion beams with momentum from $\\pm3$~GeV/{\\it c} to $\\pm15$~GeV/{\\it c}. Results are given for secondary particles with production angles $20^\\circ < \\theta < 125^\\circ$. Cross-sections on aluminium nuclei are compared with cross-sections on beryllium, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum and lead nuclei.

  6. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  7. Libera Electron Beam Position Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Ursic, Rok

    2005-01-01

    Libera is a product family delivering unprecedented possibilities for either building powerful single station solutions or architecting complex feedback systems in the field of accelerator instrumentation and controls. This paper presents functionality and field performance of its first member, the electron beam position processor. It offers superior performance with multiple measurement channels delivering simultaneously position measurements in digital format with MHz kHz and Hz bandwidths. This all-in-one product, facilitating pulsed and CW measurements, is much more than simply a high performance beam position measuring device delivering micrometer level reproducibility with sub-micrometer resolution. Rich connectivity options and innate processing power make it a powerful feedback building block. By interconnecting multiple Libera electron beam position processors one can build a low-latency high throughput orbit feedback system without adding additional hardware. Libera electron beam position processor ...

  8. BR2 reactor neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of reactor neutron beams is becoming increasingly more widespread for the study of some properties of condensed matter. It is mainly due to the unique properties of the ''thermal'' neutrons as regards wavelength, energy, magnetic moment and overall favorable ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sections. Besides these fundamental reasons, the impetus for using neutrons is also due to the existence of powerful research reactors (such as BR2) built mainly for nuclear engineering programs, but where a number of intense neutron beams are available at marginal cost. A brief introduction to the production of suitable neutron beams from a reactor is given. (author)

  9. Production of events with two or three muons in the final state during the interaction on nucleons of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos of the CERN narrow band beam with a maximum energy of 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the production of dimuons and trimuons in the neutrino interactions using the data of the CDHS (CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay Cooperation) experiment taken in the CERN narrow band beam. The analysis of the quick results (since the statistics are weak) leads to significant conclusions on these events: 1) the c quark fragmentation function is approximately flat, 2) the production of heavy leptons, if this exists, only represents a very small part of the charged currents (10-4 approximately). 3) the pair production of charmed quarks can explain some of the dimuons of same sign, the greater part of these events coming from the semi leptonic disintegration of pions and kaons (π→μν,K → μν) produced in the hadronic jet. 4) any other process (for instance the production of b quarks) is very weak (-3 of the charged currents)

  10. Study on High Intensity High Charge State Lead Ion Beam Production and Optimize%强流高电荷态Pb离子束的产生与优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 李锦钰; 赵环昱; 曹云; 孙良亭; 赵红卫; 张子民

    2005-01-01

    随着原子物理及表面物理研究的发展,高电荷态金属离子束的需求日益增多.近来,在中国科学院近代物理研究所14.5GHz LECR3离子源实验平台上,以炉子法产生的铅离子束作为研究对象,进行了一系列ECR离子源关键参数(如:磁场、炉子功率、掺气等)影响高电荷态铅离子束产额的实验研究,在此基础上,调整优化了LECR3离子源的状态参数,从而获得了强流高电荷态铅离子束18etA 207pb30+和6.7eμA207pb37+.%High charge state metal ion beam is quite effective and essential for new investigations on atomic physics and surface physics. Recently, The high intensity high charge state lead ion beams have been produced with IMP 14.5GHz LECR3, we investigated experimentally influences of some key parameters,such as magnetic field, electrical power on oven, gas mixing etc., on lead ion beam production. Through optimization of the ion source conditions, stable 207Pb30+ beam of 18eμA and 207Pb37+ beam of 6.7eμA have been obtained with oven method at 20kV extraction voltage.

  11. 14,15N beam from cyanide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here on the direct generation of a CN− ion beam for the production of a N ion beam to be used in nuclear astrophysics measurements. The procedure relies on the production of CN− ion beam with a SNICS source starting from several appropriate substrates containing CN− triple bond. Several of the investigated substrates showed a higher beam intensity with respect to the common N beam production from a cathode of BN plus graphite. Best results in terms of analyzed beam intensity were observed with K3Fe(CN)6 and KSCN cathodes. Use of the latter compound is particularly appealing because of the easy availability of mass-15 enriched molecule.

  12. Carbon-ion beams induce production of an immune mediator protein, high mobility group box 1, at levels comparable with X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiotherapy activates tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses, and increases in the serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by X-ray irradiation play a pivotal role in activating anti-tumor immunity. Here, we examined whether carbon-ion beams, as well as X-rays, can induce HMGB1 release from human cancer cell lines. The study examined five human cancer cell lines: TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr. The proportion of cells surviving X- or carbon-ion beam irradiation was assessed in a clonogenic assay. The D10, the dose at which 10% of cells survive, was calculated using a linear–quadratic model. HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants were assessed by an ELISA. The D10 dose for X-rays in TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells was 2.1, 6.7, 8.0, 4.8 and 7.1 Gy, respectively, whereas that for carbon-ion beams was 0.9, 2.5, 2.7, 1.8 and 3.5 Gy, respectively. X-rays and carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells at 72 h post-irradiation with a D10 dose. Furthermore, irradiation with X-rays or carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of all five cell lines at 96 h post-irradiation. There was no significant difference in the amount of HMGB1 induced by X-rays and carbon-ion beams at any time-point (except at 96 h for NCI-H460 cells); thus we conclude that comparable levels of HMGB1 were detected after irradiation with iso-survival doses of X-rays and carbon-ion beams. (author)

  13. Beam quality measure for vector beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580

  14. Hyperon Beam Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment WA89 uses the upgraded Omega facility together with a hyperon beam installed at the end of the H1 beamline. The beam can deliver 2~10$ ^{5} \\% Sigma ^- $ per machine burst at 330 GeV/c with a background of 5 10$ ^{5} \\% \\pi ^- $. \\\\ \\\\ The goals of the experiment are: observation of charmed particles, mainly the charmed-strange baryons and measurements of their production in the kinematical range x$ _{F} $~$>$~0.2, and their decay properties, a search for exotic states such as U(3100) observed in the previous CERN hyperon beam experiment WA62, measurements of hyperon polarization and production properties. \\\\ \\\\ A vertex detector consisting of 24 silicon microstrip planes with 25~$\\mu$m pitch and 6~planes with 50~$\\mu$m pitch provides track measurements of sufficient accuracy to identify the decays of short living charmed particles and measure their lifetimes. A RICH detector provides good $\\pi$/K separation for momenta up to 100~GeV/c and $\\pi$/p separation up to 150~GeV/c. Photons are detecte...

  15. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  16. Beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  17. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  18. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility is based on the method of laser stepwise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity. The atomic selectivity of the RILIS compliments the mass selection process of the ISOLDE separator magnets to provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. Using a system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers, ion beams of 22 elements have been generated at ISOLDE with ionization efficiencies in the range of 0.5%-30%. As part of the ongoing RILIS development, recent off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy studies have determined the optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium, and antimony

  19. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherall, R.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Köster, U.; Lettry, J.; Suberlucq, G.; Marsh, B. A.; Tengborn, E.

    2004-05-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility is based on the method of laser stepwise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity. The atomic selectivity of the RILIS compliments the mass selection process of the ISOLDE separator magnets to provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. Using a system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers, ion beams of 22 elements have been generated at ISOLDE with ionization efficiencies in the range of 0.5%-30%. As part of the ongoing RILIS development, recent off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy studies have determined the optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium, and antimony.

  20. Production of a coherent pair of light beams with a microwave frequency difference from a single extended-cavity diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Sin Hyuk; Cho, D

    2010-02-01

    We produced a pair of coherent laser beams with a 3-GHz frequency difference by optically phase locking two modes from a single, multimode extended-cavity diode laser. This method is complementary to either a direct modulation or an optical phase locking of two independent lasers. A large differential frequency shift between the two modes of the laser allows efficient phase locking. We developed a simple theory to account for the large differential frequency shift. Allan deviation of the beat frequency when the two modes are phase-locked drops as an inverse of the measurement time and it reaches 10(-14) when the time is 1 h. Coherent population trapping spectroscopy of Rb atoms using the phase-locked beams resulted in a spectrum as narrow as that of the case using direct modulation by a stable frequency synthesizer.

  1. Realization of an electrostatic collection of nuclei. Application to the production of isotopes and to nuclear reactions induced by 12C beams at 86 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working conditions of a new on-line electrostatic collection system are presented. The main characteristics are high efficiency (reaching 20%) and short delay time (down to the millisecond). A systematic study of this method, comparing experiment and theory, is done. The device has been successfully used on the one hand for the exotic isotopes research (discovery of 184Pb) and on the other hand for the study of reactions induced by a 12C beam at 86 MeV/nucleon

  2. Production of positronium negative ions using a pulsed low-energy positron beam at the KEK-PF slow positron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new apparatus for experimental studies on the positronium negative ions has been developed at the KEK-PF slow positron facility. The ions are emitted into vacuum from the Na deposited surface of a tungsten target bombarded with pulsed slow positrons. The apparatus will allow the study of the process of the Ps- photodetachment when it is combined with the use of an intense pulsed laser synchronized to the positron beam.

  3. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  4. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, Alberto; Berkovits, Dan; Yamane, Isao

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw) proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line adioactive Ion Beam Facility) design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kWof proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fractionof the main H- beam, magnetic splitting of H- and H0, and stripping of H0 to H+. The method allowsslow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  5. Mixed beams for the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Breese, M.B.H.; Legge, G.L.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Recently the Micro-Analytical Research Centre (MARC) at Melbourne University has developed a technique to provide mixed beams of ions for a magnetically focussed nuclear microprobe. Such a mixed beam is defined as two (or more) beams of different species ions that can quickly and easily be made to have the same magnetic rigidity R{sub m} = (mE/q{sup 2}) and therefore be transported, focused and scanned the same in a magnetic nuclear microprobe. The production of mixed beams in an electrostatically focussed micro- probe have already been demonstrated. This paper will show how mixed beams can be produced on a single-ended accelerator. Indications of how to produce them on a tandem will also be given. Applications of these mixed beams in micro-lithography, scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) imaging and ion beam induced charge (IBIC) imaging will also be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  7. Determination of the LEP beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Torrence, E

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the determination of the LEP beam energy above the production threshold for W boson pairs. A brief overview of the magnetic extrapolation method is presented which is currently used to determine the LEP beam energy to a relative precision of 2*10/sup -4 /. A new method for beam energy measurements based on an in-line energy spectrometer is presented, and current developments in the commissioning of this device are outlined. (2 refs).

  8. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  9. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  10. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  11. Beam imaging sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  12. Power ion beam production in a magnetic-insulated diode placed in a circuit with an inductive storage with a plasmoerosion circuit breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to results of experimental studies of modes of operation of plasma current breaker and magnetic insulated diode, placed parallel in a circuit with inductive storage and microsecond generator, as well as parameters of high-power ion beam, generated in gas-filled diode. Magnetic field of mirror configuration, which enabled to locate the gas-filled diode dose to breaking region was used for decrease of electrodynamic plasma transfer. It is shown that time delay (of the order of ten and more) of power maximum in gas-filled diode with respect to power maximum in plasma breaker is observed when using passive plasma source on anode

  13. Design of a new low momentum kaon beam for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low momentum beam described is to be a unique source of antiprotons as well as kaons. The discussion covers (1) choice of production angle; (2) secondary beams; (3) the use of sector dipole magnets for minimizing aberrations; (4) beam bending magnets; (5) beam separators; and (6) beam acceptance

  14. Radio frequency atomic hydrogen beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, convenient rf discharge source for the production of an intense beam of hydrogen atoms is described. The design and operation is such that the discharge tube can be operated over a period of several thousand hours, producing an intense beam with dissociation approx.95%

  15. Application of electron-beam irradiation on the production of salted and seasoned short-necked clam, Tapes Pilippinarum, for safe distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.; Song, H.P.; Choe, J.H.; Jung, S. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J. [Food Safety Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Salted and seasoned short-necked clam (Tapes Philippinarum; SNC) and its major ingredients, red hot pepper powder, ginger, garlic and onion were irradiated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy, respectively, and the microbiological and sensory quality were evaluated. The water activities of SNC and red pepper powder were 0.91 and 0.56, respectively, and others were higher than 0.97. The initial microbial populations of SNC were approximately 3.99, 4.38 and 2.22 log CFU/g for total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and coliform bacteria. The highest contamination of total aerobic bacteria was detected from ground ginger among ingredients at 5.51 log CFU/g. Electron-beam irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy) significantly reduced the initial microbial level of SNC and its ingredients not only immediately after irradiation, but also during storage at 10 {sup o}C for 4 weeks (p<0.05). There was no adverse change of sensory score except for the color of onion irradiated at 5 kGy, which results in a lower score than control. From the results electron-beam irradiation is a useful tool to enhance the storage stability and safe distribution of SNC.

  16. Neutron Halo Isomers in Stable Nuclei and their Possible Application for the Production of Low Energy, Pulsed, Polarized Neutron Beams of High Intensity and High Brilliance

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D; Thirolf, P G; Böni, P

    2010-01-01

    We propose to search for neutron halo isomers populated via $\\gamma$-capture in stable nuclei with mass numbers of about A=140-180 or A=40-60, where the $4s_{1/2}$ or $3s_{1/2}$ neutron shell model state reaches zero binding energy. These halo nuclei can be produced for the first time with new $\\gamma$-beams of high intensity and small band width ($\\le$ 0.1\\%) achievable via Compton back-scattering off brilliant electron beams thus offering a promising perspective to selectively populate these isomers with small separation energies of 1 eV to a few keV. Similar to single-neutron halo states for very light, extremely neutron-rich, radioactive nuclei \\cite{hansen95,tanihata96,aumann00}, the low neutron separation energy and short-range nuclear force allows the neutron to tunnel far out into free space much beyond the nuclear core radius. This results in prolonged half lives of the isomers for the $\\gamma$-decay back to the ground state in the 100 ps-$\\mu$s range. Similar to the treatment of photodisintegration ...

  17. Robust Collimation Control of Laser-Generated Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, S; Kamiyama, D; Nagashima, T; Barada, D; Gu, Y J; Li, X; Yu, Q; Kong, Q; Wang, P X

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of a structured collimation device is discussed for an intense-laser-produced ion beam. In this paper the ion beam collimation is realized by the solid structured collimation device, which produces the transverse electric field; the electric field contributes to reduce the ion beam transverse velocity and collimate the ion beam. Our 2.5 dimensional particle-in cell simulations demonstrate that the collimation device is rather robust against the changes in the laser parameters and the collimation target sizes. The intense short-pulse lasers are now available, and are used to generate an ion beam. The issues in the laser ion acceleration include an ion beam collimation, ion energy spectrum control, ion production efficiency, ion energy control, ion beam bunching, etc. The laser-produced ion beam tends to expand in the transverse and longitudinal directions during the ion beam propagation. The ion beam collimation is focused in this paper.

  18. History of the polarized beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973, the first high energy polarized proton beam was developed at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS). It operated very successfully and productively until 1979 when the ZGS was shut down permanently. This report describes the development, characteristics, and operations of this facility

  19. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  20. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  1. The cantilever beam damping identification based on the inner product modulus maximum method%基于内积模极值法的悬臂梁阻尼识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章展源; 冒凯炫; 赵卫东; 赵晓丹

    2014-01-01

    The cantilever beam structure is small damping system, modal damping is sensitive to crack fault. In order to solve the problem that traditional damping identification method has big er-ror, the inner product modulus maximum method combined with circular subtraction is proposed to do damping identification. Firstly, the inner product modulus maximum method is applied to iden-tify a modal parameter of signals for subtracting the estimated signal from original signals. Then, repeat these steps of this inner product operation and subtraction to become the iteration. The mo-dal interference is decreased in the process of iteration, and the identification of each modal is more accurate. This method is applied to diagnose cantilever beam damping in the experience, and change the cantilever beam damping to simulate the crack. When one damping slice pasted on the beam, the damping produced the change of 0. 000 019 and 0. 000 112 in the vicinity of 60 Hz and 200 Hz, respectively. Results show that the inner product modulus maximum method combined with circular subtraction can accurately identify the damping small change. The damping will be recognized as an important parameter in the fault diagnosis of beam.%悬臂梁结构是小阻尼系统,模态阻尼对裂纹故障敏感,为了解决传统阻尼识别方法识别误差大的问题,创新性的提出利用内积模极值法和循环相减相结合进行阻尼诊断的方法。首先,应用内积模极值法识别出信号的某一阶模态参数,从原信号中除去该阶估计信号。然后,重复这种内积运算和相减步骤,形成迭代,模态之间的相互干扰在迭代计算过程中得到消减,提高各阶阻尼的识别精度。实验采用该方法进行悬臂梁阻尼识别,并改变悬臂梁阻尼模拟裂纹出现,当粘贴一片阻尼片时,在60 Hz和200 Hz附近模态的阻尼分别产生了0.000019和0.000112的变化。结果表明,内积模极值法和循环相减相

  2. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  3. A cold 87Rb atomic beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Jia; Feng Yan-Ying; Xue Hong-Bo; Zhou Zhao-Ying; Zhang Wen-Dong

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an experimental setup for the production of a beam source of cold 87Rb atoms.The atoms are extracted from a trapped cold atomic cloud in an unbalanced three-dimensional magneto-optical trap.Via a radiation pressure difference generated by a specially designed leak tunnel along one trapping laser beam,the atoms are pushed out continuously with low velocities and a high flux.The most-probable velocity in the beam is varied from 9 m/s to 19 m/s by varying the detuning of the trapping laser beams in the magneto-optical trap and the flux can be tuned up to 4× 109 s-1 by increasing the intensity of the trapping beams.We also present a simple model for describing the dependence of the beam performance on the magneto-optical trap trapping laser intensity and the detuning.

  4. Multiply charged ion beams from solid substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mVINIS Ion Source has enabled us to obtain multiply charged ion beams from gases as well as from solid materials. The solid substance ion beams were produced by using two techniques: a) the evaporation of metals by using the inlet system based on mini-oven and b) the metal-ions-from volatile-compounds method (MIVOC) by using the modified gas inlet system. In the production of high current stable ion beams of solids with relatively high melting points (over 1000 deg) were made great efforts. The B3+ ion beam current of over 300 μA is one of the most intensive beams extracted until now. The obtained multiply charged ion beam spectra of solid substances (B, Fe and Zn) are presented as well as some of the corresponding experimental results achieved during the modification of polymers, carbon materials and fullerenes. (author)

  5. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  6. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  7. Plasma beam discharge in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the dissociation of carbon dioxide in nonequilibrium plasma of a stationary plasma-beam discharge. Experimental results of spectroscopic and probe measurements of plasma parameters are given. Moreover, a mass-spectrometric analysis of gaseous products of the chemical reactions is presented. In addition the measurement of the deposition rate of solid products by means of a quartz oscillator is described. The results show that plasma beam discharge is an effective tool for inducing plasma-chemical reactions. (author)

  8. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  9. Parabolic scaling beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  10. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  11. Beam induced heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Esteban Mueller, J; Gentini, L; Goddar, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Nougaret, J L; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Sapinski, M; Shaposhinkova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of LHC came at the expense of increased temperature and pressure readings on several near-beam LHC equipments. In some cases, this beam induced heating was suspected to cause beam dumps and even degradation of the equipment. This contribution aims at gathering the observations of beam induced heating due to beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions that could be implemented during the winter stop 2011-2012.

  12. Characterizing and Controlling Beam Losses at the LANSCE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-12

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) currently provides 100-MeV H{sup +} and 800-MeV H{sup -} beams to several user facilities that have distinct beam requirements, e.g. intensity, micropulse pattern, duty factor, etc. Minimizing beam loss is critical to achieving good performance and reliable operation, but can be challenging in the context of simultaneous multi-beam delivery. This presentation will discuss various aspects related to the observation, characterization and minimization of beam loss associated with normal production beam operations in the linac.

  13. Physics Opportunities with Meson Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, William J; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I; Swanson, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. The present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.

  14. Neutron-rich rare isotope production from projectile fission of heavy beams in the energy range of 20 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Vonta, N; Loveland, W D; Kwon, Y K; Tshoo, K; Jeong, S C; Veselsky, M; Bonasera, A; Botvina, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibilities of producing neutron-rich nuclides in projectile fission of heavy beams in the energy range of 20 MeV/nucleon expected from low-energy facilities. We report our efforts to theoretically describe the reaction mechanism of projectile fission following a multinucleon transfer collision at this energy range. Our calculations are mainly based on a two-step approach: the dynamical stage of the collision is described with either the phenomenological Deep-Inelastic Transfer model (DIT), or with the microscopic Constrained Molecular Dynamics model (CoMD). The deexcitation/fission of the hot heavy projectile fragments is performed with the Statistical Mul- tifragmentation Model (SMM). We compared our model calculations with our previous experimental projectile-fission data of 238U (20 MeV/nucleon)+208Pb and 197Au (20 MeV/nucleon)+197Au and found an overall reasonable agreement. Our study suggests that projectile fission following periph- eral heavy-ion collisions at this energy range of...

  15. Feasibility Studies for Quarkonium Production at a Fixed-Target Experiment Using the LHC Proton and Lead Beams (AFTER@LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Massacrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Being used in the fixed-target mode, the multi-TeV LHC proton and lead beams allow for studies of heavy-flavour hadroproduction with unprecedented precision at backward rapidities, far negative Feynman-x, using conventional detection techniques. At the nominal LHC energies, quarkonia can be studied in detail in p+p, p+d, and p+A collisions at sNN≃115 GeV and in Pb + p and Pb + A collisions at sNN≃72 GeV with luminosities roughly equivalent to that of the collider mode that is up to 20 fb−1 yr−1 in p+p and p+d collisions, up to 0.6 fb−1 yr−1 in p+A collisions, and up to 10 nb−1 yr−1 in Pb + A collisions. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of such studies by performing fast simulations using the performance of a LHCb-like detector.

  16. Inclusive production of hyperons, as well as of pions, charged kaons, protons, anti-protons and neutrons in p+p collisions at 158 GeV/c beam momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data on the production of hyperons, as well as of pions, charged kaons, protons, anti-protons, neutrons in p+p interactions are presented. The data come from a sample of 8.2 million inelastic events obtained with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS at 158 GeV/c beam momentum. The high statistics data sample allows the extraction of detailed differential distributions as a function of xf, y and pT. The results are compared with published data and models. Moreover, the measurements provide an important reference for studying effects of cold nuclear matter in proton-nucleus and hot dense matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. (author)

  17. Wavelength Dependence of Production of Multicharged Carbon Ions in Nanosecond Intense Laser Ionization of Seeded Benzene Beam%纳秒强激光电离苯产生高价碳离子的波长效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛冬梅; 梁峰; 罗晓琳; 温丽华; 张西咸; 李海洋

    2004-01-01

    The photoionization of seeded benzene beam by 25 ns laser pulse at wavelengths of 266, 355 and 1064 nm has been studied by the time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The observed mass spectra at 266 nm and 355 nm at intensities of 1010-1011 W/cm2 indicate a multiphoton ionization and dissociation (MPID) process, in which C+ C2Hx+, C3Hx+ , C4Hx+ and C6H6+ are main products. While at 1064 nm laser of similar intensities, the domain ion is C4+ which is produced from Coulomb explosion. The longer wavelength facilities the energy absorption rate during inverse bremsstrahlung, which leads to the resulting wavelength dependence of the muhicharged atomic ions.

  18. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. COMPASS measurements with hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon and hadron beams from the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron are used in the COMPASS experiment for high-energy scattering reactions off fixed targets, aiming at measurements of non-perturbative aspects of quantum chromodynamics. With pion beams, the meson spectrum can be examined via diffractive dissociation, where the existence of hybrid or exotic states is a much discussed issue. The double-diffractive process of central production, which can be measured also with a proton beam, is a promising approach for the search for glueballs. At extremely small momentum transfer, electromagnetic processes are accessible via the Primakoff effect and aim at the determination of QCD low energy constants as the pion polarisability and the chiral anomaly. The muon program, focused on deep inelastic scattering, took place in the years 2002 to 2007. During this time, in autumn 2004, also a first pilot run with a pion beam was taken with the focus on diffractive and Primakoff measurements. Preliminary results and conclusions are presented. Data taking with a pion beam was resumed in 2008, where large statistics for diffractive scattering was collected. First insights, also in view of the findings of previous experiments, are presented, as well as the planning for continuation of data taking in 2009.

  20. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  1. Pyramid beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.; Fairer, George

    1992-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides means for obtaining accurate, dependable, measurement of bearings and directions for geologic mapping in subterranean shafts, such as, for example, nuclear waste storage investigations. In operation, a laser beam is projected along a reference bearing. A pyramid is mounted such that the laser beam is parallel to the pyramid axis and can impinge on the apex of the pyramid thus splitting the beam several ways into several beams at right angles to each other and at right angles to the reference beam. The pyramid is also translatable and rotatable in a plane perpendicular to the reference beam.

  2. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  4. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  5. Molecular-beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M. F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HC1 (FEMALE) NAC1 + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2(2)P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3(2)P/sub 3/2) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  6. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  7. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(22P/sub 3/2/) and Na(32P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  8. Light dark matter in neutrino beams: production modelling and scattering signatures at MiniBooNE, T2K and SHiP

    CERN Document Server

    deNiverville, Patrick; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the prospects for detection of light sub-GeV dark matter produced in experiments designed to study the properties of neutrinos, such as MiniBooNE, T2K, SHiP, DUNE etc. We present an improved production model, when dark matter couples to hadronic states via a dark photon or baryonic vector mediator, incorporating bremsstrahlung of the dark vector. In addition to elastic scattering, we also study signatures of light dark matter undergoing deep inelastic or quasi-elastic NC$\\pi^0$-like scattering in the detector producing neutral pions, which for certain experiments may provide the best sensitivity. An extensive appendix provides documentation for a publicly available simulation tool {\\tt BdNMC} that can be applied to determine the hidden sector dark matter production and scattering rate at a range of proton fixed target experiments.

  9. Measurement of single charged pion production in the charged-current interactions of neutrinos in a 1.3 GeV wide band beam

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, A; Whitehead, L; Alcaraz, J L; Andringa, S; Aoki, S; Argyriades, J; Asakura, K; Ashie, R; Berghaus, F; Berns, H; Bhang, H; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Bouchez, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Casper, D; Catala, J; Cavata, C; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Chen, S M; Cho, K O; Choi, J H; Dore, U; Espinal, X; Fechner, M; Fernández, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Gomez-Cadenas, J; Gran, R; Hara, T; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hiraide, K; Hosaka, J; Ichikawa, A K; Iinuma, M; Ikeda, A; Ishida, T; Ishihara, K; Ishii, T; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Iwashita, T; Jang, H I; Jeon, E J; Jeong, I S; Joo, K K; Jover, G; Jung, C K; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kato, I; Kearns, E; Kim, C O; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Konaka, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Yu; Kuno, Y; Kurimoto, Y; Kutter, T; Learned, J; Likhoded, S; Lim, I T; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maesaka, H; Mallet, J; Mariani, C; Matsuno, S; Matveev, V; McConnel, K; McGrew, C; Mikheyev, S; Minamino, A; Mine, S; Mineev, O; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriguchi, Y; Moriyama, S; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Namba, T; Nambu, R; Nawang, S; Nishikawa, K; Nitta, K; Nova, F; Novella, P; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Pierre, F; Saji, C; Sakuda, M; Sánchez, F; Scholberg, K; Schroeter, R; Sekiguchi, M; Shiozawa, M; Shiraishi, K; Sitjes, G; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stone, J; Sulak, L; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, Y; Tada, M; Takahashi, T; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Taki, K; Takubo, Y; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Terri, R; T'Jampens, S; Tornero-Lopez, A; Totsuka, Y; Vagins, M; Walter, C W; Wang, W; Wilkes, R J; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, S; Yanagisawa, C; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, H; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, M; Zalipska, J

    2008-01-01

    Single charged pion production in charged-current muon neutrino interactions with carbon is studied using data collected in the K2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. The mean energy of the incident muon neutrinos is 1.3 GeV. The data used in this analysis are mainly from a fully active scintillator detector, SciBar. The cross section for single $\\pi^{+}$ production in the resonance region ($W<2$ GeV/$c^2$) relative to the charged-current quasi-elastic cross section is found to be 0.734 $^{+0.140}_{-0.153}$. The energy-dependent cross section ratio is also measured. The results are consistent with a previous experiment and the prediction of our model.

  10. Laser-Beam Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermid, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Train of prisms and optical stop separate fundamental beam of laser from second and higher order harmonics of beam produced in certain crystals and by stimulated Raman scattering in gases and liquids.

  11. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  12. Space charge dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introductory section on the relationship between emittance and beam Coulomb energy we discuss the properties of space charge dominated beams in progressive steps: from uniformly charged bunched beams to non-uniformly charged beams to correlation effects between particles (simulation beams or 'crystalline' beams). A practical application can be found in the beam dynamics of a high-current injector. The concept of correlation energy is of practical interest in computer simulation of high-brilliance beams, where one deals with an artificially enhanced two-particle Coulomb energy, if many real particles are combined into one simulation super-particle. This can be a source of non-physical emittance growth. (orig./HSI)

  13. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  14. Proton beam writing

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Watt; Breese, Mark B H; Bettiol, Andrew A; Jeroen A. van Kan

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam (p-beam) writing is a new direct-writing process that uses a focused beam of MeV protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions. The process, although similar in many ways to direct writing using electrons, nevertheless offers some interesting and unique advantages. Protons, being more massive, have deeper penetration in materials while maintaining a straight path, enabling p-beam writing to fabricate three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures with vertical, smooth side...

  15. Welding by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser which does not require a vacuum and the beam from which can be projected over a distance without loss of power is sited outside a welding zone and the beam projected through a replaceable laser transparent window. The window is designed and shaped to facilitate access of the beam of workpiece items to be welded in containment. Either the workpiece or the laser beam may be moved during welding. (author)

  16. Slow kaon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short description is given of considerations for the design of low-momentum kaon beam lines. Relevant data for the performance of seven existing and decommissioned slow kaon beams are presented. For single-stage separated beams the observed ratio all/K- is greater than 50 for momenta less than 500 MeV/c. We recommend a two-stage separated beam with perhaps an upstream cleanup section for maximal purity

  17. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    CERN Document Server

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  18. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  19. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  20. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  1. Electron Beam Lithography for nano-patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Khomtchenko, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam lithography is a versatile tool for fabrication of nano-sized patterns. The patterns are generated by scanning a focused beam of high-energy electrons onto a substrate coated with a thin layer of electron-sensitive polymer (resist), i.e. by directly writing custom-made patterns...... in a polymer. Electron beam lithography is a suitable method for nano-sized production, research, or development of semiconductor components on a low-volume level. Here, we present electron beam lithography available at DTU Danchip. We expertize a JEOL 9500FZ with electrons accelerated to an energy of 100ke...... are mounted on a stage which is positionally controlled by laserinterferometry. This results in a resolution of 10 nm and stitching accuracy of 10 nm. The electron beam writer is located in a class 10 (ISO 4) cleanroom which is vibrationally and electromagnetically screened from the surroundings. Furthermore...

  2. Electron beam processing of wastewater in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam processing technology started in Malaysia in 1991 when two accelerators were installed through JICA cooperation to perform medical product sterilization project. Since then several private companies have installed electron accelerators to develop in removing volatile organic materials and to demonstrate flue gas treatment. In this country report, effort on electron beam processing of wastewater or contaminated groundwater is presented: After de-coloration tests using gamma rays as function of radiation doses, electron beam treatment of textile industry wastewater as function of beam energy and current intensity as well as with combined treatment such as aeration or biological treatment to examine the effectiveness in color and BOD or COD change has been carried out and the main results are reported. Furthermore, the present technique was examined to apply in river water treatment for use as drinking water. Techno-economic feasibility study for recycling of industrial waste water using electron beam technology is now underway. (S. Ohno)

  3. Beams 92: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  4. Accelerating nondiffracting beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shaohui; Li, Manman; Yao, Baoli, E-mail: yaobl@opt.ac.cn; Yu, Xianghua; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yang, Yanlong; Min, Junwei; Peng, Tong

    2015-06-05

    We present a set of beams which combine the properties of accelerating beams and (conventional) diffraction-free beams. These beams can travel along a desired trajectory while keeping an approximately invariant transverse profile, which may be (higher-order) Bessel-, Mathieu- or parabolic-nondiffracting-like beams, depending on the initial complex amplitude distribution. A possible application of these beams presented here may be found in optical trapping field. For example, a higher-order Bessel-like beam, which has a hollow (transverse) pattern, is suitable for guiding low-refractive-index or metal particles along a curve. - Highlights: • A set of beams having arbitrary trajectories of accelerating and nondiffracting behaviors are generalized and presented. • Bessel-like accelerating beams are generalized to the higher-order (hollow) version. • Mathieu-like accelerating beams and parabolic-nondiffracting-like accelerating beams are presented. • A possible application of these beams may be found in optical trapping and guiding of particles.

  5. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  6. Klystron beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description of electron-beam bunching phenomena in klystrons is presented. Beam harmonic current is defined, both space-charge and ballistic bunching are analyzed, Ramo's theorem is used to describe how a bunched beam drives a cavity, and a general cavity model including external coupling is provided. (author)

  7. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, Richard; Köster, U; Lettry, Jacques; Suberlucq, Guy; Marsh, Bruce A; Tengborn, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    The production of radioactive ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility was investigated. The RILIS setup included three dye lasers and ionization schemes which employ three resonant transitions were also used. The RILIS efficiency could be reduced by nuclear effects such as hyperfine splitting and isotope shifts. The off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy determined optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium and antimony and antimony. The results show that best ionization schemes of Y provided gain factor of 15 with respect to surface ionization. (Edited abstract) 8 Refs.

  8. Study of exclusive one-pion and one-eta production using hadron and dielectron channels in pp reactions at kinetic beam energies of 1.25 GeV and 2.2 GeV with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Balanda, A; Bassini, R; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ierusalimov, A; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krizek, F; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Maier, L; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Sánchez, M; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Toia, A; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of exclusive \\pi^{+,0} and \\eta\\ production in pp reactions at 1.25 GeV and 2.2 GeV beam kinetic energy in hadron and dielectron channels. In the case of \\pi^+ and \\pi^0, high-statistics invariant-mass and angular distributions are obtained within the HADES acceptance as well as acceptance corrected distributions, which are compared to a resonance model. The sensitivity of the data to the yield and production angular distribution of \\Delta(1232) and higher lying baryon resonances is shown, and an improved parameterization is proposed. The extracted cross sections are of special interest in the case of pp \\to pp \\eta, since controversial data exist at 2.0 GeV; we find \\sigma =0.142 \\pm 0.022 mb. Using the dielectron channels, the \\pi^0 and \\eta\\ Dalitz decay signals are reconstructed with yields fully consistent with the hadronic channels. The electron invariant masses and acceptance corrected helicity angle distributions are found in good agreement with model predictions.

  9. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: Application to low--temperature kinetics and product detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-10-12

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radicalneutralchemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has beendeveloped that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion withexcellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by theairfoil is negligible. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification basedon the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic ratesclose to the collision-determined limit.

  10. Pushing the limits - beam

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    Many collective effects were observed in 2010, first when the intensity per bunch was increased and subsequently when the number of bunches was pushed up and the bunch spacing was reduced. After a review of the LHC performance during the 2010 run, with a particular emphasis on impedances and related single-beam coherent instabilities, but mentioning also beam-beam and electron cloud issues, the potential of the LHC for 2011 will be discussed. More specifically, the maximum bunch/beam intensity and the maximum beam brightness the LHC should be able to swallow will be compared to what the injectors can provide.

  11. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  12. Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitoring for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kurfuerst, C; Sapinski, M

    A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system was installed on the outside surface of the LHC magnet cryostats to protect the accelerator equipment from beam losses. The protection is achieved by extracting the beam from the ring in case thresholds imposed on measured radiation levels are exceeded. Close to the interaction regions of the LHC, the present BLM system is sensitive to particle showers generated in the interaction region of the two beams. In the future, with beams of higher energy and brightness resulting in higher luminosity, distinguishing between these interaction products and possible quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams will be challenging. The particle showers measured by the present BLM configuration are partly shielded by the cryostat and the iron yoke of the magnets. The system can hence be optimised by locating beam loss monitors as close as possible to the protected element, i. e. the superconducting coils, inside the cold mass of the magnets in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. T...

  13. Cluster ion beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster ions can be made by the supercooling due to adiabatic expansion of substances to be vaporized which are ejected from a nozzle. This paper is described on the recent progress of studies concerning the cluster beam. The technique of cluster ion beam has been applied for the studies of thermonuclear plasma, the fabrication of thin films, crystal growth and electronic devices. The density of cluster ion beam is larger than that of atomic ion beam, and the formation of thin films can be easily done in high vacuum. This method is also useful for epitaxial growth. Metallic vapour cluster beam was made by the help of jetting rare gas beam. Various beam sources were developed. The characteristics of these sources were measured and analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  14. LHC Report: Freshly squeezed beams!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    After careful validation of  new machine settings, the LHC was ready for higher luminosity operation. New luminosity records have been set, but the operations team continues to wrestle with machine availability issues.   The commissioning of the squeeze to a ß* of 1 m in ATLAS and CMS described in the last Bulletin took until Wednesday, 7 September to complete. In order to validate the new set-up, beam losses were provoked in a controlled way with low intensity beams. The distribution of beam loss around the machine in these tests is known as a loss map. The loss maps showed that the collimation system is catching the large majority of beam losses as it should, and that the machine was ready for us to ramp the number of bunches back up and go to physics production. The ramp-up of the number of bunches went smoothly with fills at 264, 480, and 912 bunches on the way back to the machine’s previous record of 1380 bunches (first fill on Friday, 9 Se...

  15. Pulsed supersonic helium beams for plasma edge diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Rojo, T.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.; Tabarés, F. L.; Tafalla, D.

    1997-03-01

    An experimental setup for the production of pulsed supersonic He beams to be used for plasma edge diagnosis in fusion devices is described. A compromise between compact design, low cost, and good quality of the probe beams has been met. The main characteristics of the generated beams, such as pulse shape, absolute flux intensity, and velocity distribution, differ in general from those expected for ideal beam performance and have been determined and optimized experimentally. A first test of this He beam source at the TJ-I UP Torsatron in Madrid is also reported.

  16. Pulsed supersonic helium beams for plasma edge diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Rojo, T.; Herrero, V.J.; Tanarro, I. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Tabares, F.L.; Tafalla, D. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, Avenue Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    1997-03-01

    An experimental setup for the production of pulsed supersonic He beams to be used for plasma edge diagnosis in fusion devices is described. A compromise between compact design, low cost, and good quality of the probe beams has been met. The main characteristics of the generated beams, such as pulse shape, absolute flux intensity, and velocity distribution, differ in general from those expected for ideal beam performance and have been determined and optimized experimentally. A first test of this He beam source at the TJ-I UP Torsatron in Madrid is also reported. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Colliding Crystalline Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. We study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. We initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then over-lapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, we find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong coding, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice

  18. Beam-beam effect seen through forced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electron accelerator, tune is measured by giving beam transverse forced vibration caused by RF frequency. It is well known that beam-beam parameter can be measured if beam-beam interaction exists. Generally, small value is chosen as the amplitude of forced vibration, and many researches were done in this case. In this report, we discuss effect of resonance caused by beam-beam interaction in case of amplitude of forced vibration being big. (author)

  19. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  20. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove;

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  1. Center for Beam Physics, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Beam Physics is a multi-disciplinary research and development unit in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. At the heart of the Center's mission is the fundamental quest for mechanisms of acceleration, radiation and focusing of energy. Dedicated to exploring the frontiers of the physics of (and with) particle and photon beams, its primary mission is to promote the science and technology of the production, manipulation, storage and control systems of charged particles and photons. The Center serves this mission via conceptual studies, theoretical and experimental research, design and development, institutional project involvement, external collaborations, association with industry and technology transfer. This roster provides a glimpse at the scientists, engineers, technical support, students, and administrative staff that make up this team and a flavor of their multifaceted activities during 1993

  2. Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

  3. Center for Beam Physics, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Center for Beam Physics is a multi-disciplinary research and development unit in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. At the heart of the Center`s mission is the fundamental quest for mechanisms of acceleration, radiation and focusing of energy. Dedicated to exploring the frontiers of the physics of (and with) particle and photon beams, its primary mission is to promote the science and technology of the production, manipulation, storage and control systems of charged particles and photons. The Center serves this mission via conceptual studies, theoretical and experimental research, design and development, institutional project involvement, external collaborations, association with industry and technology transfer. This roster provides a glimpse at the scientists, engineers, technical support, students, and administrative staff that make up this team and a flavor of their multifaceted activities during 1993.

  4. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  5. Semiconductor laser beam bending

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, REMZİ; ÇELEBİ, FATİH VEHBİ

    2015-01-01

    This study is about a single-component cylindrical structured lens with a gradient curve that was used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independently of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single-piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams was developed. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted, or colored glass and are used to undermine or absorb the energy of...

  6. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  7. Resolving Two Beams in Beam Splitters with a Beam Position Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2002-04-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two transversely separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on beam diagnostics for these sections. We explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the transverse positions of the two beams with one diagnostics device. Effects of unequal beam currents and of finite transverse sizes of the beams are explored analytically for both the ultra relativistic case and the long-wavelength limit.

  8. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  9. Beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patent is claimed for the invention of a beam alignment system. The aim of the invention is the obtention of an accurate monitoring of the beam position and direction. It is of great interest in the nuclear industry. The invention can be applied in an infrared laser beam for welding operations. An auxiliar radiation source is incorporated to the device. The system's configuration allows a simultaneous and separated utilisation of two beams. The description and the design of the proposed system are provided

  10. Electron-beam distillation of natural polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Makarov, I. E.; Ershov, B. G.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of cellulose, lignin, and chitin may be upgraded by the use of an electron-beam irradiation. The radiation-thermal destruction mode does more probable production of liquid low-molecular-weight products instead of solid pyrolitic oligomers. Furans, methoxyphenols, and pyridines are dominant products of high-temperature radiolysis of cellulose, lignin, and chitin, respectively. The mechanism of chain destruction of natural polymers is considered.

  11. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  12. LHC Report: Towards stable beams and collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, the LHC re-commissioning with beam has continued at a brisk pace. The first collisions of 2011 were produced on 2 March, with stable beams and collisions for physics planned for the coming days. Low intensity beams with just a few bunches of particles were used to test the energy ramp to 3.5 TeV and the squeeze. The results were successful and, as a by-product, the first collisions of 2011 were recorded 2 March. One of the main activities carried out by the operation teams has been the careful set-up of the collimation system, and the injection and beam dump protection devices. The collimation system provides essential beam cleaning, preventing stray particles from impacting other elements of the machine, particularly the superconducting magnets. In addition to the collimation system, also the injection and beam dump protection devices perform a vital machine protection role, as they detect any beam that might be mis-directed during rare, but not totally unavoidable, hardware hiccups...

  13. Resolving Two Beams in Beam Splitters with a Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    2002-01-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters [1]. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device.

  14. Damping of a vibrating beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietanen, Jarmo; Bomer, Johan; Jonsmann, Jacques; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; Kaski, Kimmo

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the vibration in a beam with one fixed end. The set-up consisted of a beam with one end clamped and a rigid plate having the same thickness of the beam, located adjacent to the unfixed end of the beam. The gap between the beam and the plate varied from 4 to 128 μm depending on th

  15. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yongchun; Li, Peng; Kang, Xincai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yaoyao; Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Tiecheng; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yanyu; Yuan, Youjin

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam probe (EBP) is a new principle detector, which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. And then, EBP as a profile monitor for dense beam is simulated using fast scan method under various target beam profile, such as KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory...

  16. Linearizing Intra-Train Beam-Beam Deflection Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam-beam deflection feedback acting within the crossing time of a single bunch train may be needed to keep linear collider beams colliding at high luminosity. In a short-pulse machine such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) this feedback must converge quickly to be useful. The non-linear nature of beam-beam deflection vs. beam-beam offset in these machines precludes obtaining both rapid convergence and a stable steady-state lock to beam offsets with a linear feedback algorithm. We show that a simply realizable programmable non-linear amplifier in the feedback loop can linearize the feedback loop, approximately compensating the beam-beam deflection non-linearity. Performance of a prototype non-linear amplifier is shown. Improvement of convergence and stability of the beam-beam feedback loop is simulated

  17. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  18. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  19. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  20. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  1. Beam director design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 300 beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project

  2. Muon Beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Area

    OpenAIRE

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The intensities and profiles of the muon beam behind the beam dump of the Fermilab test beam area when the facility is running in the "pion" beam mode are measured and summarized in this note. This muon beam with momenta in the range 10 - 50 GeV/c provides an opportunity to perform various measurements in parallel with other users of the test beam area.

  3. Beam Parameter Measurement and Control at the SNS Target

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, Michael; McManamy, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The spallation neutron production target at the SNS facility is designed for 1.4 MW beam power. Both beam position and profile must be carefully controlled within narrow margins to avoid damage to the target. The position must be within 2 mm of the target center, and 90% of the beam must be within the nominal 70 mm x 200 mm spot size, without exceeding 0.18 A/m2

  4. Summary Of Session 4: How Do We Monitor Beam Quality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantzoulis, E

    2001-07-01

    Up to the end of the 80's beam quality was mainly believed to be connected only to the intensity i.e. beam quantity. However, with the new colliders already functioning or programmed, new and more (also in safety) demanding production machines (e.g. isotope) and the many new 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources that accommodate many experimental lines, the beam quality (BQ) issue has to be re-examined, re-evaluated and re-defined. (author)

  5. Practical applications of high-power ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental investigations on the practical applications of high-power ion beams are presented. These include the use of 200-300 keV, 50-250 A/cm2, 60 ns duration beams for modification of properties of metals and production of unique compounds in the surface layer of the target, pulse beam machining or implanted silicon hardening of cutting tools, reconditioning and cleaning machine parts

  6. A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1999-01-01

    Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30 MeV and 100 kW can produce nearly 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 fissions/s from an optimized sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit of the accelerator vacuum system and transported a short distance through air to a water-cooled Bremsstrahlung-production target. The Bremsstrahlung radiation can, in turn, be transported through air to the isotope-production target. This separates the accelerator vacuum system, the Bremsstrahlung target and the isotope-production target, reducing remote handling problems. The electron beam can be scanned over a large target area to reduce the power density on both the Bremsstrahlung and isotope-production targets. These features address one of the most pressing technological challenges of a high-power RIB facility, namely the production o...

  7. Photodissociation processes in molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is presented of a study of the photodissociation dynamics of molecules in a molecular beam. Photo-fragmentation translational spectroscopy has been utilized to observe the photodissociation dynamics of ozone. Using a supersonic molecular beam and a 10 nanosecond pulsed laser at lambda = 266 nm, the velocities of the fragment products are measured by the method of time of flight. The resolution of the time of flight spectrum of ozone is sufficiently high that the electronic and vibrational states are clearly resolved and identified. Above the threshold (lambda 1D) has been estimated in the past to be unity for the process O3 (1A1) + hν)lambda 3(1B2) → O2(1Δ/sub g/) + O(1D). However a small production of O2 (3Σ/sub g/-) + O(3P) has been observed in this study. The O2(1Δ/sub g/) product yields four vibrational states (v = 0, 1, 2, 3) which yields a vibrational temperature of 27000K along with narrow energy distributions of rotational levels. These energy distributions are compared with photodissociation models along with the polarization dependence of the dissociative process which was also measured. 143 references

  8. Secondary beams and the synthesis of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of modern fast cycling synchrotrons capable of delivering high intensity heavy ion beams up to uranium, the production of secondary radioactive ion beams (RIBs) with sufficient intensity has become feasible. The basic production mechanism is the fragmentation of near relativistic heavy ion beams on light targets. The physical facts underlying the efficient conversion of stable beams into RIBs are: (1) at beam energies of several 100 MeV/A thick conversion targets (1-10 g/cm2) can be used, which, for nuclei near stability, convert on the order of .1 to 1% of the primary beam into secondary beams, (2) the secondary beams are emitted into a narrow phase space (small transverse and longitudinal emittances), and (3) these emittances are of the correct magnitude to match the acceptances of suitably designed storage accumulator rings. From a primarily experimental point of view experiments with RIBs can be divided into three categories: (1) Experiments that measure properties of the secondary beams as such, like masses, Q-values, and magnetic moments, β-decay studies of implanted exotic nuclei, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (2) Experiments that use external targets. This includes the synthesis of exotic nuclei with neutron- or proton-rich beams, implantation of RIBs for tracer studies in solid state physics, and biomedical applications. Many well established experimental techniques can be used in these two categories, while (3), the use of internal targets, represents in many ways new challenges to experimenters in nuclear and atomic physics

  9. Diffraction of a Laser Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effect of the nonuniform irradiance across a laser beam on diffraction of the beam, specifically the Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam with a Gaussian irradiance profile as it passes through a circular aperture. (GA)

  10. Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, Lloyd R.

    1997-04-01

    Electron beams have played a significant role in semiconductor technology for more than twenty years. Early electron beam machines used a raster scanned beam spot to write patterns in electron-sensitive polymer resist materials. The main application of electron beam lithography has been in mask making. Despite the inherently high spatial resolution and wide process margins of electron beam lithography, the writing rate for semiconductor wafers has been too slow to be economically viable on a large scale. In the late 1970's, variable shape electron beam writing was developed, projecting a rectangular beam whose size can be varied for each "shot" exposure of a particular pattern, allowing some integrated circuits to be made economically where a variety of "customized" patterns are desired. In the cell or block projection electron beam exposure technique, a unit cell of a repetitive pattern is projected repeatedly to increase the level of parallelism. This can work well for highly repetitive patterns such as memory chips but is not well suited to complex varying patterns such as microprocessors. The rapid progress in the performance of integrated circuits has been largely driven by progress in optical lithography, through improvements in lens design and fabrication as well as the use of shorter wavelengths for the exposure radiation. Due to limitations from the opacity of lens and mask materials, it is unlikely that conventional optical printing methods can be used at wavelengths below 193 nm or feature sizes much below 180 nm. One candidate technology for a post-optical era is the Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron-beam Lithography (SCALPEL) approach, which combines the high resolution and wide process latitude inherent in electron beam lithography with the throughput of a parallel projection system. A mask consisting of a low atomic number membrane and a high atomic number pattern layer is uniformly illuminated with high energy (100 ke

  11. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing

    2003-03-10

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O{sub 2}{sup +}, BF{sub 2}{sup +}, P{sup +} etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF{sub 2}{sup +}, over 90% of O{sub 2}{sup +} and P{sup +} have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He{sup +} beam is as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O{sub 2}{sup +} ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O{sub 2}{sup +} ions with the dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features

  12. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 · Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P+ beam implantation at

  13. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Klute, Markus; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The $x$-$y$ correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1\\%.

  14. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams. There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject? The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons, of generality and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron--positron collisions. 33 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  16. Polarized atomic hydrogen beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, N.; Crowe, D.M.; Lubell, M.S.; Tang, F.C.; Vasilakis, A.; Mulligan, F.J.; Slevin, J.

    1988-12-01

    We describe the design and operating characteristics of a simple polarized atomic hydrogen beam particularly suitable for applications to crossed beams experiments. In addition to experimental measurements, we present the results of detailed computer models, using Monte-Carlo ray tracing techniques, optical analogs, and phase-space methods, that not only provide us with a confirmation of our measurement, but also allow us to characterize the density, polarization, and atomic fraction of the beam at all points along its path. As a subsidiary result, we also present measurements of the relative and absolute efficiencies of the V/G Supavac mass analyzer for masses 1 and 2.

  17. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  18. Electron Beam for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, M W

    2005-01-01

    A method of delivering a monochromatic electron beam to the LHC interaction points is proposed. In this method, heavy ions are used as carriers of the projectile electrons. Acceleration, storage and collision-stability aspects of such a hybrid beam is discussed and a new beam-cooling method is presented. This discussion is followed by a proposal of the Parasitic Ion-Electron collider at LHC (PIE@LHC). The PIE@LHC provides an opportunity, for the present LHC detectors, to enlarge the scope of their research program by including the program of electron-proton and electron-nucleuscollisions with minor machine and detector investments.

  19. Electron beam accelerator facilities at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Silveira, Carlos G. da; Paes, Helio; Somessari, Elizabeth S.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: somessar@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Electron beam processing is a manufacturing technique, which applies a focused beam of high-energy electrons produced by an electron accelerator to promote chemical changes within a product. At IPEN-CNEN/SP there are two electron beam accelerators Type Dynamitron{sup R} (manufactured by RDI- Radiation Dynamics Inc.) Job 188 and Job 307 models. The technical specifications for the Job 188 energy 1.5 MeV, beam current 25 mA, scan 1.20 m, beam power 37.5 kW and for the Job 307 energy 1.5 MeV, beam current 65 mA, Scan 1.20 m, beam power 97.5 kW. Some applications of the electron beam accelerator for radiation processing are wire and cable insulation crosslinking, rubber vulcanization, sterilization and disinfection of medical products, food preservation, heat shrinkable products, polymer degradation, aseptic packaging, semiconductors and pollution control. For irradiating these materials at IPEN-CNEN/SP, there are some equipment such as, underbeam capstan with speed control from 10 to 700 m/min; a track; a system to roll up and unroll wires and electric cables, polyethylene blankets and other systems to improve the quality of the products. (author)

  20. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...... for measuring the beam profiles of focused high power CO2-lasers....

  1. Structuring of silicon with low energy focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The defect production in silicon induced by focused ion beam irradiation as a function of energy and projectile mass has been investigated and compared to the measured sputter yield. The aim was to find optimal beam parameters for the structuring of semiconductors with a minimum amount of defects produced per removed atom. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  2. 10 MeV Medical Cyclotron Prototype Beam Commissioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Feng-ping; GE; Tao; YIN; Zhi-guo; SONG; Guo-fang; ZHANG; Tian-jue; JI; Bin; LI; Peng-zhan; CAO; Lei; HOU; Shi-gang; LIU; Geng-shou; WANG; Feng; LEI; Yu; WU; Long-cheng; WEN; Li-peng; LI; Zhen-guo; CUI; Tao; JIA; Xian-lu; YAO; Hong-juan; PAN; Gao-feng; ZHANG; Su-ping; CAI; Hong-ru; XIE; Huai-dong

    2012-01-01

    <正>A 10 MeV medical cyclotron prototype for the production of short-lived isotopes has been developed independently at CIAE with a time span of 2 years. On the inner target, 8 hours stability test has been finished. The extraction beam is 10 MeV with a beam intensity of 100 μA.

  3. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe26+ approximately 4x1010 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 1012 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 1010 from the 5x10mm2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached

  4. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  5. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system

  6. Hadronic lepton pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes a beam dump experiment at the CERN SPS for the study of μ pair production by π+-, K+-, and p(anti p) beams on a copper target at 39.5 GeV/c. The dependence of the cross sections from various parameters is discussed. (HSI)

  7. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  8. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  9. Neutrino beams and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the early history of neutrino experiments, the principle of neutrino beams at proton accelerators is described and a survey of neutrino experiments since 1963 is given. ((orig.))

  10. HIRENASD Beam FEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  11. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of contracts and grants exploring the advanced particulate pollution control technology of electron beam precipitation. The chief goal of the current contract is to develop a laboratory scale electron beam precharger using a pulsed electric field to the proof-of-concept stage. Contract tasks leading to the achievement of this goal are generally divided up into two categories: tasks required to bring the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) test system up to an operational level for the contract work, and tasks concerning the actual experimental and analytical phase of the study. Not unexpectedly, the early portion of the contract duration will be devoted to the commissioning of the EBP and its many subsystems, while the latter portion will devote itself to testing the new pulsed electron beam precharger.

  12. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F

    2014-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  13. ATOMIC BEAM STUDIES IN THE RHIC H-JET POLARIMETER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKDISI,Y.; ZELENSKI,A.; GRAHAM,D.; KOKHANOVSKI,S.; MAHLER,G.; NASS,A.; RITTER,J.; ZUBETS,V.; ET AL.

    2005-01-28

    The results of atomic beam production studies are presented. Improved cooling of the atoms before jet formation in the dissociator cold nozzle apparently reduces the atomic beam velocity spread and improves beam focusing conditions. A carefully designed sextupole separating (and focusing) magnet system takes advantage of the high brightness source. As a result a record beam intensity of a 12.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 16} atoms/s was obtained within 10 mm acceptance at the collision point. The results of the polarization dilution factor measurements (by the hydrogen molecules at the collision point) are also presented.

  14. Neutrinos from PIon Beam Line, nuPIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, J. B. [Imperial Coll., London; Pasternak, J. [Imperial Coll., London; Bross, A. [Fermilab; Liu, A. [Fermilab

    2016-05-05

    LBNF-DUNE (Long Baseline Neutrino Facilities - Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) is a project based at Fermilab to study neutrino oscillations. The current baseline regarding the neutrino production considers the conventional approach: a high energy proton beam hits a target, producing pions that are collected by a horn and that decay in a decay pipe. An alternative solution, called nuPIL (neutrinos from a Pion beam Line) consists of using a beam line to guide the pions to clean the beam and to put instrumentation to monitor it. This paper presents the concept and the first preliminary results.

  15. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  16. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  17. Neutral beams for mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  18. Transverse Beam Size Effects in Beam Position Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2001-04-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The corrections to BPM signals due to a finite beam size are found analytically for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current. The results for fields can also be directly applied for calculating the beam coupling impedances of small discontinuities.

  19. Beam-beam studies for the High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    LHC upgrades are being considered both towards higher luminosity (HL-LHC) and towards higher energy (HE-LHC). In this paper we report initial studies of the beam-beam effects in the HE-LHC [1]. The HE-LHC aims at beam energies of 16.5 TeV, where the transverse emittance decreases due to synchrotron radiation with a 2-hour damping time. As a result of this emittance, shrinkage the beam-beam parameter increases with time, during a physics store. The beam-beam limit in the HE-LHC is explored using computer simulations.

  20. LSST optical beam simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, J A; Gilmore, K; Bradshaw, A; Claver, C; Klint, M; Muller, G; Poczulp, G; Resseguie, E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a camera beam simulator for the LSST which is capable of illuminating a 60mm field at f/1.2 with realistic astronomical scenes, enabling studies of CCD astrometric and photometric performance. The goal is to fully simulate LSST observing, in order to characterize charge transport and other features in the thick fully depleted CCDs and to probe low level systematics under realistic conditions. The automated system simulates the centrally obscured LSST beam and sky scenes, including the spectral shape of the night sky. The doubly telecentric design uses a nearly unit magnification design consisting of a spherical mirror, three BK7 lenses, and one beam-splitter window. To achieve the relatively large field the beam-splitter window is used twice. The motivation for this LSST beam test facility was driven by the need to fully characterize a new generation of thick fully-depleted CCDs, and assess their suitability for the broad range of science which is planned for LSST. Due to the fast beam illuminatio...

  1. Opal neutron beams shutters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Opal Reactor has five beam tubes for neutron beams. Of these 5 tubes, two come from a cold neutron source, another two from thermal sources, and a fifth is ready for a future hot neutron source. Neutron guides come from the cold and thermal beam tubes. Neutron beams are enabled/disabled through shutters located inside the reactor pool's radial shield. These shutters were specially designed by INVAP for the OPAL reactor. They comprise fixed and movable shields. The movable part allows neutron beam enabling or disabling. The design of these shutters demanded the construction of prototypes that were further submitted to comprehensive tests to be qualified in light of the strict movement precision and high reliability requirements involved. The shielding material - a plastic and steel mix - was also specifically designed for this facility. The design required great efforts as to shield calculation and energy deposition. A heat removal system was designed to dissipate the energy absorbed by the shields. The cold and thermal beam shutters are built following a single vertical axis design. The hot shutter, due to different requirements, was designed with a horizontal axis

  2. High power beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  3. A measurement of hadron production cross sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the Δm2 about equals 1-eV2 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, David W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of hadron production cross-sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the Δm2 ~ 1 eV2} region. This dissertation presents measurements from two different high energy physics experiments with a very strong connection: the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment located at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (Mini-BooNE) located at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois.

  4. WELD FORMATION CONTROL AT ELECTRON BEAM WELDING WITH BEAM OSCILLATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; Shcherbakov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  5. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...

  6. Dual-Cantilever-Beam Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Emmitt A.; Speckhart, Frank H.

    1988-01-01

    Sensitivity to velocity changes along beam axis reduced. Weighted-end cantilever beams of accelerometer deflected equally by acceleration in y direction. When acceleration to right as well as up or down, right beam deflected more, while left beam deflected less. Bridge circuit averages outputs of strain gauges measuring deflections, so cross-axis sensitivity of accelerometer reduced. New device simple and inexpensive.

  7. Multi-Beam Optical Tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having an individually controlled polarization whereby the position and/or angul...

  8. Holographic memory using beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  9. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu;

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  10. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  11. Radiative trapping in intense laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of electrons in counter-propagating, circularly polarized laser beams are shown to exhibit attractors whose ability to trap particles depends on the ratio of the beam intensities and a single parameter describing radiation reaction. Analytical expressions are found for the underlying limit cycles and the parameter range in which they are stable. In high-intensity optical pulses, where radiation reaction strongly modifies the trajectories, the production of collimated gamma-rays and the initiation of non-linear cascades of electron-positron pairs can be optimized by a suitable choice of the intensity ratio.

  12. Radiative trapping in intense laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, J G

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of electrons in counter-propagating, circularly polarized laser beams are shown to exhibit attractors whose ability to trap particles depends on the ratio of the beam intensities and a single parameter describing radiation reaction. Analytical expressions are found for the underlying limit cycles and the parameter range in which they are stable. In high-intensity optical pulses, where radiation reaction strongly modifies the trajectories, the production of collimated gamma-rays and the initiation of non-linear cascades of electron-positron pairs can be optimized by a suitable choice of the intensity ratio.

  13. Radiative trapping in intense laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of electrons in counter-propagating, circularly polarized laser beams are shown to exhibit attractors whose ability to trap particles depends on the ratio of the beam intensities and a single parameter describing radiation reaction. Analytical expressions are found for the underlying limit cycles and the parameter range in which they are stable. In high-intensity optical pulses, where radiation reaction strongly modifies the trajectories, the production of collimated gamma-rays and the initiation of non-linear cascades of electron–positron pairs can be optimized by a suitable choice of the intensity ratio.

  14. Experiments with radioactive beams at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rehm, K E; Blackmon, J; Borasi, F; Caggiano, J; Chen, A; Davids, C N; Greene, J; Harss, B; Heinz, A; Henderson, D; Janssens, R V F; Jiang, C L; Nolen, Jerry A; Pardo, R C; Parker, P; Paul, M; Schiffer, J P; Segel, R E; Seweryniak, D; Siemssen, R H; Smith, M S; Uusitalo, J; Wang, T F; Wiedenhöver, I

    2001-01-01

    Various beams of short- and long-lived radioactive nuclei have recently been produced at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory, using either the so-called In-Flight or the Two- Accelerator method. The production techniques, as well as recent results with /sup 44/Ti (T/sub 1/2/=60y) and /sup 17/F (T/sub 1/2 /=64s) beams, which are of interest to nucleosynthesis in supernovae and X-ray bursts, are discussed. (12 refs).

  15. Beam-size or MD-effect at colliders and correlations of particles in a beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kotkin, G L

    2003-01-01

    For several processes at colliding beams, macroscopically large impact parameters give an essential contribution to the standard cross section. These impact parameters may be much larger than the transverse sizes of the colliding bunches. In that case, the standard calculations have to be essentially modify. The corresponding formulae for such a beam-size effect were given twenty years ago without taking into account correlations of particle coordinates in the beams. In the present paper we derive formulae which necessary to take into account quantitatively the effect of particle correlations in the spectrum of bremsstrahlung as well as in pair production. Besides, we consider critically recent papers of Baier and Katkov [Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 66}, 053009 (2002) and hep-ph/0305304] in which it was calculated a new additional ``subtraction term'' related to the coherent contribution into beam-size effect. We show that this result is groundless and point out the origin of the mistake.

  16. Review of nondiffracting Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of nondiffracting beam propagation and experimental evidence for nearly-nondiffractive Bessel beam propagation are reviewed. The experimental results are reinterpreted using simple optics formulas, which show that the observed propagation distances are characteristic of the optical systems used to generate the beams and do not depend upon the initial beam profiles. A set of simple experiments are described which support this interpretation. It is concluded that nondiffracting Bessel beam propagation has not yet been experimentally demonstrated.

  17. Nonlinear combining of laser beams

    OpenAIRE

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We propose to combine multiple laser beams into a single diffraction-limited beam by the beam self-focusing (collapse) in the Kerr medium. The beams with the total power above critical are first combined in the near field and then propagated in the optical fiber/waveguide with the Kerr nonlinearity. Random fluctuations during propagation eventually trigger strong self-focusing event and produce diffraction-limited beam carrying the critical power.

  18. A survey of beam-combining technologies for laser space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of laser beams holds much promise for obtaining powerful beams. Methods are surveyed for beam combination (coherent and incoherent) and two of them are identified as the most effective means for achieving high power transmission in space. The two methods as applied to laser diode arrays are analyzed, and potentially productive work areas for the advancement of technology are delineated.

  19. An after-market, five-port vertical beam line extension for the PETtrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Severin, Gregory;

    2012-01-01

    Most commercial cyclotrons intended for medical isotope production provide a limited number of beam ports crowded into a minimal vault space. Taking advantage of our new lab construction, we planned and installed a beam-line on port ♯2 of our GEMS PETtrace to bring beam to an additional 5 target...

  20. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.